Update: 2016-07-30 08:28 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.Bi.} : contd.

{a.Bi.ga.} : contd.

{a.Bi.z~a.} : Pseudo-Za ज्ञ cf. Regular-Za {a.} (Bur) & / {a.} (Mon)*


{a.Bi.Da.} : Pal. {a.Bi.Dm~ma.}


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UKT notes :
Pangaea and Panthalassa - Mother Earth herself is changing, and many things have evolved. Many in Myanmarpr should open their minds, and learn more about what is evolving around us:
Abhidarma and Mahayana
Abhimanyu the son of Arjuna - the tragic hero in Mahabharata


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अभि  abhi
Skt: अभि  [abh] - ad. unto, near; prp. w. ac.: towards; to, against;  over; for, for the sake of; with regard to; w. ab.: without. -- Mac022c3
Pal: {a.Bi.} - UHS-PMD0104
  UKT from UHS: pre  towards, excel, super, over, noble, proper, worshipful


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अभिक  abhi-ka
- a. eager; libidinous




अभिगामिन् [ abhi-gmin ]
- a. having sexual intercourse with (ac.).



अभिगूर्ति [ abh-grti ]
- f. song of praise.




अभिघात [ abhi-ghta ]
- m. blow, stroke; noxious effect; -ghtin, a. striking; m. enemy.
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अभिचक्षण [ abhi-kkshana ]
- a. looking at; , f. view; -kkshe, (d.) inf. in order to see.



अभिचार [ abhi-kra ]
- m. bewitchment, enchantment.



अभिचैद्यम् [ abhi-kaidyam ]
=  अ भ ि च ै द ् य म ्
- ad. against the prince of Kedi. [{s}]








अभिजन [ abhi-gana ]
- m. descent, race; noble birth; good repute; -vat, a. nobly descended.



अभिजात [ abhi-gta ]
- pp. well-born; charming; n. nobility; -t, f. high birth, nobility; -gti, f. descent, birth.



अभिजित् [ abhi-g-t ]
- a. victorious; m. N. of a Soma sacrifice; N. of a lunar mansion.


{a.Bi.z~a.} : Pseudo-Za ज्ञ cf. Regular-Za {a.} (Bur) & / {a.} (Mon)


अभिज्ञ [ abhi-ga ]
= अ भ ि ज ् ञ --> अ भ ि ज्ञ
- a. knowing, acquainted with, experienced in, conversant with (g., --): -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; , f. remembrance.



अभिज्ञान [ abhi-gna ]
= अ भ ि ज ् ञ ा न  
- n. recognition; token to recognise by: -sakuntala, n. N. of a play.

UKT 110807, 131008: Don't be misled by the English word "play". Shakuntala, is not a play like Shakespearean plays. This was a play written by Kalidas based on a religious legend similar to a Passion play. See Wikipedia on Passion Play: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passion_Play 131008
See my note on the Rishi and the Apsara.

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अभितराम् [ abhi-tar&asharp;m ]
- (cpv.) ad. nearer to.



अभितश््चर [ abhitas-kara ]
- m. pl. retinue.



अभितस् [ abh-tas ]
- ad. up to, near, around; completely; prp. w. g. beside: w. ac. up to; on both sides of; before and behind; round about; behind.



अभिताडन [ abhi-tdana ]
- n. beating, blow; -tpa, m. heat; pain; -tmra, a. dark red.



अभितिग्मरश्मि [ abhi-tigma-rasmi ]
= (अ भ ि) (त ि ग ् म) (र श ् म ि)
- ad. to wards the sun.



अभित्ति [ -bhitti ]
- f. non-fracture; lack of a partition.


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अभिदर्शन [ abhi-darsana ]
- n. sight, spectacle.



अभिदूतम् [ abhi-dtam ]
- ad. to the messenger; -dti, ad. to a female messenger.



अभिद्रुह् [ abhi-drh ]
- a. hostile; -droh, m. injury, insult, contumely.


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अभिधर्म [abhi-dharma]
- m. Buddhist metaphysics

UKT 150301: A critical account of what we refer to as:
  Skt. अभिधर्म, Pal. {a.Bi.Dm~ma.} अभिधम्म, and Bengali. অভিধর্ম্ম bhidhrmm ,
阿毗達磨(T) / 阿毗达磨(S) (pinyin: āpdm),
阿毘達磨 (rōmaji: abidatsuma), Khmer អភិធម្ម (aphitam),
아비달마 (RR: abidalma), Sinhala. අභිධර්ම (abhidharma),
อภิธรรม (apitam), Vietnamese. A-t-đạt-ma, Vi Diệu Php,
is given in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abhidharma 150301



अभिधा [ abhi-dh&asharp; ]
- a. surrounding; f. appellation, name: -tavya, fp. to be said or announced, -tri, m. one who speaks, -na, n. statement; designation; name; word: -kosa, m. dictionary, -yin, a. saying, speaking; stating, explaining; -dhvaka, a. hastening up.



अभिधेय [ abhi-dheya ]
- fp. to be designated, -expressed, -named; n. meaning; -tva, n. capability of being designated.



अभिध्यान [ abhi-dhyna ]
- n. thinking of (g.); desire for (lc.).


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अभिनन्दनीय [ abhi-nand-anya ]
- fp. to be praised; -ya, fp. id.; -in, a. delighting in (--).



अभिनभ्यम् [ abhi-nabhym ]
- ad. up to the clouds; -namra, a. greatly bent; -naya, m. dramatic performance: -‿krya, m. dramatic teacher.



अभिनव [ abhi-nava ]
- a. quite new or fresh; m. N.: -yauvana, a. being in early youth; -vayaska, a. id.



अभिनहन [ abhi-nahana ]
- n. bandage.



अभिनासिकाविवरम् [ abhi-nsik-vivaram ]
- ad. to the nostrils.



अभिनिवेश [ abhi-nivesa ]
- m. proneness to (lc., --); adherence to, insistence on (lc.); obstinacy; love of life; -nivesin, a. prone to; obstinately insisting on; (i)-tva, n. proneness.

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अभिनिहित [ abhi-ni-hita ]
- pp. √dh.



अभिन्न [ -bhinna ]
= अ भ ि न ् न
- pp. not pierced, not penetrated; unhurt; unbroken, undivided; steadfast; unchanged; not different from (ab.): -gati, a. not changing one's gait; -vela, a. not breaking bounds; -sthiti, a. id.

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अभिपतन [ abhi-patana ]
- n. swoop.



अभिपात [ abhi-pta ]
- m. hastening up.



अभिपित्व [ abhi-pitv ]
- n. turning in; evening.



अभिपृष्ठे [ abhi-prishthe ]
- lc. ad. behind.



अभिप्रचक्षे [ abhi-prakkshe ]
- d. inf. in order to look about.



अभिप्राय [ abhi-prya ]
- m. object, intention, wish; opinion; meaning; notion, conception; -pr&isharp;, a. gladdening; -preta, pp. (√i) meant, intended; -prepsu, des. a. desirous of (ac.).



- m. kind of six day's Soma sacrifice.



अभिप्लुत [ abhi-pluta ]
- pp. overwhelmed, overflowed.


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[abhi-bhartri ] - ad. on the husband; in the husband's presence; -bhav , a. superior in power; m. predominance; subjugation; being overwhelmed by (in., ab., -); contempt; -bhavana , n. being overcome; -bhvin , a. overwhelming.



अभिभाषण [ abhi-bhshana ]
- n. allocution; -bhshin, a. addressing; speaking.

allocution n. . A formal and authoritative speech; an address. -- AHTD



Skt: अभिभु [abhi-bh, ˚भू -bh ] - a. superior in power (to, ac.). -- Mac023c2
Pal: {a.Bi.Bu} -- UHS-PMD0111
   UKT from UHS: mfn. overpowering another, governing. m. superior, N. of a {brah~ma}



अभिभूति [ abh-bhti ]
- f. superiority; a. overcoming.



अभिभूत्योजस् [ abhibhti‿gas ]
- a. of transcendent might.


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अभिमत [ abhi-mata ]
- pp. esteemed, loved; wished for, approved; n. wish, desire; -mantavya, fp. to be regarded as (nm.); -mantri, a. bringing objects into relation with itself; -mantrana, n. invocation; consecration.



  अभिमन्यु [ abhi-manyu ]
- m. N.; -ga, m. son of Abhimanyu; -pura, n. N. of a town; -svmin, m. N. of a temple.

See my note on Abhimanyu - the son of Arjuna



अभिमर्श [ abhi-marsa ]
- m. contact, touch; -marsana, n. touching; -marsin, a. touching.



अभिमाति [ abh-mti ]
- f. hostility, plotting; enemy; -mtn, m. foe; -mna, m. hostility; pride; self-consciousness (ph.); fancying oneself possessed of; erroneous assumption; affection; -mna-vat, a. proud; assuming oneself to have (--); -mna-slin, a. haughty, proud; -mnin, a. conceited; proud; --, fancying oneself to have or to be, passing for; representing, meaning: (i)-t, f. self-conceit, (i)-tva, n. considering oneself to be (--).



अभिमारुतम् [ abhi-mrutam ]
- ad. against the wind.



अभिमुख [ abhi-mukha ]
- a. () facing, opposite (ac., d., g., --); favourable to (in., g.); imminent; --, on the verge of, -point of, caring for: --, ad. in front; -m, ad. id.; towards, against, opposite (ac., g., --); lc. opposite (g., --).



- drive forward; -bhu , turn towards, favour

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अभियान [ abhi-yna ]
- n. approach; attack; -yyin, a. approaching; attacking; going to (ac., --).


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अभियोक्तव्य [ abhi-yoktavya ]
- fp. to be prosecuted; -yoktri, m. assailant; plaintiff; -yoga, m. employment; exertion, diligence; attack; charge; -yogin, a. prosecuting; -yogya, fp. to be attacked, assailable.


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अभिरक्षण [ abhi-rakshana ]
Skt: अभिरक्षण [ abhi-rakshana ] - n., -raksh, f. protection; -rakshitri, m. protector.
- Mac023c3
Pal: {rak~hka.} - UHS-PMD0803
  UKT from UHS: m. protection, protector



अभिरति [ abhi-rati ]
- f. delight in (lc., --).



अभिराम [ abhi-rma ]
- a. charming, lovely: -m, ad.; m. delight in (--); -t, f. beauty, grace; delightfulness.



अभिरुचि  abhi-ruci
= (अ भ ि) (र ु च ि )
Skt: [abhi-ruci ] - f. delight in (lc., --); -rukita, m. N. of a fairy prince. -- Mac023c3
Pal: {a.Bi.ru.si.} - UPMT-PED0112
  UKT from UHS: f. much loved. (sensual) attachment-love (differentiate from Platonic-love)



अभिरूप [ abh-rpa ]
- a. suitable; beautiful; learned; -t, f. good breeding, culture.


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अभिलक्ष्य [ abhi-lakshya ]
- fp. having a view to, directed towards; recognisable by (--).



अभिलक्ष्यम् [ abhi-lakshyam ]
- ad. to the goal.



अभिलङ्घन [ abhi-laṅghana ]
- n. overleaping (g.); infringement; -laṅghin, a. overstepping, infringing (--); -lashanya, -lashya, fp. desirable; -lashita, pp. n. desire, wish.



अभिलाप [ abhi-lpa ]
- m. speech; announcement.



अभिलाष [ abhi-lsha ]
- m. desire, eagerness for (lc., --): -prayitrika, a. fulfilling wishes; -lshin, a. desiring (lc., --); -lshuka, a. id. (ac., --).



अभिलेखित [ abhi-lekhita ]
- n. document.


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अभिवदन [ abhi-vadana ]
- n. address; -vandana, n. respectful salutation; -varnana, n. description; -vardhana, n. strengthening, increasing.



अभिवाञ्छा [ abhi-vkh ]
- f. desire for (--).



अभिवाद [ abhi-vda ]
- m. greeting; abuse: -ka, a. saluting; about to greet (ac.): -vdana, n. greeting, salutation; -vdayitri, m. greeter; -vdin, a. explaining; signifying.



अभिवाह्य [ abhi-vhya ]
- n. presentation.



अभिविक्रम [ abhi-vikrama ]
- a. valorous; -vidhi, m. inclusive limitation; -visaṅkin, a. afraid of (ab.).



अभिवृद्धि [ abhi-vriddhi ]
- f. increase, growth, progress.



अभिव्यक्त [ abhi-vi‿akta ]
- pp. √ag: -m, ad. plainly; -vyakti, f. manifestation.


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अभिशंसन [ abhi-samsana ]
- n. insult; accusation; -samsin, a. accusing; -saṅk, f. distrust of (g.); fear of (--); -saṅkin, a. distrusting.



अभिशत्रु [ abhi-satru ]
- ad. against the enemy; -sastaka, a. accused; ()-sasti, f. imprecation, curse; misfortune.



अभिशाप [ abhi-spa ]
- m. curse; serious charge; -siras, a. having the head towards (ac.); -sauri, ad. against Krishna [UKT 160730: Krishna is just a Hindu-dva, because of which I have struck out his name.].

[-sauri ]
Skt: [-sauri ] - ad. against Krishna [UKT 160730: Krishna is just a Hindu-dva, because of which I have struck out his name. Krishna-dva was probably just like Rama-(Sita)-dva - an anointed human-king who was deified by his subjects because of their love for him before death.]. - Mac023c3
Pal: {a.Bi.-sa.na.} - UHS-PMD0117
  UKT from UHS: - n. consecration, anointment



अभिश्राव [ abhi-srv ]
= अ भ ि श ् र ा व
- m. giving ear; -sr&isharp;, a. arranging; m. arranger; -shaṅga, m. defeat; -shaṅgin, a. defeating, humbling; -shava, m. pressing (Soma).


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अभिषिषेणयिषु [ abhi-shishenayishu ]
- des. a. about to approach with his army.



अभिषिक्त [ abhi-shikta ]
- pp. sprinkled, anointed, installed, inaugurated; -shek, m. besprinkling; inauguration (of a king); water for inauguration; ablution; -shektavya, fp. to be inaugurated; -shekana, n. in auguration (of a king); -shekanya, fp. relating to inauguration; m. inauguration; -she-nana, n. expedition against (--).
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UKT notes

Abhijit Nakshatra 

- UKT 140723: There are only 27 Nakshatras "along" the Celestial equator, and Abhijit is not one of them. Remember, this circle is divided into 12 Rasi (or Constellations) of 30 arc-degrees. It is also divided into 27 divisions known as Nakshatras to explain the lunar months. At present, Abhijit is not counted among the 27. However, long time ago it was one of them. It had "set" due to the wobbling of the Poles due to precession of the Earth's axis. This precession is historically called "Precession of the Equinoxes".

Excerpt from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakshatra 110807

There is an additional 28th intercalary nakshatra, Abhijit (अभिजीत्) (α, ε and ζ Lyrae - Vega - between Uttarasharha and Sravana). Its longitude starts from 06 40' to 10 53' 40 in sidereal Capricorn i.e. from the last quarter of Uttra Ashadha to first 1/15 th part of Shravana. Its span is 4 13' 40 (4.22777... degrees). The span of 27 mean daily lunar motions totals 355.76167 degrees, and together these total 359.98945 degrees. [UKT ]

Unless specifically mentioned it is not included in the list of the 27 constellations. It is held as an auspicious constellation in electional astrology. It is small (Laghu / Kshipra) in nature. The lord of Abhijit is Brahma.

UKT: 110807 - based on the Summer Triangle,  http://souledout.org/nightsky/.../summertriangle.html 110807

Where is the Abhijit nakshatra in the night sky? To find it you will have to search for the Pole Star aka Polaris. The Earth's axis of rotation is pointing to the Pole Star at the present age - AD 2000. However, due to the precessional movement (exemplified by a wobbly spinning top of our childhood days), the place to which the north end of the axis has been pointing is moving in a circle in about 26,000 years. At one time the axis was pointing to a place very near Vega, and again in the future, the axis would be pointing to the same place again. It is alluded in Mahabharata that the Abhijit nakshatra (viz. Vega) had fallen out the heavens [the true North] from which it has been interpreted that the Mahabharata war must have been fought about 4000 years ago. (I need to check the number 4000 further.)


From: The Fall of Star Vega (Abhijit), by Dr. P. V. Vartak (Truth of 12,000 years B.C. recorded in Mahabharat) http://www.hindunet.org/hindu_history/ancient/mahabharat/mahab_abhijit.html 100221

Maharshi Vyas has recorded in Mahabharat, Vana Parva (Chap.230, Verses 8-11), a dialogue between Indra and Skanda where-in it is stated that:

"Contesting against Abhijit (Vega), the constellation Krittika (Pliedes) went to "Vana" the Summer Solstice to heat the summer. Then the star Abhijit slipped down in the sky. At that time Dhanishta was given the first place in the list of Nakshatras. Rohini was also the first some time back. Now you decide what to do," said Indra.

This dialogue shows that when Indra went to Summer Solstice, Vega started falling down. Many scholars have ridiculed this idea of Star Falling; but now it is proved by modern astronomy that it was a true fact that 12,000 years B.C., Vega had really come down to the horizon from the heights of the sky, to become a pole star.

Krittikas were at the Summer Solstice between 21,800 and 20,840 years B.C. At this time Dhansishta was at the vernal equinox and hence was given the first place in the Nakshatras. From this period, the sages noticed the gradual fall of Abhijit. Falling steadily, it is assumed the position of the Celestial Pole at 12,000 B.C., when Indra met Skanda to think on the problem of time-reckoning. The story shows that the Indian sages were observing the stars and constellations at least from 23,000 years B.C.

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The Rishi and the Apsara

Story of ex-king Rishi {waiz~za Bo:tau}
{wi.sh~wa-mait~ra.} विश्वामित्र viśvā-mitra

- UKT 131008:

Indra the Hindu Dva-king is entirely different from the Buddhist Dva-king Sakka. It is a mistake made by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) which had probably based the translation on PTS dictionary and Hindu sources. The distinction between the two is made in Childers' A Dictionary of Pali Language . p159, & p419.

"He [sakko] is widely different from the Hindu Indra, though retaining many of his attributes." -- Childers' p419

Indra the Hindu Dva-king is a mean vengeful god who was ever jealous of the Rishis {ra..} who though still humans had acquired great powers to be able to unseat him from his throne. At one time he became jealous of the ex-king RishiVishvamitra (विश्वामित्र viśvā-mitra = (व ि) (श ् व ा) (म ि त ्) (र)  {wi.sh~wa-mait~ra.}) and had played a very mean trick on him resulting in the birth of Shakuntala.

UKT 131011: The name Rishi Vishvamitra {wi.sh~wa-mait~ra.} is unnecessarily difficult for us because it is in Sanskrit - the hissing rhotic language. If I were to transform aks-to-aks (akshara to akshara) into Pal-Myan and then into Bur-Myan - the non-hissing non-rhotic languages, I get: {wi.~wa mait~ta. ra..}.

Shakuntala शकुन्तला = श क ु न ् त ल ा  {a.koan-ta.la.} is the main character of a play by Kalidasa {ka-li-da-a.} . She was the daughter of the ex-king Rishi Vishvamitra (विश्वामित्र viśvā-mitra), and Apsara Menaka (मेनका {m-na.ka}). The apsara was the court dancer to Indra. She succeeded and gave birth to a daughter who came to be known as Shakuntala . The Rishi finally saw the trick employed by Indra and rejected both his mate Menaka and his daughter.

"In Hindu mythology Shakuntala (Skt: शकुन्तला ) is the wife of Dushyanta and the mother of Emperor Bharata. Her story is told in the Mahabharata and dramatized by Kalidasa in his play Abhijānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Shakuntala)." -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 110807

UKT 131011: My question to you if you were a scientist without religion: do you believe the above story? Base your reasoning on the conception of {a.koan-ta.la.} which shows that {m-na.ka} and {wi.~wa mait~ta. ra..} were both humans.

According to religionists, dva and their females may have sex, but their children were not born in the human way. {m-na.ka} was not of the same kind as dva-dvi. They were "demi-gods" of the Gandharva  गन्धर्व  kind. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandharva 131011.

If {m-na.ka} were a "spirit" she would not have been able to conceive and gave birth to a human child. So she was human belonging to one of the ancient tribes of India. If so, the story was a human story that had been made into a religious story to fool the ordinary people. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 131011. The following is from the article:

"The classic Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and the Puranas, refer to diverse kinds of beings, describing them as superhuman or s ubhuman. Narrations about these tribes are often mixed with mythology and fiction. These tribes include Gandharvas, Yakshas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Rakshasas, Nagas, Suparnas, Vanaras, Vidyadharas, Valikilyas, Pisachas, Devas (within them Vasus, Rudras, Maruts, Adityas) and Asuras (within them Danavas, Daityas, Kalakeyas and Nivatakavachas.) "

Now, my usual question? How did they speak to one another? It seems that they were using Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) languages, whose grammar was very simple compared to the language of the intruders into India - the Indo-European (IE) speakers. These original peoples like the Pyus of the then Myanmarpr were Brass-Age peoples. The IE speakers with their iron-implements of war defeated the Brass-Agers and made them into slaves. How like what had happened in the 19th century in Myanmarpr. While the British-colonialists after swallowing two-thirds of the kingdom were preparing for war, King Mindon was building his stone-book at Kuthodaw Pagoda. When I related the story to my American friends back in the US in 1957-59, they commented "Joe is claiming that they lost the war because they were more civilized!"

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Pangaea and Panthalassa

* UKT150303: I opine that the original glyph of r2c4-cell in the consonantal matrix is the Bur-Myan {a.} which the Mon-Myan could only pronounce as / {a.} (Mon) with the voiceless {za.} instead of the tenuis-voiceless {sa.}. This implies that the original language was Tib-Bur, and that it was slowly changed into Indo-European. The present position is that Skt-Dev (IE) (being the "perfect language of" the "Gods" as claimed by the Brahmin-Poannas) came to be written in local languages - the Prakrits such as Magadhi (the language of Gautama Buddha) as found in Pal-Myan. My present position - which may change after more study - is that the original home of the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) speakers is Pondaung-Ponnya region which is now part of Myanmarpr.

Remember, before the tectonic changes in the geological ages this land was part of the super-continent Pangaea /pn'ʤiːə/ [from Greek Γαῖα, " Mother Earth, land"]. , surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa. A large part of Pangaea has become the Asian continent. A part of Panthalassa has become the Irrawaddy basin and the rich mineral deposits and the oil & gas found in present-day Myanmarpr is from the extensive rainforests of the Carboniferous period. See Geography, Geology, Fossils -- geo-indx.htm (link check 150303). As a down to earth scientist, I admit that my present position is a "tall claim" by an old man who is ethnically Bur-Myan down to the bone.

If your curiosity on super-continents has been aroused see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pangaea 150303


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Abhidarma and Mahayana

UKT 110808, 131010, 140723 

We were taught at one time in the country of Myanmarpr that the Mahayana school of Buddhism tends to look down on the Theravada school. They even call the Theravada school the Hinayana or the Lesser Vehicle. The following is a stub from a Tibetan website, and since the religion in Tibet is Mahayana, I would like my fellow Bur-Myan to know the changing outlook of the Mahayanists. Note the term the "Fundamental Vehicle" in the following article.

A few terms used by Tibetan Buddhists [collected by me from various websites, because of which there are bound to be conflicts in the glosses given, e.g., those who say that Hinayana and Theravada are different :
Gautama Buddha - Buddha Shakyamuni (Skt. Śākyamuni)
Hinayana - Fundamental Vehicle, Individual Vehicle
Nyingma - ancient school of Tibetan Buddhism : the followers of translations of the teachings of the Buddha into Tibetan.
Shravaka (Skt. śrāvaka) - an offshoot of Theravada which has disappeared about which we can only find in Chinese sources.
Theravada - a practice lineage, whereas Hinayāna is a "vehicle". e.g. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 131011
Vajrayāna (Skt: वज्रयान ) - aka Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism , Diamond Way or Thunderbolt Way.

Because of so many labels that describe the teachings of the historical Gautama Buddha, I, as a down-to-earth skeptical scientist, have to narrow down what I can really accept -- only those teachings which are not axiomatic, and therefore scientific. There are only three:
   #1. The Four Principles beginning with the Principle of Suffering,
   #2. The Signs of the Anatta,
   #3. Origin of Human Thoughts and Actions.

From The Treasury of Abhidarma  http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Treasury_of_Abhidharma 110808

The Treasury of Abhidharma (Skt. Abhidharmakośa; Tib. ཆོས་མངོན་པའི་མཛོད་, Ngn Pa Dz; Wyl. chos mngon pa'i mdzod) and Auto-Commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma (Skt. Abhidharmakośa-Bhāṣya). These works were composed by Vasubandhu, one of the ' Six Ornaments', the greatest Buddhist authorities of Ancient India. Abhidharmakosha is a complete and systematic account of the Abhidharma, {a.Bi. Dar~ma.} and is the peak of scholarship in the Fundamental Vehicle.


The text is divided into eight topics:

1. The elements (Skt. dhātu)
2. The faculties (Skt. indriya)
3. The world (Skt. loka)
4. Actions (Skt. karma)
5. 'Subtle developers' (Skt. anuśaya) (i.e. negative emotions)
6. The path and the individual (Skt. mārgaprahāṇa)
7. Wisdom (Skt. jāna)
8. Meditative equipoise (Skt. samāpatti)

UKT 140723: My interest is in the cell r2c4 of the akshara matrix - MCc-indx.htm (link chk 140723)
In this cell we find {Za.} झ . From meanings of the words, we will have to assign to the same cell Pseudo-Za {z~a.} (or {za.} with the ~ hidden). See Romabama Rule #8 in Introduction to Romabama - RBM-intro-indx.htm (link chk 140723)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 140723

Jnana or gnana or gnaan (Skt ज्ञान jāna, Pali: āṇa is a Sanskrit word that means knowledge (and is cognate to that English word, as well as the Greek γνῶσις, gnosis). [UKT ]

It has various nuances of meaning depending on the context, and is used in a number of different Indian religions. The idea of jnana centers around a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced. [1] It is knowledge inseparable from the total experience of reality, especially a total reality, [1] or supreme being within Mahesha-dhama (and/or material world) such as Siva-Sakti. [2] [UKT ]

UKT 140723: The hyphenated Siva-Sakti is a misnomer if you will remember that in the Rig Veda, there were only a few hymns directed to Siva. He was Rudra the storm god.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140723.
   "Vishnu and Rudra, the prominent deities of later Hinduism (Rudra being an early form of Shiva) are present as marginal gods."
  Sakti was a Mother-goddess of the Vedic peoples - the original inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaktism 140723

Absence of jnana (knowledge, gnosticism) is known as ajnana (see: agnosticism): Famous mantra in this relationship says: "Om ajnana timirandhasya..." (I was born in ajnana, agnosticism, but my spiritual master opened my eyes with fire of transcendental knowledge, jnana).

UKT 140723: Since I have identified ज ् ञ ja to be equivalent to Bur-Myan {Za.}, ज्ञान = ज ् ञ ा न  jāna would have to be modified to ज्ञान्  = ज ् ञ ा न ्   jān from which we get {Zaan}. See UTM-PDD079. This implies that the Bur-Myan idea of {Zaan} is not related to Pali, but to Sanskrit. To the ordinary man on the street {Zaan} means "the ability to fly through the air".

UKT 131011: According to Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, there are Seven Divisions:


UKT from UTM: There are seven divisions. At present I cannot list them in Romabama.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abhimanyu 110808

Abhimanyu (Skt: अभिमन्यु abhīmanyu ) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahābhārata. He is the son of Arjuna [the third Pandava] and Subhadra, who is the half-sister of Lord Krishna. He was killed in the Mahabharata war, after the war his son Parikshit from the wife, Uttara, the daughter of King of Virata, succeed to the throne of Hastinapur. [1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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- UKT 131010

Most of my Theravada Buddhist friends in Myanmarpr do not know anything about Mahayana Buddhism and its scholars who were Indians. Most of their works are preserved in Chinese texts, and if you were to go by iconography, you would surely think they were Chinese. The following Wikipedia account is on one of the greatest Mahayana scholars - Vasubandhu.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasubandhu 131010

Vasubandhu (वसुबन्दु = व स ु ब न ् द ु {wa.u.bn~du.} ; traditional Chinese: 世親; pinyin: Shqīn; Tibetan: དབྱིག་གཉེན་, Wylie: dbyig gnyen) (fl. 4th century) was an Indian Buddhist monk, and along with his half-brother Asanga, one of the main founders of the Indian Yogācāra school. However, some scholars consider Vasubandhu to be two distinct people. Vasubandhu is one of the most influential figures in the entire history of Buddhism. In the Jodo Shinshu branch of Buddhism, he is considered the Second Patriarch. In Zen, he is the 21st Patriarch.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogācāra 140723

Yogācāra योगाचार yogācāra {yau:ga-sa-ra.} (literally: "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") [1] is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology [2] through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. It was associated with Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism in about the 4th century CE, [3] but also included non-Mahayana practitioners of the Dārṣṭāntika school. [4]

UKT 140723: The splitting of Mahayana and Theravada schools took place at the Third Synod held under the auspices of Emperor Asoka in about 250 BCE at Pataliputra. From then on Theravada Buddhist held their synods or councils outside India. The Fourth Synod of Theravada was held in Lanka in the 1st century BC, and the Fourth Synod of Mahayana was held in Kashmir in the 1st century AD. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Buddhist_council 140723

Since Yogācāra योगाचार yogācāra {yau:ga-sa-ra.} was associated with Indian Mahayana Buddhism in about the 4th century AD, it could have no connection to Theravada Buddhism in Myanmarpr, except through Nalanda University which flourished in Bihar from 5th century AD to 1197 AD. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda 140723

Yogācāra discourse explains how our human experience is constructed by mind.

UKT: The following Sanskrit words are the key to understanding the relationship of this system to other systems:
Yogācāra , योगाचार --> {yau:ga-sa-ra.}
Vijānavāda , विज्ञानवाद = (व ि) (ज ् ञ ा) (न) (व ा) (द) --> {wi.z~a-na.wa-da.}  
Vijapti-mātra, Vijapti-mātratā, or Cittamātra 

The Yogācāra, along with the Madhyamaka, is one of the two principal philosophical schools of Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism. [5]

Masaaki (2005) states: "[according to the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra, the first Yogācāra text, the Buddha set the 'wheel of the doctrine' (Dharmacakra) in motion three times." [5] Hence, the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra, as the doctrinal trailblazer of Yogācāra, inaugurated the paradigm of the Three Turnings of the Wheel of Dharma, with its own tenets in the "third turning". The Yogācāra texts are generally considered part of the third turning along with the relevant sutra. [6] Moreover, Yogācāra discourse surveys and synthesizes all three turnings.

The orientation of the Yogācāra school is largely consistent with the thinking of the Pāli nikāyas. It frequently treats later developments in a way that realigns them with earlier versions of Buddhist doctrines. One of the agendas of the Yogācāra school was to reorient the complexity of later refinements in Buddhist philosophy to accord with early Buddhist doctrine. [7]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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