Update: 2017-11-25 09:26 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.pRa.} : cont

{p~a.} : notable pronunciation difference between
  Skt-Dev {p-a.ra} & Pal-Myan {is~hsa.ra} 'celestial nymph'


{a.ba.} / {b}
{a.ba} : see MaukCha WeikCha problem*
{a.bu.} *
{b} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel - see also {a.Ba.} below

{a.bya.} / {a.wya.} 
{a.bra.} : {brah} /brʔ/ - note the glottal ending


{a.Bi.} : an important prefix
| {a.Bi.ka.}
{a.Bi.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha
{a.Bi.hka.} : Regular-Kha


*UKT 150228: Since A. A. Macdonell has given the meaning of {a.boad~Da.} अबुद्ध 'foolish, stupid', we must take its antonym {boad~Da.} बुद्ध as 'wise, and not stupid'. I see no reason why we should not refer to Gautama Buddha or Rishi Siddhartha Gautama before he attained Buddha-hood, as " Gautama the Wise". This would differentiate him from YHVH, God, & Allah who should be described as "the Creator", and set at ease modern Bur-Myan Buddhists who are trained in modern Science, and who are beginning to claim that "There is no God".

UKT notes :

Abhayadatta अभयदत्त
Athava-Vda in the Rig Vda
Abhiraja अभिरज {a.Bi.ra-za}
  of Pyu {pyu} of Tagaung {ta.kaung:} in Northern Myanmarpr
Battle of Ten Kings
   the war between Pūru ( {pyu}?) tribes and Tṛtsu tribe

UKT140721: The glyph {ba.} seemed to be borrowed from {wa.} /w/ , There is a similar case in Mon-Myan pronounced as /ba/.

Skt-Dev:    व va  +   diagonal   -->   ब ba 
Mon-Myan: {wa.} + small circle  -->   {b7a.}

UKT 150218, 160709: {p~ra.} 150218, 160709: {p~ra.} from Pal-Myan maybe written as {ra.ric} with a shortened "hood" as {pra.} (without rhoticity as in Bur-Myan). But not to get confused with {pRi.} पृ from Skt-Dev rhotic vowel ऋ, I prefer to write it as  {ra.hsw:}. Caveat: However whenever necessary, I have to use a similar glyph with an extended hood to show its rhotic pronunciation as: {a.pRa.}.

UKT 150227, 160709: The MaukCha-WeikCha controversy is a problem in BEPS work because of the arbitrary rule adopted by the Myanmar Language Commission (MLC). As an example, for writing {sa} & {Da}, MLC version is WeikCha. TIL has adopted a logical rule - MaukCha for one-circle glyph, and WeikCha for two-circle glyph which I learnt as a child in the 1930's. TIL writes {sa} & {Da}, with MaukCha, except when there would be no confusion to a writer who is unaware of the MLC's rule.

UKT 150227: Though the {weik-hkya.}-form is the present form, I prefer the {mauk-hkya.}-form , to be in conformity with a general rule of my childhood days: "for one-circle use {mauk-hkya.}-form, but for two-circle use {weik-hkya.}-form". U Tun Tint, my close associate from MLC is quite certain that there was no such rule, and that the use of {weik-hkya.} & {mauk-hkya.} is arbitrary. I must note that such a rule would be easier for a beginning learner of Bur-Myan.


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{a.pRa.}/ {a.p~ra.} / : cont

UKT 160717: {a.pRa.} form is preferred not to get into trouble when Mon-Myan is included.


{a.p~ra.la.} : cont


अप्रवक्तृ a-pravaktri
= अ प ् र व क ् त ृ =  अ प्र व क्त ृ
- not instructing, unfit to instruct.


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अप्रवासगमन [ a-pra-vsa-gamana ]
- n. remaining at home; -vsin, a. not going abroad; -vishta, pp. not entered; not trodden; -vlaya, m. non-collapse.


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अप्रशस्त [ a-pra-sast ]
- pp. accursed, bad, impure; faulty, damaged; n. dirt.


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अप्रसन्न [ a-pra-sanna ]
- pp. not appeased; unreconciled, angry with (lc.); -sahishnu, a. incapable; -sda, m. disfavour, unfriendliness; -sdita, pp. unclarified; -siddha, pp. unaccomplished; unknown; unheard of; -sta, pp. not having borne, barren; -sphuta, a. indistinct, unintelligible.


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अप्रहत [ a-pra-hata ]
- pp. not well trodden or worn.


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अप्राकृत [ a-prkrita ]
- a. () not original, secondary; unusual, extraordinary.



अप्राज्ञ [ a-prga ]
- a. foolish, stupid; -t, f. abst. ɴ.



अप्राण [ a-prn ]
- a. lacking breath, inanimate; -prnat, pr. pt., -prnin, a. id.



अप्राधान्य [ a-prdhnya ]
- n. subordinateness, secondariness.



अप्राप्त [ -prpta ]
- pp. not having reached; not yet arrived; not obtained; not encountered; not concluded; not resulting (from a grammatical rule*); not grown up; -kla, a. whose time has not yet come; -vikalpa, m. alternative not resulting from any rule; -vyavahra, a. under age, minor: -tva, n. minority; -‿avasara, a. ill-timed, inopportune.

UKT 160710: *Grammatical rule: to the Skt-Dev (Indo-European, IE) speakers the only correct grammar is that of Panini. The grammar of others, certainly those of Tib-Bur languages such as that of Magadhi language, would be ungrammatical. The only Tib-Bur language with which I am most familiar, the Bur-Myan - a language without tense, gender, and number - would be ungrammatical to Skt-Dev speakers.


अप्राप्य [ a-prpya ]
- fp. unattainable.



अप्रामाण्य [ a-prmnya ]
- n. un-authoritativeness; lack of proof.

UKT 160710: In a religious-system, proof depends on premise. This means what is "proof" to the Hindu-religionists (of Atta the Axiomatic-religion) is not "proof" to the Buddhists (of Anatta the Non-Axiomatic religion).


अप्रार्थित [ a-pra‿arthita ]
- pp. unasked.



अप्रास्ताविक [ a-prstvika ]
- a. () unseasonable.


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अप्रिय [ -priya ]
- a. displeasing, disagreeable, unwelcome; n. unpleasant thing; unpleasant news; m. enemy.



अप्रियंवद [ a-priyam-vada ]
- a. speaking unkindly, rude; -vdin, a. id.



अप्रियकर [ apriya-kara ]
- a. unpleasant; causing disaffection; -krit, a. acting unkindly; -bhgin, a. full of unpleasantness.


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अप्रीति [ a-prti ]
- f. enmity; -kara, a. causing no joy.


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अप्रेक्षणीय [ a-prekshanya ]
- fp. not fair to see, uncomely.



अप्रेक्षापूर्वकारिन् [ a-preksh-prva-krin ]
- a. acting inconsiderately: (i)-t, f. abst. ɴ.



अप्रेक्ष्य [ a-prekshya ]
= अ प ् र े क ् ष ् य
- fp. invisible.


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अप्रोषित [ a-pra‿ushita ]
- pp. not being away from home, not absent.


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अप्रौढ [ a-pra‿dha ]
- pp. not strong enough to (inf.); shy.


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अप्सरस् ap-sars, ˚रा [ -r&asharp; ]
= (अ प ्) (स) (र स ्) --> {p-a.ra} : Skt-Dev speakers pronounce
  {a.} /θ/ as <s> resulting in pronunciation change even when the akshara remains unchanged.
  They pronounce अप्सरस् as [ap-sars].
Skt: अप्सरस् ap-sars - f. celestial nymph. - Mac023
Pal: {is~hsa.ra} - UHS PMD0016
  UKT from UHS: f. lit. female Nat {nt a.mi:}, common translation into English: celestial nymph .
  Note: Burmese word "Nat" can mean many entities: Dva, Asura, Ma'nes, or even living humans if they are worth being worshipped out of respect or fear. Here {is~hsa.ra} specifically means a celestial dancer of Indra's court, and is commonly known in Bur-Myan as {d-wc~sa.ra}. See UTM PDMD105



- n. N. of a mythical lake.



अप्सस् [ psas ]
- n. face or bosom.


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अफल [ a-phal ]
--> {a.hpa.la.}
- a. unfruitful; fruitless; castrated; -prepsu, a. desiring no reward; -‿kṅkshin, a. expecting no reward.



अफल्गु [ a-phalgu ]
- a. precious.



अफालकृष्ट [ a-phla-krishta ]
- a. not growing on ploughed land.



अफूत्कार्य [ a-pht-krya ]
- fp. not needing to be blown upon.



अफेन a-phena, ˚निल [ -nila ]
- a. foamless.


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अबद्ध [ a-baddha ]
- pp. not bound, not tied; disconnected, meaningless; not yet showing.



अबन्धु [ a-bandh ]
- a. lacking relations, companionless.



अबन्धुर [ a-bandhura ]
- a. elevated, high; sad: -m, ad. sadly.



अबन्ध्य [ a-bandhya ]
- fp. not to be put in chains.



अबन्ध्र [ a-bandhr ]
- a. hoopless.



अबर्ह [ a-barha ]
- a. still wanting tail-feathers.



अबल [ a-bal ]
- a. weak: f. , woman; N.: -vat, a. weak.



अबलीयस् [ -balyas ]
- cpv. a. weaker.



अबहिष्कार्य [ a-bahish-krya ]
- fp. not to be excluded.



अबहुभाषिन् [ a-bahu-bhshin ]
- a. not speaking much; (i)-t, f. abst. ɴ.; -vyakti-nishtha, a. not applicable to many individuals; -sruta, pp. not very learned.


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अबाध [ a-bdha ]
- a. unhindered; untormented; -ka, a. unhindered.



अबान्धव [ a-bndhava ]
- a. lacking relations; -krita, pp. not caused by relations.



अबालसत्त्व [ a-bla-sattva ]
- a. not having the nature of a boy.



अबालिश [ a-blisa ]
- n. not childish, not silly.



अबालेन्दु [ abla‿indu ]
- m. full moon.


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अबिन्धन [ ab-indhana ]
- a. having water for its fuel: -vahni, m. the submarine fire.



अबीज [ a-bga ]
- n. bad seed, bad grain; a. seedless; impotent; -ka, a. unsown.


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अबुद्ध [ a-buddha ]
= अ ब ु द ् ध --> {a.boad~Da.}
- pp. foolish, stupid.

UKT 150228: Since A. A. Macdonell has given the meaning of {a.boad~Da.} अबुद्ध 'foolish, stupid', we must take its antonym {boad~Da.} बुद्ध as 'wise, and not stupid'. I see no reason why we should not refer to Gautama Buddha or Rishi Siddhartha Gautama as "Gautama the Wise". This would differentiate him from YHVH, God, & Allah who should be described as "the Creator", and set at ease modern Bur-Myan Buddhists who are trained in modern Science, and who are beginning to claim that "There is no God".



अबुद्धि [ a-buddhi ]
- f. foolishness, act of folly; lack of purpose: in. unintentionally; a. foolish: -t, f.-ness; -mat, a. foolish, stupid; -stha, a. not present to the mind.



अबुध [ a-budh ]
- a. stupid, foolish; m. fool.



अबुध्न [ a-budhn ]
- a. bottomless.



अबुध्य [ a-budhy ]
- fp. not to be awakened.



अबुध्यमान [ a-budhya-mna ]
- pr. pt. . not awaking.


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अबोध [ a-bodha ]
- m. lack of knowledge; folly; -prvam, ad. without knowing.


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{b} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel

UKT 150415: The possible effect of killed-{ba.} /b/ on nuclear vowel {a.} // must be compared with another possibility - that of killed-{Ba.} on {a.} //. See {a.Ba.} .


अब्ज [ ab-ga ]
= अ ब ् ज
- a. aquatic; n. lotus; -bh, m. Lotus-born (Brahm); -saras, n. lotus pond.

UKT 160711: Lotus-born (Brahm) is of the Hindu-Trinity. He is a dva-god with a wife, and is entirely different from Theravada-Buddhist Brahma who are a-sexual.



अब्जिनी [ abgin ]
- f. lotus plant; lotus pond; -pati, m. sun.



अब्द [ b-da ]
= अ ब ् द
- m. [water-giving, rainy season], year (cp. varsha).



अब्दभू [ abda-bh ]
- a. proceeding from a cloud.



अब्दुर््ग [ ab-durga ]
- a. inaccessible owing to water.



अब्दैवत [ ab-daivata ]
- a. having the waters for a deity.



अब्धि [ ab-dhi ]
- m. sea; -kany, f. Lakshm; -gvin, m. fisherman; -tanaya, m. du. the Asvins; -tala, n. bottom of the sea.



अब्भक्ष [ ab-bhaksha ]
= अ ब ् भ क ् ष = अ ब ् भ क्ष
- a. living on water only.

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{a.bya.} = {a.b~ya.}  / {a.wya.}  

UKT140721: The glyph {ba.} seemed to be borrowed from {wa.} /w/ , There is a similar case in Mon-Myan pronounced as /ba/.

Skt-Dev:    व va  +   diagonal   -->   ब ba 
Mon-Myan: {wa.} + small circle  -->   {b7a.}

No Skt-Dev entries in Macdonell . No BHS-Lat in Edgerton, p049.
There are several Pal-Myan entries in UHS-PMD0103

UKT 140721, 150218, 160709: {p~ra.} from Pal-Myan maybe written as {ra.ric} with a shortened "hood" as {pra.} (without rhoticity as in Bur-Myan). But not to get confused with {pRi.} पृ from Skt-Dev rhotic vowel ऋ, I prefer to write it as  {ra.hsw:}. Caveat: However whenever necessary, I have to use a similar glyph with an extended hood to show its rhotic pronunciation as: {a.pRa.}.

Pal: {a.byt~ta.} - UHS-PMD0103
   UKT from  UHS: mfn. not prominent, not clever


Pal: {a.bya.a.na.} - UHS-PMD103
   UKT from UHS: n. non-destruction


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UKT 150301: The pronunciation of conjunct {a.b~ra.} and medial {a.bra.} have been judged to be the same especially when followed by killed {ha} as the coda: {brah} /brʔ/. This is probably due to the rhoticity coupled with deep-H sound (glottal sound /ʔ/). {brah} is found in {brah-ma} 'Brahma - the Great God' -- UHS PMD0718 .
The Great God {brah-ma} ब्रह्मा (= ब ् र ह ् म ा) is spelled Brahman (/ˈbrɑːmən/; Sanskrit: ब्रह्मन् brahman) in English: see Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman 150415. The spelling for humans is {braah-ma.Na.}. To avoid confusion, {braah-ma.Na.} is usually compounded with {poaN~Na:} to {braah-ma.Na. poaN~Na:}


अब्रह्मण्य [ a-brahmanya ]
= अ ब ् र ह ् म ण ् य --> {a.br~h~ma.N~ya.}
- a. unfavourable to Brhmans; n. assault! (cry of Brhmans for help.)



अब्रह्मन् [ -brahman ]
= अ ब ् र ह ् म न ्
- m. no Brhman; a. lacking devotion; lacking Brhmans.



अब्रुवत् [ a-bruvat ]
- pr. pt. not stating.



अब्रूप [ ab-rpa ]
- a. having the form of water.


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अब्लिङ्ग [ ab-liṅga ]
- n., , f. pl. verses addressed to the Waters (RV. X, ix, 1--3).

UKT 160710: Hymns to the Waters are included in Athava-Vda in the Rig Vda. Since they are written in Gayatri meter, they were part of the original before the {braah-ma.Na. poaN~Na:} had altered large sections to include their male dva-gods. See https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Atharva-Veda_samhita.djvu/176.

(end of p022-3.htm which has been deleted)

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{a.Ba.} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel

UKT120114 : {a.Ba.} अभ  in Bur-Myan meant 'father' at one time [in our childhood]. It could also mean an endearing term for 'grandfather'. Now, 'father' is spelled {a.hpa.}, although none would address his or her father as {a.hpa.}. The term used is {a.hp}. But {a.Ba.} is still an endearing term for 'grandfather' or one who is like a grandfather. Most of my staff, who are about the age of my grandsons, addresses me as {a.Ba.}.



अभक्त [ -bhakta ]
= अ भ क ् त
- pp. not apportioned; not devoted.



अभक्ष्य [ a-bhakshya ]
= अ भ (क ् ष) ् य --> अ भ क्ष ् य : note the Pseudo-Kha
Skt: अभक्ष्य [a-bhakshya] - fp. not to be eaten. -- Mac022c3
Pal: {a.Bak~hka.} -- UHS-PMD0104
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not to be eaten. m. not fit for consumption



अभग [ a-bhag ]
- a. unfortunate; uncomely.



अभग्नकाम [ a-bhagna-kma ]
- a. whose desire for (lc.) is not disturbed by (in.); -mna, a. in which honour does not suffer.



अभज्यमान [ a-bhagya-mna ]
- pr. pt. ps. unsevered, associated.



अभणित [ a-bhanita ]
- pp. unsaid, unexpressed.



अभद्र [ a-bhadra ]
- a. baneful; n. mischief.



अभय [ a-bhaya ]
= अ भ य
- a. fearless; safe, secure; n. security.



अभयंकर abhayam-kar, ˚कृत् [ -krit ]
- a. creating security.



अभयडिण्डिम [ abhaya-dindima ]
- m. war drum: -m d, proclaim security of person amid beating of drums; -tama, n. greatest safety; -da, a. affording security; -dakshin, f. promise of security; -datta, m. N. of a physician; -dna, n. granting of security; -prada, -pradyin, a. granting security; -pradna, n. granting of security; -ykan, f. begging for security of person; -vk, f. assurance of safety.

= (अ भ य) (द त ् त) --> {a.Ba.ya. dt~ta.} 
Skt: -datta, m. N. of a physician -- Mac022c3

UKT 110806, 131007: {a.Ba.ya. dt~ta.} was the physician who tried to poison Chandra Gupta, but was made to drink the poison himself. See my note on Abhayadatta - the physician



अभवदीय [ a-bhavad-ya ]
- a. not belonging to your Honour.



अभव्य [ a-bhavya ]
- a. as one should not be; unhappy.


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अभाग [ a-bhg ]
- a. shareless, portionless.



अभागधेय [ a-bhgadheya ]
- a. excluded from participation.



अभागिन्् [ a-bhgin ]
- a. not participating in, not entitled to (g.).



अभाग्य [ a-bhgya ]
- a. unhappy; n. misfortune.



अभाजन [ a-bhgana ]
- n. no vessel for = unworthy of (g.).



अभान [ a-bhna ]
- n. non-appearance.



अभार्य [ a-bhrya ]
- a. wifeless.



अभाव [ a-bhva ]
- m. non-existence; absence, lack.



अभावयत् [ a-bhvayat ]
- pr. pt. cs. not keeping well in view.



अभाववत् [ abhva-vat ]
- a. having a lack of, wanting (--).



अभाविन् [ a-bhvin ]
- a. not to be.
(end of old file p022-4 which has been deleted)

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UKT 150301: {a.Bi.} अभि is an important prefix. Macdonell's use of the English word <libidinous> for {a.Bi.ka.} अभिक

libidinous adj. 1. Having or exhibiting lustful desires; lascivious. [Middle English from Old French libidineux from Latin libīdinōsus from libīdō libīdin-lust, desire ] - AHDT

should be taken into account when we give meaning to the name "King Abhi'raza" who founded the kingdom of Tagaung in northern Myanmarpr long before the birth of Gautama Buddha. According to Glass Palace Chronicles written in the days of the Burmese monarchs, King Abhi'raza was a fugitive king from northern India who lost a war between a single king vs. a coalition of kings. The war probably was the Battle of Ten Kings dāśarāj
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings 150301
referred to the Rigveda (Book 7, hymns 18, 33 and 83.4-8). Since the dates of Rigveda hymns are now being dated, we could say that the Kingdom of Tagaung was probably founded c. 14th century BCE - some 1000 years before the birth of Gautama Buddha. The majority of the population would have been the Pyus speaking a language of the Tibeto-Burman linguistic group.



अभि [ abh ]
Skt: अभि  [abh] - ad. unto, near; prp. w. ac. : towards; to, against;  over; for, for the sake of; with regard to; w. b.: without. -- Mac022c3
Pal: {a.Bi.}
- UHS-PMD0104
  UKT from UHS: pre  towards, excel, super, over, noble, proper, worshipful


अभिराज् abhirāj
Skt: अभिराज् abhirāj - adj. reigning everywhere -- SpkSkt

UKT 110812 , 131007, 160712:
Back in 110812, I came upon the meaning of अभि  abhi which seems to mean 'without the fear of death', or 'freedom from the fear of death'. I regret to say I have forgotten the source.

The name Abhiraja 'Fearless ruler', is important to us. He was the first person to introduce the governance of monarchy to the then existing Pyu population of northern Myanmarpr. The Pyus were a Tib-Bur speaking people of Brass Age. Their system of governance seems to be individual "city-states" governed by arbitration. They were not given to warfare and seems to have no interest in expanding their authority over others. The first capital city founded by Abhiraja was Tagaung. See my note on Abhiraja अभिरज {a.Bi.ra-za}

I have been trying to see who this Abhiraja might be in the Indian sources. The most likely seems to be the one mentioned in the Battle of Ten Kings. See my note on the Battle of Ten Kings.  


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अभिक [ abhi-ka ]
- a. eager; libidinous.



अभिकाङ्क्षा [ abhi-kṅksh ]
- f. longing, desire for (ac., --); -kṅkshin, a. desirous of (ac., --); -kma, m. desire; affection, love; a. well-disposed to, longing for (ac., --).



अभिकृष्णम् [ abhi-krishnam ]
- ad. to Krishna.



अभिक्रम [ abhi-krama ]
- m. undertaking; -kramana, n. going up to; -kr&asharp;nti, f. overcoming.


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{a.Bi.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha


अभिक्षदा [ a-bhiksha-d&asharp; ]
- f. giving without solicitation.


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{a.Bi.hka.} : Regular-Kha


अभिख्या [ abhi-khy&asharp; ]
- f. sight; splendour, beauty; name, appellation.


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अभिगन्तव्य [ abhi-gantavya ]
- fp. to be visited; -gama, m. approach; visit; sexual intercourse; -gamana, n. id.; -gamya, fp. to be visited; accessible, inviting.



अभिगर्जिन् [ abhi-gargin ]
- a. roaring at.


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UKT notes

Abhayadatta अभयदत्त

-- UKT 110807, 131007, 160711

I came across this name early in my study of Skt-Dev. It concerns Chandra Gupta, the grandfather of Asoka :

From full text of "Glimpses Of Health And Medicine In Mauryan Empire"
http://www.archive.org/stream/.../glimpsesofhealth019893mbp_djvu.txt 110806

ABHAYADATTA : The Royal physician of Nanda Kings at Pataliputra and a friend of Rakshasa under whose instructions he prepared a poisoned medicine to administer to Chandra Gupta. [See below.] The clever Chanakya {za.na.ka. poaN~Na:} who was present suspects the presence of poison by some indications, prevents Chandra Gupta from drinking it and orders Abhaya Datta to swallow the medicine he prepared. Thus Chandra Gupta is saved, ...

Chandragupta Maurya (Skt: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), (born c. 340 BCE, ruled c. 320 BCE, [2] 298 BCE [3]) was the founder of the Maurya Empire and grandfather of Ashoka the Great . He is known to the Greeks and Romans as Sandrokyptos (Σανδρόκυπτος), Sandrokottos (Σανδρόκοττος) or Androcottus. [5] - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_Maurya 110807

From the Greek and Roman pronunciation of the name of "Chandra", and also from the Bur-Myan name {sn~da} 'Moon', we can see that the onset-consonant is the palatal plosive-stop <c> /c/ - r2c1 {sa.}/ {c}. It is pronounced as an palatal affricate by the IE speakers: {hkya.} resulting in "Chandra" {hkyn-dRa}.

UKT 160711: Differentiate the palatal plosive-stop <c> /c/ - r2c1 {sa.}/ {c} (च ca) from fricative dental-alveolar hisser {Sa.}/ {S} (ष sa).

We must not forget that the Western speakers may be divided into two groups - the rhotic group like the Americans (GA - General American), the Macedonians and the Greeks, and the non-rhotic group like the English (RP - British Received Pronunciation), the French and the Italians. The rhotic group tends to put in the rhotic element /r/ in many of their articulations.

{sn~da} 'Moon' is a popular girls' name in Myanmar, and I love to tease my young friends as {hkyn-dra} much to their annoyance. - UKT110807

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Athava-Vda in the Rig Vda

UKT 160710:

From Wikisource: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Atharva-Veda_samhita.djvu/176 160710


May not janyathā, like English produce, here mean 'bring,' and so signify about the same thing as jnvatha?

4. Of the waters, having mastery of desirable things, ruling over human beings (carṣaṇ), I ask a remedy.

The verse follows in RV. our 6. 1. It is found, without variants, in TB. (ii. 5. 8 5) and TA. (iv. 42. 4); but MS. (iv. 9. 27) has a corrupt third pāda, with much discordance among the mss., and adds a fourth.

6. To the waters: for blessings.
[Sindhudvīpa (Atharvākṛti).(etc., as 4). 4. pathyāpan̄kti.]]

The hymn is not found in Pāipp., but perhaps stood at the beginning of its text, on the lost first leaf: see ⌊Bloomfield's introd. to the Kāu., p. xxxvii and ref's, esp. Weber, v. 78 and xiii. 431⌋. Verses 1-3 occur in RV., as noted under the preceding hymn, and 1-2 in other texts, as pointed out under the verses. For the use of the hymn, with its predecessor or its two predecessors, in Kāu. and Vāit., see above, under those hymns. Verse 1 is also (Kāu. 9. 7) directed to be repeated (with the gāyatrī or sāvitrī-verse) at the beginning and end of ānti rites, and to be recited part by part six times, with rinsing of the mouth, in the indramahotsava ceremony (140. 5).

Translated: Weber, iv. 397; Griffith, i. 8.

1. Be the divine waters weal for us in order to assistance, to drink; weal [and] health flow they unto us.

The verse occurs further, without variants, in VS. (xxxvi. 12), TB. (i. 2. 1 1 et al.), TA. (iv. 42. 4), and Āp. (v. 4. 1); in SV. (i. 33) is repeated ṁ nas (instead of ā́pas) at beginning of b. The comm. explains abhiṣṭi by abhiyajana!

As to the prefixion of this verse to the whole text in a part of our mss., see p. cxvi.

2. Within the waters, Soma told me, are all remedies, and Agni (fire) wealful for all.

Found also in TB. (ii. 5. 8 6), without variants, and in MS. (iv. 10. 4), with, for c, ā́pa ca vivambhuvaḥ.

3. O waters, bestow a remedy, protection (vrūtha) for my body, and long to see the sun.

Only RV. has this verse.

4. Weal for us the waters of the plains, and weal be those of the marshes, weal for us the waters won by digging, and weal what are brought in a vessel; propitious to us be those of the rain.

Pādas ad are nearly repeated in xix. 2. 2.

The mss. sum up this anuvāka ⌊1.⌋ or chapter as of 6 hymns, 29 verses; and their quoted Anukr. says ādyaprathama ṛco nava syur vidyāt: i.e. the verses exceed by 9 the assumed norm of the chapters, which is 20. ⌊Regarding vidyāt, see end of notes to i. 11.⌋

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Abhiraja अभिरज {a.Bi.ra-za}
- of Pyu {pyu} of Tagaung {ta.kaung:}
in Northern Myanmarpr

-- UKT 110811, 131007, 160711:

I have used the term "governance" instead of "government" because there is difference between the two words.

"To distinguish the term governance from government: "governance" is what a "governing body" does. It might be a geo-political entity (nation-state), a corporate entity (business entity), a socio-political entity (chiefdom, tribe, family, etc.), or any number of different kinds of governing bodies, but governance is the way rules are set and implemented. " -- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governance 131007

UKT, based on : Glass Palace Chronicles (in Bur-Myan), vol. 1,  Myanmar Alin & Guardian Press, Rangoon, 1993, p153. - 110811

Abhiraja अभिरज {a.Bi.ra-za} is the name of the Northern Indian Kshatriya (Skt: क्षत्रिय) king who after losing his kingdom in India, sought refuge in Northern Burma to found the city of Tagaung, before the enlightenment of Gautama Buddha. Abhiraja अभिरज is a boy's name meaning 'fearless ruler'.

Since the time-line is before the time of the Buddha. Priests and literati would be non-Buddhists or pre-Buddhists. They could only be of the Vedic faith speaking Vedic and chanting Vedic religious verses. Of course Sanskrit would have evolved in India later, and codified by Panini. Vedic could very well be called a Prakrit or the Proto-language from which would evolve Sanskrit or the Perfect-language.

If my conjecture is true then elements of Vedic - which I opine is old Magadhi, the language of Magadha Mahajanapada, would still be found in "Pali" used in Myanmarpr.

We should note that the "Pali language" was invented only after the Asokan missionaries had introduced Buddhism into SriLanka. Lankan-Pali on which the International Pali is based was derived from the Magadhi (of Tibeto-Burman language group - Tib-Bur) of the missionaries and the native language of SriLanka (of Austro-Asiatic language group - Aus-Asi). Thus, Lankan-Pali would have been unknown to Gautama Buddha. Buddha must have spoken old Magadhi from which Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur) might have evolved. Since, some aksharas of Asokan and Bur-Myan differ, e.g. r1c1 {ka.} & r4c1 {ta.} are fundamentally different - and r4c1 {ta.} is found in the Georgian language - Bur-Myan might have been the older than Asokan itself.

You would find the /l/ phoneme common to both Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan. The use of the /l/ phoneme had become difficult for the speakers of Indo-Aryan or Indo-European (IE) who filtered into India from the present day Iran. They duly change the /l/ to the /r/ phoneme.

UKT 140722: Much later after writing the present note, I came across a specific case of /l/ to /r/ in
F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary , 1885-1963, vol. 1 scanned pages, (FE-BHS) - BHS-indx.htm (link chk 140722)
and proceed to An 'original language' of Buddhism -- i02original.htm (link chk 140722)
" 1.22. Take Lāghula = Rāhula (fn003-09); l  for r  does indeed agree with Māgadhī, ..."

Extending my argument, the approximant-fricative used must have been the /θ/ and not /ʃ/ nor /s/. And the palatal-plosive-stop would have been /c/ and not the affricate /ʧ/. -- UKT110811

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tagaung,_Mandalay 110811, 140722

Tagaung is a town in Mandalay Division of Myanmar (Burma). It is situated on the east bank of the Ayeyarwady River, 127 miles north of Mandalay. [1]

Pre-Christian era and first millennium

Tagaung is believed to be the very first capital of Burma (more specifically that of northern part of the country) according to the adage Myanmar asa Tagaung ga (Myanmar starts from Tagaung), and it was the ancient capital of the Pyu {pyu}, who were the forerunners of the Burmese people. [3]  Its history is steeped in myth and legend. The city is said to have been founded in 850 BC by King Abhiraja of the Sakya clan from Kapilavastu in India, before the time of the Buddha. [4]

It has a very important place in Burmese culture also for the Tagaung yazawin (Tagaung Chronicle) legends of

Maung Pauk Kyaing the dragon slayer,

the powerful blacksmith and his sister who became the household guardian spirits known as the Mahagiri Nats, and,

the blind twin princes, who were sent adrift on a raft down the Irrawaddy (now spelled 'Ayeyarwady'). [3] [4] [5] [6]

UKT 110812 : The blind twin princes were both named {m~Ba.wa.}, the elder having the prefix {ma.ha} and the younger twin {su-La.} - Glass Palace Chronicles (in Bur-Myan), vol. 1,  Myanmar Alin & Guardian Press, Rangoon, 1993, p164.

Although the British historians G E Harvey and D G E Hall had dismissed the Abhiraja origin of the Burmese people, the antiquity of Tagaung itself is not in dispute. [4]  [7]  Ptolemy, the Greek geographer, writing in 140 AD, mentions Tugma Metropolis believed to be Tagaung at a spot in Upper Burma. [4] [8]

The British were trying to justify their annexation of a country larger than Britain in the late 19th century using superior arms . The Kingdom of Myanmar then had diplomatic relations with Britain, France, Germany, Italy and the U.S. The British using their East India Company troops first raided the country in early 19th century, and finally "liberated" it and simply add it to their Indian Empire. Not a single Western country raised a strong protest against such naked aggression. The British had, with the help of historians, to show that the Burmese race did not have much history and almost no culture, and had acquired writing from the Mons of south who themselves got their writing from Telugu script in India. They accused the Burmese king of terrorising the population, and held him a prisoner until his death in India.

UKT 140722, 160712: See   
The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833 
-- sang-j-indx.htm  (link chk 160712)
and proceed to Introduction by J. Jardine, 1893  -- intro.htm (link chk 160722)

UKT 131007, 160712: The Bur-Myan word Tagaung {ta.kaung:} means a receptacle such as a handheld drinking water pot, which is unglazed to make it slightly porous from whose surface the water can evaporate and keep the water inside cool.

The name Tagaung means "drum ferry" in the Shan language. [3]  [4]  [9]  In 225 AD, the Wei general Chu Ko-liang is said to have used bronze drums to frighten 'savages'  by placing them in torrents to produce the sound of military watch drums at regular intervals. [3]

UKT 131007, 140723, 160712: The Chinese call all non-Chinese as 'savages'. It is preposterous to label the highly civilized Pyus {pyu} as "savages".

According to Chinese annals, Nanchao invaded and plundered the capital of a Pyu kingdom in 832 AD carrying off 3,000 captives. [UKT ]

UKT 110811, 160712: Young Pyu males were taken away to be used as soldiers. (Since the Pyus abhorred taking life - they would not even use silk from silk-worms to avoid killing them - I doubt they could be used as "soldiers". They could well served as "porters" and "labourers". According to one Chin scholar, Dr. Twan, it was then that the Mran - 'horse-riders' came to marry off the females. - personal communication. {mrn} in Burmese meaning 'swift'. {mrn-ma} in Burmese means 'swift and hardy'. -- UKT110811

The chronicles of the Tang Dynasty (AD 606-910) describe the land of the Pyu consisting of 18 states and 9 walled towns. In Upper Burma at least seven walled settlements over 200 hectares have been excavated so far. [6]

Second millennium

Tagaung has been termed Anya Pagan (Upper Bagan) with its artefacts dating back to the Neolithic Age. [10]  It was one of the 43 outposts established by King Anawrahta (10441077) of Bagan along the eastern foothills of the Shan plateau in defense of his realm, before he embarked on military expeditions west to Bengal and east to Nanchao. [4]  The fortification to the east may reflect the city's location by the Ayeyarwady like Bagan but unlike Bagan its proximity to the frontier with Yunnan along the Shweli and Taping rivers. Tagaung was also within easy reach of mineral resources such as silver from Namtu, rubies from Mogok, jade, copper and iron by the Meza and Uru rivers. [11]

Marco Polo (12541324) was believed to have reached as far as Tagaung in his travels on one of his fact-finding missions sent by Kublai Khan. [12]

Southwest Silk Road

A network of three overland routes from Yunnan westward to Bengal existed for shipping bullion between 1200 and 1500 AD. [UKT: Just because you see the word "shipping" - don't think of sea travel. The route was inland involving rivers and roads.] One of them followed the Shweli River, crossing the Irrawaddy at Tagaung, followed the Chindwin River north and crossed via the Imphal pass to Manipur. In the 1950s tens of thousands of cowries in Yunnan were found in tombs from the ancient past between the Warring States Period (475 BCE221 BCE) and the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE9 CE). These cowries came from the Pacific and Indian oceans, especially from the Maldives, most likely along the same route. [13]

Old city

Old Tagaung may have conformed to the tradition of first millennium Pyu cities which were divided into 9 quadrants. There are 3 walls: Wall 1 (19 hectares) around a low hillock on the north, Wall 2 (62 hectares) known as Anya Bagan, and Wall 3 (204 hectares) encompassing the other two. The western wall is missing in all three of them, and believed to have been washed away by the river as it changed its course over time. Archaeological excavations carried out at Tagaung had yielded bronze age drums, and also votive tablets connected to Anawrahta. More recent finds included urns, decorated roof-tile finials and finger-marked 'Pyu' bricks dated before 800 AD. [3]  [6]  [11]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Battle of Ten Kings
the war between Pūru ( {pyu}?) tribes and Tṛtsu tribe

-- UKT 131009, 140422

The British colonialists trying to justify their unjust action of forcibly taking over a sovereign nation in late 19th century had painted my forefathers, both Burmese-speakers and Mon-speakers, as nothing better than savages. They in their propaganda, painted themselves as liberating the population from unjust rulers. They had ignored the written histories of the country as nothing more than fiction, and started recounting the history of the country only from the 10th century AD. They had ignored the existence of the Pyus of the Brass Age Civilization and the founding of the first monarchic kingdom well before the birth of the Gautama Buddha.

UKT 131009: There is an important distinction between Brass and Bronze. According to the ancient Jews, Brass was a metal of peace and was allowed to be used as utensils on their alter, but not Bronze the metal of war. Pyus used brass not bronze. The following excerpt is from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altar_Bible 131009 

"In Exodus 27:3 the various utensils used with the altar are enumerated. They were made of brass. (Comp. 1 Samuel 2:13-14; Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 16:6-7). The altar could not be carved using utensils made of iron or of bronze (Exodus 20:25), nor were any allowed on or near it, because iron and bronze were used for implements of war. The Altar and its utensils were considered to be sacred, and the priests had to vest and wash their hands before touching them even so much as removing the ashes from the altar."

Even the founding of the first kingdom, and the subsequent wars primarily because of kings, was probably late compared to the existence of the Pyus who were a peace loving people whose governance was by arbitration rather than being imposed by a king.

According to the Bur-Myan histories, the founding of the first kingdom was by King Abiraza. My quest has been to find who this king was from Indian history. It appears that he might well have been a Rig Veda king.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings 131009, 140722

Battle of the Ten Kings dāśarāj is a battle, c. 14th century BCE, alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda (hymns 18, 33 and 83.4-8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. [UKT ]

UKT 131009, 140722, 160712: The language of the Veda, and Sanskrit are different. They might have been two different dialects of the same language. Since terms such as "Vedic Sanskrit" and "Classical Sanskrit" have always been a source of confusion for me, I use the terms "Vedic" and "Sanskrit". 

Vedic was the language or languages belonging to the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) in which /l/ and /θ/ sounds were common. The Sanskrit speakers, who were infiltrating into the Indian subcontinent from the north-west, could not articulate these two sounds and have to substitute with /r/ and /ʃ/ . Though there might have been no written scripts, since the POA (Point of Articulation) and the Manner of Articulation, were taught very minutely, from teacher to student, over years, we know that the languages were phonetic.

However, I have come to conclude based on phonetic or phonemic grounds, that written scripts were in existence and two have survived to this day: the Asokan script (wrongly dubbed the Brahmi) and Myanmar script. Of the two, Myanmar script might even  have been earlier because it is entirely based on perfectly rounded circles. It is the only script able to write the runes or yantras without the stylus being lifted away from the substrate.

It is a battle between Aryans (Vedic Indians) (an "internecine war", as the 1911 Britannica puts it, as opposed to the more frequent accounts of Aryans fighting Dasyus). [UKT ]

UKT 131009, 140722: The writer of the Wikipedia article was quoting "1911 Britannica", which was written in the early days when Phonetics and Phonemics as science was being developed. There are two dates which I consider to be relevant:
#1. Henry Sweet's publication in 1877, of A Handbook of Phonetics,
#2. Daniel Jones use of the term phoneme , and the formulation of cardinal vowel diagram in 1917.

The writer of the Wikipedia article was trying to justify his usage of "Aryans". The word after the atrocities of Hitler during World War II, is now considered to be "racist". The preferred word is "Indo-Europeans".

Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European (IE) language group, and different from the "Tibeto-Burmans" or speakers of Tib-Bur language group the original peoples of the Indian subcontinent extending into the present-day Myanmarpr. The IE speakers use hissing and rhotic sounds whereas the Tib-Bur speakers (from the example of Bur-Myan) use non-hissing and non-rhotic sounds.

Since the war was between the speakers of different languages, and possibly culture and religion, the war cannot be termed "internecine" or "civil war".

It took place as Puru tribes, allied with other tribes of the north west India and guided by the royal sage  [Rishi] Vishvamitra, [UKT ]

UKT 131009: The English words "royal sage" are misleading. A Rishi {I.i.} or {ra..} is a man or woman dedicated to a single task - making him or her a specialist. Specialization may be religious or not. He or she lived alone or with a small family and some disciples. We still find their kind in the present day Myanmarpr.

Rishi Vishvarmitra, who had given up a kingship to become a rishi had been tricked once by Indra the Deva-king into fathering a daughter Shakuntala, which shows how deceitful this Hindu god was. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishwamitra

[The Puru tribes and their allies] oppose the Trtsu ( Bharata) king Sudas in battle, but are defeated as was celebrated in a provocative hymn of Sudas' poet and priest [Rishi] Vashista (RV 7.18).[UKT ]

K. F. Geldner in his 1951 translation of the Rigveda considers the hymns as "obviously based on an historical event", even though all details save for what is preserved in the hymns have been lost. Further details have been provided in an incisive discussion of this hymn by H.P. Schmidt [1]

UKT 131010: I have not paid much attention to the warring factions of the Battle of the Ten Kings until now. The above Wikipedia article mentions the Puru tribes. Who were they? We will read about them below in a Wikipedia article from which I will take a portion.

But first, lets see how the word "puru" can be transcribed into Romabama. Taken on face value, the word is pronounced as {pu.ru.}. The "u" following "p" can easily be "w" by rounding the lips. Thus we will get {pwa.ru.}. If we are to take out the rhoticity in it, it becomes {pwa.yu.} or {pwyu}. The word will now be surely pronounced lip-spread and become {pyu} of Ancient Myanmarpr. Now, I have landed myself in hot soup. I stand accused of being very "imaginative"!

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puru_Vedic_tribe 131010

The Purus were a tribe, or a confederation of tribes, mentioned many times in the Rigveda, formed around 3180 BCE. RV 7.96.2 locates them at the banks of the Sarasvati River. There were several factions of Purus, one being the Bharatas. Purus rallied many other tribes against King Sudas of the Bharata, but were defeated in the Battle of the Ten Kings (RV 7.18, etc.,).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia articles. You should also read
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Punjab 131009, 140723
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala_7 140723
If you are serious about Skt-Dev:
  - http://www.gatewayforindia.com/vedas/rigveda/rigveda07007.shtml  140423

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