Update: 2016-07-09 06:37 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.pi.} : cont


{a.pRi.} : formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev ऋ


{p} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel
{a.p~ra.} / {a.pRa}

UKT 150218, 160708: {p~ra.} from Pal-Myan maybe written as {ra.ric} with a shortened "hood" as {pra.} (without rhoticity as in Bur-Myan). But not to get confused with {pRi.} from Skt-Dev, I prefer to write it as {ra.hsw:}. Caveat: However whenever necessary, I have to use a similar glyph with an extended hood to show its rhotic pronunciation as: {a.pRa.}.


*UKT 150217, 160705: In both Bur-Myan (MLC MED2006-221) and Pal-Myan (UHS PMD0509), {a.pon} अपुंस् 'enuch' is spelled with prefix {na.}: Pal-Myan, {na.pon-a.ka.}, & Bur-Myan {na.poan:pn~oak}. The usual negative prefix in Bur-Myan is {ma.} (row#5 nasal, IPA /ma/) which is close to {na.} (row#4, IPA /na/). It is never {a.} अ as in Skt-Dev.

UKT notes :
Shatapatha Brahmana


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अपित्र्य [ a-pitrya ]
= (अ) (प ि त ् र ् य) --> {a.pait-r~ya.} 
- a. not paternal.



अपित्व [ api-tv ]
= अ प ि त ् व  --> {a.pi.t~wa.}
- n. participation; cohabitation



अपिधान  [api-dhna]
Skt: अपिधान  [api-dhna] - n. covering; lid; lock; bolt. -- Mac021c1
Pal: {a.pi.Da-na.}
- - UHS-PMD0092
  UKT from UHS: n. covering, lid



अपिनद्ध [ api-naddha ]
= अ प ि न द ् ध  --> {a.pi.nd~Da.}
- pp. √nah.


Pal: {a.pi.la-pa.na.}
- - UHS-PMD0092
  UKT from UHS: . (from {a.pi.la-p-ti.}) n. repetition (orally). . n. no self-indulgence



अपिवातयत् [ api-vtayat ]
= अ प ि व ा त य त ्  --> {a.pi.wa-ta.yt}
- pr. pt. cs. √vat.



अपिशसस्  api-sasas
= अ प ि श स स ्  
- ab. inf. w. pur: without cutting away.



अपिहित  api-hita
Skt: अपिहित  [api-hita] - pp. √dh. -- Mac021c1
Skt: अपिहित apihita - adj. concealed, put to, placed into, shut, covered -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.pi.hi.ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0093
  UKT from UHS: mfn. enclosed, covered


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अपीच्य [ apky ]
- a. secret, hidden.



अपीडयत् [ a-pdayat ]
- pr. pt. not exhausting.



अपीडित [ a-pdita ]
- pp. unpressed; unhurt.



अपीत [ a-pta ]
- pp. not having drunk.



अपुंश््चलीय [ a-pumskalya ]
- a. no son of a whore.



अपुंस् [ a-pums ]
= अ प ु ं स ् --> {a.pon}
- m. no man, eunuch; -tva, n. abst. ɴ.

UKT 150217, 160705: In both Bur-Myan (MLC MED2006-221) and Pal-Myan (UHS PMD0509), {a.pon} अपुंस् 'enuch' is spelled with prefix {na.}: Pal-Myan, {na.pon-a.ka.}, & Bur-Myan {na.poan:pn~oak}. The usual negative prefix in Bur-Myan is {ma.} (row#5 nasal, IPA /ma/) which is close to {na.} (row#4, IPA /na/). It is never {a.} अ as in Skt-Dev.


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अपुण्य apuṇya
= अ प ु ण ् य --> {a.poaN~ya.}
Skt: अपुण्य apuṇya - adj. bad, not virtuous, impure, wicked -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.poa~a.} =
- - UHS-PMD0093

UKT from UHS: mfn. what is not meritorius, without {Boan:} 'inborn or intrinsic respectability'. n. wickedness 

UKT 131003, 140721: The Bur-Myan word {Boan:} has been misunderstood by non-natives. It is an aura commanding respect with which a person may be born. An ordinary male or female, can acquire the aura by joining the order of Theravada Buddhist monks. Thus a man become a Pongyi {Boan:kri:} literally "a person with an aura of respectability". At present, in Theravada Buddhism, women are no longer allowed to join the Order. However she can still become a Nun {i-la.rhing} or {m-i-la.} (mae chee) by keeping a high code of conduct. Since both males and females can acquire the highest wisdom - Nibbana or Nirvana, woman folk is not at a disadvantage.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therigatha 140721



अपुण्यकृत् [ a-punya-krit ]
= अ (प ु ण ् य) (क ृ त ्) --> {a.poaN~ya.kRait}  
- a. unrighteous; -bhg, a. unfortunate; -vat, a. id.



अपुत्र  a-putra
= अ प ु त ् र  -->  {a.poat~Ra.} (as highy rhotic syllable)
-------------------- or {a.poat~ra.} (as di-syllable)
Skt: अपुत्र  [a-putra] - m. no son; a. sonless; -ka, a. id. -- Mac021c1
Pal: {a.poat~ta.ka.}
  UKT from  UHS: mfn. childless



अपुत्रिन् a-putrin, ˚त्रिय -triya, ˚त्र्य [ -trya ]
- a. sonless.



अपुनरुक्त [ a-punar-ukta ]
Skt: अपुनरुक्त  [ a-punar-ukta ] - pp. never palling. - Mac021c1
Skt: अपुनरुक्त apunarukta - adj. not repeated. n. no repetition - SpkSkt

UKT 160707: Macdonell's meaning "palling" is ambigious.
  pall v. palled palling palls v. intr. 1. To become insipid, boring, or wearisome. 2. To have a dulling, wearisome, or boring effect. 3. To become cloyed or satiated. - AHTD

अपुनर् apunar 
= अ प ु न र ् --> {a.pu.nar} = : if another akshara were to follow, a repha may be formed
Skt: अपुनर् apunar - ind. only once, not again -- SpkSkt



अपुनर्निवर्तिन् [ a-punar-nivartin ]
- a. not returning.



अपुनर्भाविन् [ a-punar-bhvin ]
- a. not recurring, last.



अपुनर्वृत्ति [ a-punar-vritti ]
- f. non-return.



अपुरुषापराध [ apurusha‿apardha ]
- m. no fault of the person holding a deposit.



अपुरोहित [ a-purohita ]
- a. lacking a domestic priest.



अपुष्कल [ a-pushkala ]
- a. inapplicable.



अपुष्प [ a-pushp ]
- a. flowerless.


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अपूजित [ a-pgita ]
- pp. unhonoured; -pgya, fp. not to be honoured; -pta, pp. unpurified; impure.



अपूप [ ppa ]
- m. cake; -sl, f. bakehouse.



अपूरण [ a-prana ]
- a. insatiable; -prna, pp. not full; diminished by (in.).



अपूर्व [ a-prv ]
- a. unprecedented, new; extraordinary, incomparable: in. ad. never before; -t, f., -tva, n. newness, novelty; -darsana, a. never seen before.



अपूर्विन् [ a-prvin ]
- a. never having done it before.



अपूर्व्य [ -prvya ]
- a. first; incomparable.


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{a.pRi.} : formed with highly rhotic Skt-Dev

UKT 120112, ..., 140721, 160708:  ,
In Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan, {a.pya.} & {a.pra.} are medials, and colloquially pronounced the same without any trace of rhoticity. However, Buddhist monks and laymen reciting Buddhist sermons would pronounce {a.pya.} without any rhoticity, and {a.pra.} with a slight rhotic sound. Similarly, in Rakhine dialect {a.pya.} is non-rhotic and {a.pra.} is rhotic. Note, they are formed from row#5 {pa.}, and approximants {ya.} (non-rhotic) &  {ra.} (slightly rhotic). 

In Skt-Myan (based on Skt-Dev) {a.p~ri.} is rhotic, but {a.pRi.} is highly rhotic (being formed from highly-rhotic Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel ऋ / ृ . Note there is no {ra.} in {a.pRi.}.



अपृणत् [ -prinat ]
- a. not giving, niggardly.



अपृथग्भूत [ a-prithag-bhta ]
- pp. not different, identical.



अपृथात्मज [ a-prith‿tmaga ]
= अ प ृ थ ा त ् म ज
Skt: अपृथात्मज [ a-prithā‿ātmaga ] - a. lacking Yudhishthira. - Mac021c1

UKT 160708: Macdonell should have given the literary meaning, and not the name a person character.
"In the Hindu epic Mahabharata,Yudhishthira युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira was the eldest son of King Pandu. ... The word Yudhishthira means "the one who is steady in the war", from the words, yuddha (युद्ध) meaning 'war', and sthira (स्थिर) meaning 'steady' ". - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yudhishthira
I have broken down the word अपृथात्मज [a-prith‿tmaga] and have given a likely literary meaning meaning:
"lacking reasoning faculty (of differentiating 'truth' from 'untruth') even to a small measure of the palm of the hand"

Skt: अ a - lacking - UKT
Skt: पृथा pṛthā - flat or palm of the hand - SpkSkt
Skt: आत्मज ātmaja - reasoning faculty, originating from intellect - SpkSkt



अपृष्ट [ a-prishta ]
= अ प ृ ष ् ट
- pp. unasked, unquestioned: lc. when no question has been asked.


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अपेक्षा [ apa‿ksh ]
= अ प े क ् ष ा  --> {a,p-k~Sa} : Note Pseud-Kha.
Skt: अपेक्षा  [apa‿ksh] - f. looking about; attention, consideration, regard; expectation; requirement: in. with regard to, in comparison with. -- Mac021c1
Pal: {a.pk~hka} / {a.pk~hka}
- - UHS-PMD0093
  UKT from UHS: f. consideration (for others), attachment



अपेक्षित [ apa‿kshita ]
- pp. intentional; n. purpose, business; -t, f. expectation; -tva, n. requisiteness.



अपेक्षिन् [ apekshin ]
- a. regarding; waiting for.



अपेक्ष्य [ apekshya ]
- fp. to be regarded.



अपेत [ apa‿ita ]
- pp. √i; -prna, a. deceased; -bh, a. fearless.



अपेय [ a-peya ]
- fp. undrinkable; forbidden to be drunk.


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अपेलव [ a-pelava ]
- a. not tender, rude.


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अपैशुन [ a-paisuna ]
- n. freedom from detraction.


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अपोगण्ड [ a-poganda ]
- a. not under age, over sixteen.

UKT 150218, 160708: How we define "under age" is culturally dependent. Sixteen years of age appears to be the then British definition in India and Burma in the 19th century. I opine that our traditional ideas would set "under age" as "before the onset of puberty". After the onset of puberty a girl can easily bear a child. A boy usually has a voice change at the onset of puberty. In both females and males pubic hair start to appear with the onset of puberty, which would be about 12 or 13.
   It is interesting to note that the mother of Jesus Christ was pregnant before she married - "come together" - Joseph. See Christian Bible Matthew 1:18, etc. However, "... The Bible never gives Marys age when she got pregnant or gave birth to Jesus, ... In ancient Israel, girls married in their teens, even early teens. [2] For Mary to be betrothed (engaged) but not yet formally married, yet old enough to have and nurse the Messiah, she would have been 12-14. The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible points out, It appears that both boys and girls were married very young. Later [after the New Testament period] the rabbis fixed the minimum age for marriage at twelve for girls and thirteen for boys. [3] ..."
-- http://www.truthortradition.com/articles/mary-a-teenage-bride-and-mother 150218



अपोढ [ apa‿dha ]
- pp. √vah.



अपोह [ apa‿ha ]
- m. removal; combating, disputing; -na, a. removing; n. removal.


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अपौरादर [ a-paura‿dara ]
- a. without the labour of the citizens (--).


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UKT 130918: Viram or {a.t} is only found in Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev, and is not found in Pal-Myan. In some entries, conjunct alone, or in combination with {a.t} will be shown.
UKT 160708: In Pali-derived Bur-Myan, {p} is related to {a-pau:} 'water'.


अप्चर [ ap-kara ] apcara
= (अ प ्) (च र) --> {p-sa.ra.}
Skt: अप्चर [ ap-kara ] - m. water-animal. - Mac021c2
Skt: अप्चर apcara - m. aquatic animal - SpkSkt



अप्तुर् [ ap-tr ]
= अ प ् त ु र ्
- a. active; victorious.



[aptor-ym], [-yman]
= अ प ् त े र ् य ा म  =  अप्तेर्याम  ?
Skt: - n. a particular way of celebrating the Soma sacrifice -- Mac021c2

UKT 130918 , 131004: I could not get anything on the above word. The most like I could get is described in Satapatha Brahmana   śatapatha-brāhmaṇa   Part III (SBE41), Julius Eggeling tr. [1894], at sacred-texts.com :
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbr/sbe41/sbe4102.htm 130918
UKT 130930: What does शतपथ  śatapatha {sha.ta.pa.ta.} mean? Breaking it down further gives us {sha.ta.} which is {T~Hta.} 'eight' or 'deeper meaning' (UHS-PMD0024).
See my note for Satapatha Brahmana (शतपथ ब्राह्मण śatapatha brāhmaṇa,



अप्तय [ ap-ty ]
- a. watery.



अप्नस् [ p-nas ]
- n. property, wealth; work.



अप्पति [ ap-pati ]
- m. lord of waters, Varuna {wa.ru.Na.} (see UHS-PMD0854)..



अप्य [ p-ya ]
- a. (f. , or p) belonging to water.



अप्यय [ api‿aya ]
- m. entrance, disappearance; end.


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{a.p~ra.} / {a.pRa}

UKT 150218, 160708: {p~ra.} from Pal-Myan maybe written as {ra.ric} with a shortened "hood" as {pra.} (without rhoticity as in Bur-Myan). But not to get confused with {pRi.} from Skt-Dev, I prefer to write it as {ra.hsw:}. Caveat: However whenever necessary, I have to use a similar glyph with an extended hood to show its rhotic pronunciation as: {a.pRa.}.



अप्रकटीकृत [ a-prakat-krita ]
- pp. not manifested.



अप्रकाश [ a-praksa ]
- a. not light, dark; hidden, secret: -m, ad. secretly; m. darkness; -na, n. non-betrayal.



अप्रकाशत् [ a-pra-ksat ]
- pr. pt. invisible; -ksita, pp. not manifested; -ket, a. indistinguishable, formless; -galbha, a. cowardly, faint-hearted; -grihya, a. not being a pragrihya vowel.


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अप्रचेतस् [ -praketas ]
= अ प ् र च े त स ्
- a. unwise, imprudent.



अप्रच्युत [ -prakyuta ]
- pp. unshaken; not swerving from (ab.).


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अप्रज [ -pra-ga ]
- a. childless; f. , not bearing; -gagi, a. ignorant; unfertile; -gana, a. not begetting: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -gas, a. childless; -gs-t, f., -gasy, n. childlessness.



अप्रज्ञ [ a-praga ]
= अ प ् र ज ् ञ
- a. not recognising.



अप्रज्ञात [ a-pragta ]
- pp. unrecognised, unknown.


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अप्रणय [ a-pra-naya ]
= अ प ् र ण य
- m. lack of affection, coldness; -nayin, a. not cared for; -nta, pp. not borne to the altar; -nodya, fp. not to be repelled.


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अप्रतर्क्य [ a-pratarkya ]
= अ प ् र त र ् क ् य
- fp. inconceivable; whose destination is unknown.



अप्रति [ a-prat ]
- a. irresistible: ad. -bly.



अप्रतिकार [ a-prati-kra ]
- a. irremediable; -krya, fp. id.; -kla, a. not resisting (g.); ready for (lc.); obedient; -krita, pp. against which nothing has been done; -gata, pp. whom one cannot go to meet; -grhya, fp. that may not be accepted.



अप्रतिघ [ a-pratigha ]
- a. irresistible.



अप्रतिज्ञा [ a-prati-g ]
- f. non-consent to (lc.).



अप्रतिपत्ति [ a-prati-patti ]
- f. not becoming acquainted with; irresolution; embarrassment; -padyamna, pr. pt. . not assenting to (ac.); -pdana, n. withholding; -pgita, pp. not honoured.



अप्रतिबद्ध [ a-prati-baddha ]
- pp. not kept at a distance, belonging to the retinue; -bandha, m. no hindrance; a. unhindered; -buddha, pp. unawakened; unenlightened, stupid; -bodha, ad. without awakening (--); -bhata, a. irresistible; -bh, f. non-appearance, non-arrival; -bheda, m. non-betrayal.



अप्रतिम [ a-pratima ]
- a. incomparable: -‿ogas, a. of incomparable might; -malla, a. unrivalled; -mn, a., -meya, fp. incomparable.


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अप्रतिमुक्त [ a-prati-mukta ]
- pp. not given leave; -yatna-prva, a. not artificially produced.



अप्रतियोगिन् [ a-prati-yogin ]
- a. non-contradictory of (--); (i)-tva, n. abst. ɴ.



अप्रतिरथ [ a-prati-ratha ]
- a. matchless; -rpa, a. without counterpart, incomparable; inadequate; unsuitable for (g.).



अप्रतिविधान [ a-prati-vidhna ]
- n. taking no measures; --, without artificial means; -vidheya, fp. not to be combated.



अप्रतिशासन [ a-prati-ssana ]
- a. subject to no other authority; -sraya, a. having no refuge.



अप्रतिषेध [ a-prati-shedha ]
- m. no objection, invalid objection.



अप्रतिष्ठ [ a-prati-shtha ]
- a., -shthita, pp. having no foundation, perishable, unstable.



अप्रतिहत [ a-prati-hata ]
- pp. unimpeded, unimpaired, irresistible; not elapsed; -hrya, fp. irresistible.



अप्रतीकार [ a-pratkra ]
- a. unresisting; incurable; -krya, fp. not to be remedied; -ghta, a. unresisted.



अप्रतीत [ -prati‿ita ]
- pp. irresistible; unintelligible.



अप्रतीति [ a-pratti ]
- f. lack of a distinct notion or perception.



अप्रत्ता [ a-pra-tt ]
- pp. (√d) f. unmarried.



अप्रत्यक्ष [ a-prati‿aksha ]
- a. not visible; -‿akshita, pp. not seen with one's own eyes.



अप्रत्यय [ a-pratyaya ]
- m. distrust; a. distrustful of (lc.); inspiring distrust.



अप्रत्याख्यायिन् [ a-pratykhyyin ]
- a. not refusing; -‿khyeya, fp. not to be refused.


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अप्रदक्षिणम् [ a-pradakshinam ]
= अ प ् र द क ् ष ि ण ë 0; ्
- ad. towards the left.



अप्रदान [ a-pra-dna ]
- n. not giving, not granting; -dushta, pp. not corrupted.


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अप्रधान [ a-pradhna ]
- a. subordinate; n. subordinate person (gr.); -t, f., -tva, n. subordinate position.



अप्रधृष्य [ a-pradhrishya ]
- fp. unassailable.


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UKT 150221: Skt-Dev,
  {wa.} व + diagonal --> {ba.} ब ,
suggests that ब is a borrowed glyph, which further suggests that {ba.} ब was not originally present in Sanskrit.


अप्रबुद्ध [ a-pra-buddha ]
- pp. unawakened; unblossomed; -bhava, m. no source or occasion of (lc.); -bhta, pp. not yet dawned; -bhva, a. unable, powerless: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -bhu, a. unable to (lc.); m. not master of (g.): -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -bhta, pp. insufficient.


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अप्रमत्त [ a-pramatta ]
- pp. not careless, careful, attentive; -tva, n. abst. ɴ.



अप्रमा [ a-pram ]
- f. false notion; -mna, n. no authority; something nugatory; -mnkri, not to treat (ac.) as an authority; -mda, a. attentive, careful: -tva, n. -ness; -mdin, a. id.; -meya, fp. immeasurable; infinite, inseparable, undemonstrable; -moda, m. displeasure.


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अप्रयच्छत् [ a-prayakkhat ]
- pr. pt. not delivering; not giving a girl in marriage.



- lack of exertion; -, without exertion; a. indifferent to (lc).



अप्रयुक्त [ a-pra-yukta ]
- pp. unemployed, unusual; inappropriate; -yukkhat, pr. pt. not careless; attentive; -yugyamna, pr. pt. ps. not being added; not being lent on interest.


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अप्रलय [ a-pralaya ]
- ad. without the world perishing (--).


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UKT notes

Shatapatha Brahmana

- UKT 130930

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shatapatha_Brahmana 130930

The Shatapatha Brahmana , शतपथ ब्राह्मण śatapatha brāhmaṇa {sha.ta.pa.hta. braah~ma.Na.} , "Brahmana of one hundred paths", abbreviated ŚB) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual, associated with the Shukla Yajurveda. It survives in two recensions, Madhyandina (ŚBM, of the vājasaneyi madhyandina śākhā) and Kanva (ŚBK, of the kāṇva śākhā), with the former having the eponymous 100 adhyayas, 7,624 kandikas in 14 books, and the latter 104 adhyayas, 6,806 kandikas in 17 books.

UKT131004: Yajurveda because of its being written long after the demise of the Buddha, Theravada Buddhists in Myanmarpr should simply ignore it.

Go back Shatapatha-Brahmana-note-b

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End of TIL file