Update: 2016-07-01 01:09 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.pa.} / {p} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel
{a.pa.}-prefix : in some of the following words {a.pa.} must be taken together with /a/ becoming /ə/

UKT 130930: the effect of the third-akshara is very instructive. It seems that the IE speakers, including the speakers of Sanskrit, cannot properly pronounce the velars and palatals. Their pronunciation of the dentals (including retroflex) are iffy. They can only properly pronounce the bilabials. This has been my observation on the English speakers for a long time. I need to confirm this observation with more examples.

If the problem is complex with the {wag}-consonants, it is more so with the {a.wag}-consonants. They are given as approximants in IPA. The approximants are those which are not readily classifiable into velars, palatals, retroflex, dental and bilabial. On this page we will study words with the {a.wag}-consonants.

{a.pa.kSa.} : Pseudo Kha







UKT notes :
Apabhraṃśa : {a.pa. Brn-sha.}
Deeper meaning of a Bur-Myan word - based on Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev
Development of the Akshara system of Writing :
  Palatal non-hisser {sa.} च, Dental hisser {Sa.} ष, and Dental husher {sha.} श
  to be compared to UHS-PMD introduction-{za.}
UKT 160623: I have moved all the above to
Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm


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अन्वय [ anu‿aya ]
- m. progeny; race, family; connexion; attraction; -vyatirekin, a. connected with and excluded from a thing; -‿gata, pp. inherited.


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अन्वयिन् [ anvayin ]
- a. belonging to or connected with the same family; resulting from anything.



अन्वर्थ [ anu‿artha ]
- a. appropriate; obvious; -‿abhidha, a. appropriately designated.



अन्ववेक्षा [ anu‿aveksh- ]
- f. regard, consideration; -in, a. circumspect.



अन्वष्टका [ anu‿ashtak ]
- f. day after the Ashtak.

UKT 160622: See my note on Ashtaka - Halloween in Romabama collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm (link chk 160622)


अन्वहम्् [ anu‿ahm ]
- ad. day by day.


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अन्वाधि [ anu‿dhi ]
- m. object handed over for delivery to a third person; -dheya, -ka, n. property obtained by a woman after marriage; -‿rohana, n. mounting the funeral pyre after the husband; -‿sana, n. sitting down after another; attendance on; -‿hry, n. new moon funeral feast in honour of Ma'nes: -pkana, n. southern sacred fire.


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अन्वित [ anu‿ita ]
- pp. (√i) accompanied by, possessing (--).


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UKT 150211: Skt-Dev न्वे seems to be disyllabic, and is different from monosyllabic Bur-Myan syllables which differ from each other in vowel-lengths measured in eye-blinks (blk): 

  {nw.} 1 blk, {nw} 'Summer' 2 blk, {nw:} 'warm' 2 blk + emphasis



  अन्वेष [ anu‿esha ]
- m., -na, n., -n, f. search, quest, investigation; -ka, a. searching after; -nya, fp. doubtful, questionable.



अन्वेषिन् [ anvesh-in ]
- a. seeking; -tavya, pp. to be sought or found out; -tri, m. searcher; -ya, fp. to be sought or found out; doubtful.


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{a.pa.} / {p} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel

UKT 150218: More on {p} in p021.htm


अप्  ap --> {p}
- . be active, work



अप् ap
- . work



अप्  ap
- . f. pl. (also sg. in V.) water.

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UKT: {a.pa.} is an important prefix


अप [ pa ]
- ad. off, away (--); *prp. away from, except (ab.).

अप [pa] 
Skt: अप [pa] - ad. off, away (--); *prp. away from, except (ab.). -- Mac019
Pal: {a.pa.}
- - UHS-PMD0085
  UKT from UHS: the prefix which may be attached to words for separation, blame, expulsion, puja, wrong accusation, etc.

See my note on Deeper meaning of a Bur-Myan word {a.pa.} (MED2010-569)
UKT 160623: I have moved the above to
Romabama collection  - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm


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अपकर्तन [ apa-kartana ]
- n. cutting in pieces; -kartri, m. injurer; -karman, n. delivery; -karsha, m. removal; decrease; deterioration; low position; annulment; anticipation (gr.); -karshaka, a. diminishing, detracting; -karshana, a. id.; n. removal; degradation; -karshin, a. drawing away; -kalmasha, a. free from sin; -kra, m., -t, f. hurt, injury; -krin, a. injurious; offensive; mischievous; -krtya, fp. dishonourable.

अपकर्तन  apa-kartana
= अ प क र ् त न --> {a.pa. kar~ta.na.}  
Skt: अपकर्तन  [apa-kartana] - n. cutting in pieces; -- Mac019c1
*Pal: {a.pa.kn~ta.ti.}
- UHS-PMD0085
  UKT from UHS: cut into pieces.



अपकृत् [ apa-kri-t ]
- a. injuring; -krita, (pp.) n., -kriti, f., -kritya, n.= apa-kra; -krishta, pp. low, inferior, mean.



  अपक्रम [ apa-kram ]
- m., -na, n., -krnti, f. departure; -krma, m. id.; escape; -kriy, f. delivery; injury; wrong procedure.



अपक्व [ a-pakva ]
- pp. unbaked; undigested; immature; -t, f. immaturity.


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{a.pa.kSa.} : Pseudo Kha


अपक्ष [ a-paksh ]
- a. unwinged; -ptin, a. not flying with wings; siding with Vishnu.



अपक्षय [ apa-kshaya ]
- m. decrease.



अपक्षलोप [ a-paksha-lopa ]
- m. non-loss of wings; -sda, m. id.


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अपग [ pa-ga ]
- a. turning away from (ab.).



अपगततेजस्क [ apa-gata-tegas-ka ]
- a. void of light; -praksa, a. id.



  अपगम [ apa-gama ]
- m., -na, n. departure, disappearance; lapse.



अपगर्जित [ apa-gargita ]
- a. thunderless.



अपगुण [ apa-guna ]
- a. void of excellences.


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अपघन [ . apa-ghana ]
- m. body.



अपघन [ . apa-ghana ]
- a. cloudless.



अपघात [ apa-gh&asharp;ta ]
- m. warding off; -ka, a. warding off, dispelling.



अपघृण [ apa-ghrina ]
- a. pitiless, cruel.


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UKT 130828, 160624: {a.pa.nga.} अपङ is not realized in Skt-Dev. We only find, {a.ping} अपङ् with {ng} ङ् with a viram sign ् . Unable to find a suitable replacement for English digraph <ng>, I have decided include the nuclear vowel together with the coda: 




अपङ्क  [ a-paṅka ] 
= अ प ङ ् क --> {a.pn~ka.}
- a. mireless, dry; -t, f. -ness.

UKT 110804: The question arose whether I should present the above as a {kn:si:} or not. UHS-PMD gives only one entry with killed {nga.} - {a.pn~ga.} 'corner of the eye' UHS-PMD0086. Using UHS as my guide I have presented the above as {kn:si:}


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UKT 160624: See my note on Development of the Akshara system of Writing : palatal non-hisser {sa.} च  & dental hisser {Sa.} ष , has been moved to Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm


अपचय [ apa-kaya ]
= अ प च य  --> {a.pa.sa.ya.}
- m. decrease, diminution; -karita, (pp.) n. transgression; -kra, m. want; death; transgression; -krin, a. deviating fr.; erring; faithless (wife).

अपचय  apa-caya
= अ प च य  --> {a.pa.sa.ya.}
Skt: अपचय  [apa-kaya] - m. decrease, diminution -- Mac019c2



अपचित [ apa-kita ]
- pp. √ki; -kiti, f. veneration; atonement.



अपच्छत्‍त्र [ apa-kkhattra ]
- a. lacking an umbrella; -kkhya, a. shadowless; -kkheda, m., -na, n. cutting off, separation, division.


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अपजात [ apa-gta ]
- pp. degenerate; -gighmsu, des. a. desirous of warding off (ac.); -gihrsh, f. desire to rob; -gihrshu, des. a. intending to rob; -gya, a. lacking a bowstring; -gvara, a. feverless.

निर्ज्वर  nirjvara - adj. feverless - SpkSkt


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अपञ्चीकृत a-pak-krita, ˚भूत [ -bhta ]
= अ प ञ ् च ी क ृ त
- pp. n. pl. not yet become five (elements).


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अपटीक्षेप [ a-pat-kshepa ]
- m. not tossing aside the curtain: (e)-na pra-vis, enter (the) stage) suddenly and impetuously.



अपटु [ a-patu ]
- a. not scorching (rays); useless, incapable; -tva, n. incapacity.


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अपण्डित [ a-pandita ]
- a. unlearned, illiterate; stupid; -t, f. folly.

अपण्डित  [ a-pandita ] 
= अ प ण ् ड ि त  
Skt: अपण्डित  [ a-pandita ] - a. unlearned, illiterate; stupid; -t, f. folly.  - Mac019c2
Pal: {a.pN~i.ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0087
  UKT from UHS: m. a person without education



अपण्य [ a-panya ]
- fp. not to be sold; n. ware that may not be sold.


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अपति [ a-pati ]
- a., f. -k, id. unmarried; widowed.



अपतित [ a-patita ]
- pp. not outcast; not forfeited; -‿anyo&zip;nya-tygin, a. forsaking each other without losing caste.



अपतिव्रता [ a-pati-vrat ]
- f. faithless to her husband.



  अपतुषार [ apa-tushra ]
- a. free from mist; -t, f. abst. ɴ.



अपत्नीक [ a-patn-ka ]
- a. wifeless.



अपत्य [ apa-tya ]
- n. offspring, progeny, child; -duhkha‿eka-maya, a. consisting solely of grief for children; -vat, a. possessed of offspring; -sneha-krip-maya, a. filled with love and pity for children.



  अपत्रपण [ apa-trap-ana ]
- n., -, f. shame, embarrassment.


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अपथ [ a-patha ]
- n. no way, pathlessness; wrong way; bad course; wrong place: in. not in the usual way; a. pathless; inaccessible; -prapanna, pp. misplaced; -hara, a. choosing the wrong way.



अपथ्य [ a-pathya ]
- a. not beneficial, unsuitable; unwholesome; -krin, a. intriguing against (--): (i)-tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -bhug, a. eating unwholesome food.


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अपद् [ a-pd ]
- a. (f.=m., or -) footless.



अपद [ 1. -pada ]
- n. no abode; wrong place.



अपद [ 2. a-pada ]
- a. footless.



अपदान [ apa-dna ]
- n. heroic deed; -desa, m. advice; designation; pretext, appearance; -desin, a. disguised as (--); -desya, fp. to be indicated; -dosha, a. faultless: -t, f. -ness.



अपद्््म [ a-padma ]
- a. lacking a lotus.



अपद्रव्य [ apa-dravya ]
- n. bad ware; -dh&asharp;, f. hiding-place; -dhma, a. smokeless: -tva, n. -ness; -dhyna, n. disfavour, malice; -dhvams, m. degradation: -ga, m. child of a mixed marriage; -dhvasta, pp. degraded.


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अपनय [ apa-naya ]
- . m. taking away; expulsion; . m. imprudence: -na, a. talking away; n. wiping away, removal; -nayin, a. imprudent; -nidra, a. blossomed; -ninishu, des. a. wishing to expel (ac.); - nirvana, a. not yet ended; -nutti, f. removal; atonement; - nunut-su, des. a. wishing to remove, - to expiate (ac.); -neya, fp. to be removed; -noda, m. expulsion, removal; atonement: -na, a. removing; n. removal.

अपनय [ apa-naya ]
Skt: अपनय [ apa-naya ] - . m. taking away; expulsion; . m. imprudence - Mac019c2
Skt: अपनय apanaya - m. taking- or leading away, removal, mis- or wicked conduct, bad policy -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.pa.na.ya.} - UHS PMD0087
  UKT from UHS: m. expulsion

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अपन्थदायिन् [ a-pantha-dyin ]
- a. not making way for another.



अपन्नद [ a-panna-da ]
= अ प न ् न द
- a. whose teeth have not yet fallen out.


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अपपयस् [ apa-payas ]
- a. waterless; -ptra, a. excluded from the use of utensils; -pdatra, a. unshod; -pd, f. sudden and dangerous attack of disease.


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अपभय [ apa-bhaya ]
- a. fearless; -bhartr, m. remover; -bhrams, m. fall; ungrammatical form; vulgar dialect; -bhrashta, pp. debased, corrupt, provincial (dialect).

अपभ्रंश apabhraṃśa
Skt: अपभ्रंश [apabhrams] - m. fall; ungrammatical form; vulgar dialect. -- Mac019c3

UKT: See my notes on {a.pa. Brn-sha.} अपभ्रंश Apabhrams
and on Deeper meaning of a Bur-Myan word {a.pa.}.
UKT 160623: I have moved all the above to
Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm


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अपम [ apa-ma ]
- spv. last, furthest; -marsa, m. contact; -mna, m. (n.) disregard, disrespect, contempt; -mrga, 1. m. wiping off; 2. m. by-way; -mrgana, a. wiping off, removing; n. cleansing; -mud, a. disagreeable; -mriga, a. deerless; -mrityu, m. untimely death; mortal danger; -megha‿udaya, a. free from the rise of clouds; -yasas, n. dishonour, disgrace; -ytavya, fp. n. it is needful to flee; -yna, n. going away, retreat, flight; -yodha-rava, a. no longer raising a battle-cry.



अपयोधरवारण [ a-payodhara-vrana ]
- a. not delayed by clouds; -samsarga, a. lacking contact of the breasts.


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UKT 160624: Just as {a.} being checked by {r}, {pa.} can be checked by {r}. In both cases {r} can be written as repha.


अपर [ . pa-ra ]
- a. hinder, further; later, following; western; to the west of (ab.); inferior; other; different from (ab.); opposite; strange, unusual: -m, ad. subsequently, in the future, after; moreover, besides; to the west of (ab.); m. elephant's hind foot.

अपर apara 
Skt: अपर [pa-ra] - . a. hinder, further; later, following; western; to the west of (ab.); inferior; other; different from (ab.); opposite; strange, unusual -- Mac019c3
Skt: अपर apara -- adj. another, western,
  sometimes apara is used as a conjunction to connect words or sentences. -- SpkSkt



अपर [ . apa-r ]
- n. future; -krya, n. later transaction.

Pal: {a.pa.ra.} - UHS-PMD0088
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. different, afterward, other than that. m. another person, another entity. n. different subject. . not long after


अपरकाल aparakāla
Skt: अपरकाल aparakāla - m. later period. -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.pa.ra.ka-la.}
- - UHS-PMD0088
  UKT from UHS: m. later period



अपरक्त [ apa-rakta ]
- pp. bleached, pale.



अपरजलधि [ apara-galadhi ]
- m. western ocean.



अपरतस् [apara-tas], ˚त्र aparat-as, tra
Skt: अपरतस् apara-tas - ad. elsewhere. - Mac019c3
Skt: अपरतस् aparatas = अ प र त स ्
-- ind. on the west side, elsewhere -- SpkSkt



अपरत्व a-para-tva, ˚क [ -ka ]
- n. not being far (ph.).



अपरथा [ apara-th ]
- ad. otherwise.



-- f. west; -dikashin , a. taking the later consecration



अपरपक्ष [ apara-paksh ]
- m. second half of the lunar month; -rtr, m., i, f. second half of the night; -vaktra, n. a metre.



अपरशुवृक्ण [ a-parasu-vrikna ]
- pp. not felled with an axe.



अपरस्परसंभूत [ a-paraspara-sambhta ]
- pp. not produced one from the other.


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अपराग [ apa-rga ]
- m. aversion, hostility.



अपराङ््मुख [ a-parṅ-mukha ]
- a. with unaverted face: -m, ad. unreservedly.



अपराजित [-par-gita]
Skt: अपराजित [-par-gita] - pp. unconquered, unconquerable; m. N. of a mythical sword ;
  f. , N. of a herb ; a metre . -- Mac019c3
Skt: अपराजित aparājita - adj. unsurpassed. f. north-east quarter
  [Bur-astrolog. - Sunday quarter ruled by Sunday Planet-god riding a garuda]. m. a class of divinities,
  poisonous insect, Durga, Vsihnu, undefeated, unconquered, etc. -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.pa.ra-zi.ta.}
- UHS-PMD0089
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not conquerable by enemies, not to be lost



अपराद्ध [ apa-rddha ]
= अ प र ा द ् ध  --> {a.pa.raad~Da.}
- pp. having erred, guilty, culpable; n. guilt; -rddhi, f. mistake, error; -rddhri, a. guilty of an offence or crime; offending.

अपराद्ध apa-raddha
= अ प र ा द ् ध  --> {a.pa.raad~Da.}
Skt: - pp. having erred, guilty, culpable; n. guilt; -rddhi, f. mistake, error; -rddhri, a. guilty of an offence or crime; offending.

अपराद्ध apa-raddha
= अ प र ा द ् ध  --> {a.pa.raad~Da.}
Skt: अपराद्ध [apa-rddha] - pp. having erred, guilty, culpable -- Mac019c3
Skt: अपराद्ध aparāddha - adj. having missed, transgressed, criminal, violated, sinned, etc. -- SpkSkt
UKT: see below.



अपराध [ apa-rdha ]
- m. transgression, guilt, offence: -vriksha, m. tree of transgression; -rdhika, a. guilty; without Rdhik; -rdhin, a. guilty, offending; (i)-t, f. guiltiness.

अपराध  [ apa-rdha ] 
Skt: अपराध [ apa-rdha ] - m. transgression, guilt, offence: -- Mac019c3
Pal: {a.pa.ra-Da.} - UHS-PMD0089
  UKT from UHS: m. insult, transgression, fault



अपरान्त [ apara‿anta ]
- a. living in the extreme west; m. western region: pl. its inhabitants; end, death; lower part of an elephant's hind foot; -ka, n. kind of song.


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UKT notes

Astaka - festival of Ma'nes (equivalents of Bur-Myan Nats
   - specifically the {nt-saim:} 'the green Nats')
moved to Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm
See: Ashtaka Festivals - festival of Ma'nes


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End of TIL file