Update: 2016-06-22 01:22 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{n~tar} / {n~tar~} : repha contd

{a.n~ya.} / {n~ya.} : disyllabic - not Bur-Myan monosyllabic medial {nya.}


UKT notes :
Antarvedi (Telugu: అంతర్వేది)
My note on Antarvedi village has been transferred to
Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm (link check 160621)
and proceed to > Telugu

Repha {n~tar} / {n-tar~}

- UKT 140720, 150208:
Inclusion of the repha brings on a definite pronunciation change to {n-tar~}. Please note: my observations on these sound changes are still tentative. They will likely change as my knowledge of Skt-Dev improves.

The following non-rhotic to rhotic change is quite common when going from Pali to Sanskrit:

{n~ta.ra.} + viram --> {n~tar} / {n-tar~} (mostly shown as repha)

I believe this change is due to the inability of the new-comers who spoke Indo-European (IE) or Austro-Asiatic languages to recite the Vedic mantras which were formulated by the Rishis living along the foothills of Indian Himalayas extending and becoming Myanmar Himalayas in the east. The foothills (and some of them quite high) extended into Myanmarpr as the Western Yoma. From the fossil records of the Pondaung-Ponnya area it seem that a human race or races - probably Homo erectus - had originated in the area. As humans they must have spoken a language which then evolved into Tibeto-Burman languages. Please note that this is pure conjecture. But see: Fossils in Geography, Geology, Fossils
-- geo-indx.htm > fossil.htm (link chk 140720, 160621)

Contents of this page

{n~tar} / {n~tar~} : repha contd


अन्तर्दशाह [ antar-dasa‿aha ]
- m. interval of ten days; -duhkha, a. inwardly grieved; -dushta, pp. inwardly bad, wicked, vile; -dhana, n. inner treasure; -dhna, n. covering; disappearance: -m gam, -i, -vrag, disappear; -dh, m. concealment: -m gam, disappear; -dhairya, n. inward firmness; -nihita, pp. placed within.

Contents of this page



अन्तर्बाष्प [ antar-bshpa ]
- m. restrained tears; a. restraining the tears; -bhavana, ad. in or into the house (--); -bhva, m. inclusion in (lc.); disappearance: -m gam, disappear; -bhvita, pp. included; -bhta, pp. contained in (lc.): -tva, n. abs. ɴ.; -bheda, m. internal rupture; -mada‿avastha, a. whose rut is still within, i.e. has not yet outwardly shown itself; -mandira, n. harem; -manmatha, m. concealed love; -mukha, a. entering the mouth; turned inwards.



अन्तर्याम [ antar-ym ]
- m. Soma draught while suppressing the breath; -ymn, m. the inner guide; -lagg, f. inward shame; -lpik, f. riddle containing its own solution; -lna, pp. √l.



अन्तर्वंशिक [ antar-vamsika ]
- m. superintendent of the harem; -vat, a., f. - & -n, pregnant; -vastra, n. under-garment; -vni, a. learned; -vsa, m. abiding in (--); -vsas, n. under-garment; -vsika, m.=-vamsika; -visha, a. poisonous within; -vedi, m. pl. inhabitants of Antarvedi; -ved, f. N. of a country between the Ganges and the Yamun.

UKT 160621: My notes on Antarvedi (Telugu: అంతర్వేది)
My note on Antarvedi village has been transferred to
Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm (link check 160621)
and proceed to > Telugu



अन्तर्हास [ antar-hsa ]
- m. suppressed laughter: -m, ad. with suppressed laughter.



अन्तर्हित [ antar-hita ]
- pp. (√dh) vanished.


Contents of this page



अन्तवत् [ anta-vat ]
- a. having an end, finite, perishable.



अन्तश्््चर [ antas-kara ]
- a. moving in the body; -kaitanya, a. internally conscious.



अन्तःशल्य [ antah-salya ]
- n. arrow (fig.) in the heart; -sava, a. containing a corpse; -slesh, m., -na, n. connecting frame.



अन्तसत्क्रिया [ anta-satkriy ]
- f. last honour (to the dead).



अन्तस्ताप [ antas-tpa ]
- m. inner heat; a. glowing within; -toya, a. containing water within.



अन्तःसंज्ञ [ antah-samga ]
- a. internally conscious, showing no consciousness; -sattva, n. inner nature; -salila, a. whose waters are hidden: -m, ad. in the water; -salila-stha, a. standing in the water; -snu, ad. in the mountain ridge; -sra, n. inner content or worth; a. hvg. force or water within; -sukha, a. hvg. his happiness within; -stha, a. being within (g., --).



- m. kndla


Contents of this page



अन्ति [ nti ]
- ad. opposite; before; near; prp. near to (g., --).



अन्तिक [ anti-k ]
- n. vicinity, presence: -m, ad. near, up to; ab. from near; close to; from; in., lc. near, close to, before (g., --); -kara, a. moving about (--).



अन्तितस् [ nti-tas ]
- ad. from near.



अन्तिम [ anti-ma ]
- a. last, final.


Contents of this page



अन्तेवास [ ante-vsa ]
- m. neighbour, companion; -vsin, m. (abiding near), pupil.



अन्तोदात्त [ anta‿udtta ]
- a. having the acute accent on the last syllable; -tva, n. abst. n.



अन्त्य [ ntya ]
- a. last; lowest; m. man of lowest caste, f. , woman--; -karman, n. last act, cremation; -ga, a. born in the lowest caste (also ɴ.); -ganman, a. id.; -gti, a. id.: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -yoni, a. of the lowest birth.



अन्त्र [ antra ]
- n. entrails.


Contents of this page




अन्दु andu, अन्दू [ and ]
- f. chain; esp. foot chain, anklet.



अन्दोलन [ andolana ]
- n. swinging.



अन्दोलय [ andolaya ]
- den. P. swing: pp. andolita.


Contents of this page



अन्ध [ andh ]
- a. blind, dim; pitch-dark; blinded, obscured by (--).



अन्धक [ andha-ka ]
- a. blind; m. N. of an Asura: -ghtin, m. N. of Siva; -ripu, m. id.



अन्धकार [ andha-kra ]
- a. dark; n. -ness: -t, f. id.; -maya, a. dark.



अन्धकारित [ andha-krita ]
- pp. darkened, wrapt in darkness.



अन्धकूप [ andha-kpa ]
- m. hidden well, pitfall; -tamasa, n. thick darkness; -t, f., -tva, n. blindness; -tmisra, m. thick darkness; blindness; N. of a hell.



अन्धय [ andhaya ]
- den. P. blind.



अन्धवत् [ andha-vat ]
- ad. as if blind.



अन्धस् [ 1. ndh-as ]
- n. darkness.



अन्धस् [ 2. ndhas ]
- n. herb; Soma plant or juice; food.



- blind; -bh , become blind



अन्धु [ andhu ]
- m. well.



- m. N. of a people; a mixed caste


Contents of this page



अन्न [ n-na ]
= अ न ् न
- (pp.) n. food, esp. rice; grain of rice.



अन्नकाम [ nna-kma ]
- a. desirous of food; -da, a. giving food; -dtri, m. giver of food; -dna, n. gift of food; -dosha, m. offence in diet, eating forbidden food; -pakti, f. preparation of food; -pati, m. lord of food (Savitri, Agni, or Siva); -prada, a. bestowing food; -prsana, n. first feeding of an infant with rice; -bhatta, m. N. of an author; -maya, a. consisting of food; -mala, n. secretion of rice; -yoni, arrack; -rasa, n. sg. & m. pl. food & drink; taste in preparing food: -maya, a. consisting of food & drink; -vat, a. hvg. food, rich in food; -vikra, m. transformation of food: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -samskra, m. preparation of viands.



अन्नाद [ anna‿ad-a ]
- a. (, ) eating food; -in, a. id.; -ya, n. nourishment: -kma, a. desirous of nourishment.



अन्नार्थ [ anna‿artha ]
- a. desirous of food, hungry.



अन्नावृध् [ ann-vrdh ]
- a. refreshed by food.


Contents of this page

{a.n~ya.} : not {n~ya.}

UKT 150211, 160621: From pronunciation viewpoint, the wrong placement Bur-Myan Nya aka Nya'gyi {a} in r2c5 cell of the akshara matrix is the problem. I have come to this conclusion that Pali-Myan Nya aka Nya'l {a.} is the sole occupier of r2c5.

Secondly, the pronunciation problem has become more complex because in Pali-Myan, Nya'gyi {a} is treated as the horizontal conjunct of two Nya'l {a.},

: Nya'gyi as the horizontal conjunct of two Nya'l
: pronounced as {~a.}
: pronounced as {p~a.} 'education'

The Nya'gyi {a}/ {} - not present in any other language - is the neighbour of {ya.}/ {}. It is the palatal approximant. To make room for {a}, {ya.} has to be pushed to the velar approximant position. I have come to this conclusion after studying the similarity in the pronunciation of nuclear vowels being checked by killed-Nya'gyi {}, and those being killed by killed {ya.}.

Moving the {ya.} to the velar position has put me in direct confrontation with IPA /j/. This I have to face because the Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a}/ {} is not present in any other language, including English. It is because of this fact that even to this day there are problems in pronouncing words like {n pr tau} 'the capital of present-day Myanmarpr'.

The third observation I have made is: {a.n~ya.}, and not {n~ya.}, is the correct way of representation. The conjunct is clearly disyllabic and therefore not the monosyllabic Bur-Myan medial {n~ya.}. We must note that both Nya'gyi {a}, and Nya'l {a.} are sometimes used interchangeably with {n~ya.} in transcribing words like "nuclear".


अन्य  [any]
= अ न ् य  
Skt: अन्य  [any] - a. (n. -d) other; different from (ab., --); a certain; common;  anya -anya, the one -the other; anyak ka, and besides, moreover. -- Mac018-c2
*Pal: {~a} <--
- - UHS-PMD0022
  UKT from UHS: mfn. other, another, not the truth. m. the other person



अन्यकर्तृक [ anya-kartri-ka ]
- a. hvg. another agent (gr.); -krita, pp. done by others; -kshetr, n. foreign country; -gata, pp. referring to another; -gmin, a. adulterous.

अन्यक्षेत्र anyakṣetra [anyakshetr]
Skt: n. foreign country -- Mac018c2
Skt: अन्यक्षेत्र anyakṣetra -- n. another territory or sphere -- SpkSkt 



अन्यङ्गश््वेत [ a-nyaṅga-sveta ]
- a. pure white.



अन्यचित्त [ anya-kitta ]
- a. thinking of an other; -kint, f. thought of another; -ketas, a. thinking of another; distraught; -ga, a. begotten by another; -ganman, n. future life; -gta, pp. produced by another; m. bastard; -tama, spv. one of several; one or other of (g., --); -tara, cpv. either of (g.); repeated: the one -the other: -sym, (lc. f.) in either way (gr.); -tra, ad. on either.



अन्यतस् [ any-tas ]
- ad. = ab. or lc. of anya; from --, elsewhere; to another place; repeated: on the one side -on the other.


Contents of this page



- f. ... -tva, n. difference



अन्यत्र [ any-tra ]
- ad.=lc. of anya; elsewhere, to another place; on the other hand, other wise; elsewhere, otherwise than, except (ab.): at another time than (--).



अन्यथा [ any-th ]
- ad. otherwise; differently, wrongly: -kri, act otherwise, -wrongly; treat otherwise, change; take wrongly; frustrate.



अन्यथादर्शन [ anyath-darsana ]
- n. wrong investigation (leg.); -prath, f. becoming different; -buddhi, f. prejudice; -bhva, m. change; difference; -‿abhidhna, n. false evidence; -vdin, a. giving false evidence, raising a false suit: (di)-tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -vritti, a. of changed mood, agitated; -sambhvan, f. false supposition; distrust; -sambhvin, a. distrustful; -siddha, pp. falsely proved; -siddhi, f. false proof; -stotra, n. ironical praise.



अन्यदा [ anya-d ]
- ad. at another time; one day, once.



अन्यदीय [ anyad-ya ]
- a. belonging to another.



अन्यनिमित्त [ anya-nimitta ]
- a. having another cause; -pushta, m., , f. Indian cuckoo (nourished by others); -prv, f. promised or married to another man before; -bga-ga, a. begot ten of another's seed; -bhrit, (pp.) f. cuckoo (reared by others); -manas, a. thinking of or meaning something else; -mtri-ka, a. having another mother; -mtri-ga, m. son of another mother; -mnasa, a.=anya-manas.



अन्यरूप [ anya-rpa ]
- n. another form; (any-), a. of different form, changed in form; -rpin, a. id.; -lokya, a. destined for another world; -vdin, a.=anyath-vdin; -vishaya, a. having another object; relating to something else; ()-vrata, a. serving others; perfidious; -saṅkita, a. distrustful; -saṅketa, a. having another appointment; consorting with others; -str-ga, a. adulterous.


Contents of this page



अन्याङ्कसुप्त [ anya‿aṅka-supta ]
- pp. having slept in another's arms.



-- -dris (nm. k or ṅ ; f. id.), -drisa ( ), a. of a different kind; strange; not as it should be ; like others, common



अन्याय [ a-nyya ]
- m. unseemly behaviour, unlawful conduct; -vartin, a., -vritta, pp., -vritti, a. behaving unbecomingly.



अन्यायिन् [ a-nyyin ]
- a. ill-conducted.



अन्याय्य [ a-nyyya ]
= अ न ् य ा य ् य
- a. illegal.



अन्यार्थ [ anya‿artha ]
- m. another person's affair; a. having another purpose or sense.



अन्यून [ a-ni‿na ]
- pp. not too little, sufficient; -‿arthavdin, a. adequately expressive.


Contents of this page



अन्येद्युस् [ anye-dys ]
- ad. on the following day; one day.


Contents of this page



अन्योदर्य [ anya‿udarya ]
- a. born of another womb; m. half-brother.



अनऽन्य [ anyo&zip;nya ]
- m. f. (used in oblique cases only) one another: --, mutual, -ly, reciprocally; -kalaha, a. quarrelling together; -kritya, n. pl. reciprocal services; -gata, pp. reciprocal; -bhva, m. mutual exchange of condition; -‿abhva, m. mutual non-existence; -‿upam, f. mutual simile.



अन्योपतापिन् [ anya‿upatpin ]
- a. paining others.


Contents of this page


UKT 150211: Skt-Dev न्व seems to be disyllabic, and is different from monosyllabic Bur-Myan syllables which differ from each other in vowel-lengths measured in eye-blinks: 

{nwa.} (1 blk), {nwa} (2 blk), {nwa:} 'ox' (2-blk with emphasis)

Very young children including my own daughter NiNi Tun when she was very young, cannot pronounce the {wa.} sound and would call {nwa:} 'ox' as {na:} 'ear'. The cause is due to the short length of the neck of the child and not to any physical defect.


अन्वक्षम् [ anu‿aksham ]
- ad. immediately after.



- a. (anki) following after (ac.); anvak , ad. behind; after (ac.)


UKT: p018c3-b21 moved to next page


Contents of this page

UKT notes



Contents of this page

End of TIL file