Update: 2016-06-21 05:50 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.nu.sha.}: contd
{a.nu.Sa.} : Approximant-fricative hisser-sibilant
{a.nu.a.} : Approximant-fricative non-hissing thibilant in Pal-Myan

{a.nu-ka.} : Velar tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-sa.} : Palatal tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-a.} : Retroflex deep-h
{a.nu-ta.} : Dental tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-da.} : Dental voiced
{a.nu-na.} : Dental nasal
{a.nu-pa.} : Labial tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-ra.} : Approximant rhotic semi-consonant
{a.nu-la.} : Approximant labial semi-consonant
{a.nu-Sa.} : Approximant fricative hisser



{n~tar} / {n-tar~} : repha


UKT notes :
Blood sacrifice


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अनुशय [ anu-saya ]
- m. repentance; revocation (of a bargain): -vat, a. penitent; -‿kshepa, m. implication of remorse: a rhet. figure; -s&asharp;sana, n. instruction; precept, doctrine; order; -ssanya, fp. to be instructed; to be punished; -ssitri, m. guide, teacher; -ssin, a. chastising; -ssti, f. instruction; -sikshin, a. acquiring, practising; -sishta, pp. √ss; -susrsh, f. (des. n.) obedience; -sokana, n. lamentation; -sokin, a. lamenting for (--); -sobhin, a. splendid.


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अनुषङ्ग [ anu-shaṅga ]
- m. attachment to (lc.); longing; immediate consequence; -shaṅgin, a. attached; prevailing; necessarily following from (g.); -shaganya, fp. to be supplied from the context.



अनुष्टुति [ nu-shtuti ]
- f. praise.



अनुष्टुभ् [ anu-shtbh ]
- a. shouting after; f. song of praise; a metre (4 X 8 syllables).



अनुष्ठातव्य [ anu-shth-tavya ]
- fp. to be done, to be executed; -shthtri, m. performer; -shthna, n. practice, performance; -shthpana, n. causing to perform; -shthyin, a. practising, performing; -shthita, pp. done, performed; -shtheya, fp. to be accomplished.



अनुष्ठ्या [ anu-shthy&asharp; ]
- ad. immediately; at once.



अनुष्ण [ an-ushna ]
- a. not hot, cool, cold: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -sta, a. neither hot nor cold.



अनुष्वधम् [ anu-shvadhm ]
- ad. willingly.


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अनुसंतति [ anu-samtati ]
- ad. in uninterrupted succession; -samtna, m. offspring, son; -samdhtavya, fp. to be heeded, to be attended to; -samdhna, n. careful attention, application; scrutiny; -samdheya, fp. to be attended to.



अनुसर [ anu-sara ]
- a. () following; conforming to: -na, n. following, pursuing; -snu, ad. on the ridge of the hills; -sra, m. following, pursuing; conformity; (legal) precedent: -tas, in. according to (--); -srin, a. following, attendant on; seeking out; aiming at; conforming to; adhering to; -sev, f. service, attendance; -sevin, a. addicted to, practising (--).



अनुस्तरणी [ anu-stran ]
= अ न ु स ् त र ण ी
- f. cow killed at funeral sacrifices, with whose pieces the corpse is covered limb for limb; -smarana, n. recollection; -syta-tva, n. passing through (--) as a thread; -svra, m. nasal sound of a vowel (gr.).

See my note on Blood sacrifice


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अनूक [ nka ]
- m. n. spine.



अनूकाश [ an-ks ]
- m. regard, reference.


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अनूचान [ anu‿k-n ]
- pf. pt. . learned; modest; -mnin, a. proud of learning.



अनूची [ ank ]
- f. of anv-ak.



अनूचीन [ ank-n ]
- a. successive; proud of knowledge.


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अनूढा [ an-dh ]
- pp. f. unmarried.

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अनूत्थित [ anu‿ut-thita ]
= अ न ू त ् थ ि त
- pp. √sth.

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अनूदक [ an-daka ]
- n. lack of water, drought.


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अनून [ n-na ]
- pp. complete, entire; not less than (ab.); --, ad. very, exceedingly; -vastuka, a. of complete content or essence.


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अनूप [ anp [anu+ap-a] ]
- m. shore; moor land; reservoir; N. of a maritime country.


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अनूरु [ an-ru ]
= अ न ू र ु
- m. (thighless), dawn (personified as the sun's charioteer or brother).


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अनूला  [ anlā ]
Skt: अनूला  [ anlā ] - f. N. of a river - Mac017c1
Skt: अनुला anulā - f. also of a queen of Ceylon - SpkSkt


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अनूषिवस् [ anu‿sh-i-vas ]
- pf. pf. of √vas.


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अनृक्षर [ an-rikshar ]
= अ न ृ क ् ष र
- a. thornless; -rik, -rika, a. not versed in the Rig-veda; -rig, a. not straight; dishonest; -rin, a. unindebted: -t, f., -tva, n. -ness (to, g.); -rinat kritya, n. intention of paying one out; -rina‿akartos, g. inf. to free from debt; -rinin, a. free from debt.


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अनृत [ n-rita ]
- a. wrong; untrue, lying; n. wrong; fraud; lie; -prvam, ad. falsely; -maya, a. false, lying; -vk, a. lying; m. liar; -vdin, a. id.: (di)-t, f. untruthfulness; -samhita, a. not keeping engagements; -‿abhi-samsana, n. false accusation.



अनृतिक [ an-riti-ka ]
- a. lying; m. liar; -ritin, a., m. id.; -ritu, m. wrong season; wrong time for sexual intercourse.


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अनेक [ an-eka ]
- a. more than one, various: pl. many, several; -tva, n. plurality; -dh, ad. into many parts; in many ways; -pa, m. elephant; -pitrika, m. pl. grandsons with different fathers; -buddhi, f. manifold conception (ph.); -yuddha-vigayin, a. victorious in many battles; -rpa, a. manifold, multi form; -vigayin, a. frequently victorious; -vidha, a. manifold: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -sas, ad. in large numbers; repeatedly; -sam-saya‿ukkhedin, a. dispelling many doubts; -samsthna, a. having various forms, variously disguised; -saṅkhya, a. very numerous.



अनेकान्त [ aneka‿anta ]
- m. no absolute case; i-ka, a. not to the point, irrelevant.



अनेकोपवास [ aneka‿upavasa ]
- m. much fasting.



अनेद्य [ -nedya ]
- a. blameless.



अनेनस् [ an-ens ]
- a. guiltless; faultless, sinless; -evam-vid, a. not having such knowledge; -ehs, a. unequalled; safe; m. time; -okaha, m. tree (not leaving home); -omkrita, pp. unaccompanied by om; -ogas, a. powerless, weak.

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अनोमिय anomiya
BHS: - n. of a river, n. of a place in Malla country, south of Kapilavastu -- FE-BHS037
Pal: {a.nau:ma} -- UHS-PMD0079
   UKT from UHS: f {a.nau:ma mric}- river



अनोरथ [ ano-ratha ]
- m. pl. carts and war chariots; -vhy, fp. to be conveyed in carts; n. cart-load: -m, ad. by the cart-load.


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अनौचित्य [ an-aukitya ]
- n. unusualness; -auddhatya, n. lack of arrogance; lowness of water; -aushadha, n. no remedy; a. incurable.


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UKT 150208, 150701: In Bur-Myan {n} अन् /ʌn/ , and, {n} अं are pronounced the same. However in Skt-Dev {n} sounds like {m} /ʌm/.

You'll note that {n} /ʌn/ ends with open-lips whereas {m} /ʌm/ ends with close-lips. We must note this is not always so: in  Irrawaddy-valley (Mandalay & Yangon) dialect, both sound the same - stopping with a glottal /ʔ/.  It is probably because of this the Skt-Myan word {On} ends with open-lips which is quite different from those who speak Pal-Lat (as in English).

Please note: my note on these sound changes are still tentative. They will likely change as my knowledge of Skt-Dev improves.



Note the absence of {ra.}. There is no rhotic sound. Keep a look out for repha which gives the rhotic sound.


अन्त [ nta ]
= अ न ् त {n~ta.} --> {n~ta.}
- m. (n.) border, edge, limit; proximity; end; death; final letter, last word (gr.); acme, height (of, g.); conclusion; solution; settlement; condition; interior; --, ending with: -m, ad. up to, into: lc. finally; near; in presence of; in (--); a. lovely.



अन्तःकरण [ antah-karana ]
- n. the internal organ (ph.); heart; -kopa, m. internal anger; -pura, n. (inner city), royal citadel; harem, women's apartments; sg. & pl. wives of a king: -kara, m. harem-attendant, -gana, m. women of the harem, -vriddh, f. old female attendant of the harem; -purik, f. woman of the harem; -prakriti, f. pl. constituent elements of the state except the prince.


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अन्तक [ anta-ka ]
= अ न ् त क
- a. ending, destroying; m. death; Yama; -pura, n. city of Yama.

UKT 160621: Yama as the King of Death, is a dva recognized by both Buddhists and Hindus. As such being a religious term, we should ignore it. Yama-pura should be given as "city of death".


अन्तकर [ anta-kara ]
- a. making an end, killing: -na, a. id.; n. destruction.



अन्तकाल [ anta-kla ]
- m. hour of death; -krit, a. making an end; m. death; Yama; -ga, a. going to the end of; thoroughly versed in (--); -gata, pp. ended; final; -gamana, n. coming to the end of (g.); -ts, ad. from the end; with the extremities; at the end of (g.); finally; -pla, m. boundary watchman.


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अन्तम [ nta-ma ]
- spv. next; intimate, very dear; last; m. neighbour.


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अन्तर्् [ antr ]
= अ न ् त र ् --> {n-tar}
- ad. within, inwards; prp. in, within (g., lc., --); between, among (ac., g., lc.); out of (ab., g.).


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अन्तर [ nta-ra ]
= अ न ् त र
- a. intimate; inner; other; n. interior; interval, distance; entrance; time, while; opportunity, weak point; difference, species, peculiarity; surety; --=other, different, special, peculiar: -m, ad. inwards, within; further; into the midst of (g., --); in. between, within, during, after (ac., --); with out, except; on account of, with regard to (ac., g.); ab. out of, after (--); lc. (also pl.) in, within; meanwhile, on the way; during, after (--); between, among (g., --); (e)tasmin- , (t)atra- , meanwhile.
Pal: {n~ta.ra.} - UHS PMD0081
  UKT from UHS: mfn. different, interim, interval. n. difference, special condition, permissiveness, termination, inner garment



अन्तरङ्ग [ antar-aṅga ]
- a. inner; intimate; akin; n. internal organ, heart.



अन्तरज्ञ [ antara-ga ]
- a. discriminating: -t, f. discrimination; -tara, cpv. very intimate with (g.); -ts, ad. within; prp. within (g.); from within (--); -patita, pp. vanished, =not coming into consideration; -prusha, m. soul; -prabhava, a. of intermediate origin, i.e. of mixed caste; -prepsu, des. a. wishing to obtain an opportunity; -stha, a. being within (g., --); inner; m. surety; witness; -sthita, pp. standing within (--).



अन्तरा [ antar&asharp; ]
- ad. amidst, between; therein; further; on the way; near; almost; in the interval; now and then; antar‿antar, now and then, here and there; repeated: one time another time; prp. between (ac., lc.); during without, except (ac.).



अन्तरागमन [ antar-gamana ]
- n. going through between.



अन्तरागार [ antar-gra ]
= अ न ् त र ा ग ा र
- n. interior of a house; -tman, m. soul, heart; self.

अन्तरात्मन् antarātman
Skt: -tman, m. soul, heart; self. - Mac017
Skt: अन्तरात्मन् antarātman - m. mind, inner self, inmost soul, internal feelings, heart or mind, inner feelings - SpkSkt



अन्तरान्वेषिन् [ antara‿anveshin ]
- a. seeking an opportunity.



अन्तराय [ antar-ya ]
- m. obstacle; interval.



अन्तराल [ antar-la ]
- n. interval: lc. on the way, meanwhile; intermediate caste; -bh, f. space between (g.).



अन्तरावेदि [ antar-vedi ]
- f. partition.



अन्तरिक्ष [ antr-iksha ]
- n. sky.



अन्तरिक्षग [ antariksha-ga ]
- a. moving in the air; m. bird.



अन्तरित [ antar-ita ]
- pp. (√i) retired; excluded, separated; intervening; distant; being in a state (--); hidden, by (in., -), obstructed by (--).



अन्तरिन्द्रिय [ antar-indriya ]
- n. internal organ.



- take between



अन्तरीक्ष [ antar-ksha ]
- n. sky; -ga, a. moving in the air; m. bird.



अन्तरीय [ antarya ]
- n. under-garment.



अन्तरुष्य [ antar-ushya ]
- m. station, resting-place.


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{n~tar} / {n-tar~} : repha

UKT 140720, 150208: Inclusion of the repha brings on a definite pronunciation change to {n-tar~}. Please note: my observations on these sound changes are still tentative. They will likely change as my knowledge of Skt-Dev improves.

The following non-rhotic to rhotic change is quite common when going from Pali to Sanskrit:

{n~ta.ra.} + viram --> {n~tar} / {n-tar~} (mostly shown as repha)

I believe this change is due to the inability of the new-comers who spoke Indo-European (IE) or Austro-Asiatic languages to recite the Vedic mantras which were formulated by the Rishis living along the foothills of Indian Himalayas extending and becoming Myanmar Himalayas in the east. The foothills (and some of them quite high) extended into Myanmarpr as the Western Yoma. From the fossil records of the Pondaung-Ponnya area it seem that a human race or races - probably Homo erectus - had originated in the area. As humans they must have spoken a language which then evolved into Tibeto-Burman languages. Please note that this is pure conjecture. But see: Fossils in Geography, Geology, Fossils
-- geo-indx.htm > fossil.htm (link chk 140720, 160621)


अन्तर्गत [ antar-gata ]
= अ न ् त र ् ग त --> {n~tar~ga.ta.} --> {n~tar ga.ta.}
- pp. gone within, entered; inward, inner; hidden, secret; vanished; contained in, being in (--); -gala-gata, pp. sticking in the throat.



अन्तर्जलचर [ antar-gala-kara ]
- a. living in the water; -nivsin, a. id.; -supta, pp. sleeping in the water; -‿ogha, m. internal mass of water.



अन्तर्जानु [ antar-gnu ]
- a. holding the hands between the knees; ad. between the knees; -gyotis, a. having its light turned inwards; n. internal light.

UKT: p017c3-b22 moved to next page.

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UKT notes

Blood sacrifice

UKT 150205:

Killing of a live animal including humans is described as a "blood sacrifice". It is strictly forbidden in Buddhism, but is widely practised in Axiomatic religions such as Hinduism and Islam. Read Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_sacrifice_in_Hinduism 150205.

In Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, the practice is known as {ba.li.} - n. gift , offering, oblation - MLC MED2006-312.
The word in Skt-Dev, is बलि bali - m. victim - SpkSkt

I have been wondering if the Bur-Myan word {ba.li} for Islamic mosque or masjid has been derived from the animal sacrifice at various Islamic places of worship in Buddhist dominated Myanmarpr - a major cause of communal strife.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadhimai_festival 160620

Gadhimai festival was a sacrificial ceremony that was held every 5 years at the Gadhimai Temple of Bariyarpur, in Bara District, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the capital Kathmandu in the southern Nepal, near the Indo-Nepal border, adjacent to Bihar. It was primarily celebrated by the Madheshi and Bihari people. The event involves the large scale sacrificial slaughter of animals including water buffaloes, pigs, goats, chickens, and pigeons with the goal of pleasing Gadhimai, the goddess of power. [1]

It is estimated that 500,000 animals were sacrificed during the Gadhimai festival of 2009. In 2015, Nepal's temple trust on announced to cancel all future animal sacrifice at the country's Gadhimai festival. [2] [3]

From Animal Sacrifice in Hinduism,
- http://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Animal%20sacrifice%20in%20Hinduism&item_type=topic

Practices of Hindu animal sacrifice are mostly associated with Shaktism, and in currents of folk Hinduism strongly rooted in local tribal traditions. Animal sacrifices were carried out in ancient times in India. Hindu scriptures such as the Gita,[1] [2] and some Puranas forbid animal sacrifice. [3] [4] [5] [6]

A Sanskrit term used for animal sacrifice is bali, in origin meaning "tribute, offering or oblation" generically ("vegetable oblations [... and] animal oblations,").[7] Bali among other things "refers to the blood of an animal" [7] and is sometimes known as Jhatka Bali [8] [9] among Hindus.

The Kalika Purana distinguishes bali (sacrifice), mahabali (great sacrifice), for the ritual killing of goats, elephant, respectively, though the reference to humans in Shakti theology is symbolic and done in effigy in modern times.[10] For instance, Sir John Woodroffe published a commentary on the Karpuradistotram, where he writes that the sacrificial animals listed in verse 19 are symbols for the six enemies, with "man" representing pride. [11]

Go back blood-sacrifice-note-b

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