Update: 2016-06-21 05:50 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p017.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

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{a.nu.sha.}: contd
  p017c1
{a.nu.Sa.} : Approximant-fricative hisser-sibilant
{a.nu.a.} : Approximant-fricative non-hissing thibilant in Pal-Myan

{a.nu-ka.} : Velar tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-sa.} : Palatal tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-a.} : Retroflex deep-h
{a.nu-ta.} : Dental tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-da.} : Dental voiced
{a.nu-na.} : Dental nasal
{a.nu-pa.} : Labial tenuis-voiceless
{a.nu-ra.} : Approximant rhotic semi-consonant
{a.nu-la.} : Approximant labial semi-consonant
{a.nu-Sa.} : Approximant fricative hisser

{a.nRi.}
  p017c2

{a.n}
{a.nau:}
{a.nau}

{n}
{n~ta.}
  p017c3
{n~ta.ra.}
{n~tar} / {n-tar~} : repha

 

UKT notes :
Blood sacrifice

 

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{a.nu.sha.}

 

p017c1

p017c1-b00

अनुशय [ anu-saya ]
- m. repentance; revocation (of a bargain): -vat, a. penitent; -‿kshepa, m. implication of remorse: a rhet. figure; -s&asharp;sana, n. instruction; precept, doctrine; order; -ssanya, fp. to be instructed; to be punished; -ssitri, m. guide, teacher; -ssin, a. chastising; -ssti, f. instruction; -sikshin, a. acquiring, practising; -sishta, pp. √ss; -susrsh, f. (des. n.) obedience; -sokana, n. lamentation; -sokin, a. lamenting for (--); -sobhin, a. splendid.

 

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{a.nu.Sa.}

p017c1-b01

अनुषङ्ग [ anu-shaṅga ]
- m. attachment to (lc.); longing; immediate consequence; -shaṅgin, a. attached; prevailing; necessarily following from (g.); -shaganya, fp. to be supplied from the context.

 

p017c1-b02

अनुष्टुति [ nu-shtuti ]
- f. praise.

 

p017c1-b03

अनुष्टुभ् [ anu-shtbh ]
- a. shouting after; f. song of praise; a metre (4 X 8 syllables).

 

p017c1-b04

अनुष्ठातव्य [ anu-shth-tavya ]
- fp. to be done, to be executed; -shthtri, m. performer; -shthna, n. practice, performance; -shthpana, n. causing to perform; -shthyin, a. practising, performing; -shthita, pp. done, performed; -shtheya, fp. to be accomplished.

 

p017c1-b05

अनुष्ठ्या [ anu-shthy&asharp; ]
- ad. immediately; at once.

 

p017c1-b06

अनुष्ण [ an-ushna ]
- a. not hot, cool, cold: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -sta, a. neither hot nor cold.

 

p017c1-b07

अनुष्वधम् [ anu-shvadhm ]
- ad. willingly.

 

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{a.nu.a.}

p017c1-b08

अनुसंतति [ anu-samtati ]
- ad. in uninterrupted succession; -samtna, m. offspring, son; -samdhtavya, fp. to be heeded, to be attended to; -samdhna, n. careful attention, application; scrutiny; -samdheya, fp. to be attended to.

 

p017c1-b09

अनुसर [ anu-sara ]
- a. () following; conforming to: -na, n. following, pursuing; -snu, ad. on the ridge of the hills; -sra, m. following, pursuing; conformity; (legal) precedent: -tas, in. according to (--); -srin, a. following, attendant on; seeking out; aiming at; conforming to; adhering to; -sev, f. service, attendance; -sevin, a. addicted to, practising (--).

 

p017c1-b10

अनुस्तरणी [ anu-stran ]
= अ न ु स ् त र ण ी
- f. cow killed at funeral sacrifices, with whose pieces the corpse is covered limb for limb; -smarana, n. recollection; -syta-tva, n. passing through (--) as a thread; -svra, m. nasal sound of a vowel (gr.).

See my note on Blood sacrifice

 

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{a.nu-ka.}

p017c1-b11

अनूक [ nka ]
- m. n. spine.

 

p017c1-b12

अनूकाश [ an-ks ]
- m. regard, reference.

 

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{a.nu-sa.}

p017c1-b13

अनूचान [ anu‿k-n ]
- pf. pt. . learned; modest; -mnin, a. proud of learning.

 

p017c1-b14

अनूची [ ank ]
- f. of anv-ak.

 

p017c1-b15

अनूचीन [ ank-n ]
- a. successive; proud of knowledge.

 

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{a.nu-a.}

p017c1-b16

अनूढा [ an-dh ]
- pp. f. unmarried.

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{a.nu-ta.}

p017c1-b17

अनूत्थित [ anu‿ut-thita ]
= अ न ू त ् थ ि त
- pp. √sth.

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{a.nu-da.}

p017c1-b18

अनूदक [ an-daka ]
- n. lack of water, drought.

 

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{a.nu-na.}

p017c1-b19

अनून [ n-na ]
- pp. complete, entire; not less than (ab.); --, ad. very, exceedingly; -vastuka, a. of complete content or essence.

 

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{a.nu-pa.}

p017c1-b20

अनूप [ anp [anu+ap-a] ]
- m. shore; moor land; reservoir; N. of a maritime country.

 

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{a.nu-ra.}

p017c1-b21

अनूरु [ an-ru ]
= अ न ू र ु
- m. (thighless), dawn (personified as the sun's charioteer or brother).

 

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{a.nu-la.}

p017c1-b22

अनूला  [ anlā ]
Skt: अनूला  [ anlā ] - f. N. of a river - Mac017c1
Skt: अनुला anulā - f. also of a queen of Ceylon - SpkSkt

 

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{a.nu-Sa.}

p017c1-b23

अनूषिवस् [ anu‿sh-i-vas ]
- pf. pf. of √vas.

 

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{a.nRi.}

p017c1-b24

अनृक्षर [ an-rikshar ]
= अ न ृ क ् ष र
- a. thornless; -rik, -rika, a. not versed in the Rig-veda; -rig, a. not straight; dishonest; -rin, a. unindebted: -t, f., -tva, n. -ness (to, g.); -rinat kritya, n. intention of paying one out; -rina‿akartos, g. inf. to free from debt; -rinin, a. free from debt.

 

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p017c2

p017c2-b01

अनृत [ n-rita ]
- a. wrong; untrue, lying; n. wrong; fraud; lie; -prvam, ad. falsely; -maya, a. false, lying; -vk, a. lying; m. liar; -vdin, a. id.: (di)-t, f. untruthfulness; -samhita, a. not keeping engagements; -‿abhi-samsana, n. false accusation.

 

p017c2-b02

अनृतिक [ an-riti-ka ]
- a. lying; m. liar; -ritin, a., m. id.; -ritu, m. wrong season; wrong time for sexual intercourse.

 

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{a.n}

p017c2-b03

अनेक [ an-eka ]
- a. more than one, various: pl. many, several; -tva, n. plurality; -dh, ad. into many parts; in many ways; -pa, m. elephant; -pitrika, m. pl. grandsons with different fathers; -buddhi, f. manifold conception (ph.); -yuddha-vigayin, a. victorious in many battles; -rpa, a. manifold, multi form; -vigayin, a. frequently victorious; -vidha, a. manifold: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -sas, ad. in large numbers; repeatedly; -sam-saya‿ukkhedin, a. dispelling many doubts; -samsthna, a. having various forms, variously disguised; -saṅkhya, a. very numerous.

 

p017c2-b04

अनेकान्त [ aneka‿anta ]
- m. no absolute case; i-ka, a. not to the point, irrelevant.

 

p017c2-b05

अनेकोपवास [ aneka‿upavasa ]
- m. much fasting.

 

p017c2-b06

अनेद्य [ -nedya ]
- a. blameless.

 

p017c2-b07

अनेनस् [ an-ens ]
- a. guiltless; faultless, sinless; -evam-vid, a. not having such knowledge; -ehs, a. unequalled; safe; m. time; -okaha, m. tree (not leaving home); -omkrita, pp. unaccompanied by om; -ogas, a. powerless, weak.

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{a.nau:}

अनोमिय anomiya
BHS: - n. of a river, n. of a place in Malla country, south of Kapilavastu -- FE-BHS037
Pal: {a.nau:ma} -- UHS-PMD0079
   UKT from UHS: f {a.nau:ma mric}- river

 

p017c2-b08

अनोरथ [ ano-ratha ]
- m. pl. carts and war chariots; -vhy, fp. to be conveyed in carts; n. cart-load: -m, ad. by the cart-load.

 

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{a.nau}

p017c2-b09

अनौचित्य [ an-aukitya ]
- n. unusualness; -auddhatya, n. lack of arrogance; lowness of water; -aushadha, n. no remedy; a. incurable.

 

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{n}

UKT 150208, 150701: In Bur-Myan {n} अन् /ʌn/ , and, {n} अं are pronounced the same. However in Skt-Dev {n} sounds like {m} /ʌm/.

You'll note that {n} /ʌn/ ends with open-lips whereas {m} /ʌm/ ends with close-lips. We must note this is not always so: in  Irrawaddy-valley (Mandalay & Yangon) dialect, both sound the same - stopping with a glottal /ʔ/.  It is probably because of this the Skt-Myan word {On} ends with open-lips which is quite different from those who speak Pal-Lat (as in English).

Please note: my note on these sound changes are still tentative. They will likely change as my knowledge of Skt-Dev improves.

 

{n~ta.}

Note the absence of {ra.}. There is no rhotic sound. Keep a look out for repha which gives the rhotic sound.

p017c2-b10

अन्त [ nta ]
= अ न ् त {n~ta.} --> {n~ta.}
- m. (n.) border, edge, limit; proximity; end; death; final letter, last word (gr.); acme, height (of, g.); conclusion; solution; settlement; condition; interior; --, ending with: -m, ad. up to, into: lc. finally; near; in presence of; in (--); a. lovely.

 

p017c2-b11

अन्तःकरण [ antah-karana ]
- n. the internal organ (ph.); heart; -kopa, m. internal anger; -pura, n. (inner city), royal citadel; harem, women's apartments; sg. & pl. wives of a king: -kara, m. harem-attendant, -gana, m. women of the harem, -vriddh, f. old female attendant of the harem; -purik, f. woman of the harem; -prakriti, f. pl. constituent elements of the state except the prince.

 

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p017c2-b12

अन्तक [ anta-ka ]
= अ न ् त क
- a. ending, destroying; m. death; Yama; -pura, n. city of Yama.

UKT 160621: Yama as the King of Death, is a dva recognized by both Buddhists and Hindus. As such being a religious term, we should ignore it. Yama-pura should be given as "city of death".

p017c2-b13

अन्तकर [ anta-kara ]
- a. making an end, killing: -na, a. id.; n. destruction.

 

p017c2-b14

अन्तकाल [ anta-kla ]
- m. hour of death; -krit, a. making an end; m. death; Yama; -ga, a. going to the end of; thoroughly versed in (--); -gata, pp. ended; final; -gamana, n. coming to the end of (g.); -ts, ad. from the end; with the extremities; at the end of (g.); finally; -pla, m. boundary watchman.

 

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p017c2-b15

अन्तम [ nta-ma ]
- spv. next; intimate, very dear; last; m. neighbour.

 

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p017c2-b16

अन्तर्् [ antr ]
= अ न ् त र ् --> {n-tar}
- ad. within, inwards; prp. in, within (g., lc., --); between, among (ac., g., lc.); out of (ab., g.).

 

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p017c3

{n~ta.ra.}

p017c3-b01

अन्तर [ nta-ra ]
= अ न ् त र
- a. intimate; inner; other; n. interior; interval, distance; entrance; time, while; opportunity, weak point; difference, species, peculiarity; surety; --=other, different, special, peculiar: -m, ad. inwards, within; further; into the midst of (g., --); in. between, within, during, after (ac., --); with out, except; on account of, with regard to (ac., g.); ab. out of, after (--); lc. (also pl.) in, within; meanwhile, on the way; during, after (--); between, among (g., --); (e)tasmin- , (t)atra- , meanwhile.
Pal: {n~ta.ra.} - UHS PMD0081
  UKT from UHS: mfn. different, interim, interval. n. difference, special condition, permissiveness, termination, inner garment

 

p017c3-b02

अन्तरङ्ग [ antar-aṅga ]
- a. inner; intimate; akin; n. internal organ, heart.

 

p017c3-b03

अन्तरज्ञ [ antara-ga ]
- a. discriminating: -t, f. discrimination; -tara, cpv. very intimate with (g.); -ts, ad. within; prp. within (g.); from within (--); -patita, pp. vanished, =not coming into consideration; -prusha, m. soul; -prabhava, a. of intermediate origin, i.e. of mixed caste; -prepsu, des. a. wishing to obtain an opportunity; -stha, a. being within (g., --); inner; m. surety; witness; -sthita, pp. standing within (--).

 

p017c3-b04

अन्तरा [ antar&asharp; ]
- ad. amidst, between; therein; further; on the way; near; almost; in the interval; now and then; antar‿antar, now and then, here and there; repeated: one time another time; prp. between (ac., lc.); during without, except (ac.).

 

p017c3-b05

अन्तरागमन [ antar-gamana ]
- n. going through between.

 

p017c3-b06

अन्तरागार [ antar-gra ]
= अ न ् त र ा ग ा र
- n. interior of a house; -tman, m. soul, heart; self.

अन्तरात्मन् antarātman
Skt: -tman, m. soul, heart; self. - Mac017
Skt: अन्तरात्मन् antarātman - m. mind, inner self, inmost soul, internal feelings, heart or mind, inner feelings - SpkSkt

 

p017c3-b07

अन्तरान्वेषिन् [ antara‿anveshin ]
- a. seeking an opportunity.

 

p017c3-b08

अन्तराय [ antar-ya ]
- m. obstacle; interval.

 

p017c3-b09

अन्तराल [ antar-la ]
- n. interval: lc. on the way, meanwhile; intermediate caste; -bh, f. space between (g.).

 

p017c3-b10

अन्तरावेदि [ antar-vedi ]
- f. partition.

 

p017c3-b11

अन्तरिक्ष [ antr-iksha ]
- n. sky.

 

p017c3-b12

अन्तरिक्षग [ antariksha-ga ]
- a. moving in the air; m. bird.

 

p017c3-b13

अन्तरित [ antar-ita ]
- pp. (√i) retired; excluded, separated; intervening; distant; being in a state (--); hidden, by (in., -), obstructed by (--).

 

p017c3-b14

अन्तरिन्द्रिय [ antar-indriya ]
- n. internal organ.

 

p017c3-b15

[antar-kri]
- take between

 

p017c3-b16

अन्तरीक्ष [ antar-ksha ]
- n. sky; -ga, a. moving in the air; m. bird.

 

p017c3-b17

अन्तरीय [ antarya ]
- n. under-garment.

 

p017c3-b18

अन्तरुष्य [ antar-ushya ]
- m. station, resting-place.

 

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{n~tar} / {n-tar~} : repha

UKT 140720, 150208: Inclusion of the repha brings on a definite pronunciation change to {n-tar~}. Please note: my observations on these sound changes are still tentative. They will likely change as my knowledge of Skt-Dev improves.

The following non-rhotic to rhotic change is quite common when going from Pali to Sanskrit:

{n~ta.ra.} + viram --> {n~tar} / {n-tar~} (mostly shown as repha)

I believe this change is due to the inability of the new-comers who spoke Indo-European (IE) or Austro-Asiatic languages to recite the Vedic mantras which were formulated by the Rishis living along the foothills of Indian Himalayas extending and becoming Myanmar Himalayas in the east. The foothills (and some of them quite high) extended into Myanmarpr as the Western Yoma. From the fossil records of the Pondaung-Ponnya area it seem that a human race or races - probably Homo erectus - had originated in the area. As humans they must have spoken a language which then evolved into Tibeto-Burman languages. Please note that this is pure conjecture. But see: Fossils in Geography, Geology, Fossils
-- geo-indx.htm > fossil.htm (link chk 140720, 160621)

p017c3-b19

अन्तर्गत [ antar-gata ]
= अ न ् त र ् ग त --> {n~tar~ga.ta.} --> {n~tar ga.ta.}
- pp. gone within, entered; inward, inner; hidden, secret; vanished; contained in, being in (--); -gala-gata, pp. sticking in the throat.

 

p017c3-b20

अन्तर्जलचर [ antar-gala-kara ]
- a. living in the water; -nivsin, a. id.; -supta, pp. sleeping in the water; -‿ogha, m. internal mass of water.

 

p017c3-b21

अन्तर्जानु [ antar-gnu ]
- a. holding the hands between the knees; ad. between the knees; -gyotis, a. having its light turned inwards; n. internal light.

UKT: p017c3-b22 moved to next page.

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UKT notes

Blood sacrifice

UKT 150205:

Killing of a live animal including humans is described as a "blood sacrifice". It is strictly forbidden in Buddhism, but is widely practised in Axiomatic religions such as Hinduism and Islam. Read Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_sacrifice_in_Hinduism 150205.

In Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, the practice is known as {ba.li.} - n. gift , offering, oblation - MLC MED2006-312.
The word in Skt-Dev, is बलि bali - m. victim - SpkSkt

I have been wondering if the Bur-Myan word {ba.li} for Islamic mosque or masjid has been derived from the animal sacrifice at various Islamic places of worship in Buddhist dominated Myanmarpr - a major cause of communal strife.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadhimai_festival 160620

Gadhimai festival was a sacrificial ceremony that was held every 5 years at the Gadhimai Temple of Bariyarpur, in Bara District, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the capital Kathmandu in the southern Nepal, near the Indo-Nepal border, adjacent to Bihar. It was primarily celebrated by the Madheshi and Bihari people. The event involves the large scale sacrificial slaughter of animals including water buffaloes, pigs, goats, chickens, and pigeons with the goal of pleasing Gadhimai, the goddess of power. [1]

It is estimated that 500,000 animals were sacrificed during the Gadhimai festival of 2009. In 2015, Nepal's temple trust on announced to cancel all future animal sacrifice at the country's Gadhimai festival. [2] [3]

From Animal Sacrifice in Hinduism,
- http://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Animal%20sacrifice%20in%20Hinduism&item_type=topic

Practices of Hindu animal sacrifice are mostly associated with Shaktism, and in currents of folk Hinduism strongly rooted in local tribal traditions. Animal sacrifices were carried out in ancient times in India. Hindu scriptures such as the Gita,[1] [2] and some Puranas forbid animal sacrifice. [3] [4] [5] [6]

A Sanskrit term used for animal sacrifice is bali, in origin meaning "tribute, offering or oblation" generically ("vegetable oblations [... and] animal oblations,").[7] Bali among other things "refers to the blood of an animal" [7] and is sometimes known as Jhatka Bali [8] [9] among Hindus.

The Kalika Purana distinguishes bali (sacrifice), mahabali (great sacrifice), for the ritual killing of goats, elephant, respectively, though the reference to humans in Shakti theology is symbolic and done in effigy in modern times.[10] For instance, Sir John Woodroffe published a commentary on the Karpuradistotram, where he writes that the sacrificial animals listed in verse 19 are symbols for the six enemies, with "man" representing pride. [11]

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