Update: 2016-10-31 06:32 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.Da:.}/ {a.Da.} : borrowings from Mon-Myan and Tamil
  p009c3-b33 cont.

{a.Di.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha






{a.DRi.} : highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel



UKT notes :
Human sacrifice in Bible : Bur: {yiz}
  अधियज्ञ adhiyaja --> {a.Di.yiz~a.}
  Notice how the conjunct {z~a.} is formed.
Pronunciation and meaning {a.Di.} vs. {a.Dau:}
Soma {au:ma.} - god or health drink
Theory of Grapheme shapes based on articulation of r2c4 akshara cell.

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{a.Da:.}/ {a.Da.} : borrowings from Mon-Myan and Tamil

UKT 150126: The notation is a borrowing from Mon-Myan method of denoting a very short vowel of 1/2 eye-blink. Romabama "3-dot" visarga is borrowed from Tamil script ஃ (U+0B83). Romabama recognizes the following allophones with varying vowel-lengths in eye-blinks:

{a:.} (1/2 blk);  {a.} (1 blk);  {a} (2 blk);  {a:} (2 blk with emphasis)

Eng-Lat speakers can differentiate only short vowel with 1 eye-blink, and long vowel with 2 eye-blinks.
Mon-Myan {a:.} (1/2 blk) is the same as Bur-Myan {aa.}.



अधस्् [ adhs ]
- ad. below, on the ground; downwards, to hell; adho&zip;dhah, lower and lower; adhah kri, put below, surpass; -pat, sink down; prp. with ac. under (motion); with ab., g., or --, below.

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अधस्तल [ adhas-tala ]
= अ ध स ् त ल
- n. surface --, space below (--).



अधस्तात्् [ adhs-tt ]
- ad. below; on the ground; downwards; from below; submissively; previously; prp. with ab., g., & --, under.



अधःस्थ [ adhah-stha ]
- a. lying below.


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अधारणक [ a-dhrana-ka ]
- a. intolerable.



अधारावर्ष [ a-dhr-varsha ]
- ad. without a shower of rain (--).



अधार्मिक [ a-dhrmika ]
- a. unjust, unrighteous, vicious.



अधार्य [ a-dhrya ]
- fp. not to be borne; not to be restrained; impossible to undergo.


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UKT 150127: {a.Di.} अधि is a prefix, and may not be separated into {a.} & {Di.}. In this sense, it is unlike {a.di.} in words like {a.di.ti.}, where {a.} stands for the opposite of something: {a} & {di.} may be separated. In {a.Di.}, {a.} in not stressed and is pronounced as a schwa, whereas in {a.di.}, {a} is stressed. Try pronouncing {a.Di.} and {a.di.} to see the difference.
See my note on Pronunciation and Meaning .


अधि  [ dhi ]  {a.Di.}
Skt: अधि  [dhi] - ad. above, upwards; highly; within; besides; prp. with ac. over, upon; up to; w. in. across; w. ab. above; down from, from, out of;   w. lc. above (of rank or number); under (the rule of); upon, in, on; with respect to; --, upwards of --. -- Mac010c1
Pal: {a.Di.}
- - UHS-PMD0044
  UKT from UHS: prefix on terms as going over, upwards, over lordship, governance, etc.


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अधिक  [ adhi-ka ] --> {a.Di.ka.}
- a. excessive; superfluous; surpassing; chief, highest; having an excess, and more; exceeded by, plus (--); predominant; superior in (in., --); stronger, greater; higher, more than (in., ab., g., --): ;-& -m, ad. excessively, very much; more than (ab.); -krodha, a. excessively angry; -guna, a. of pre-eminent virtue: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -tara, a. much greater; superior: -m, ad. more; -t, f., -tva, n. superiority.

अधिक  adhi-ka
= अ ध ि क  -->  {a.Di.ka.}
Skt: अधिक  [adhi-ka] - a. excessive; superfluous; surpassing; chief, highest; having an excess, and more; exceeded by, plus (--); predominant; superior in (in., --); stronger, greater; higher, more than (in., ab., g., --): -- Mac010c1
Pal: {a.Di.ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0044
  UKT from UHS: mfn. surpassing, superfluous, more meritorious, overflowing, exceeding



अधिकंधरम्् [ adhi-kamdharam ]
- ad. up to the neck.



अधिकरण [ adhi-karana ]
- n. substratum; substance, matter; subject, department; section, paragraph; law-court; that in which anything happens; sphere of the locative (gr.); -mandapa, n. law-court; -lekhaka, m. lawyer's clerk.



अधिकरूपवत्् [ adhika-rpa-vat ]
- a. surpassingly beautiful.



अधिकर्णम्् [ adhi-karnam ]
- ad. on the ear.



अधिकवयस्् [ adhika-vayas ]
- a. of advanced age.



अधिकष्ट [ adhi-kashta ]
- n. great misery.



अधिकाङ्ग [ adhika‿aṅga ]
- a. () having a superfluous limb; -‿dhi, a. full of cares; -‿adhi ka, a. continually increasing.



अधिकार [ adhi-kra ]
- m. superintendence, administration, control, authority; office, post, dignity; sovereignty; eligibility; claim to (lc.); striving, endeavour for (lc.); chapter (on, --); heading rule to be supplied with following rules till a new section (gr.); -purusha, m. official; -vat, m. id.; -stha, a. official, in office; -‿dhya, a. invested with authority.



  अधिकारिता [ adhikri-t ]
- f., -tva, n. authority.



अधिकारिन्् [ adhikrin ]
- m. superintendent, controller (of, --); official; qualified person.



अधिकृत [ adhi-krita ]
- pp. set over; m. overseer, administrator, head (of, lc. or --); -kritya, gd. regarding, about (ac.).



अधिकेतनम्् [ adhi-ketanam ]
- ad. on the banner.



अधिकोक्ति [ adhika‿ukti ]
- f. superfluous talk.


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{a.Di.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha


अधिक्षेप [ adhi-kshepa ]
- m. aspersion, derision.

aspersion n. . a. An unfavorable or damaging remark; slander: Don't cast aspersions on my honesty. b. The act of defaming or slandering. . A sprinkling, especially with holy water. -- AHTD


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अधिगन्तव्य [ adhi-gantavya ]
- fp. to be procured; penetrable; to be studied; -gantri, m. finder.



अधिगम [adhi-gama]
- m., न -na, n. accession to attainment; gain, profit; ascertainment, knowledge; study

अधिगम [adhi-gama]
Skt: अधिगम [adhi-gama] - m., ... - Mac010c1
Pal: {a.Di.ga.ma.} - UHS-PMD0045

  UKT from UHS: m. gain, knowing, attain Jnana-knowledge,

UKT150701: From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 150630
" Jnana , Skt: ज्ञान jāna,
Pal-Lat: āṇa --> Bur-Myan: {aaN} - MLC MED2006-155,
Bur-Myan: {Zaan} - MLC MED2006-155;
often pronounced: [ɡjaːn]) a term for "knowledge" in Indian religions and Hindu and Buddhist philosophy.

The idea of jnana centers on a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced. It is knowledge inseparable from the total experience of reality, especially a total or divine reality (Brahma). [1]

The root jā- is cognate to English <know>, as well as to the Greek γνώ- (as in γνῶσις gnosis). Its antonym is ajāna "ignorance". "


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अधिगम्य adhi-gamya
- fp. attainable, accessible, knowable, comprehensible; to be studied.



अधिगुण [ adhi-guna ]
- a. of superior qualities.



- m. protector


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अधिजनन [ adhi-ganana ]
- n. birth.



अधिजानु [ adhi-gnu ]
- ad. upon the knee.



अधिज्य [ dhi-gya ]
= (अ ध ि) (ज ् य) --> {a.Di.z~ya.}
- a. having the bowstring on, strung: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -krmuka, a. whose bow is strung; -dhanvan, a. id.

UKT 160601: The second part of {a.Di.z~ya.}, reminds me of the Mon-Myan {Za.}. If we were to substitute aks-to-aks into Skt-Dev, we get: ज ् य  = ज्य .

However, noting that instead of {ya.} य, if we were to use Nya'gyi (which was mistaken for Nya'l) the neighbour of {ya.} य, we get: ज ् ञ = ज्ञ 'Pseudo Za'.

Because hanging Nya'gyi is permitted in Mon-Myan, we can have: {z~a.} --> {z~a.}
which on further rendering in Skt-Dev is: ज ् ञ = ज्ञ 'Pseudo Za'.

This makes me conclude that Mon-Myan is related to Skt-Dev. Unfortunately, I know next to nothing of Mon-Myan, which in many ways seems to be related to Skt-Dev


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अधितल्पम्् [ adhi-talpam ]
- ad. upon the towers.



अधित्यका [ adhi-tya-k ]
- f. table-land.


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अधिदीधिति [ adhi-ddhiti ]
- a. brightly illumined.



अधिदेव [ adhi-deva ]
- m. supreme god: -t, f. id.; tutelary deity.



- n. , -ta , n. id.


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अधिनागम्् [ adhi-ngam ]
- ad. upon the elephants; upon the serpents Naga.

UKT 30302, 150127: Macdonell's translation of "serpents" is misleading. The correct word is Naga  {na.ga:}, which is almost the same as "humans" -- devout followers of the Buddha. The word "serpent" is the same as "snake" -- an animal (which knows only how to eat, to sleep, and to mate).

Naga {na.ga:}, on the other hand is not an animal, because it can discern what is Hindu-religionist Dharma {Dar~ma.}, and the Buddha's Dhamma {Dm~ma.} & what is not. Naga can give protection to humans, including the Buddha himself. So the translation should be: "ad. upon the protector".



अधिनिशम्् [ adhi-nisam ]
- ad. at night.


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[adhi-pa] , -pati, -pấ ,
- m. ruler, lord



अधिपुरुष [ adhi-p&ubrevcirc;rusha ]
- m. supreme spirit.



अधिपौरुष [ adhi-paurusha ]
- n. height of manliness.


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- m. tormentor



अधिबुभूषु [ adhi-bubh-shu ]
- des. a. wishing to get the upper hand.


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अधिभू [ adhi-bh ]
- m. ruler, sovereign.



अधिभूत [ adhi-bhta ]
- n. sphere or object of an agent.


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अधिमन्थन [ adhi-mnthana ]
- a. suitable for friction [for making fire]; n. the hard piece of tinder-wood.



अधिमात्र [ adhi-mtra ]
- a. excessive: -tva, n. -ness.


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अधियज्ञ [ adhi-yaga ]
= (अ ध ि) ((य ज ्) (ञ))  --> {a.Di.yiz~a.}
Skt: अधियज्ञ [adhi-yaja] - m. highest sacrifice; a. referring to sacrifices. -- Mac010c2
Skt: अधियज्ञ adhiyaja -- adj. relating to a sacrifice. m. influence or agency affecting a sacrifice -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ya.za.na.}
-  - UHS-PMD0791
Bur: {yiz} - sacrificial offerings - MED2010-386

See my notes on human sacrifice in the Bible
and Theory of Grapheme shapes


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अधिरजनि [ adhi-ragani ]
- ad. in the night.



अधिरथ [ dhi-ratha ]
- a. standing on a car; m. chariot-fighter, charioteer.



[adhi-rg ]
- m. paramount ruler, emperor; -rg , m. id.; -t , f. supreme rule over (g.); -rgya , n. supreme rule



अधिरुक्ममन्दिरगवाक्षम्् [ adhi-rukma-mandira-gavksham ]
- ad. at the window of the golden palace.



अधिरुह्् [ adhi-ruh ]
- a. mounting, riding on (--).



अधिरोढव्य [ adhi-rodhavya ]
- fp. n. one must ascend.



अधिरोपण [ adhi-ropana ]
- n. lifting upon (--).



अधिरोह [ adhi-roha ]
- a. riding on (ac.): -na, n. ascending to (lc. or --).



अधिरोहिन्् [ adhi-rohin ]
- a. ascending, leading up to (--).


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अधिलङ्कम्् [ adhi-laṅkam ]
- ad. over Laṅk.



अधिलवङ्गम्् [ adhi-lavaṅgam ]
- ad. on the cloves.



अधिलोक [ adhi-loka ]
- m. highest world.


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[adhi-vaktr ]
- m. advocate, protector



अधिवक्षस्् [ adhi-vakshas ]
- ad. on the breast.



अधिवपन [ adhi-vapana ]
- n. strewing upon.



अधिवर्चस्् [ adhi-varkas ]
- n. privy.



अधिवर्जन [ adhi-vargana ]
- n. moving to the fire.


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अधिवसति [ adhi-vasati ]
- f. dwelling.



अधिवाक [ adhi-vk ]
- m. advocacy, protection.



अधिवाद [ adhi-vda ]
- m. insult, abuse.



अधिवास [ 1. adhi-vsa ]
- m. inhabitant; neighbour; dwelling, abode.



अधिवास [ 2. adhi-vsa ]
- m. perfume; -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -na, n. perfuming; consecration.



अधिविज्ञान [ adhi-vigna ]
- n. highest knowledge.



अधिविन्न [ adhi-vinna ]
- pp. of √2. vid.



अधिविवाहम्् [ adhi-vivham ]
- ad. regarding the wedding.



अधिवीर [ adhi-vra ]
- m. great hero among (--).



अधिवेत्तव्या [ adhi-vettavy ]
- f. fp. (√2. vid) to be superseded by another wife; -vedy, f. id.



अधिवेलम्् [ adhi-velam ]
- ad. on the sea-shore.



अधिवेश्म [ adhi-vesma ]
- ad. in the house.


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अधिश्री [ adhi-sr ]
= अ ध ि श ् र ी
- a. extremely prosperous.



अधिश्रोत्रम्् [ adhi-srotram ]
= अ ध ि श ् र ो त ् र म ्
- ad. over the ears.


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अधिषवण [ adhi-shvana ]
- a. suitable for pressing; n. Soma-press.

UKT 130914: What is Soma सोम  soma - a deva-god, or an intoxicant? Or even the Moon?.
See my note on Soma



[adhi-shth-tr ]
- m., -tr , f. superintendent



अधिष्ठान [ adhi-shth&asharp;na ]
- n. stand-point, place, seat, abode, residence; sovereignty, power.



अधिष्ठित [ adhi-shthita ]
- pp. stood on; presided over; supervised, governed; established; occupied, inspired: -vat, act. pt. sat on, mounted.


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अधिसेनापति [ adhi-senpati ]
- m. commander-in-chief.


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अधिहस्ति [ adhi-hasti ]
- ad. on an elephant.


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- = adhi+√ (gr.)



अधीकार [ adh-kra ]
- m. administration (of, lc.); capacity, ability.



अधीत [ adhi‿ita ]
- pp. studied; read; instructed.



अधीति [ dhi‿iti ]
- f. study.



अधीतिन्् [ adhtin ]
- a. well-read in (lc.); studying the scriptures.



अधीन [ adhi‿na ]
= अ ध ी न --> {a.Di-na.}
Skt: अधीन [adhi‿na] - a. lying on; subject to, dependent on (--); -tva, n. dependence. -- Mac010c3
Skt: अधीन adhīna - adj. subordinate, dependent on, docile, subservient to, subject to, etc. -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.Di-na.}
- - UHS-PMD0048
  UKT from UHS: mfn. related to, dependent on



अधीर [ a-dhra ]
- a. unsteadfast; inconstant, pusillanimous; -t, f. pusillanimity.



अधीरम्् [ a-dhram ]
- ad. anxiously.



अधीराक्ष [ adhra‿aksha ]
- a. lively-eyed.



अधीवास [ adh-vs ]
- m. cloak, mantle.



अधीश [ adhi‿sa ]
- m. chief, lord; -t, f. sovereignty.



[adhi‿sitri ]
- m. sovereign


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अधुना [ adhun&asharp; ]
Skt: अधुना [adhun] - ad. now. -- Mac010c3
Skt: अधुना adhunā indecl. at present, now, at this time -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.Du.na}
- - UHS-PMD0048
  UKT from UHS: at present-time, this time


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{a.DRi.} : highly rhotic Skt vowel


अधृति [ -dhriti ]
- f. unsteadiness, caprice; faintheartedness.



अधृष्ट [ -dhrishta ]
- pp. insuperable; modest, shy.



अधृष्य [ a-dhrishya ]
- fp. unapproachable.


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अधेनु [ a-dhenu ]
- f. cow giving no milk; a. barren.

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अधैर्य [ a-dhairya ]
- n. instability; pusillanimity.


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अधोऽंशुक [ adho&zip;msuka ]
- n. under-garment.



अधोऽक्ष [ adhoxksh ]
- a. being below, i.e. not reaching up to, the axle.



अधोऽक्षज [ adhoxksha-ga ]
- a. born under an axle; m. N. of Vishnu.

UKT 160603: Macdonell was referring to Krishna who was an incarnation of Vishnu. 
   From: http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/editorials/sandarbhas/tattva/sandarbhas30.htm 160603
The term adhokshaja in Bhagavatam verse 1.7.6 also means Sri Krishna. Etymologically it means one who is beyond sense perception, but it is also a name of Lord Krishna given to Him after His pastime of killing the demoness Putana. The Harivamsha Purana (V.P. 101. 30-32) confirms this:
  "When baby Krishna was sleeping in a cradle under the axle of a cart, the demoness Putana, who could assume the form of a bird, came to kill Him. She gave her poisoned breasts to baby Krishna, but Krishna killed her. The residents of Vraja saw Putana, who was terrible looking, gigantic, and powerful, lying dead in the forest, but Lord Krishna was safe and the people called Him Adhokshaja, "one who has taken another birth under the axle of a cart."
  The verses describing Veda Vyasa's trance (SB. 1.7.4-7) give the quintessence of the Srimad Bhagavatam. The major points of Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy are expressed here in brief; therefore Srila Jiva Goswami gives more analysis of these verses in the next section.


UKT: p010c3-41 moved to p011.


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UKT notes

Human sacrifice in Bible

-- UKT 120929, 130303, 160601

I remember reading a novel by the English author Dennis Wheatley (1897 1977) on human sacrifice of the Mayans in Central America. It seems human sacrifice, sometimes voluntarily by the victim, has been in various cultures of the world.

I can no longer remember the book by Dennis Wheatley in which he recounts the Viking - Eric the Red - being reborn visiting central America. Just as he was about to get into trouble he "remembered" his past and started communicating to the Mayans in the ancient language. In the story he tells about the Chacmool - the reclining god of the Mayans on which the human sacrifice - the still beating heart extraction - was done

Extract from Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_sacrifice_in_Maya_culture 160602

"During the Postclassic period (c. 9001524) the most common form of human sacrifice was heart extraction, influenced by the method used by the Aztecs in the Valley of Mexico; [1] this usually took place in the courtyard of a temple, or upon the summit of the pyramid-temple. [6] The sacrifice was stripped and painted blue, which was the colour representing sacrifice, and was made to wear a peaked headdress. Four blue-painted attendants representing the four Chaacs of the cardinal directions stretched the sacrifice out over a convex stone that pushed the victim's chest upwards; [7] An official referred to as a nacom in Landa's Relacin de las cosas de Yucatn used a sacrificial knife made from flint to cut into the ribs just below the victim's left breast and pull out the still-beating heart.[8] The nacom then passed the heart to the officiating priest, or chilan, who smeared blood upon the image of the temple's deity. Depending upon the exact ritual, sometimes the four Chaacs would throw the corpse down the pyramid steps to the courtyard below where it would be skinned by assistant priests, except for the hands and feet. The chilan would then remove his ritual attire and dress himself in the skin of the sacrificial victim before performing a ritual dance that symbolised the rebirth of life. If it was a notably courageous warrior who had been sacrificed then the corpse would be cut into portions, and parts would be eaten by attending warriors and other bystanders. The hands and feet were given to the chilan who, if they had belonged to a war captive, wore the bones as a trophy. [6] Archaeological investigations indicate that heart sacrifice was practised as early as the Classic period. [9] "

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_sacrifice 120929


References in the Bible point to an awareness of human sacrifice in the history of ancient near-eastern practice. During a battle with the Israelites the king of Moab gives his firstborn son and heir as a whole burnt offering (olah, as used of the Temple sacrifice) (2 Kings 3:27). [19]

In Genesis 22 as well as the Qur'an, there is a story about Abraham's binding of Isaac, although in the Qur'an the name of the son is not mentioned and assumed to be Ismail. In the Bible's version of the story, God  tests Abraham by asking him to present his son, [UKT ]

UKT 130303, 160602: After getting involved in languages, I am quite particular on the usage of words such as "ask",  "tell", "listen" and "hear", which involves sounds waves -- the propagation in a "mouth", and reception in an "ear". Did the entity "God" use sound waves to carry the info to the recipient's ears. Did the "recipient" dream during sleep that he "heard", or did the message just evolved in his mind - by a process which I, as an ignorant human, cannot comprehend?

To avoid confusion in translation to Bur-Myan, I translate the Christian God, Islamic Allah, Jewish YHVH, and the like as {hpn-hsing:hying} and not as {Bu.ra:}.

In Bur-Myan {Bu.ra:} is generally used for Gautama Buddha, who was born a human being. He had human parents. By various practices he acquired the Supreme Knowledge, or the status of Buddha. At his death Gautama Buddha was cremated, and his body was burnt to ashes and only a few pieces of bones remained.

In Hindu-religions - there are more than one - the word "god", is technically a Dva {d-wa.} (male: the female is Dvi {d-wi}) , and by capitalizing the word to "God", we generally mean a Mahadeva {ma.ha-d-wa} in which case the word comes to have the same meaning as the Creator in Hinduism.

In Burmese Theravada tradition, the "King of Gods" is Sakka {i.kra:}. He rules only the lower {ta-wa-tin-a}-dvas, and not the higher dvas, including the {maar} aka {maan~nt} who resides in the highest of dva-worlds. The Maar {maan~nt} is more powerful than Sakka {i.kra:}. He resides in the highest Dva-worlds. He is not to be equated to the Christian Devil who resides in Hell and is pure Evil. The reason why Maar {maan~nt} opposes the Buddha is because, Maar is happy with the present state of Birth-and-Rebirths, whereas Buddha is all for escape from the cycle of Births-and-Rebirths. Maar {maan~nt} is not Evil like the Christian Devil

The {maar}-deva is not the equivalent of the Christian Devil even though he opposes the Buddha on doctrinal grounds of Atta-Anutta duality.

We must realize that in the Hindu tradition, the world of gods is what we see when we look above our heads -- the sky or empty Space where luminaries stay put (fixed stars) or travel in known paths (planets), or unknown and sudden short paths (shooting stars).

The Hindu "King of the Gods" is Indra. He is not the same as the Buddhist Sakka {i.kra:} in disposition -- a point noted by R. C. Childers in his Pali dictionary, 1872 (?), but missed in the later PTS dictionary.

"Śakra (शक्र) or Sakka ( {ak~ka.}) is the ruler of the Trāyastriṃśa Heaven ( {ta-wa-tin-a}) according to Buddhist cosmology. His full title is:

Sanskrit: Śakro devānām indraḥ   -- शक्रो देवानं इन्द्रः
Pāli: Sakko devānaṃ indo  -- "Śakra, lord of the devas". [1]

In Buddhist texts, Śakra is the proper name and not an epithet of this deity; conversely, Indra in Sanskrit and Inda in Pali are sometimes used as an epithet for Śakra as "lord". "
-- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Aakra_Buddhism 120930

Isaac, as a sacrifice on Mount Moriah. No reason is given within the text. Abraham agrees to this command without arguing. The story ends with an angel stopping Abraham at the last minute and making Isaac's sacrifice unnecessary by providing a ram, caught in some nearby bushes, to be sacrificed instead. Many Bible scholars have suggested this story's origin was a remembrance of an era when human sacrifice was abolished in favour of animal sacrifice. [20] [21]

Another instance of human sacrifice mentioned in the Bible is the sacrifice of Jephthah's daughter in Judges 11. Jephthah vows to sacrifice to God whatsoever comes to greet him at the door when he returns home if he is victorious. The vow is stated in Judges 11:31 as "Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering." When he returns from battle, his virgin daughter runs out to greet him. According to the commentators of the rabbinic Jewish tradition, Jepthah's daughter was not sacrificed, but was forbidden to marry and remained a spinster her entire life, fulfilling the vow that she would be devoted to the Lord. [22]

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Pronunciation and Meaning {a.Di.} vs. {a.Dau:}

UKT: 110810, 130303

I am curious about the pronunciation and the meaning of the two prefixes {a.Di.} and {a.Dau:}. You'll notice that the vowel in the second syllable, {Di.} & {Dau:}, in each word occupies the extremes of the vowel quadrilateral.

The vowel in {Di.} is the closest front vowel /i/ and that in {Dau:} is the open-est back vowel /ɑ/. Looking at the words involving these shows that these prefixes gives meanings exactly the opposite of each other. Because of this fact, I cannot transcribe {a.Dau:} with /o/ or /ɔ/ but only with /ɑ/.

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Soma सोम  soma : A deva-god or the health drink ?

UKT 110726, 121001, 130302, 130915:

Avesta - the Persian scriptural text in cuniform script was the counter part of Indian Veda. Soma is also mentioned in it. And, so Avesta should be looked into to solve the question. See a complete corpus of Old Persian texts with English translations. http://www.avesta.org/op/op.htm 130915

Is Soma a dva-god?

If we are to judge the importance of Vedic dva-gods (not necessarily the same as Hindu dva-gods of later periods), by the number of hymns dedicated to them, the god Soma comes in third after Indra (289 hymns), and, Agni (218 hymns). Soma scored 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala), whilst the fourth Vishvadevas scored 70, and the fifth Asvins 56. (Info from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 121001).

Indra (not personal name: refers to kingship. See Childers, reprint 2007, p159) is the king and therefore there's no wonder that he should be the first. Agni is the messenger between the king and his subjects lesser gods and men. Vishvadevas means representative of all gods, whilst the Asvins are the health providers. So who is Soma? I do not believe that he or she is just a drink (an intoxicating one to put everyone to sleep) but something else. Is it "prosperity and knowledge" through peaceful means, and not spoils of battles and raids when in fact there are bound to be deaths and injuries on both sides of a raid or war?
See my note on  - the health drink below.

Is it an intoxicant ?

-- UKT

The word "soma" { au:ma.} from which the Bur-Myan word {-r} 'intoxicating drink' (MED2010-500) is derived is of interest to Burmese Theravada Buddhists. From which plant is the juice obtained? The fresh juice is not intoxicating but invigorating because of the fermentable sugars present. Can it be taken by the monks? Of course the juice, given time, would ferment as the sugars are slowly turned to alcohol and more yeast (source of vitamins). At this stage the drink taken in small quantities would be beneficial to health. Can it still be taken by monks without infringing the Viniya rules?

The word 'press' suggests fruits such as grapes (not indigenous to Myanmarpr). In Myanmarpr, the juice used for fermentation is from the fronds of the toddy palms, {htn:} (MED2010-203) (mainly). The juice can also be obtained from {p}  (MED2010-259) (in northern country) and {Da.ni.} (MED2010-216) in southern). The word 'press' would not apply here.

Note: The English word <toddy> can be applied to all the three botanical species in referring to the juice.

When the fermented juice is distilled, only the alcohol(s) is in the distillate. Drinking the distillate brings on mostly intoxication, drinking which would be infringing the Viniya rules. Of course, the distillate goes by another name {a.rak} (MED2010-588) which is related to {-rak}. It seems that the combined word {-r -rak} ought to be taken apart to take the intoxicating part out!

Or it is the Moon?

Pal: {au:ma.}
- - UHS-PMD1073
  UKT from UHS: m. Moon, Moon-deva

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Theory of Grapheme shapes

UKT: 130303, 160603

There seems to be a relation between grapheme-shapes and phoneme-pronunciation. The following are my observations -- not based on the idea of somebody else. Looking at the Bur-Myan akshara matrix closely, I have observed following:

1. The graphemes are all based on perfectly rounded circles, either singly or joined as a horizontal double.

2. Observation on bilabials and dentals:
    bilabials: r5c1 {pa.}, r5c2 {hpa.}, and, dentals: r4c1 {ta.}, r4c2 {hta.}

The members of each pair is pronounced so closely that non-natives speakers think they are allophones, the first without aspiration, and the second aspirated. This is not so to a native Burmese-speaker.

3. r5c3 {ba.} is pronounced similar to {pa.} & {hpa.} -- all these are based on single circles.

4. r4c1 {ta.} & r4c2 {hta.} are pronounced closely. They are based on double-circles. However, r4c3 {da.}, is quite different, and it is written based on a single circle.

Only today, I have come across: http://www.lacus.org/volumes/27/404_lockwood_d.pdf   130303

I am forming a theory that the akshara forms reflect how the speakers of various linguistic groups, on hearing a particular phoneme or syllable,  try to simulate it. Within a linguistic group, the teacher and student might be able to replicate the sound perfectly.

However, when they belong to groups of differing ethnicity and culture, the human-recording of the ancients is not perfect. Thus the speech of Gautama Buddha (of Tib-Bur) cannot be truly replicated by the monks of SriLanka (on whose pronunciation the International Pali is based). I maintain that the speech of the Buddha would be more similar to that the monks in Myanmarpr.

The reader might be wondering why haven't I included the Asokan (Brahmi) script. The reason is nobody knows how Magadhi speech written in Asokan script had sounded. Since there is only a 33% commonality between Asokan and Myanmar, I hesitate to suggest that Magadhi-Asokan is the same as Pali-Myanmar. However, we should take note of
A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {kic~s:}, by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 
- PEG-indx.htm - link chk 160603
in which the Rev. gives a strong link between Asokan and Pal-Myan.

It is instructive to compare the palatals of Burmese-Myanmar, Magadhi-Asokan, Mon-Myanmar, Pali-Myanmar, and Sanskrit-Devanagari using whatever concrete examples that I can get. As a starter, note that r2c4 of Asoka is quite unique in having a shape unrelated to that of any other akshara. This should be compared to Devanagari: (basis of comparison: vowel with extreme friction इ /i/, and most easily pronounced consonant ड /ɖ/)
-- most difficult to pronounce ङ
-- a derived shape झ
-- most easy to pronounce ड

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