Update: 2016-12-08 07:29 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{a.ti-kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha
{a.tiir~} : repha

{a.tRi.} : highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ (1 eye-blink), ॠ (2 blk)

{a.tau:} अतो / {a.tau} अतौ

{a.t~ya.} : written as medial {tya.},
  pronounced as conjunct {t~ya.}
{a.t~ra.} : written as {tra.}
  but not related to {tRi.} 
{a.t~wa.} : Bur-Myan speakers can pronounce
  this both as monosyllabic medial and as disyllabic conjunct


{a.da.} / {d}
{a.dak~Sa.} अदक्ष : Pseudo-Kha


UKT notes :
Atharvan - the Fourth Maharishi in Great Bear Constellation
Atri - one of the Saptarishi 'Seven Rishis' 
Brahmajala Sutta : {oat~ta.} <-> {uit~ra.} ?
Medials {tya.} & {tra.} 
Rhotic & ron-rhotic accents in English

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अतिसांवत्सर [ ati-smvatsara ]
- a. () exceeding a year.



अतिसाध्वस [ ati-sdhvasa ]
- n. too great shrinking from (g.).



अतिसान्द्र [ ati-sndra ]
- a. very dense.



अतिसायम्् [ ati-syam ]
- ad. too late in the evening.



अतिसार [ ati-sra ]
- m. diarrh&oe;a.



अतिसाहस [ ati-shasa ]
- n. precipitate action; i-ka, a. very imprudent.



अतिसिताङ्गविहंग [ ati-sita‿aṅga-vihamga ]
- m. swan.



अतिसुख [ ati-sukha ]
- a. extremely pleasant; -sugama, a. very passable; -subhaga, a. extremely pretty;
-surabhi, a. extremely fragrant; -sulabha, a. very easily obtainable; -su-vritta, pp. very nicely rounded; very well-behaved.



अतिसूक्ष्म [ ati-skshma ]
- a. extremely minute.



अतिसृष्टि [ ti-srishti ]
- f. higher creation.



अतिसौजन्य [ ati-sauganya ]
- n. too great magnanimity; -sauhitya, n. excessive satiety.



अतिस्नेह [ ati-sneha ]
- m. excessive attachment; -svalpa, a. quite small, quite insignificant; -svastha, a. in excellent health.


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अतिहर्षुल [ ati-harshula ]
- a. highly rejoiced.



अतिहसित [ ati-hasita ]
- (pp.) n. immoderate laughter.



अतिहारिन्् [ ati-hrin ]
- a. very charming.



अतिहृष्ट [ ati-hrishta ]
- pp. greatly rejoiced.



अतिह्रेपण [ ati-hrepana ]
- a. very embarrassing.


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अतीकाश [ at-ks ]
- m. lustre; aperture.


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{a.ti-kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha


अतीक्ष्ण [ a-tkshna ]
= अ त ी क ् ष ् ण
- a. blunt; not strict, mild.


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अतीत [ ati‿ita ]
- pp. (√i) gone by, past.


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अतीन्द्रिय [ ati‿indriya ]
= अ त ी न ् द ् र ि य
- a. supersensuous, transcendental; n. spirit, soul.


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{a.tiir~} : repha


अतीर्थ [ -trtha ]
- n. wrong way, wrong manner; unseasonable time.


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अतीव [ ati‿iva ]
- ad. excessively; firmly; prp. beyond (ac.); very much more than (ab.).



अतीव्र [ a-tvra ]
- a. moderate; -t, f. -temperature.


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अतुल [ a-tula ]
- a. unequalled; -vikrama, a. of unequalled valour.


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अतुषारकर [ a-tushra-kara ]
- m. sun.



अतुष्ट [ a-tushta ]
- pp. dissatisfied.



अतुष्टि [ a-tushti ]
- f. dissatisfaction, discontent.



अतूतुजि [ -ttugi ]
- a. tardy, slow.


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{a.tRi.} : highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ (1 eye-blink), ॠ (2 blk)

UKT 130815: Rhotic speakers, particularly the Americans, put in the "r" sound, even when there is no "r" in the spelling as in word "china". (I cannot find from where I got the info at present.). You will see the same phenomenon between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan, e.g.  तृण tṛṇa & {ti.Na.}.
See my note on Rhotic & non-rhotic accents in English.



अतृण [ a-trina ] --> {a.tRi.Na.}
Skt: अतृण [a-trina]- n. what is not grass. - Mac008c1
Skt antonym: तृण tṛṇa - n. grass -- SpkSkt
Pal antonym: {ti.Na.}
- - UHS-PMD0440
  UKT from UHS: n. grass



अतृप्णुवत्् [ -trip-nu-v-at ]
- pr. pt. insatiable.



अतृप्त [ a-tripta ]
- pp. unsatisfied, insatiate; -t, f. abst. n.



अतृप्यत्् [ a-trip-yat ]
- pr. pt. not becoming satisfied.



अतृष्ण [ a-trishna ]
- a. void of greed, -desire.


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UKT 130816, 160523: BEPS mid vowels are a problem, especially in the back. English & Pali do not have  open front-vowel {a.t:}. A solution of the problem of back mid-vowels is not in sight, especially when English speakers do not open their mouths wide enough to pronounce their vowels.



अतेजस्  atejas
= अ त े ज स ्  
Skt: atejas -- as n. absence of brightness or vigour -- MW-016c3
Skt: अतेजस् atejas -- adj. not bright, dim, not vigorous, absence of brightness or vigour, dullness, dimness, insignificance, shade, shadow, feebleness -- SpkSkt
*Pal: {a.t-za1wa2}
- - UHS-PMD0034
  UKT from UHS: mfn. insignificance


अतेजोमय  atejomaya
= अ त े ज ो म य  
Skt: atejomaya  -- mfn. not consisting of light or brightness ŚBr. xiv -- MW-016c3
Skt: अतेजोमय atejomaya -- adj. not consisting of light or brightness -- SpkSkt


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अतैलपूर [ a-taila-pra ]
- a. not being filled with oil.


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{a.tau:} अतो / {a.tau} अतौ


अतोनिमित्तम्् [ ato-nimittam ]
- ad. for that reason, therefore.



अतोऽर्थम्् [ ato x rtham ]
- ad. to that end.


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{t~ta.} अत्त
= अ त ् त
Pal: {t~ta.} -- UHS-PMD0035
   UKT from UHS: Four meanings given. Meaning: . n. to eat.

UKT 140801, 161208: None of which gives the usual Buddhist meaning "Self". Since the word is Pal-Myan, I have given Romabama transcription as medial {t~ta.} instead of Sanskrit conjunct {a.t~ta.} which would have been written with a Repha as {ar~ta.}.
See - p027-4.htm (link chk 140801 - now broken): look in p027.htm (link chk 161208)


अत्क [ tka ]
अत्क [tka]
= (अ) (त ् क)  --> {a.t~ka.} - not {t~ka.}
Skt: अत्क [tka] - m. cloak, mantle - Mac008c1
Skt: अत्क atka - m. limb or member, armour, mail, garment, traveller -- SpkSkt


अत्तव्य [ at-tavya ]
= अ त ् त व ् य
- fp. to be eaten; to be tasted.



अत्तृ attṛ 
= (अ) (त ् त ृ) --> {a.tRi.}
Skt: अत्तृ [at-tri ] -  m. eater; devourer. -- Mac008c1
Skt: अत्तृ attṛ - m. eater -- SpkSkt


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{a.t~ya.} अत्य : {t~ya.} अत्य or {a.tya.} are not formed

UKT 120920, 130523, 130818, 140709 150125: The conjunct of {ta.} & {ya.} is commonly written in Bur-Myan as {tya.} as if it were a monosyllabic medial, but is pronounced as a disyllabic conjunct {t~ya.} with a schwa inserted. Thus, in {a.t~ya.}, {a.} is not checked by {t}, and {t} is not realized.

{a.t~ya.} is a conjunct - it is di-syllabic because {a.} is not stressed. The possibility of {a.tya.) - the medial - need not be considered because Skt-Dev has only disyllabic conjuncts. Similarly, I have not found {a.kya.} listed in {ka.} files.

In the following entries, अत्य atya {a.t~ya.} appears to behave as a prefix. In Macdonell's orthography, it is derived from {a.ti.} + a vowel such as {a.}, {a}, {u.}, ... . I note that {i.} is missing. I will have to check this observation further and learn both Sanskrit and Pali grammars on Sandhi . -- UKT120920

The dental {ta.} /t/ & velar {ya.} /j/ are articulated far apart in the mouth and the medial {tya.} cannot be formed. To pronounce it, a schwa has to be inserted as /tə.ja/ . In fact that's how most of Bur-Myan and I pronounce it. To show that a medial is not formed I will have to represent in Romabama as {t~ya.} - a conjunct. See my note on medial-{tya.} & {tra.} (in Skt-Dev अत्र a-tra  = अ त ् र 'here' ).

However, both {ka.} & {ya.} are velars and they readily form the medial {kya.}.

This sheds some light on the difference between how the Tib-Bur speakers begin pronouncing the consonants: they start from interior of the mouth (velar) and proceeds to the exterior (labial), whereas the IE speakers start from the exterior (labial) and proceeds to the interior (velar). When an IE speaker begins to articulate a sound, even for /k/, they automatically start from the outside, and found /j/ later. Thus they could not pronounce {kya.} properly. Whereas, a Tib-Bur starts articulating from the interior and found both /k/ & /j/ at the same time and the sound of {kya.} is natural to them.



अत्य [ t-ya ]
= अ त ् य -->  {a.t~ya.}
Skt: अत्य [t-ya] - a. running; m. steed; f. , mare. -- Mac008c2
Skt: अत atya - adj. swift, rapid. m. courser, steed -- SpkSkt


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अत्यच्छ [ ati‿akkha ]
= अ त ् य च ् छ
Skt: अत्यच्छ [ati‿akkha] - a. extremely transparent; -pure; -adbhuta, a. very wonderful.
*Skt: अच्छ  accha - adj. transparent -- SpkSkt
* Pal: {ic~hsa.}
- - UHS-PMD0016
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. transparent. . m. ape, bear. mfn. what can cause injury and pain

UKT note 130819: UHS gives two unrelated meanings, but he indicated that the two are spelled differently in Skt-Dev - the second with rhotic vowels.



अत्यन्त [ ati‿anta ]
- a. lasting to the end, continual, uninterrupted, endless; complete; excessive: -or -m, ad. excessively, continually, for ever, throughout; highly, beyond measure; -gata, pp. gone away for good.



अत्यम्बुपान [ ati‿ambu-pna ]
= (अ) (त ् य न ्) (त)  --> {a.t~yn-ta.}
- n. drinking too much water.



अत्यय [ ati‿aya ]
- m. passing away, lapse; end; risk, jeopardy, danger; fault, transgression.



अत्यर्थ [ati‿artha]
Skt: अत्यर्थ [ati‿artha] - -or-m , ad. exceedingly, very -- Mac008c2
Skt: अत्यर्थम्  atyartham
= अ त ् य र ् थ म ् - indecl. excessively, exceedingly - SpkSkt



अत्यल्प [ ati‿alpa ]
= अ त ् य ल ् प
- a. very little, too little; -buddhi, a. of very weak understanding.



अत्यश््नत्् [ ati‿as-nat ]
- pr. pt. eating too much.



अत्यष्टि [ ati‿ashti ]
- f. a metre (4 X 17 syllables).



अत्यसित [ ati‿asita ]
- a. extremely black.



अत्याकुल [ ati‿kula ]
- a. very confused.



अत्याग [ a-tyga ]
- m. non-abandonment: e tanoh, during lifetime.



अत्यागिन्् [ a-tygin ]
- a. not abandoning, not renouncing.



अत्याचार [ ati‿kra ]
- m. too refined manners.



अत्याज्य [ a-tygya ]
- fp. not to be abandoned; not to be given up.



अत्यादर [ ati‿dara ]
- m. too much consideration: in. very urgently; -para, a. very cautious.



अत्यादित्य [ ati‿ditya ]
- a. surpassing the sun; -‿nanda, m. excessive joy; -‿panna, pp. very unfortunate; -‿yata, pp. very long, very tall; -‿yus, a. very old; -‿rdha, pp. hvg. reached a great height; -‿rdhi, f. ascending too high; -‿roha, m. mounting too high, arrogance; -‿rti, f. violent pain; -‿rya, a. too honourable.



अत्याश््चर्य [ ati‿skarya ]
- a. extremely wonderful.



अत्यासङ्ग [ ati‿saṅga ]
- m. violent inclination for (lc., --).



अत्यासन्न [ ati‿-sanna ]
- pp. too near.



अत्याहित [ ati‿-hita ]
= अ त ् य ा ह ि त --> {a.t~ya-hi.ta.}
Skt: अत्याहित [ati‿-hita] - pp. adverse, disagreeable; n. misfortune. -- Mac008c2
Skt: अत्याहित  atyāhita - adj. disagreeable. n. daring action, great calamity, great danger, disagreeableness -- SpkSkt 



अत्युक्ति [ ati‿ukti ]
- f. much talk; exaggeration.



अत्युग्र [ ati‿ugra ]
- a. very mighty, very terrible.



अत्युच्च [ ati‿ukka ]
- a. extremely high.



अत्युच्छ्रित [ ati‿uk-khrita ]
- pp. raised too high.



अत्युत्क [ ati‿utka ]
- a. ardently longing; -‿utkata, a. excessive, extraordinary; -‿uttama, a. most excellent; -‿udtta, a. very eminent; -‿udra, a. most excellent; too liberal: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -‿un-nata, pp. excessively high; -‿unnati, f. eminence.



अत्युपचार [ ati‿upakra ]
- m. too great politeness.



अत्युष्ण [ ati‿ushna ]
- a. very hot; -t, f. extreme heat.



अत्यूर्जस्वल [ ati‿rgasvala ]
- a. extremely heroic (deed).



अत्यूर्जितम्् [ ati‿rgitam ]
- ad. extremely, highly.



अत्यृजु [ ati‿rigu ]
- a. too straight, too sincere.



अत्यौत्सुक्य [ ati‿autsukya ]
- n. great impatience.


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UKT 120921, 130817, 150125: The conjunct of {ta.} & {ra.} is written in Bur-Myan as {tra.}. It is written with the hood fully extended, which had led me astray into thinking that it was related to {tRi.}. I was not aware of the presence of highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel ऋ {iRi.} which with {ta.} gives {tRi.}. My confusion was compounded because ऋ is commonly described as "vocalic R" which had led me to think that it was a consonant and not a vowel.

The medial, {tra.} त्र , is a problem for many beginning students because of its similarity in shape to the Skt-Dev row#2 nasal Nya'l {a.} ञ .

Though in Pal-Myan (e.g. UHS-PMD), the word {a.tri.} is given in the form of a medial, it is best to say that it is not a medials. Another argument against {a.tri.} is because of the presence of {a.tRi}. See my note on Medials {tya.} & {tra.}



अत्र [ 1. -tra ]
= अ त ् र
- ad.=lc. of idam, in this; here; there; in this (that) case, -verse, -passage, on this point; in this life; then, at that time.



अत्र [ 2. a-tr ]
- m. eater; devourer.



अत्रत्य [ atra-tya ]
- a. of this place, living here.



अत्रन्् [ atra-n ]
- the suffix -atra (v. n-it).




अत्रप [ a-trapa ]
- a. shameless.



अत्रभवत्् [ atra-bhavat ]
- m. this gentleman here, f. -, this lady here (referring to third person present on the stage).



अत्रस्त [ a-trasta ] pp. intrepid.

intrepid - adj. 1. Resolutely courageous; fearless. See note at brave . -- AHTD



अत्रस्थ [ atra-stha ]
- a. being here, staying here.



अत्रासित [ a-trsita ]
- pp. not. frightened.

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अत्रि [ tri ]
= अ त ् र ि --> {a.t~ri.} : not {a.tRi.}
- a. devouring; - m. N. of a sage: pl. his descendants; a star in the Great Bear.

UKT 130227, 130819: I am curious about the meaning "devouring" -- a word used as name for a sage and a Prajapati प्रजापति prajā-pati {pra.za pa.ti.}.
   The word प्रजापति prajā-pati {pra.za pa.ti.} is made up of two words, {pra.za} and {pa.ti.}. Since {pa.ti.} means "chief", we look into {pra.za}. The word means, "people" in general, and so प्रजापति prajā-pati {pra.za pa.ti.} means the "Father of Mankind". See:  http://vedabase.net/p/praja 130819
See my note on Rishi Atri



अत्रिन्् [ atrn ]
- a. voracious.



अत्रिवत्् [ atri-vat ]
- ad. like Atri, like the Atris.



अत्रिवर्ष [ a-tri-varsha ]
- a. not yet three years old.


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UKT 150125 : Bur-Myan speakers can pronounce this both as monosyllabic medial and as disyllabic conjunct


अत्वर [ a-tvara ]
- a. not hasty, deliberate.



अत्वरा [ a-tvar ]
- f. deliberation.


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अथ [ -tha ] {a.hta.}
- ad. then, thereupon; now, here begins (at bg. of works or sections, cp. iti); now, so, then (at bg. of sentences); but, however, and yet; if; then, corr. to yad; often strengthened by atas, api, ka, tu, punar; sts. mere verse-filler; atha v, or, or else, or rather (giving another explanation); however; even; repeated : either -- or; atha kim, what else ?= certainly; atha kimu, to say nothing of --.



अथर्वन्् [ tharvan ]
- m. fire-priest; N. of the first fire-priest: pl. his descendants; s. & pl. his magical incantations, the AV.



अथर्ववेद atharva-veda 
Skt: अथर्ववेद [atharva-veda] - m. Atharva (fourth) Veda. -- Mac008c3
Pal: {a.htb~ba.Na.} - UHS-PMD0040
  UKT from UHS: m. Ahtubbana veda treatise (reputed to be written by Ahtubbana-teacher. Comprises of mantras to repel disease and danger,)

UKT 130820: Here we notice a grand mix up of bilabial (of Tib-Bur) and labio-dental (of IE).
See my note on Atharva-veda



अथर्वाङ्गिरस्् [ atharva‿aṅgiras ]
- m. pl. the families of Atharvan and Aṅgiras; their incantations, esp. those of the AV.;
- a, a. () descended  from Atharvan and Aṅgiras; m. s. & pl. the hymns of the AV.

UKT 160524: See my note on Atharvan - a Vedic rishi
Notice the word "descended". As far as the families of Brahmin Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, known as Gotras गोत्र {gau:tra.} (= ग ो त ् र) are concerned, the word "descended" means "adoption". Even then, it is not the adopter that is involved: it is the adoptee claiming that he is the descendant.



अथो [ tha‿u ]
- ad. and also, and so; then; now.

UKT 110721, 120922, 160524: The above indicates that when two words, one ending in {a.} and the other beginning with {u.} gives rise to {au:} . It is {a.} elides {u} -- not a diphthong. However, the result could very well be a vowel similar to Mon-Myan {ou}. At present because of my unfamiliarity with Mon-Myan, I will have to study more.


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{a.da.} / {d}

UKT 150125: {t} (voiceless) & {d} (voiced) seems to form a pair.


अद् [AD], II. P.  --> {d}
Skt: अद्  [AD], II. P. -- at-ti , eat, consume, enjoy; cs. dya , feed -- Mac008c3
Skt: अत्ति { अद् } atti { ad } -- verb 2 eat -- SpkSkt 
Pal: {a.da.} -  UHS-PMD0040
  UKT from UHS: mfn. eat


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{a.da.kSa.} अदक्ष : Pseudo-Kha


अदक्षिण [ 1. a-dakshina ]
= अ द क ् ष ि ण --> {a.dak~Si.Na.}
Skt: .  a. not right, left; awkward; inexperienced; unamiable. -- Mac008c3
Pal antonym: {dak~hki.Na.} - - UHS-PMD0456

  UKT from UHS: mfn. clever (implying righteousness). Right-hand (implying esoteric practices of the Right-Hand and the Left-hand paths). Southern direction (implying the right-hand direction of a person facing East.).



अदक्षिण [ 2. a-dakshin ]
- a. without gifts to Brhmans.
- .  a. without gifts to Brhmans {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} 

UKT 120923:
Because of my position that a language must be religiously neutral I cannot accept the meaning given by Macdonell "without gifts to Brhmans {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}. The meaning shows partiality toward Hinduism in which the Brhmans {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} are said to be a favoured group of the Creator himself. As a material scientist studying languages, I try to be as neutral as possible towards all religions. My personal view stems from my training as a Theravada Buddhist and also as a material scientist. See my note on Brahmajala Sutta, and online:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmajala_Sutta_Theravada 130228
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmajala_Sutra_Mahayana 130228 




अदण्ड्य [ a-dandy ]
- fp. not liable to punishment, innocent.



अदत् [ ad-at ]
Skt: pr. pt. eating. -- Mac008c3
Pal: {a.da.ti.} - UHS-PMD0041

  UKT from UHS: eat



अदत्त [ -datta ]
= अ द त ् त --> {a.dt~ta.}
- pp. not given (said of a present that may be returned): f. , unmarried; -dna, n. lack of charity; -phala, n. reward for not having given.



अदत्तादान [ adatta‿dna ]
- n. taking what is not given voluntarily; -‿dyin, a. taking what has not been given.



अदत्त्वा [ a-dattv ]
- gd. without giving.



अददत्् [ a-dadat ]
- pr. pt. not giving, -returning.



अदधि [ a-dadhi ]
- n. what is not curds.



अदन [ ad-ana ]
Skt: अदन  [ad-ana] - n. eating. -- Mac008c3
Pal: {a.da.na.}
- - UHS-PMD0040
  UKT from UHS: n. eating, food



अदन्त्् [ a-dant ]
- a. toothless.



अदन्त [ a-d-anta ]
- a. ending in ă.



अदन्तजात [ a-danta-gta ]
- pp. not having teethed.



अदब्ध [ -dabdha ]
- pp. unhurt, safe; trust worthy; pure.



अदभ [ a-dabha ]
- a. not hurting, benevolent.



अदभ्र [ a-dabhra ]
- a. not little, much.



अदम्भ [ a-dambha ]
- m. sincerity.



अदम्भिन्् [ a-dambhin ]
- a. upright, honest: (i)-tva, n. uprightness, veracity.


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UKT notes

Atharvan - the Fourth Maharishi in Great Bear Constellation

-- UKT, 120923

Travelling in the desert or on the ocean at night, you need celestial navigation. One star that points you the North is Polaris, and it can be easily found by looking at the Great Bear or Dipper Constellation. The ancient travellers must have given names to the individual stars. The Seven stars that made up the constellation are like your own advisors, or counselors who are always looking after you, and they have been called the Seers or Maharishi. In time to let others remember them, they were personalized and stories (all made up) were told about them. This is what I think (pure conjecture) about them. Eventually, they were connected to your own God, or gods & goddesses and finally you came to worship them.

In Myanmarpr, the ancients had no need of such travels, and there are no stories to tell around camp-fires. They must have been agriculturalists, hunters, or local fishermen who did not have to travel over the ocean. -- UKT120923

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atharvan 120923
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atharvaveda 130820

Atharvan (अथर्वन्, atharvan- ; an n-stem with nominative singular अथर्वा atharvā) was a legendary Vedic sage (rishi) of Hinduism who along with Angiras is supposed to have authored ("heard") the Atharvaveda. [UKT ]

The Atharvaveda {a.htb~ba.Na.} (अथर्ववेदः, atharvaveda, a tatpurusha compound of atharvan, an ancient Rishi, and veda, meaning "knowledge") is a sacred text of Hinduism and one of the four Vedas, often called the "fourth Veda". According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Atharvanas and the Angirasa, hence its oldest name is Ātharvāṅgirasa. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atharvaveda 120923

He [Atharvan] is also said to have first instituted the fire-sacrifice or yagna. Sometimes he is also reckoned among the seven seers or Saptarishi. His clan is known as the Atharvanas. Atharvan married Chitti, daughter of Kardama rishi, and had a great sage Dadhichi as a son. He was referred to as a member of the Bhrigu clan.

UKT: The Seven great rishis are enshrined in the Great Bear or Dipper Constellation. In the inset sky map look for the two pointer starts pointing towards Polaris. The first pointer star is Dubhe, and the second Merack. Go around the Dipper, and the third is Phedca, and the seventh Alkaid. The great seven rishi also follow the same order: 1. Krathu - Dubhe, 2. Pulaaha - Merack, 3. Pulasthya - Phecda, 4. Athri - Megrez, 5. Angirasa - Alioth, ...

http://www.vedicastronomy.net/stars_appendix.htm 120923

According to mundaka upanisad and other texts, he was eldest son & (Manas putra) born from mind of the Brahma. Vedic atharvan is cognate with Avestan athravan, "priest", but the etymology of the term is not yet conclusively established. "Attempts have been made to connect the term with Avestan atar- "fire" (not attested in Vedic); but these have been prompted by what is probably a mistaken assumption of the importance of fire in the ancient Indo-Iranian religion." (Boyce, 1982:16)

UKT: End of Wiki stub

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Atri - one of the Saptarishi

UKT 130227:

अत्रि atri -->
= अ त ् र ि
- a. devouring; m. N. of a sage: pl. his descendants; a star in the Great Bear. -- Mac008c3

I am curious about the meaning "devouring" -- a word used as name for a sage and a Prajapati प्रजापति prajā-pati {pra.za pa.ti.}

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atri 120921

In Hinduism, Atri (Skt-Dev अत्रि) or Attri is a legendary bard [UKT: The English word <bard> can mean 'a singer of folk songs'. Here it means a composer of hymns.] and scholar and was one of 9 Prajapatis प्रजापति prajā-pati {pra.za pa.ti.}, and a son of Brahma {brah~ma}, said to be ancestor of some Brahmin {poaN~Na.], Prajapatis, kshatriya and Vaishya communities who adopt Atri as their gotra गोत्र = ग ो त ् र {gau:tra.} 'lineage' (SpkSktDict). [UKT ]

UKT 120922:
According to the Theravada Buddhist concept held by Bur-Myan, {brah~ma} are asexual beings, and are higher than {d-wa} who still enjoy sex with females - not necessarily of their own kind.

Thus, when I started to read Hinduism, I was perplexed to find that the Hindu {brah~ma}, sometimes described as {ma.ha d-wa.}, forcing his own creation {u-ra~a.ti} - thus his daughter - to marry him against her wish. It is interesting to see Atri being described as the son of the Brahma {brah~ma}, but not as a son of {u-ra~a.ti}.

The second word we should be concerned is प्रजापति prajā-pati which is made up of 2 words, प्रजा prajā (= प ् र ज ा) {pra.za},  & पति pati {pa.ti.}. My understanding (which is likely to change in the future) is the compound word means "the first of the life-forms".

The word पति pati {pa.ti.} has been interpreted as the "protector" by which the religionists insist that it is their "dva-god" protecting the separate castes. According to some there were 7 prajā-pati and according to others there were 9. Can they mean the day of the week on which you were born? Sunday borns, Monday borns, Tuesday borns, etc.? These can in turn mean the "Planet-gods", and in order to include Rahu and Ketu the number has to be increased to 9.

Atri is the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) in the seventh, i.e. the present Manvantara [1]..

UKT 120907, 130227:
Mizar is known as Vasistha and Alcor is known as Arundhati in traditional Indian astronomy. [7] The pair is considered to symbolize marriage (Vashishtha and Arundhati were a married couple) and, in some Hindu communities, priests conducting a wedding ceremony allude to or point out the constellation as a symbol of the closeness marriage brings to a couple. [8] 
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mizar_star   120907

The Sanskrit word "manvantara", is a compound of two words "manu" and "antara". Leaving aside the Hindu ideas of creation which we the Theravada Buddhists do not believe, it simply means the "period of a particular kind of man" or "civilization". -- UKT based on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manvantara 120922, 130227 .

He is among the Sapta Rishi ( सप्तर्षि = (स प ् त) {p~ta.} (र ् ष ि) : seven luminous or eternal sages in the sky) symbolized by the great bear and the seven stars around it. [UKT ]

UKT 130228, 130523:
Romabama spelling of the word Sapta Rishi सप्तर्षि  'Seven Seers',  is not satisfactory.
Firstly, we take the word apart:
  सप्तर्षि = (स प ् त) {p~ta.} & ((र ्)(ष ि))
Skt-Dev for the second part shows a repha which is just a rhotic sound. However, the English rendition shows that the {ra.} has to be taken out to give the hissing sound at the end of the syllable {riS}. Otherwise it gives us something like {p~t~r~Si.}.
However, if we note that if we had just relied on the meaning 'seven', and go by Pal-Myan, we get {t~ta.}, and arrive by transformation, , to {t~ta. I.i}. Of course, the two words may (or may not) further elide according to Pal-Myan rules.

Named Megrez in Latin. The star is also considered as δ (Delta) or the 4th star in the Great Bear constellation.

He is the seer of the fifth Mandala (Book 5) of the Rig Veda. He had many sons and disciples who have also contributed in the compilation of the Rig Veda and other Vedic texts.

UKT 120922:
Because there are so many stars, people tend to use whatever that is convenient to describe their "bear". However, the major seven stars, α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ, η, remain the same.

The star Atri is identified with Megrez, the "delta" or Fourth Star in the Big Bear Constellation.

Rishi Artri's main role in Mahabharatta

He [Artri] had a close connection with Mahabharatha. We all know that Drona द्रोण , droṇa {drau:Na.}, the {poaN~Na.], was made the head of the Kaurava army after Bhisma's fall. Dronacharya  द्रोणाचार्य  droṇācārya [ "acharya" means "master". Drona was the teacher who taught military tactics to the young princes.] fought ferociously. [UKT ]

The wounded and the dead soldiers were in  thousands. Their cry of pain rented the skies. Blood flowed on the battle field. Dead bodies got piled up and provided the food for the birds of prey. In this carnage which went beyond all human estimation, Drona stood like a mad hero of demonic proportion.

Sage Atri was very worried because if Drona continued this he would cause destruction and human misery beyond proportions, Atri and Gowthama [UKT: Gautama Maharishi गौतम महर्षि ?] came to the battle field along with their five of their companions. [UKT: Does it mean that there were seven of them? That there were 7 prajā-pati?]. It was at this time Yudhisthira aka Dharmaraja had shouted at the instance of Sri Krishna saying that Ashwathama [ अश्वत्थामा, aśvatthāmā] was killed. [UKT ]

UKT 120922:
There are two names in the above para which can confuse the reader:
Dharmaraja - a name for Yudhisthira युधिष्ठिर yudhiṣṭhira the eldest Pandava
Ashwathama अश्वत्थामा, aśvatthāmā - the name of Drona's son, as well as that of an elephant.

It was the elephant that had been killed - not Drona's son. This 'mis-information' was a ploy used by Sri Krishna to sow confusion in the mind of Drona - the enemy general.

My question: was it fair or Dharma to use misinformation as a weapon of war? The current thinking is that it is allowable and that even incarnations of gods, e.g. Sri Krishna, had used it thousands of years ago. 

This put Drona off completely. He lost all hope in his life. He became mad with anger. This sent danger signal all around.

Sage Atri felt sad for him and talked to him in a friendly manner, consoling him,

"Dear friend, all along you have done everything against Dharma . This war you are engaged in is the best proof. It is enough and stop it. Stop this carnage. You are a good man. This act is not in tune with your status. You are a scholar of Vedanta par excellence. You have been a Brahman and you have got to practice dharma. This cruel act does not befit you. Give up your weapons, fix your mind in our glorious Sanathana Dharma. I am sorry, you have wielded the most terrible Brahmastra on the innocent soldiers! Put an end to your meaningless killing."

UKT 120922, 160524: Skt-Dev (in Hindu sense)  {dar~ma.} is quite different from Pal-Myan (in Theravada Buddhist sense). The Hindu {dar~ma.} can be translated as "fairness", which is usually misinterpreted to justify what their gods and king have done. The Buddhist {dm~ma.} is the "righteousness according to Buddha's teachings".
   How different is the above advice given by Sri Krishna to Arjuna to pick up his weapons again and to fight -- to do his duty as a commander on the battlefield.

When Atri said that, Dronacharya decided to give up his arms and stop killing. He drove away his anger, jealousy, and sense of revenge and his heart became pure. He sat in a yogic posture and started to meditate amidst the cries of pain, killing, flow of blood on the battle field. He concentrated on Lord Vishnu and closed his eyes and never opened them again until he left his body and started his journey towards the lord. Hence Sage Atri's kind nature helped save him.

UKT 120922:
The above para does not mention how Drona was treacherously killed while engaged in a yogic posture after laying down his arms. He was beheaded by Dhristadyuma, the son of his enemy who was once his childhood friend King Draupada. This is a breach of engagement rules - Dharma. This breach of engagement rules lead to another breach of rules by Ashwathama who in revenging his father's death, attacked the sleeping Dhristadyuma and his soldiers during night-time. These events were started by the misinformation perpetrated by Sri Krishna himself. How like our modern wars, and it had happened thousands of years before Gautama Buddha's time. --

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Brahmajala Sutta

-- UKT 130228, 140715, 160525

Who or What are Brahma {brah~ma} and Brahmin {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} ? The Brahma is a celestial entity whose existence cannot be scientifically proven. He is just an Axiom. The Brahmins are humans who worship the Brahma. Notice that vowels of the two words: the celestial being has short vowel, the humans have long vowel. If you are not careful about your spelling you will inevitably get the wrong meaning.

We must also note that a Sanskrit word in Mahayana Buddhism and a Pali word in Theravada Buddhism, may be equivalent language-wise but can still be different because of the cultural differences of the speakers. Peoples in Myanmarpr are Theravada Buddhists and our understanding of a word like Tantra is quite different from that of peoples of Mahayana faith.

Because of the above facts, we must be careful on interpreting a Sutta when it appears in both Mahayana and Theravada. See:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmajala_Sutra_Mahayana 130228
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmajala_Sutta_Theravada 130228

The following is the Theravada Buddhist view:

From Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmajala_Sutta_Theravada 130228

The Brahmajala Sutta is the first of 34 suttas {oat~ta.} 'discourse' in the Digha Nikaya (the Long Discourses of the Buddha). The name comes from 'brahma' (perfect wisdom) and 'jala' (net-which-embraced-all-views). The sutta is also called 'Atthajala' (Net of Essence), Dhammajala, (Net of the Dhamma), Ditthijala (Net of Views), Anuttarasangama Vijaya (Incomparable Victory in Battle).

UKT 130228: The Brahmajala Sutta is popularly known as {brah~ma.za-la. oat} in Myanmarpr. It is made up of two words, the first being {brah~ma.za-la.} and the second {oat}. The first word {brah~ma.za-la.} can be further divided into two words, {brah~ma.} and {za-la.}. The gloss given in UHS-MED414 can also be interpreted as 'net'.

The sutta discusses two main topics: the elaboration of the Ten Precepts (Cula-sila), the Middle Precepts (Majjhima-sila), and the Great Precepts (Maha-sila). Cula-sila deals with the Ten Precepts to be practised by devout Buddhists, while Majjhima-sila gives a detailed description of the practice of the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth precepts, together with the practise of plant conservation and speech etiquette.

The second and third parts of the sutta discuss the 62 beliefs (ditthi) which are devoutly practised by ascetics in India. These are divided into: 18 beliefs related to the past (pubbantanuditthino), and 44 beliefs about the future (aparantakappika).

Many of these beliefs are still relevant in the modern world and thus the sutta provides Buddhist scholars with much information to ponder about the [Gautama] Buddha's teachings.

The elaboration of these beliefs is very detailed, focusing on how the beliefs (faiths) come to be and the way they are described and declared. The elaboration ends with the Buddha's statement about the danger of clinging to these beliefs, as they are still influenced by desire (lobha), hatred (dosa), and ignorance (avijjā) that its faithful followers will not end in the final liberation but still in the cycle of samsara. Believers of these faiths are compared to small fish in a pond which will be captured by a fine net no matter how much they want to escape, while those who see reality as it is are beyond the net of samsara.


The sutta starts with the Buddha travelling with his disciples between the cities of Rajagaha and Nalanda. At the same time, a Brahmin called Suppiya, with his young apprentice, Brahmadatta, were also travelling in the same direction, tailing the convoy of the sangha. Suppiya uttered some insulting words about the Buddha, his teachings, and his disciples. However, Brahmadatta praised and revered the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha. The two continued debating until they arrived at the King's resting place in Ambalatthika.

Hearing this conversation, some monks discussed the nature of conflicting students and teachers the next morning. They wondered how marvellous it was that the Buddha knew the various kinds of views to be found in people. The Buddha arrived and asked what they were discussing. As a monk finished telling him, the Buddha responded,

"Monks, if anyone spoke words which insult me, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, don't let this thing prompt you to hate, take revenge, and turn against them. If, because of this, you become angry or annoyed, then it will become an obstacle in your quest to liberate yourself, and cause you upset. However, if someone speaks insulting or false accusations about me, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, then you should state which is wrong and point out the mistake by explaining that because of this proof and that, then that is not true, or it is not like that, that kind of thing is not us, or occurring in us."

"But if someone praises me, the Dhamma, or the Sangha; don't let this thing make you feel proud, joyful, and happy. If you act like that, then it will become an obstacle in your efforts to achieve your own final liberation. If someone speaks like that, you should state which is right and show the fact by saying, 'Based upon this and that fact, it is indeed so; that thing does indeed exist in us, or is true about us.' Even only due to small matters, worthless, or even due to the Precepts (Śīla)."

UKT: This sutta is quite extensive and needs thorough reading.
More in Wikipedia.

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Medial {tya.} & {tra.}

UKT: 110721, 120112 , 120920, 130818, 140709

Though I have looked for {tRa.}, I haven't found it so far. I found only the closed {tRi.} derived from highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel {iRi.} ऋ . This vowel is usually known as "vocalic R" because of which I had thought it to be a consonant which was a nightmare for me in my early days of taking up Skt-Dev study.

The word, अत्य atya  = अ त ् य 'steed', can be analyzed in two ways:

1. (अ त ् ) य --> अत् + य  = {t-ya.}
2. (अ) (त ् य)  --> अ (त्य) = {a.t~ya.} -- not {a.tya.}
Remember different rendering engines work differently. Never be sure of what you see on the Internet.

The word in Bur-Myan {pn-tya} ('music' - MED2010-275) is not properly pronounced by most people who pronounce it as / {pn-tra}/. The pronunciation given by MLC MED2006-275 implies that the {tya.} is pronounced with a schwa - /təja/. This question is to be decided by a study of the words which follows अत्य atya.

The reason why {ta.} and {ya.} cannot be pronounced together as a medial probably lies in the fact that these phonemes are articulated far apart: POA of {ta.} is dental-alveolar and that of {ya.} is velar. Previously I had taken {ya.} to be palatal, but in order to make way for Nya'gyi {a.} I had to move {ya.} to velar.

If one were to accept this explanation of {ta.} and {ya.} being unable to be taken together, then it might be best to represent the resultant as conjunct {t~ya.} and not as a medial {tya.}. On the other hand {tra.} (in Skt-Dev अत्र a-tra  = अ त ् र 'here' ) is easily pronounced because both {ta.} and {ra.} /ɹ/ are dental-alveolar.

Note: {ra.} /ɹ/ is an approximant, not the dental-alveolar trill /r/. But for ease of type-setting {ra.} is written as /r/. See Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alveolar_trill 130818

Now that Romabama has to handle Sanskrit as well, we have to transcribe Skt-Dev तृ (short) & तॄ (long) sounds derived from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel pair, ऋ (short-vowel) & ॠ (long-vowel):

Bur-Myan: {tya.} (non-rhotic), {tra.} (non-rhotic)
Pal-Myan:  {tya.} (non-rhotic), {tra.} (rhotic)
Skt-Myan: {tRa.} (rhotic) is not realized.
   Only found, {tra.} (rhotic), repha, and {tRi.} (highly rhotic)

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Rhotic & non-rhotic accents in English

-- UKT 130815, 160523 

Americans pronounce the word <myanmar> with a rhotic accent which is quite strange to our ears. We pronounce it without any rhoticity -- the end <r> is pronounced with the pronunciation /ɹ/ - not /r/.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_and_non-rhotic_accents 130815

In linguistic terms, non-rhotic accents are said to exclude the sound [r] from the syllable coda before a consonant or prosodic break. This is commonly (if misleadingly) referred to as "post-vocalic R".

English pronunciation can be divided into two main accent groups: a rhotic speaker pronounces a rhotic consonant in words like <hard> and <butter>; a non-rhotic speaker does not. That is, rhotic speakers pronounce /ɹ/ (English R) in nearly all positions of a word, while non-rhotic speakers pronounce /ɹ/ only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit (see "linking and intrusive R"). Therefore, when pronounced by a non-rhotic speaker, the word <butter> would sound like <buttuh> . [UKT ]

UKT 130815: Note the change includes both the vowel and coda:  <er> --> <uh>.
I have to include such a change in Romabama -- taking note to change the vowel. When Romabama was in the transliteration stage, the vowel was not included. Now as transcription, you will see vowel changes.

Non-rhoticity is featured in many accents in England (including RP (Received Pronunciation), Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, small pockets in India and surrounding areas [including Myanmarpr], the New England region of the United States, notably Boston and New York City, among others, and can be a feature in small pockets in Atlantic Canada, particularly Lunenburg English.

"The earliest traces of a loss of /r/ in English are found in the environment before /s/ in spellings from the mid-15th century. ... Loss of coda /r/ apparently became widespread in southern England during the 18th century " .

UKT 130815: Currently the Second World War seems to be a noticeable dividing line. The probable cause being the English country-side boys having to serve in areas where English is spoken without much rhoticity. I need to check my observation further.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

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