Update: 2016-05-22 11:04 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p007.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

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UKT 130912, ..., 160515: We will have to repeat the definition of {a.ti.} अति ati which is used as a prefix before many words. Wikipedia lists a number of prefixes, such as अति ati: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Sanskrit_and_Persian_roots_in_Hindi 130912, 160515

अति- (ati-) , English equiv: "super- ". 
Etymology: अति (extremely, beyond, over). Hindi example: अतिकाल (atikāl) = delay

We note that {a.ti.} is a Tib-Bur word as found in Bur-Myan,
e.g., {a.ti.a.ln:} 'plainly, openly' - MLC MED2006-559.
The syllable {a.ti.} is a prefix and must not be broken up into {a.} & {ti.}. It is pronounced with a schwa /əti/. Unlike {a.}, {a.ti.} does not imply a negation.
Pal: {a.ti.} - UHS PMD0028

  UKT from UHS: - prefix. excess, excessively, vehemently, prefix with the meaning of 'excess'. n. excess

 

{a.ti.pa.}
  p007c1
{a.ti.ba.}
{a.ti.Ba.}
{a.ti.ma.}

{a.ti.ya.}
{a.ti.ra.}
  p007c2
{a.ti.la.}
{a.ti.wa.}

UKT 140715, 160519: Keep in mind that Skt-Myan {wya.}, derived aks-to-aks transformation from Skt-Dev, can become Pal-Myan {bya.}. See UHS-PMD0031

{a.ti.vya.}

  p007c3 : Fricatives - Husher {sha.}/ {sh}, Hisser {Sa.}/ {S}, Thibilant {a.}/ {}
{a.ti.sha.}
{a.ti.Sa.} अतष
{a.ti.a.}

 

UKT notes :
Poetic meter: Sanskrit & Western

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{a.ti.pa.}

p007c1

p007c1-b00

अतिप्रचण्ड [ ati-prakanda ]
- a. extremely vehement; -pratysaṅga, m. too great proximity.

 

p007c1-b01

अतिप्रबन्ध [ ati-prabandha ]
- m. uninterruptedness: -ad. ceaselessly.

 

p007c1-b02

अतिप्रबल [ ati-prabala ]
- a. very powerful.

 

p007c1-b03

अतिप्रमाण [ ati-pramna ]
- a. of unusual size.

 

p007c1-b04

अतिप्रयुक्त [ ati-pra-yukta ]
- pp. very usual; -vritta, pp. much busied with (in.); -vriddha, pp. very aged; too haughty.

 

p007c1-b05

अतिप्रवेश [ ati-pravesa ]
- m. obtrusiveness.

obtrusive adj. . Thrusting out; protruding: an obtrusive rock formation. . Tending to push self-assertively forward; brash: the obtrusive behavior of a spoiled child. . Undesirably noticeable: an obtrusive scar. -- AHTD

 

p007c1-b06

अतिप्रशस्त [ ati-pra-sasta ]
- pp. greatly praised; -snta, pp. completely allayed; -sakta, pp. excessively attached.

allay v. tr. allayed allaying allays . To reduce the intensity of; relieve: allay back pains. See note at relieve . . To calm or pacify; set to rest: allayed the fears of the worried citizens. - AHTD

 

p007c1-b07

अतिप्रसक्ति [ ati-prasakti ]
- f. too great addiction, to (g.); -prasaṅga, m. id.; too wide application (of a gr. rule); excessive diffuseness; -prastva, m. very suitable opportunity.

 

p007c1-b08

अतिप्राकृत [ ati-prkrita ]
- a. very common, -illiterate; -prna-priya, a. dearer than life.

 

p007c1-b09

अतिप्रिय [ ati-priya ]
- a. very pleasant: in. ad.; -praudha-yauvana, a. in the prime of youth.

प्रौढयौवन prauḍhayauvana
Skt: [praudha-yauvana] - a. in the prime of youth. - Mac007c1
Skt: प्रौढयौवन prauḍhayauvana - adj. being in the prime or bloom of youth - SpkSkt

 

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{a.ti.ba.}

p007c1-b10

अतिबल [ ati-bala ]
- a. extremely powerful; , f. N. of a spell; -balin, a. id.; -balyas, cpv. much more powerful; -bahu, a. very much; -bla, a. very young; -bbhatsa, a. very disgusting.

 

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{a.ti.Ba.}

p007c1-b11

अतिभय [ ati-bhaya ]
- n. great danger.

 

p007c1-b12

अतिभार [ ati-bhra ]
- m. excessive burden.

 

p007c1-b13

अतिभीषण [ ati-bhshana ]
- a. very terrible.

 

p007c1-b14

अतिभू [ ati-bh ]
- a. surpassing all.

 

p007c1-b15

अतिभूमि [ ati-bhmi ]
- f. acme, high degree.

 

p007c1-b16

अतिभूरि [ ati-bhri ]
- a. very much (--).

 

p007c1-b17

अतिभृत्् [ ati-bhrit ]
- a. heavily burdened.

 

p007c1-b18

अतिभैरव [ ati-bhairava ]
- a. very terrible.

 

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{a.ti.ma.}

p007c1-b19

अतिमञ्जुल ati-manjula  
= अ ति म ञ्ज ु ल  --> {a.ti.mi~zu.la.}
- a. extremely lovely.

UKT 160518: note the conjunct {~za.} ञ्ज

 

p007c1-b20

अतिमतिमत्् [ ati-matimat ]
- a. extremely clever.

 

p007c1-b21

अतिमद [ ati-mada ]
- m. violent excitement; -madhyamdina, n. exactly noon.

 

p007c1-b22

अतिमलिन [ ati-malina ]
- a. very dirty; very low.

 

p007c1-b23

अतिमहत्् [ ati-mahat ]
- a. very large; too long.

 

p007c1-b24

अतिमात्र [ ati-mtra ]
- a. excessive: --&-m, ad. excessively, beyond measure, very.

 

p007c1-b25

अतिमान [ ati-mn ]
- m. self-conceit, pride.

 

p007c1-b26

अतिमानिन्् [ ati-mnin ]
- a. proud; having a delicate sense of honour.

 

p007c1-b27

अतिमानुष [ ati-mnusha ]
- a. superhuman.

 

p007c1-b28

अतिमारुत [ ati-mruta ]
- m. violent wind.

 

p007c1-b29

अतिमुखर [ ati-mukhara ]
- a. extremely talkative; -mdha, pp. very foolish, very stupid.

 

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{a.ti.ya.}

UKT 140715, 160519: Approximants, {ya.}/{a.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}/{va.} are semi-consonants, but are usually called semivowels in the West. Note that
#1. I have identified Nya'gyi {a.} to be the Palatal-approximant whilst {ya.} /ja/ is the Velar-approximant. My conclusion is based on the presence of {} and {}, and the similarity in meanings of words with them such as {sic-} 'one who carries the burden of battle, i.e. soldier', and {Z:} 'one who carries the burden of bazaar, i.e. seller'.
#2. Pal-Myan {wa.} is written as {va.} in Skt-Dev.

p007c1-b30

अतियत्न [ ati-yatna ]
- m. great exertion; -yasa, a. very illustrious; -ykita, pp. importuned.

 

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{a.ti.ra.}

p007c1-b31

अतिरंहस्् [ ati-ramhas ]
- a. excessively swift.

 

p007c1-b32

अतिरक्तता [ ati-rakta-t ]  
- f. excessive liking for (lc.); -ratita, n. violent shrieking; -ratna, n. precious gem; jewel of the first water; -ratha, m. great champion; -rabhasa, a. very wild, -impetuous; -m, ad.; -ramanya, fp. extremely charming: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -ramya, fp. id.; -raya, a. running extremely fast; -rasa, a. very palatable; m. too strong a key-note (rh.); violent desire: -tas, ad. too eagerly.

ati-ratna
Skt: [-ratna] - n. precious gem; jewel of the first water -- Mac007c1

UKT 120918, 160519: The translation term "jewel of the first water" is the same as Bur-Myan "jewel of the first quality":  {a.r a.w: kaung:} in Bur-Myan. Here {a.r} means 'liquid', 'quality', 'water'. Contrary to the common belief that Bur-Myan has a lot of words derived from Pali, it is possible that Bur-Myan and ancient Magadhi (from which Pali is derived) were Tib-Bur languages with a lot of common terms. Skt-Dev is a dialect of Magadhi spoken in north-western India.

p007c1-b33

अतिरस्कृत [ a-tiras-krita ]
- pp. unsurpassed; greatest.

 

p007c2

p007c2-b00

अतिरात्र [ ati-rtr ]
- a. kept during the night; m. form of the Soma sacrifice requiring three nocturnal recitations.

 

p007c2-b01

अतिरुष्् [ ati-rush ]
- a. enraged; -rdha, pp. closely cohering: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -rpa, a. very beautiful; n. great beauty.

 

p007c2-b02

अतिरेक [ ati-reka ]
- m. excess, high degree.

 

p007c2-b03

अतिरोचमान [ ati-rokamna ]
- a. having still finer tufts of hair on the neck (horse).

 

p007c2-b04

अतिरोहितत्व [ ati-rohita-tva ]
- n. envelopment.

 

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{a.ti.la.}

p007c2-b05

अतिलङ्घिन्् [ ati-laṅghin ]
- a. overstepping.

 

p007c2-b06

अतिललित [ ati-lalita ]
- pp. extremely lovely.

UKT 130523, 140714: The female name Lalita 'beauty' is intriguing to me on several counts. Lalita can be one of the gopi-friends of Krishna.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lalita_gopi  130523

Lalita can also be the goddess, Tripura Sundari, of Tripura - a small Indian state connected to Manipur. Since Bur-Myan has many relationships with Tripura because of the geography, I wonder whether Tripura Sundari and the Pyu Nat-goddess, Thoanban'hla {on-pn-lha.} are connected.
See Thoanban'hla {on-pn-lha.} in Folk Elements in Buddhism
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch07-nat-list.htm
See Wikipedia on Tripura Sundari.

Since spelling reflects pronunciation, Lalita and Lilith (of the Jewish legend connected to Genesis - 'Creation of Man') related?.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lilith 130523

 

p007c2-b07

अतिलुब्ध [ ati-lubdha ]
- pp. very greedy, very avaricious: -t, f. excessive greed; -lobha, m. id.: -t, f. id.

 

p007c2-b08

अतिलोम [ ati-loma ]
- a. excessively hairy; -lola, a. excessively wavering; -lohita, a. dark red: f. in; -laulya, n. excessive greed: -vat, a. too eager, very eager.

 

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{a.ti.wa.}

UKT 140715, 160519: Keep in mind that Skt-Myan {wya.}, derived aks-to-aks transformation from Skt-Dev, can become Pal-Myan {bya.}. See UHS-PMD0031

p007c2-b09

अतिवत्सल [ ati-vatsala ]
- a. very tender; -vartana, n. exemption, remission; -vartin, a. crossing; passing over; transgressing, neglecting; -vallabha, a. very dear: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -varsha, m. n., -na, n. excessive rain.

 

p007c2-b10

अतिवात [ ati-vta ]
- m. violent wind; -vt salya, n. extreme tenderness; -vda, m. hard word, insult; -vhya, n. passing (the night).

 

p007c2-b11

अतिविगर्ह्य [ ati-vigarhya ]
- fp. very blameworthy.

 

p007c2-b12

अतिविग्रहिन्् [ ati-vigrahin ]
- a. too bellicose.

 

p007c2-b13

अतिवितथ [ ati-vitatha ]
- a. quite useless; -vk, a. excessively mendacious.

mendacious - adj. . Lying; untruthful: a mendacious child. . False; untrue: a mendacious statement. See note at dishonest . -- AHTD

 

p007c2-b14

अतिविधुर [ ati-vidhura ]
- a. very wretched.

 

p007c2-b15

अतिविपर्यय [ ati-viparyaya ]
- m. great perversity; -vipina, a. very well wooded; -vipra-karsha, m. excessive distance; -vimanas, a. greatly discouraged.

 

p007c2-b16

अतिविराजिन्् [ ati-virgin ]
- a. extremely splendid; -virpa, a. excessively ugly.

 

p007c2-b17

अतिविलम्ब [ ati-vilamba ]
- m. excessive delay.

 

p007c2-b18

अतिविषम [ ati-vishama ]
- a. very dangerous; more dangerous than (ab.); very arduous; -visrin, a. of very wide scope; -vistara, m. excessive prolixity: -tas, ad. in a very detailed manner; -vistra, m. great extent; -vistrna, pp. too extensive; -vihvala, a. very perplexed, greatly overcome.

 

p007c2-b19

अतिवीर [ ati-vra ]
- m. great hero.

 

p007c2-b20

अतिवीर्यपराक्रम [ ati-vrya-parkrama ]
- a. of extraordinary bravery & prowess.

 

p007c2-b21

अतिवीर्यवत्् [ ati-vrya-vat ]
- a. very effective (remedy).

 

p007c2-b22

अतिवृत्त [ ati-vritta ]
- pp. long past; -vritti, f. trespass; -vriddhi, f. excessive growth; -vrishti, f. excessive rain: -da, a. giving --.

 

p007c2-b23

अतिवेग [ ati-vega ]
- m. excessive haste; -vedan, f. violent pain; -vepathu-mat, a. trembling violently.

 

p007c2-b24

अतिवैचक्षण्य [ ati-vaikakshanya ]
- n. very great experience.

 

p007c2-b25

अतिवैषम्य [ ati-vaishamya ]
- n. great inequality of ground.

 

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{a.ti.vya.} --> Pal-Myan {a.ti.bya.}

See - UHS-PMD0031
-
  UKT from UHS - mfn. very thorough

 

p007c2-b26

अतिव्यय [ ati-vyaya ]
- m. lavish expenditure, extravagance; -vyasana, n. great calamity; -vyasanin, a. overpowered by vice; -vyut panna, pp. very experienced in (lc.); -vrata, a. excessively pious.

 

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p007c3

Fricatives

Romabama definition of Fricatives

UKT 140715, 160520:

The three Fricatives, Husher {sha.}/ {sh}, Hisser {Sa.}/ {S}, and Thibilant {a.}/ {}, are widely misunderstood because the non-hissing thibilant <th> sound of Bur-Myan & Eng-Lat is very rare among the world's languages. This sound is found in the common English words such as <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), and <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535). Instead of using the English digraph <th>, I have to use the Old-English <> - the "thorn" character.

In Bur-Myan, there is only one non-hissing thibilant {a.} /θ/. In its place, there are three hissing sibilant sounds in Hindi-Dev & Skt-Dev: श śa /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ /s/; स s /s/ . To make up for the absent sounds, I have to use {sha.}// {sh}, for श, {Sa.}/ {S} for ष . I have to leave स as it is. Only for comparison between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev स is given as {a.}/ {}.

 

{a.ti.sha.}

p007c3-b00

अतिशक्र [ ati-sakra ]
- a. surpassing Indra: -sobhin, a. more beautiful than Indra.

 

p007c3-b01

अतिशक्वरी [ ati-sakvar ]
- f. a metre (4 X 15 syllables).

See my notes on Poetic meter: Sanskrit & Western

 

p007c3-b02

अतिशङ्कित [ ati-saṅkita ]
- pp. too much afraid of (ab.).

 

p007c3-b03

अतिशठ [ ati-satha ]
- a. very deceitful.

 

p007c3-b04

अतिशय [ ati-saya ]
- a. eminent; better than (ab.); m. eminence; excess, plenty: in. or --, more, very; -na, a. () excellent; -vat, a. excessive.

 

p007c3-b05

अतिशयित [ ati-sayita ]
- pp. surpassed; -tva, n. extraordinariness.

 

 

p007c3-b06

अतिशयिन्् [ ati-sayin ]
- a. excellent.

 

p007c3-b07

अतिशयोपमा [ ati-saya‿upam ]
- f. exaggerated simile.

 

p007c3-b08

अतिशस्त्र [ ati-sastra ]
- a. surpassing weapons.

 

p007c3-b09

अतिशात [ ati-sta ]
- a. causing great joy.

 

p007c3-b10

अतिशायिन्् [ ati-syin ]
- a. surpassing.

 

p007c3-b11

अतिशिथिल [ ati-sithila ]
- a. too loose; --fickle.

 

p007c3-b12

अतिशिशिर [ ati-sisira ]
- a. very cool.

 

p007c3-b13

अतिशीघ्र [ ati-sghra ]
- a. exceedingly swift.

 

p007c3-b14

अतिशीत [ ati-sta ]
- n. excessive cold.

 

p007c3-b15

अतिशुद्ध [ ati-suddha ]
- pp. perfectly pure.

 

p007c3-b16

अतिशूर [ ati-sra ]
- m. too great a hero.

 

p007c3-b17

अतिशौच [ ati-sauka ]
- n. too great cleanliness.

 

p007c3-b18

अतिश्रम [ ati-srama ]
= अ त ि श ् र म
- m. great fatigue; -slishta, pp. firmly attached, firmly united.

 

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{a.ti.Sa.} अतष

p007c3-b19

अतिष्कन्द्् [ ati-shknd ]
= अ त ि ष ् क न ् द ् ्
- f. overstepping.

 

p007c3-b20

अतिष्ठत्् [ -tishthat ]
- pr. pt. not remaining standing, not resting; withdrawing from (lc.).

 

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{a.ti.a.}

p007c3-b21

अतिसक्ति [ ati-sakti ]
- f. great nearness of, extreme attachment to (in.); -mat, a. too much attached to (lc.).

 

p007c3-b22

अतिसखि [ ati-sakhi ]
- m. great friend.

 

p007c3-b23

अतिसंकट [ ati-samkata ]
- n. extreme density; great distress; -samkruddha, pp. very angry; -samkshepa, m. too great brevity; -samkaya, m. excessive accumulation, vast hoard; -samrambha, m. violent indignation.

 

p007c3-b24

अतिसत्वरम्् [ ati-satvaram ]
- ad. very hastily.

 

p007c3-b25

अतिसदय [ ati-sa-daya ]
- a. very compassionate.

 

p007c3-b26

अतिसदृश [ ati-sadrisa ]
- a. extremely like.

 

p007c3-b27

अतिसंतत [ ati-sam-tata ]
- pp. uninterrupted.

 

p007c3-b28

अतिसंधेय [ ati-sam-dheya ]
- fp. to be suppressed.

 

p007c3-b29

अतिसंनिधान [ ati-samnidhna ]
- n. excessive nearness.

 

p007c3-b30

अतिसमर्थ [ ati-samartha ]
- a. extremely able.

 

p007c3-b31

अतिसमीप [ ati-sampa ]
- a. too near; -t, f. too great proximity.

 

p007c3-b32

अतिसंभोग [ ati-sambhoga ]
- m. great treat.

 

p007c3-b33

अतिसंभ्रम [ ati-sambhrama ]
- m. violent agitation.

 

p007c3-b34

अतिसरस [ ati-sarasa ]
- a. very palatable; more palatable than (ab.).

 

p007c3-b35

अतिसर्ग [ ati-sarga ]
- m. granting (a wish).

 

p007c3-b36

अतिसर्पण [ ati-sarpana ]
- n. violent agitation.

 

p007c3-b37

अतिसर्व [ ati-sarva ]
- a. more than complete; raised above all.

 

p007c3-b38

अतिसविशङ्कम्् [ ati-savisaṅkam ]
- ad. with great anxiety.

 

p007c3-b39

अतिसहसा [ ati-sahas ]
- ad. too precipitately.

 

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UKT notes

Poetic meter: Sanskrit & Western

-- UKT 110720, 160521

metern. . a. The measured arrangement of words in poetry, as by accentual rhythm, syllabic quantity, or the number of syllables in a line. b. A particular arrangement of words in poetry, such as iambic pentameter, determined by the kind and number of metrical units in a line. c. The rhythmic pattern of a stanza, determined by the kind and number of lines. . Music a. Division into measures or bars. b. A specific rhythm determined by the number of beats and the time value assigned to each note in a measure. See note at rhythm. -- AHTD 

In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse. Many traditional verse forms prescribe a specific verse metre, or a certain set of metres alternating in a particular order. The study and the actual use of metres and forms of versification are both known as prosody. -- Google 160521

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit_prosody 160521

Sanskrit prosody or Chandas refer to one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies. [1] It is the study of poetic metres and verse in Sanskrit. [1] This field of study was central to the composition of the Vedas, the scriptural canons of Hinduism, so central that some later Hindu and Buddhist texts refer to the Vedas as Chandas. [1] [2]

The Chandas, as developed by the Vedic schools, were notable for including both linear and non-linear systems. [3] The system was organized around seven major meters, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, called the "seven birds" or "seven mouths of Brihaspati", and each had its own rhythm, movements and aesthetics wherein a non-linear structure (aperiodicity) was mapped into a four verse polymorphic linear sequence. [3] [UKT ]

The structure of meters in Sanskrit prosody include those based on fixed number of syllables per verse, and those based on fixed number of morae per verse. [4]

mora n. pl. morae or moras . The minimal unit of metrical time in quantitative verse, equal to the short syllable. [Latin pause] - ADTD
UKT 160521: Since "syllables" are traditionally measured in time taken to blink your eye (eye-blinks or blk), and the duration of a "short syllable" is 1 blk, we can take 1 mora (Latin term) to be equal to 1 blk (Magadha unit).

The Gayatri meter was structured with 3 verses of 8 syllables (6x4), [UKT ]

UKT 160521: The Gayatri has been taken to be the Old Vdic form, whereas others belong to the classical Sanskrit period. I opine that Gayatri was Vdic (Tib-Bur), whilst the later ones were developed by Sanskrit-speaking invaders belonging to IE (Indo-European). (Note the word "Aryan" because of its association with Hitler's Nazism has been avoided to the best of my ability.)

The Usnih with 2 verses of 8 and 1 of 12 syllables (7x4), the Anustubh with 4 verses of 8 syllables (8x4), Brihati with 2 verses of 8 followed by 1 each of 12 and 8 syllables (9x4), the Pankti with 5 verses of 8 syllables (10x4), the Tristubh with 4 verses of 11 syllables (11x4), and the Jagati meter with 4 verses of 12 syllables each (12x4). [5] In Vedic culture, the Chandas were revered for their perfection and resonance, with Gayatri meter treated as the most refined and sacred, and one that continues to be part of modern Hindu culture as part of Yoga and hymns of meditation at sunrise. [6]

Extant ancient manuscript on Chandas include Pingala's Chandah Sutra, while an example of middle ages Sanskrit prosody manuscript is Kedara Bhatta's Vrittaratnakara. [7] [note 1] The most exhaustive compilations of Sanskrit prosody contain over 600 metres. [10] This is a substantially larger repertoire than in any other metrical tradition. [11]

In most Western classical poetic traditions, the meter of a verse can be described as a sequence of feet, [1] each foot being a specific sequence of syllable types such as unstressed/stressed (the norm for English poetry) or long/short (as in most classical Latin and Greek poetry).

Iambic pentameter, the most common meter in English poetry, is a sequence of five iambic feet or iambs, each consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one (" da DUM" or {doak-doad} ).

UKT 160521: Search the internet with the string: "da dum of human heart beat". You'll see many articles explaining the iambic pentameter :

Edited from: Giorgio V. in Poetry Soup ,
- http://www.poetrysoup.com/article/iambic_meter_did_you_know_that_it_expresses_our_heartbeat-606 160521

Yes, it expresses the beat of our hearts!

Iambic meter is the more widely used meter in structured verse. The four variations of it are:
  - the Pentameter,
  - the Tetrameter,
  - the Hexameter, and
  - the Trimeter.

1. Iambic pentameter is a commonly used metrical line in traditional verse, and verse drama. The term describes the particular rhythm that the words establish in that line. That rhythm is measured in small groups of syllables; these small groups of syllables are called "feet". The word "iambic" describes the type of foot that is used (in English, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable). The word "pentameter" indicates that a line has five of these "feet."

The da-DUM of a human heartbeat is the most common example of this rhythm.

A standard line of iambic pentameter is five iambic feet in a row: most sonnets (English and Italian) are written in Iambic Pentameter.

da DUM   da DUM   da DUM   da DUM   da DUM

(the above excerpt was taken from:)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iambic_pentameter )

Example:

Concerned the stalwart stares above the land
  where snow flakes in the winter gust rotate
the herds of buffalo tracked down and strand-
  -were forced to move ahead and relocate.
- by Giorgio V.

UKT: The following is from an unknown source:

2. Similarly, we may refer to Iambic tetrameter verse: a standard line of iambic tetrameter consists of four iambic feet in a row:

da DUM   da DUM   da DUM   da DUM

Example:

The sea-waves touch your open palms;
  along the shore the waters bid
when stormy sea henceforth becalms,
  and tide engulfs what skies forbid.
- by Giorgio V.

3. Another variation is the Iambic hexameter: a standard line of iambic hexameter consists of six iambic feet in a row.
It is a demanding form of Iamb and we use it when our theme requires longer, rhetorical lines.

da DUM   da DUM   da DUM   da DUM   da DUM   da DUM

Example:

And then my thought reshaped two passengers to pair
  amid that solitude and needle-stinging rain,
details that spun the gyroscopic lift and flare,
  across the road evolved to some melodic strain.)
- b\By Giorgio Venetopoulos

3. Iambic trimeter is a meter consisting of three iambic units per line. The playful and fast rhythm this meter offers, is suitable for lyrics and light poetry.

da DUM   da DUM   da DUM

Example:

We romped until the pans
  Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
  Could not unfrown itself.
- by Theodore Roethke

 

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iambic_pentameter 140717

An iambic foot is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The rhythm can be written as:

da DUM   {doak-doad}

The da DUM of a human heartbeat - {doak-doad} - is the most common example of this rhythm.
A standard line of iambic pentameter is five iambic feet in a row:

The tick-TOCK rhythm of iambic pentameter can be heard in the opening line of Shakespeare's Sonnet 12:

When I   do count  the clock that tells  the time
da DUM   da DUM     da DUM    da DUM    da DUM

This approach to analyzing and classifying meters originates from ancient Greek tragedians and poets such as Homer (fl. 850 B.C.), Pindar (522?-443? B.C.), Hesiod (fl. 8th c. B.C.), and Sappho (fl. c. 600 B.C.) -- [dates from AHTD].

Note that some meters have an overall rhythmic pattern to the line that cannot easily be described using feet. This occurs in Sanskrit poetry; see Vedic meter and Sanskrit meter). (Although this poetry is in fact specified using feet, each "foot" is more or less equivalent to an entire line.) [UKT ]

UKT130814, 160521: I am like the proverbial water buffalo being entertained with harp music. Not appreciating the music the musician is gored by the beast. Not a beast, I tried learning about versification and meter in poetry. A dumb scientist, the word "meter" brings to my mind only a measure of length - about 36 inches.

The Vedic meter and Classical Sanskrit meter are different, because of which Vedic language is quite different from Classical Sanskrit of Panini. My eye-opener is the Gayatri Mantra which has a parallel in Buddhist Peacock Sutra.
Listen to Mora Sutta by Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<)) (link chk 160521)
and Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev, the "Hindu equivalent" - bk-cndl-gayatri<)) (link chk 160521)

However, it also occurs in some Western meters, such as the hendecasyllable favored by Catullus [Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca. 8454 BC)] , which can be described approximately as " DUM-DUM-DUM-da-da-DUM-da-DUM-da-DUM-da", with some variation allowed in the first two syllables.

Meter in Sanskrit

Classical Sanskrit and Vedic Sanskrit use meters for most ancient treatises that are set to verse. Prominent Vedic meters include Gayatri, Ushnik, Anushtupa, Brhati, Pankti, Tristubh and Jagati. The basic meter for epic verse is the Sloka. [UKT ]

Sanskrit meter is quantitative, similar in general principles to classical Greek and Latin meter. The Bhagavad Gita is mainly written in anustupa (with some vasanta-tilaka sections) interspersed with some Tristubh. For example, when Krishna reveals his divinity to Arjuna the meter changes to Tristubh. Tristubh is the most prevalent meter of the ancient Rigveda, accounting for roughly 40% of its verses.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit_meter 120919

Versification in Classical Sanskrit poetry is of three kinds. [1]

1. Syllabic verse (akṣaravṛtta): meters depend on the number of syllables in a verse, with relative freedom in the distribution of light and heavy syllables. This style is derived from older Vedic forms, and found in the great epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.

Syllabic verse is a poetic form having a fixed or constrained number of syllables per line, while stress, quantity, or tone play a distinctly secondary role or no role at all in the verse structure. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllabic_verse 130227

2. Syllabo-quantitative verse (varṇavṛtta): meters depend on syllable count, but the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

3. Quantitative verse (mātrāvṛtta): meters depend on duration, where each verse-line has a fixed number of morae, usually grouped in sets of four.

Standard traditional works on meter are Pingala's Chandaḥśāstra and Kedāra's Vṛttaratnākara. The most exhaustive compilations, such as the modern ones by Patwardhan and Velankar contain over 600 meters. This is a substantially larger repertoire than in any other metrical tradition. [2]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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