Update: 2016-05-14 08:47 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 160503: It has been suggested that because this file p005.htm contains words belonging to categories that might be separated into 2 subsections:
to (from row#2), to / (beginning of row#3).
However, for the time being file p005.htm will remain undivided.

{a.za.} / {iz} : {a.} checked by killed voiced palatal plosive-stop
  UKT 160426: I may have to move it down to {a.z~a.} / {a.Za.} / {iz~a.}

{iz} : vowel /i/ checked by killed-za {z}
{iz~za.} : beginning of Izza series (aka Izza First Series) which is more important in Pal-Myan than Skt-Dev

{iz~Za.} : beginning of the IzZa series (aka Izza Second Series) which is more important in Pal-Myan than Skt-Dev

UKT 150114, 160420: In many common words, such as "jhāna" {Zaan}, Bur-Myan {Za.}, and Skt-Dev ज्ञ {z~a.} seems to have the similar meaning. Based on this observation, I have placed both in the same cell r2c4. In the following {iz~a.} is my coined orthography using the hanging Nya'gyi {a.} of Mon-Myan. *

{a.z~a.} / {a.Za.} / {iz~a.} / {iz~a.}
{a.z~a} / {a.Za} / {iz~a}
{a.z~} / {a.Z} / {iz~}


{a.a.} / {i} - there is no Skt-Dev words beginning with r1c5 & r2c5 consonants
{ i~sa.} अञ्च = अ ञ ् च
{i~za.} अञ्ज = अ ञ ् ज

in Pal-Myan is a horizontal conjunct which breaks down under Virama {a.t}

Pal-Myan: {a.a.} + viram --> {i~a.}
Bur-Myan: {s} /si/ - 2. drum, cask, barrel, keg -- MLC MED2006-121

Bur-Myan 'drum' must not be broken up to {si-a.} : it would give a wrong and misleading pronunciation.

{ i~a.}:

UKT 160503: I am wondering if <a> is a negation or something else that is commonly found in Bur-Myan and possibily in other Tib-Bur languages.

{a.Ta.} / {T}
/ {T~Ta.}

/ {~a.}

UKT 130910: You'll see the change

Pal / {~a.} --> Skt अर्ध  ardha

Note the repha on Skt-Dev. Sanskrit speakers have to introduce rhotic sounds at every opportunity similar to the present day rhotic English speakers in America.

{a.Na.} / {N}

{a.ta.} / {t} : Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel


UKT notes :
butter milk
Flacourtia jangomas
Grammatical designations of vowels and approximants
Romabama as bridge between Burmese and English
Secondary suffixes
The Three Poisons (Buddhism)

* UKT 160429, 160501: Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} is used in {iz~a.} (my coined orthography) as the Palatal approximant, and not as Palatal plosive-stop, similar to Velar approximant {ya.}/ {}. Don't forget that killed-Nya'gyi ending-sound is non-nasal as in Nay'pyi'daw {n-pri-tau}. Hanging Nya'gyi {a.}, therefore, should behave exactly like Ya'ping {ya.pn.} found under {sa.} & {za.} in shape of / {Za.}. For hanging Nya'gyi, see Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, 2007,  www.monlibrary.com, Yangon, 2007, in TIL SD-Library, on p047/pdf051
- MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160418)

Since this is a Sanskrit Dictionary augmented with Pali entries from Pal-Myan, Nya'gyi {a.} must be treated as a horizontal conjunct of two Nya'le {a.}

{} + {a.} --> {~a.} : horizontal conjunct
Remember, Pal-Myan Nya'gyi is a horizontal conjunct, and Romabama transcription is {~a.} - not {a.}. Because it is a conjunct it must not be killed.

CAUTION: There is a very much look-alike glyph which is easily mistaken for Nya'le {nya.l:}. It is the vowel-letter /u/ and is known as Akkhara-U {ak~hka.ra U.}. The two are differentiated by the length of their foot. Before the age of computers when letter-presses were used for printing on paper, the font-makers had used the same font for both Nya'le {nya.l:} and Akkhara-U {ak~hka.ra U.}.

UKT 160502: {a.a.} in Pal-Myan is a horizontal conjunct which breaks down under Virama {a.t}

Pal-Myan: {a.a.} + viram --> {i~a.}

However, in Bur-Myan, Nya'gyi {a.} being a basic consonantal akshara can be under Virama without breaking up. Then, {a.} & {}, can move closer to each other and form a new syllable of the form V where V is nuclear vowel of the syllable and is the coda.

Bur-Myan: {a.a.} + viram --> {a.} + {}
----> {} vow-duration 2 eye-blink and pronounced like /i/


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{a.za.}/ {iz} : {a.} checked by killed voiced palatal plosive-stop



अज् [AG ] {iz} , I. P. (.)
-- ga , drive. adhi, drive up. apa , -away. ava, -down. , -up. ud , -out. upa , - up; . drive up for oneself



अज [ . ag- ]
- m. herding; drover; he-goat.
Skt: अज [ 1. ag- ] - m. herding; drover; he-goat. - Mac005c1
Skt: aj - m. a drove, troop (of Maruts) AV. ...  - MonWill009c2
Pal: {a.za.} - UHS-PMD0017
  UKT from UHS: m. goat, a Myanmar goat.

UKT 160425: It is probable UHS has in mind two kinds of goats: "Myanmar goat" probably means the herds of goats reared by poor farmers in northern-Myanmarpr for rough wool & in ones or twos by people all over the country for goat-milk as milk-supplement for human-babies, and mountain goats which are wild.


अज [ . a-g ]
Skt: अज [ . a-g ] - a. unborn, existing from the bg.; m. the Unborn, the Eternal One;
  - (C.) N. of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; kind of grain (by a forced explanation). - Mac005c1
Skt: aj - m. ... N. of Indra, of Rudra, of one of the Maruts [aj ka-pā́ RV., and aj ka-pāda AV.],
  of Agni, of the sun, of Brahmā, of Vishṇu, of Śiva, of Kāma (cf. 2. a-ja) ... - MonWill009c2 

UKT 160506: I look on the possibility that the idea of "unborn, existing from the beginning", to be of the idea of the Vdic speakers - the Vdic language being a Tib-Bur language. When the Sanskrit speakers - the Sanskrit being an IndoEuropean language, overwhelmed the Tib-Bur speakers by force of arms, in order to subjugate the conquered completely, they personified the "unborn from the beginning" with their imported "gods": Brahmā, Vishṇu, Śiva, Kāma in the northern part of India. In the southern part the introduced "gods" are Rudra, and Maruts. The Vdic "Mothers" {m tau} were identified with "goddesses" of their Cosmology, and stories written that the "Mothers" are the wives of their imported "gods". The idea of "Mother" can be seen in many paintings. Inset Pix: - http://www.exoticindiaart.com/product/paintings/mother-india-wearing-sari-and-mahatma-gandhi-in-her-lap-WF14/ 160505


अज [ . ag-a ] the √ag. - Mac005c1


अजक ajaka
Skt: अजक ajaka - m. young he-goat -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.za.ka.}- UHS-PMD0017
  UKT from UHS: m. goat, a Myanmar goat.



अजगर [ aga-gar ]
Skt: अजगर [aga-gar] - m. large snake, boa. -- Mac005c1
Skt: अजगर  ajagara - m. python -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.za.ga.ra.}
- - UHS-PMD0017
  UKT from UHS: m. python aka boa constrictor

UKT 130817, 160423:
गलति { गल् } galati - v. to swallow - SpkSkt
अत्ति atti - m. eater -- SpkSkt
अत्तृ attṛ - m. eater -- SpkSkt

अजगर  ajagara --> {a.za.ga.ra.}
Skt: अजगर [aga-gar] - m. large snake, boa. -- Mac005c1
Skt: अजगर  ajagara - m. python -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.za.ga.ra.}
- - UHS-PMD0017
  UKT from UHS: m. python aka boa constrictor

UKT 130817: PTS meaning [aja + gara = gala fr. *gel to devour, thus "goat-eater"] seems a bit off. The verbs "to eat" and "to swallow" are different.
गलति { गल् } galati - v. to swallow - SpkSkt
अत्ति atti - m. eater -- SpkSkt
अत्तृ attṛ - m. eater -- SpkSkt



अजगलस्तन [ aga-gala-stana ]
- m. dew-lap on the neck of the goat.



अजघन्य [ a-gaghanya ]
- a. not the last; not the worst, i.e. the most excellent.



अजड [ a-gada ]
- a. not half-witted, of sound mind.



अजन [ a-gan ]
Skt: अजन [a-gana] - a. solitary; n. desert place. -- Mac005c1
Skt: a-jan - mfn. destitute of men desert m. an insignificant person -- MonWilli010c1



अजननि [ a-ganani ]
Skt: अजननि [ a-ganani ] - f. deprivation of birth (in imprecations). -- Mac005c1
Skt: a-janani -  f. (generally used in cursing), non-birth, cessation of existence
  ajananir astu tasya , 'may he cease to exist!' Pacat Pāṇ. 3-3, 112 -- MonWilli010c1



अजनाग्रीय [ a-gana‿agrya ]
- a. unexposed to public gaze.



अजन्मन्् [ a-ganman ]
- n. cessation of re-birth.



अजप aja-pa, ˚पाल -pala  
Skt: अजप [aga-pa], ˚पाल [-pla] - m. goat-herd. -- Mac005c1
Skt: a-japa . m. (√jap), one who does not repeat prayers a reciter of heterodox works L (ā), f. the mantra or formula called haṃsa (which consists only of a number of inhalations and exhalations). . aja-pa m. 1. aj -- MonWill010c1



अजमायु [ ag-myu ]
- a. bleating like a goat.



अजय्य a-jayya
Skt: अजय्य [a-gayya] - fp. unconquerable. -- Mac005c1
Skt: a-jayya - mfn. invincible, improper to be won at play -- MonWilli-010c1



अजर [a-gra ]
Skt: अजर [a-gara] - a. not aging, ever young; m. pl. the flames of Agni. -- Mac005c1
Skt: a-jra - mfn. (√jṝ), not subject to old age, undecaying, ever young.
  - -ā, f. the plants Aloe perfoliata and jirṇapajhi .  - the river Sarasvati -- MonWilli010c1
Pal: {a.za.ra.} - UHS-PMD0017
  UKT from UHS - mfn. non-aging.

UKT 160502: Because of turn of events, the mighty Saraswati river of Rig Veda, is no more: it is now under the sands of Thar Desert!



अजरत्् [ a-grat ]
- pr. pt. not growing old.



अजराज [aga-rga]
-- m. N.



अजरामरत्व [ agara‿amara-tva ]
- n. everlasting youth and immortality; -vat, ad. as if undecaying and immortal.



अजर्य [ a-gary ]
- a. not growing old; n. friendship.


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Pal: {a.za. lak~hka.Ni.ka}
- - UHS-PMD0017
  UKT from UHS: f.  goat exchange [goat market]



अजल्पत्् [ a-galpat ]
- pr. pt. not saying.



अजवीथी [ aga-vth ]
अजवीथी aja-vithi
Skt: अजवीथी [ aga-vth ]  - f. goat-path (part of the moon's orbit). -- Mac005c1
Skt: अजवीथी ajavīthī f. comprehending the asterisms  मूल mūla 'the root', goat's road, one of the three paths in which the Sun, Moon, and planets move. -- SpkSkt



अजस्र [ -gasra ]
- a. untiring, ever fresh: -m, --, continually, every, in. id., with neg.=never.



अजहल्लक्षणा [ a-gahal-lakshan ]
- f. ellipse not abandoning the primary meaning, e.g. 'the grey (horse) runs'


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अजा ajā
Skt: अजा [ajā] - f. goat. -- Mac005c1
Skt: ajā - f. a she-goat. 1. aj -- MonWilli010c1
Pal:  (f.) a she-goat J iii.125; iv.251. -- PTS010



अजात [ -gta ]
Skt: अजात [ -gta ] - a. not born, unborn. -- Mac005c1
Skt: -jāta - mfn. unborn, not yet born, not yet developed -- MonWilli010c1



अजातपक्ष [ a-gta-paksha ]
- a. unfledged; -ragas, a. pollen-less; not yet menstruating; -lomn, f. a. whose hair has not yet grown, immature; -vyagana, a. beardless; -satru, a. having no enemy (as a match); m. N. of Yudhishthira.

अजातव्यञ्जन ajātavyajana
Skt: [-vyagana] -a. beardless - Mac005c1
Skt: अजातव्यञ्जन ajātavyajana - adj. whose signs of puberty are not yet developed - SpkSkt

UKT 160426: The word व्यञ्जन vyajana - n. consonant [Grammar] - SpkSkt
Other meanings given by SpkSkt: clear, manifest, dry curry, curry, etc.


अजातारि [a-gta‿ari]
Skt: अजातारि [a-gta‿ari] - m. N. of Yudhishthira. -- Mac005c
Skt: अजातारि ajātāri - m. having no enemy -- SpkSkt

UKT 130619: Yudhishthira, युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira 'steady in war', the eldest Pandava brother of Mahabharatta was born of Kunti his human-mother and the Hindu deva-god Dhamma (by what might be called immaculate conception). Though his official human-father was King Pandu, he was not genetically related to him, yet Yudhishthira was known as a Pandava 'son of Pandu'.

Compare this story to the story of immaculate conception of Virgin Mary by the Christian-God. Mary gave birth to Jesus, the founder of Christianity. Both Yudhishthira and Jesus could claim to be half-deva-half-human, yet the former is considered to be human, whereas Jesus is considered to be the Son of God.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yudhisthira 130619



अजाति [ a-gti ]
- f. spurious or bad ware.



अजानत्् [ a-g-n-at ]
- pr. pt. unacquainted with (ac.).



आजामि [ -gmi ]
- a. unconsanguineous; n. incest.



अजावि [ aga‿av ]
- m. pl. sheep and goats; -k, n. s. id.



अजाश््व [ aga‿asva ]
- n. goats and horses.


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अजिगीष [ a-gigsha ]
- a. free from ambition.



अजित [ a-gita ]
Skt: अजित [ a-gita ] - pp. unconquered. -- Mac005c1
Skt: a-jita - mfn. not conquered, unsubdued, unsurpassed, invincible, irresistible ... -- MonWilli010c1



अजितात्मन्् [ agita‿tman ]
- a. un-self-controlled.



-- m. N. of a king



अजितेन्द्रिय [ a-gita‿indriya ]
- a. whose senses are unsubdued.



अजिन [ agna ]
Skt: - n. hide; leathern purse; -ratna, n. treasure of a (=magic) purse. -- Mac005c1 (p005c1end)
Skt: - ajna  n. (probably at first the skin of a goat, aja)
  the hairy skin of an antelope, especially a black antelope
  (which serves the religious student for a couch seat, covering &c.) ... -  MonWilli010c1
Pal: -- (nt.) [Vedic ajina, to aja, orig. goats' skin] the hide of the black antelope,
  worn as a garment by ascetics D i.167 ... -- PTS010


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अजिनावती ajinā-vatī
Skt: अजिनावती [aginā-vatī ] - f. N. of a fairy -- Mac005c2
  UKT 160427: By the word 'fairy' A. A. Macdonell means Apsara Skt: अप्सरस् apsaras or Pal: {ic~hsa.ra}. - UHS PMD0016
  UKT from UHS: Daughter of Nat.

UKT 160503: Nat here simply means in Bur-Myan "someone who should be worshipped" - not Dva. {ic~hsa.ra} is not a Dvi.

UKT 160503: In most of the lists posted on the Internet, I find those beginning with A as: Alamvusha, Ambika, Anavadya, Anuchana, Aruna, Asita, but not अजिनावती ajinā-vatī. The devious Hindu King of Heavens, Indra (not the Buddhist Sakka), used Apsara to break the practice of ascetics to deprive them of power with which the human ascetic might try to dethrone him.



अजिर [ ag-ir ]
- a. mobile, rapid: -m, ad.; n. court; battle-field.



अजिह्म [ a-gihma ]
- a. not crooked, straight; honest.



अजिह्मग [ agihma-ga ]
- a. going straight forward; m. arrow.


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अजीगर्् [ -ggar ]
- V. 3 s. aor. cs. of √gri, has awakened.



अजीगर्त [ aggarta ]
- m. N. of Sunahsepa's father.

UKT 160427: "Ajigarta had three sons: Sunahpuccha ("dog's tail"), Shunahshepa ("dog's penis"), and Sunahlangula ("dog's hindquarters")" -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shunahshepa 160427



अजीत [ -gta ]
Skt: अजीत [ -gta ] - pp. uninjured, fresh. -- Mac005c2
Skt: -jīta mfn. (√jyā, usually jina), not faded, not faint AV. TS., &c -- MonWilli010c1



अजीति [ -gti ]
- f. scathelessness, safety.



अजीर्ण [ a-grna ]
- pp. not growing old; n. indigestion.



अजीर्णिन्् [ agrnin ]
- a. dyspeptic.



अजीर्ति [ a-grti ]
- f. indigestion.



अजीव [ a-gva ]
- a. lifeless.



अजीवत्् [ a-gvat ]
- pr. pt. not living; unable to maintain oneself.



अजीवित [ a-gvita ]
- n. not living, death.


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अजुगुप्सित [ a-gugupsita ]
- pp. blameless.



अजुर्  [ a-gr ] --> {a.jur} (note rhotic ending)
Skt: - a. not growing old, imperishable. -- Mac005c2
Skt: a-jr mfn. (√jur), not subject to old age or decay RV. viii, 1, 2 -- MonWill010c1



अजुर्य [ a-gur-y ]
--> {a.jur~ya.} (note the repha)
Skt: - a. (f. -y or -) id. -- Mac005c2



अजुष्ट [ -gushta ]
= अ ज ु ष ् ट --> {a.joaS-Ta.} (note {tic.hkaung:gnn} under {za.} followed by hisser {S})
Skt: अजुष्ट [ -gushta ] - pp. unpleasant; gloomy. -- Mac005c2
Skt: अजुष्ट ajuṣṭa - adj. not enjoyed, unsatisfactory - SpkSkt
Pal: {a.zoaT~HTa.} -- mfn. what is not agreeable - UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: - mfn. what is not agreeable


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अजेय [ a-geya ]
= अ ज े य = {a.z-ya.}
Skt: अजेय [a-geya] - fp. unconquerable. -- Mac005c2
Pal:  {a.z-yya.} - UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: mfn. who enemies could not overcome


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अजैकपाद्् [ aga‿ekapd ]
- m. N. of one of the eleven Rudras & of Vishnu.

UKT 160428: A bogeyman for Bur-Myan children {d-wau:}: "Stop crying: Dewau is coming". Rudras are storm-gods who are no better than devils. I am comparing them to those depicted in the painting the "Wild Hunt".
See: Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudra 110718, 160428
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunting_god 130528



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{iz} अज्  -
= अ ज ्  [remember the viram is important: it effects the pronunciation]

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{iz~za.} अज्ज
= अ ज ् ज

अद्य adya
= अ द ् य --> {a.d~ya.}/ {d~ya.}
Skt: अद्य adya - indecl. today -- SpkSkt
*Pal: {iz~za.} - - UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: in this present time, now.

UKT 130904, 160428: The two words, Pali & Sanskrit, if they were the dialects of the same language, should have some phonemic relations between them. This is the basic idea behind my work on BEPS. Then, why do the above two words do not match? I still have to learn more Pali and Sanskrit.


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अद्यतन  adyatana
= अ द ् य त न --> {a.d~ya.ta.na.}  
Skt: अद्यतन  adyatana - adj. modern, now-a-days, of today,
  midnight to midnight or dawn to dusk. n. update -- SpkSkt
*Pal: {iz~za.ta.na.} - UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: mfn. for today, for the present-time


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आर्जव ārjava
= आ र ् ज व --> {aar~za.wa.} : note the repha
Skt: आर्जव ārjava -- adj. straight -- SpkSkt
Pal: {iz~za.wa.} - UHS-PMD0018

  UKT from UHS: n. straightness [in character]. mfn. straightforward

Pal: {iz~za.hi.ta.} - UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: n. present benefit


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अज्जुका [agguk] 
= अ ज ् ज ु क ा = {iz~zu.ka}
Skt: अज्जुका [agguk] - f. courtesan (in a play). -- Mac005c2
Skt: - ajjukā - f. (in the drama) a courtezan -- MonWilli010
Pal: - [*Sk. arjaka] - N. of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum Vin iv.35; DA i.81 (all MSS. have ajjaka). -- PTS010
Pal: {iz~zu.ka.}
- -- UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: - m. N. of two plants, one of which is Ocimum Gratissimum .

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UKT 130905, 160429: This syllable is more important in Pali than in Sanskrit, which I think is due to the absence of {z~Za.}. Instead of which Skt uses another conjunct {z~a.} from which we get:

  {iz~a.} --> {i~a.} --> {a.a.}


अध्यक्ष adhyakṣa
= (अ ध ्) (य क ्) (ष)  = {D~yak.Sa.}
Skt: अध्यक्ष adhyakṣa -- m. chairman  -- SpkSkt
Pal: {iz~Zak~hka.} - UHS-PMD0018

  UKT from UHS: m. head of a company, officer


अज्झटा ajjhaṭā
= अ ज ् झ ट ा --> {iz~Za.Ta}
Skt: ajjhaṭā : ajjhaṭā -- f. the plant Flacourtia Cataphracta (= ajaṭā and ajaḍā) - MonWilli010
Pal: {iz~Za.Ta} - UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: f. the plant Flacourtia cataphracta or Indian plum, coffee plum, a lowland and mountain rain forest tree.
  See F.cataphracta


अज्झ्त्त ajjhatta
= अ ज ् झ ् त ् त  ( ? )
Pal: {iz~Zt~ta.} - UHS-PMD0018
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what you considered to be yourself, what is formed inside you based on Atta.
  n. within one's self, ego, ego of the creature.

UKT 130803: The above is a Theravada Buddhist term For a related Mahayana term,
see my note on Three Poisons (Buddhism)

Pal: {iz~Za.Ba-i.} - UHS-PMD0019
  UKT from UHS: requested humbly


अज्झल ajjhala
= अ ज ् झ ल --> {iz~Za.la.}
Skt: ajjhala -- m. a burning coal - MonWilli010
Skt: अज्झल ajjhala - m. burning coal -- SpkSkt


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{iz~Za-ga-r} - UHS-PMD0019

  UKT from UHS: at one's home


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{iz~ZaiT~Hta.} - UHS-PMD0020

  UKT from UHS: mfn. respectfully persuading. n. respectful persuasion


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Pal: {iz~Zu.p-ti.} - UHS-PMD0020
  UKT from UHS: greeting on arrival (reception)

UKT 130906: There are various forms of greetings currently in use by most of the nations. Hand salutes and handshakes are common, but in Thailand and neighbouring countries cupped hands is coming into use. Canadians are used to "bear-hugs" and "cheek-kissings", which many in Myanmarpr are finding offensive.

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Pal: {iz~Z-yya.ka.} - UHS-PMD0020
  UKT from UHS: m. master [officiating hora priest reciting mantras]


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Pal: {iz~Zau:ka-a.} - UHS-PMD0020
  UKT from UHS: m. barren plain


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{a.z~a.} / {iz~a.

UKT 150113, 160428: There were two special conjuncts in Skt-Dev that had troubled me in my earlier days of studying Skt-Dev: क्ष {k~Sa.} & ज्ञ {z~a.} . They are special because they occur frequently because of which I had to make special allowance to leave out the ~ (TIL notation for conjunct), and write क्ष {kSa.} & ज्ञ {za.}, and finally but occasionally as क्ष {ksa.} & ज्ञ {jna.} knowing fully well that {s} & {n} can be mistaken for other graphemes.
See: http://www.vedabase.com/en/bg/13/27 160428

Because they behave like regular "Kha" & "Za" in Bur-Myan, I have dubbed them as "Pseudo-Kha" & "Pseudo-Za". In many common words, such as jhāna {Zaan}/ , Bur-Myan {Za.}, Mon-Myan ◄Za.►, and Skt-Dev ज्ञ {z~a.} seems to be the same. Based on this observation, I have placed both in the same cell r2c4 of Akshara matrix. Yet, the Theravada meaning of {Zaan} and the Hindu jhāna seems to be slightly different. I feel Hindu jhāna to be more similar to {aaN} 'knowledge' than to {Zaan} 'insight'. With this observation, I must stop asking the question leaving it to religious authorities to solve.

UKT 130805: A study of Bur-Myan {a.} has convinced me that it has elements of {ya.}, and that {a.}-killed is similar to {ya.}-killed.

{s~ya.}  = {z~ya.} ⋍ {z~a.}
--> Skt-Myan {z~a.} = Skt-Dev ज्ञ (= ज ् ञ)

We may or may not come to a final decision for some time. First, I will have to study the entries from UHokeSein for r2c4 as well as for r2c5. We must keep in mind Bur-Myan words: {Zaan} (MED2006-155) and  {aaN} ignoring the idea of "derivatives" from Pali. Remember  that Pali does not have these phonemes in the onset as in {Z:} 'market', {a.} 'night', {:} 'woman', & {:} 'woman' (MED2006-157). 



अज्ञ [ a-ga ]
= (अ ज ्) (ञ) = {iz~a.} --> {a.za.}
Skt: अज्ञ [aga] - a. ignorant; senseless (animals & things); stupid, foolish, inexperienced. -- Mac005c2
Skt: अज्ञ aja - m. ignorant. adj. not knowing, unwise, unconscious, inexperience, stupid. -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.a.} - UHS-PMD0022
  UKT from UHS: mfn. the other (implying "alien"), what is not same. m. stranger

UKT 130906: How can a stranger know our ways? The state of being an alien implies ignorance. Because of this implication, can we say Skt: {a.za.} , and Pal: {a.a.} to be the same, or just similar?



अज्ञता [ aga-t ]
- f. ignorance, stupidity.


अज्ञता [aga-t]
= अ ज ् ञ त ा
Skt: अज्ञता [aga-t] - f. ignorance, stupidity. -- Mac005c2
*Pal: -> pronounced as / {i~a-ta}/ - UHS-PMD0023
  UKT from UHS: m. one who knows, one who has attained Arahatship 


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{a.z~a} / {a.z~a} / {iz~a}


अज्ञात [ -gta ]
- pp. unknown, unrecognised: -m, ad. without the knowledge of (g.); -kulasla, a. whose family and character are unknown; -bhukta, pp. eaten unawares; -vsa, m. unknown abode; a. whose abode is unknown: -m, ad. unknown, incognito.



अज्ञाति [ a-gti ]
- m. no blood-relation.



अज्ञात्वा [ a-g-tv ]
- gd. without knowing.



अज्ञान [ 1. a-gna ]
Skt: - 1. n. ignorance; inadvertence: ab. inadvertently; non-intelligence: name of primeral matter as the ultimate material cause ; a. ignorant, foolish, inexperienced. -- Mac-005c2
Skt: a-ja - mfn. (√), not knowing ignorant, inexperienced unconscious unwise, stupid -- Mon-Willi-010c2
Pal: ajānana -- (˚ -- ) (nt.) [a + jānana] not knowing, ignorance (of) J v.199 (˚bhāva); vi.177 (˚kāla). - PTS-010



अज्ञानतस्् [ a-gna-tas ]
- ad. unwittingly.



अज्ञानार्थ [ a-gna‿artha ]
- a. not having the meaning "knowledge"



अज्ञास्् [ -gs ]
- a. without kin.


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{a.z~} / {a.Z} / {iz~}


अज्ञेय [ a-geya ]
= अ ज ् ञ े य = (अ ज ्) (ञ े) य
Skt: - fp. not to be known or recognised. -- Mac005c2
*Pal: {a.-yya.} - UHS-PMD0023
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what should be recognized as separate


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अज्म [ g-ma ]
= अ ज ् म --> {iz~ma.}
Skt: - m. road; course; train; -n, n. id. -- Mac005c2
Skt: jma - m. (√aj), career, march RV. [ Gk. ?]. [Page 10, Column 3] - MonWill010c3


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अज्यानि [ -gyni ]
= अ ज ् य ा न ि
- f. intactness, safety.


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अज्येष्ठ [ a-gyeshth ]
- a. not the eldest: pl. of whom none is the eldest; not the best; -vritti, a. not behaving as an elder brother.


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अज्र [ g-ra ]
= अ ज ् र
- m. pasture, field, plain.


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{a.a.} / { i} - there is no Skt-Dev words beginning with r1c5 & r2c5 consonants


[1. AK ]
-- v. 1. AK 



[2. -ak ]
-- a. going -, -ward (-)


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{ i~sa.} अञ्च = अ ञ ् च


अञ्चल [ ak-ala ]
= अ ञ ् च ल --> {i~sa.la.}
- m. border, hem; corner.



अञ्चु [ak-u] (orthography should be checked)
-- gr. term for  -ak .


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अञ्ज् [AG ] VII. (from अञ्ज ् )
-- ankti , aṅkt , anoint, smear, (. refl. ); adorn; . adorn oneself with (ac.); -onour , celebrate; display; cs. smear, anu , abhi , anoint, smear. , anoint. ni , hide among (antar ). vi , beautify; manifest, display: pp. vyakta , manifest, distinct, clear: -m , ad. distinctly, certainly; cs show. ...


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अञ्जन [ ag-ana ] ajana
= अ ञ ् ज न  {i~za.na.}
Skt: अञ्जन [ ag-ana ] - n. anointing; ointment; collyrium (for blackening eyelashes), antimony; -giri, -parvata, m. N. of a mtn.; -krna,n. pulverised antimony; -vriksha, m. kind of  tree: -dru-maya, a. made of the wood of this tree.

अञ्जन ajana 
Skt: अञ्जन [ag-ana] - n. anointing; ointment; collyrium (for blackening eyelashes), antimony; -- Mac005c3
Skt: अञ्जन ajana - n. embellishing, fat, as lamp-black, night, making clear the meaning of an equivocal expression, double entendre or pun, extract of Ammonium, lotion or wash for eyes, black pigment for eyelashes, fire, Java turmeric [Curcuma xanthorrhiza Bot] , antimony, act of applying an ointment or pigment, anointing, paint, black pigment or lotion or wash for eyes applied to the eyelashes or the inner coat of the eyelids as a cosmetic, ink -- SpkSkt
Pal: {i~za.na.} - UHS-PMD0021
  UKT from UHS: n. eye lotion, brown eye lotion, act of applying eye lotion [into eye-socket], act of encircling the eye [just outside the eye] with eye-ointment, N. of a mineral rock, ink [usually black]. m. N. of an elephant. 
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collyrium 130621
An interesting fact in the Wiki article:
" The Sunan Abu Dawood [ca. 889 CE] reports, Prophet Muhammad said: 'Among the best types of collyrium is antimony (ithmid) [Antimony sulfide] for it clears the vision and makes the hair sprout." [1] Maimonides [2] (12th century Egypt) mentions the use of this eye salve."



अञ्जनक [ agana-ka ]
- n. collyrium.



अञ्जनवत्् [ agana-vat ]
- ad. like collyrium.



अञ्जलि [ agal ]
= अ ञ ् ज ल ि = {i~za.li.}
- m. the two open hands held together hollowed: -m kri, raise -to the forehead (as a reverential salutation); two handfuls (as a measure); -karman, n. folding the hands (in salutation); -pta, m. id.

अञ्जलि ajali 
Skt: अञ्जलि [agal ] - - m. the two open hands held together hollowed. -- Mac005c3
Skt: अञ्जलि ajali - m. joining palms of the hand [in reverence], reverence, salutation, benediction -- SpkSkt
Pal: {i~za.li.} - UHS-PMD0021
  UKT from UHS: cupped hands

UKT 130805: On the right are shown two types of cupped hands. The one on the left gestures "reverence", whereas the right signifies "begging". The Buddhists raised in hands to the Buddha in "reverence", and not "worship" as the Islamists do to Allah. By hand gestures, we can see the deeper meanings in the words "reverence" and "worship". Because of this hand-gesture, you should not say that the Buddhists are idol-worshippers. The Buddha images are icons not idols.



-- join the hollowed hands



अञ्जस्् [ g-as ]
- n. ointment: ac. ad. quickly, forthwith; in. straightway, at once; in truth.



अञ्जःसव [ agah-sav ]
- m. accelerated extraction of the Soma juice.


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अञ्जि [ ag- ]
- a. anointing; m. f. n. ointment; colour, ornament.

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{a.a.} in Pal-Myan is a horizontal conjunct which breaks down under Virama {a.t}
{a.a.} + viram --> {i~a.}

CAUTION: Need to check my rendering of Dev script.
UKT 130908, 160501: You will find {a.}/ {} changing into {na.}/ in Skt-Dev in many cases. It is the basis of assertion that Sanskrit lacks this phoneme. If {a.}/ {} were the  horizontal conjunct, it behave like the {a.}/ {}.

अञ्ञ aa
= अ ञ ् ञ --> {i~a.}
Pal: {i~a.} = - UHS-PMD0022

  UKT from UHS: mfn. someone, an alien, what is not right. m. an alien


अञ्ञतर aatara
Pal: {i~a.ta.ra.} - UHS-PMD0022 

  UKT from UHS: mfn. alien, unmarked, of unknown clan or origin or anonymous, what is included as foreign


अन्तथ aattha
= अ न ् त थ --> {i~t~hta.}
Skt: अन्यथा anyathā - indecl. otherwise -- SpkSkt
Pal: {i~t~hta.} - UHS-PMD0022
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. with another meaning. m. a foreign word. . in a foreign place, to another place, in another instance


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अञ्ञा aa
Pal: {i~a} - UHS-PMD0023
  UKT from UHS: . f. knowledge, knowledge of being an Arahat, Arahatship. . to gain supreme knowledge

UKT 130909: the above meaning is obviously for Theravada Buddhism - probably not applicable to Mahayana and Brahmanism .


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{a.Ta.} / {T}


अट् [1. AT ] I. P.
-- roam about, wander through. pari , id.



अट् [2. at ] --> {T}
-- grammatical designation for all the vowels [approximants] + h, y, v, r.

See my note on Grammatical designation of vowels and approximants 



अट् [3. a-t ]
-- augment a- .

अटट aṭaṭa
Pal: {a.Ta.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0023
  UKT from UHS: n. numeral 1 followed by 84 zeros .


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अटक अटक
Skt: अटक अटक - adj. roaming - SpkSkt


अटण aṭaṇa
Pal: {a.Ta.Na.} - UHS-PMD0023
  UKT from UHS: mfn. wandering, being rude


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अटति aṭati
Pal: {a.Ta.ti.} - UHS-PMD0023
  UKT from UHS: going about, going



अटन [ at-ana ]
- n. wandering, gadding about.


अटन् aṭan
Skt: अटन् aṭan - m. walking -- SpkSkt



अटनि atani, ˚नी [ -n ]
- f. notched end of a bow.


अटल aṭala
Pal: {a.Ta.la.} - UHS-PMD0024
  UKT from UHS: mfn. rigid, immobile



अटवी [ at-av ]
- f. forest; -bala, n. force of foresters.


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अटित { अट् } aṭita {aṭ}
Skt: अटित { अट् } aṭita {aṭ} - ppp. walked -- SpkSkt

अटितुम् { अट् } aṭitum
Skt: अटितुम् aṭitum - infinitive.  to walk - SpkSkt

अटित्वा aṭitvā
Skt: अटित्वा aṭitvā - gerund. having walked - SpkSkt


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UKT 130909: An advantage Skt-Myan has over Pal-Myan, is its allowance for both {a.t} and conjunct to be used at the same time. Thus, it is legitimate to write both and for  {T~Ta.}.



अट््ट [ atta ]
- m. room on a house-top; tower.


अट्ट aṭta
Skt: अट्ट [atta]
= अ ट ् ट --> {T~Ta.}
- m. room on a house-top; tower. -- Mac005c3
Skt: अट्ट aṭṭa - m. attic. adj. high pitch [loud] -- SpkSkt
Pal: {T~Ta.} - UHS-PMD0024

  UKT from UHS: m. a city gate ( {pra.o:} - a city landmark), shelf, scaffolding

UKT 130809: UHS gives 3 meanings from 3 different roots. Here I am giving the one with the appropriate root.
Looking at the drawing of Myanmar city-wall , makes you wonder where the cannons were placed.


अट्टक aṭṭaka
Skt: अट्टक aṭṭaka - m. apartment on the roof, tower -- SpkSkt
Pal: {T~Ta.ka.} - UHS-PMD0024
  UKT from UHS: m. machan, scaffold, shelf

 machan - n. (in India) a raised platform used in tiger hunting
--  http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/machan 130809



अट्टहास aṭta-hasa
Skt: अट्टहास [atta-hsa] - m. loud laughter; -hsya, n. id. -- Mac005c2
Pal: {T~Ta.ha-a.} - UHS-PMD0024
  UKT from UHS: m. excessively loud laughter



अट््टालक [ attlaka ]
Skt: अट्टालक [attlaka] - m. watch-tower. -- Mac005c3
Pal: {T~Ta-la.}/ {T~Ta-la.ka.} - UHS-PMD0024

  UKT from UHS: m. {pra.o:} 'turret of a palace wall' (MED2006-284), {pic~sn} 'banquette, fire-step}' (MED2006-271), {rn-ta:} 'parapet, rampart' (UHS-BEPD-0667)
See drawing above of Myanmar city wall


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Pal: {T-Ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0024
  UKT from UHS: f. wound


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/ {T~HTa.}

UKT 130909: Remember = {T~HTa.} is a horizontal conjunct and is mute. However, many Bur-Myan speaker-writers, I myself included at one time -- mistook it for an alternate form of the basic r3c2 {HTa.} which is not mute. Notice the change from Pal-Myan {T~HTa.} to Skt-Myan {S~Ta.}.

अष्ट aṣṭa
Skt: अष्ट aṣṭa 
= अ ष ् ट --> {a:S~Ta.}
- adj. eight -- SpkSkt
Pal: / {T~HTa.} - UHS-PMD0024

  UKT from UHS: . mfn. eight (articles). . m. meaning


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अट्या [ at-y ]
- f. wandering about.

Note to myself: end of p005-7.htm

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/ {~a.}

UKT 130909: An advantage Skt-Myan has over Pal-Myan, is its allowance for both {a.t} and conjunct to be used at the same time. Thus, it is legitimate to write both and for  {~a.}.

Skt: अर्ध  ardha
= अ र ् ध
  - UKT160505: ध dha is {Da.}. In Pali it will be changed into ड ḍha {a.}.
--- And, अर्ध  ardha --> {ar~a.}
Skt: अर्ध ardha - n. half - SpkSkt
Pal: /   {~a.} - UHS-PMD0026

  UKT from UHS: mn. half, half of one coin-money. mfn. wealth


अर्धचन्द्राकार ardhacandrākāra
Skt: अर्धचन्द्राकार ardhacandrākāra - m. crescent -- SpkSkt
Pal: {~a.sn~da.ka.} - UHS-PMD0026
  UKT from UHS: m. crescent shape.


अर्धरात्र ardharātra
= (अ र ् ध) (र ा त ् र) 
Skt: अर्धरात्र ardharātra - m. midnight -- SpkSkt
Pal: {~a.rt~ta.} - UHS-PMD0027
  UKT from UHS: m. time of midnight .
  See my note on Astrological-Day


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Pal: {~a-Lha.ka.} - UHS-PMD0027
  UKT from UHS: mfn. half the extent of a country


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Pal: {~oa~a.} - UHS-PMD0027
  UKT from UHS: m. three and a half. [I hope my colour-scheme will be of help in spelling ]

Note to myself: end of p005-9.htm

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{a.Na.} / {N}


अण् [1. an] --> {N}
-- an , grammatical designation of the vowels , ,

See my note on Grammatical designation of vowels and approximants



[2. a-n]
-- a-n , the taddhita suffix -a (cp. n-it) --> {td~DDi.ta.}

See my note on Secondary suffixes in Sanskrit


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Skt: अनृण्य anṛṇya = अ न ृ ण ् य --> {a.nRi.N~ya.} - adj. without debts -- SpkSkt
Skt antonym: ऋण ṛ ṇa = ऋ ण --> {iRi.Na.}  - n. debt -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.Na.Na.} - UHS-PMD0027
  UKT from UHS: mfn. free of debt


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-- m. subject of the non-causal , i.e. of the simple verb (gr.)



अणिमन्् [ an-i-mn ]
= अ ण ि म न् --> {a.Ni.mn}
Skt: अणिमन् [an-i-mn] - m. thinness, subtilty. -- Mac005c3
Skt: अणिमन् aṇiman - m. minuteness, fineness, thinness, meagreness, atomic nature, smallest particle,
  superhuman power of becoming as small as an atom -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.Ni.ma} - UHS-PMD0027
  UKT from UHS: m. smallness, mystical ability to assume a body of atomic dimension



अणिष्ठ [ n-ishtha ]
- spv. of nu.


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अणीयस्् [ n-yas ]
- cpv. of nu.


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अणु anu {a.Nu.}
- a. minute, subtile, delicate; m. atom; -tva,n. minuteness; atomic nature; -mtrika, a. composed of atoms; -mukha, a. small-mouthed. - Mac005c3
Pal: {a.Nu.} - UHS-PMD0027

  UKT from UHS: mfn. small amount, minute, finesse. m. particle [floating in sunbeam - a colloid particle], atom, smallness [which can be neglected]



अण्x{093c}ड [ anda ]
- n. egg; testicle; -ka, n. bird's egg; -kosa, m. mundane egg, universe; -gata, a. being in the egg; -ga, a. egg-born; m. bird; -bhedana, n. breaking the (egg =) ice.

अण्ड anda
= अ ण ् ड  {N-a.}
Skt: - n. egg; testicle; -ka, n. bird's egg;  -kosa, m. mundane egg, universe; -gata, a. being in the egg; -ga, a. egg-born; m. bird;   -bhedana, n. breaking the (egg =) ice.
Skt: अण्ड aṇḍa = अ ण ् ड  {N-a.} - n. testicle - SpkSkt
Pal: {N-a.} - UHS-PMD0027
  UKT from UHS: n. egg, bird's egg, gonad, testicle


अण्डसू aṇḍasū
=  अ ण ् ड स ू --> {N-a.u} }
Skt: अण्डसू aṇḍasū - f. oviparous 'Producing eggs that hatch outside the body (AHTD) -- SpkSkt


Pal: {N~Na.}
- - UHS-PMD0028
  UKT from UHS: mn. water-fluid, water



अण्यन्त [ a-ni‿anta ]
- a. not ending in the cs. suffix i (=aya).



अण्वी [ nv ]
= अ ण ् व ी --> {N~wi}
Skt: अण्वी [nv ] - f. (of nu) finger. -- Mac005c2
Skt: अण्वी aṇvī - f. subtle one -- SpkSkt


Note to myself p005-11.htm end


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{a.ta.} / {t}


अत् [. AT] I.
-- ta , go, wander, roam


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अत् [. a-t]
-- = short a (gr.)

UKT 160505: See the function of Romabama as a bridge between Burmese and English


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Skt antonym: तक्र takra n. buttermilk -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.tak~ka.ka.} - UHS-PMD
  UKT from UHS: mfn. not mixed with buttermilk . See my note on buttermilk



अतट [ a-tata ]
= अ त ट --> {a.ta.Ta.}
Skt: अतट [a-tata] - m. precipice, abyss. Mac005c3
Skt: अतट ataṭa - adj. having no beach or shore -- SpkSkt 
Pal: a.ta.Ta.}- UHS-PMD0028
  UKT from UHS: m. cliff

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अतत्त्व [ a-tattva ]
= अ त त ् त ् व --> {a.tt-twa.}
- n. unreality: -tas, ad. not in reality; -ga, a. not knowing the truth.



अतत्पर [ a-tat-para ]
= अ त त ् प र --> {a.tt-pa.ra.}
- a. not intent on that.



अतथोचित [ a-tath‿ukita ]
- pp. not accustomed to such treatment; unused to (g.).


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UKT notes

Astrological Day

UKT 130910, 160504:

When you consider a day to be made up of 12hrs light and 12hrs darkness, you count the day as beginning from sunrise to sunrise of the following day. On this basis, midnight is "half-night". This is the Buddhist idea of the day. This idea of the day is used in the Mahaboat Astrological system mentioned in Bhu'ra Ko'su Puja in Folk Elements in Buddhism , by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch01.htm / ch02.htm / ch02-21.htm / ch02-22.htm (link chk 160504)
   However, the Hindu religionists in their Navagraha Puja , worship the Nine-Planets according to their Hindu Astrological system . I had specialized in the Astavarga system (a subsystem), and had extensive knowledge of another subsystem the Dasa system of Vimshottari Dasa of number 120. At one time I had cast horoscopes and had made forecasts, for a fee to earn side income. I was introduced into Hindu Astrology by Assistant Lecturer U Ko Gyi, RIT Mathematics dept. He had lent me his copy of Hindu Predictive Astrology by B. V. Raman . Watch a video
-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35O5yRyNhIc
According to Hindu Astrology a day is counted from mid-night to mid-night .

Go back Astro-Day-note-b

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-- UKT 130912

It might surprise many in the West that a majority of Bur-Myan cannot digest cow's milk and certain food products made from it. Butter milk is one such product.

The inability to digest milk is due to "Lactose intolerance, also called lactase deficiency and hypolactasia. It is the inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and to a lesser extent milk-derived dairy products. It is not a disorder as such, but a genetically-determined characteristic." -- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactose_intolerance 130912

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buttermilk 130912

Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. This type of buttermilk is known as traditional buttermilk.

The term buttermilk also refers to a range of fermented milk drinks, common in warm climates (e.g., the Middle East, Turkey, Pakistan, India, and the Southern United States) where unrefrigerated fresh milk sours quickly, [1] as well as in colder climates, such as Scandinavia, Finland, Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Slovakia and Czech Republic. This fermented dairy product known as cultured buttermilk is produced from cow's milk and has a characteristically sour taste caused by lactic acid bacteria. This variant is made using one of two species of bacteria either Streptococcus lactis or Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which creates more tartness.

The tartness of buttermilk is due to acid in the milk. The increased acidity is primarily due to lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria while fermenting lactose, the primary sugar in milk. As the bacteria produce lactic acid, the pH of the milk decreases and casein, the primary milk protein, precipitates, causing the curdling or clabbering of milk. This process makes buttermilk thicker than plain milk. While both traditional and cultured buttermilk contain lactic acid, traditional buttermilk tends to be less viscous, whereas cultured buttermilk is more viscous. [2]

Buttermilk can be drunk straight, and it can also be used in cooking. Soda bread is a bread in which buttermilk reacts with the rising agent, sodium bicarbonate, to produce carbon dioxide.

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Flacourtia jangomas 

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flacourtia_jangomas 130620, 160428
syn. Flacourtia cataphracta Roxburgh ex Willdenow.

Flacourtia jangomas, Indian plum, coffee plum, is a lowland and mountain rain forest tree in the Salicaceae or Willow Family. [1] [2] It is widely cultivated in Southeast and East Asia, and has escaped cultivation in a number of places. [3] Its wild origin is unknown but is speculated to be tropical Asia, perhaps India. [3] [4] It is a small shrub or tree that grows to a height of 10m. It produces small white to green fragrant flowers. The fruit is eaten both raw and cooked as a jam, and the bark is sometimes used medicinally. [1] [2] It is sometimes harvested for its lumber. The plant is considered one of the primary host plants of the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) [5]

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The Grammatical designations of vowels and approximants

- UKT 130910, 160505

Refer to:
अट् [2. at ] --> {T}
-- grammatical designation for all the vowels [approximants] + h, y, v, r.
See: # http://kirkkittell.com/note/2009-02-15/hindi-approximant-consonants 130808, 140709
------ # http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=2333156 130808
अण् [1. an] --> {N}
-- an , grammatical designation of the vowels , ,

{N} अण् is the grammatical designation of the vowels {a.}, {i.}, {u.]. - p005-11.htm (link chk 130910) . There are 3 allophones of {N} in Bur-Myan:  creak (1 eye-blink), modal (2 blk), emphatic (2 blk + emphasis), showing incomplete checking by {N}. It is the same with other killed nasals, showing that checking by killed-nasals is never complete.

{T} अट् is the grammatical designation of approximants {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, {ha.} - p005-7.htm (link chk 130910) . There is only one pitch-register in Bur-Myan showing complete checking by killed-{Ta.} {T}, and by other killed tenuis-voiceless consonants.

Checking by approximants is still being studied. The one and - at present, the only one - that is certain based on my knowledge of Bur-Myan phonology, is checking of {a.} by {} giving rise to {} (2 blk}. Checking of {i.} and {u.} by {} is not known in Bur-Myan. As for checking by other approximants, such as by {r} and {w}, it is controversial. Such checkings are present in Mon-Myan. But alas my knowledge of Mon-Myan phonology is nil.

Now that I have determined that Nya'gyi {a.}, does not belong to r2c5, but is the Palatal approximant, I will have to turn my attention to checking of {a.} by {} giving rise to {} (2 blk). Checking by {} is well known in Bur-Myan, but unknown in all other languages. I still have to study more.

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Function of Romabama as a bridge between Burmese and English

UKT 121003, 140709, 160506:

The tenuis-voiceless of the row#4 {wag}-consonant, त {ta.}, is the first consonant of row#4. However, the English-Latin speakers, not having this sound, takes the second akshara, the ordinary voiceless {hta.} as the first member. They say त {ta.} & {hta.} are just the allophones of the phoneme /t/. This attitude is common to all the Europeans, resulting in IPA recognizing only three consonants: voiceless /t/, voiced /d/, and nasal /n/.

However, when /t/ is preceded by /s/ (from dental {Sa.} ष  - not palatal {sa.} च), they can pronounce the tenuis-voiceless. For such cases TIL has to come up with {Sta.}, {Sna.}, {Spa.}, {Sma.}, etc. These are written in ordinary English as <st>, <sn>, <sp>, <sm>, respectively.

As an example, the ordinary English word <stick> /stɪk/ can be written in Romabama as {Stick}. Here the function of Romabama is to serve as bridge between Burmese and English.

The reader should note that Romabama uses the glyph for both palatal plosive-stop च ca {sa.}, and dental fricative-hissing ष ṣa {Sa.}. See comprehensive account of त {ta.} & न {na.}, in my note  on Pronunciation of Rimes of row #4 in p011-3.htm (link chk 140709, 160505)

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Secondary suffixes

UKT 130226, 130911

In the following and elsewhere, I have to draw a clear line of distinction between Pal-Myan which is only slightly rhotic -- almost non-rhotic, and Skt-Myan which is definitely rhotic. Thus, for Pal-Myan  {poat~ra.}, but  {poat-ra.}

Based on: learnsanskrit.org http://learnsanskrit.org/ 120926, 130226, 130911
grammar guide http://learnsanskrit.org/grammar 130226, 130911, 160406

  putra 'son, child' → pautra 'coming from a son' 

तद्धित taddhita = त द ् ध ि त --> {td~DDi.ta.} त थ द ध न
or taddhita-pratyaya (a special kind of suffix) is a Sanskrit grammatical term.

पुत्र putra {poat~ra.} 'son, child' →  पौत्र putraka {pau-t~ra.} 'little son, grandson, grandchild'

अश्व aśva 'horse' → अश्वक aśvaka 'little horse, colt'

Note: because पौ = प ौ is a long vowel, /ː/ comes into the pronunciation, and Romabama needs a {:}. However, because it can take on the shape of the emphatic, I have left it out, and have a {-} in its place.

कृष्ण {kRiS~Na.} → कृष्णत् ,
  kṛṣṇa → kṛṣṇatva
  black → blackness

आनन्द {a-nn~da.} → आनन्दमय ,
  ānanda → ānandamaya
  bliss → consisting of bliss

चर्  {sar} → आचर् → आचार → आचार्य  ,
  car → ācar → ācāra → ācārya
  walk → follow a path, practice, follow
  → custom, rules of conduct
  → one who knows the ācāra [acharya]

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The Three Poisons (Buddhism)

- UKT 130905

The poisons are commonly described as Greed, Anger, and Ignorance. However, "Ignorance" to a Buddhist and to a non-Buddhist are different. For example, if I were to use the term in speaking to a Christian in the West, he would say: "Ignorance is the ignorance of the Word of God". Thus, in order to avoid controversy, I have to split "Ignorance" into two words, "Sensuality" and "Pride". In describing Buddhism to a Western audience, I use the collective term "The Four Poisons" - "Greed", "Anger", "Sensuality", and "Pride". Only then my non-Buddhist friends would concur that these are indeed poisons to a man's character.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_poisons 130905 

The three poisons (Sanskrit: triviṣa; Tibetan: dug gsum) or the three unwholesome roots (Skt: akuśala-mūla; Pāli: akusala-mūla), in Buddhism, refer to the three root kleshas of ignorance, attachment, and aversion. These three poisons are considered to be the cause of suffering (Skt: dukkha).

In the Buddhist teachings, the three poisons (of ignorance, attachment, and aversion) are the primary causes that keep sentient beings trapped in samsara. As shown in the wheel of life (Sanskrit: bhavacakra), the three poisons lead to the creation of karma, which leads to rebirth in the six realms of samsara. Of these three, ignorance is the root poison. From ignorance, attachment and aversion arise. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Jeffrey Hopkins states:

[It is] ignorance that drives the entire process... [Ignorance] isn't just an inability to apprehend the truth but an active misapprehension of the status of oneself and all other objectsone's own mind or body, other people, and so forth. It is the conception or assumption that phenomena exist in a far more concrete way than they actually do.

Based on this misapprehension of the status of persons and things, we are drawn into afflictive desire and hatred [i.e. attachment and aversion]... Not knowing the real nature of phenomena, we are driven to generate desire for what we like and hatred for what we do not like and for what blocks our desires. These threeignorance, desire, and hatred are called the three poisons; they pervert our mental outlook. [5]

Ringu Tulku states:

In the Buddhist sense, ignorance is equivalent to the identification of a self as being separate from everything else. It consists of the belief that there is an "I" that is not part of anything else. On this basis we think, "I am one and unique. Everything else is not me. It is something different."... /p>

From this identification stems the dualistic view, since once there is an "I," there are also "others." Up to here is "me." The rest is "they." As soon as this split is made, it creates two opposite ways of reaction: "This is nice, I want it!" and "This is not nice, I do not want it!" ...

On the one hand there are those things that seem to threaten or undermine us. Maybe they will harm us or take away our identity. They are a danger to our security. Due to this way of thinking, aversion comes up... Then on the other hand there are those things that are so nice. We think, "I want them. I want them so much..." Through this way of thinking...attachment arises. [6]

[The Three poisons are term:]

"Ignorance" -- Skt: moha , Pal: moha , English alternate: confusion, bewilderment, delusion
"Attachment" -- Skt: rāga , Pal: lobha , English alternate: desire, passion, greed
"Aversion" -- Skt: dveṣa , Pal: dosa

More in the Wikipedia article.

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End of TIL file