Update: 2016-11-24 11:16 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{a.gRi.} : refer to {ag~ri.} below
  {ag~ga.} : UKT's inserts from Pal-Myan

{ag~ya.}* / {a.gya.} : not realized but needed to explain the akshara in cell r2c4 .

UKT 160502: Romabama is attempting to show the degree of rhoticity with the length of the hood of Ra'ric. However, when we take into consideration that Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, Pali-Myan slightly rhotic, Skt-Dev highly rhotic, and that Mon-Myan r1c5 has a hanging-{ra.}, my attempt is still in confusion.

{agra.} / {a.gRa.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 eye-blink):
  p003c3 :
{ag-ra} / {a.gRa} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)
{ag~ri.} / {a.gri.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk): refer to {a.gRi.} (highly rhotic) above
{ag~ru.} / {a.gRu.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk)
{ag~r} / {a.gR} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)
{ ag~r~ya.}

{a.nga.} / { ing}/{ n} : look also for {n}


UKT notes :
Nga or Gna - the velar /ŋ/
  The most tell-tale phoneme in Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman)

*UKT 160418: We have a grand mix-up in pronouncing Burmese, Pali, and Sanskrit words involving English r . I am not giving the Skt-Myan glyphs for the present: I hope to resolve this in later editions.

The above entries, {ag~ya.} & {ag~ra.} are disyllables with differing degrees of rhoticity. Yet, I have to use the "medial-form" {a.gya.}, and {a.gRa.} (knowing fully well that the latter has nothing to do with Skt-Dev ऋ {iRi.}) to avoid confusion with Mon-Myan {nga.hsw:}. Need to check further with Mon in Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, available in TIL SD-Library
- MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160418)
I am postulating the non-rhotic, through slightly rhotic, to highly rhotic series for BEPS:
  {a.gyi.}, {a.gri.}, {a.gRi.}

Contents of this page




अगुणज्ञ [ a-guna-ga ]
- a. ignoring merit; -vat, a. void of merit, bad; -sla, a. of bad disposition, worthless.



अगुणिन्् [ a-gunin ]
- a. devoid of merit.



अगुणीभूत [ a-gun-bhta ]
- pp. not become subordinate (gr.).



अगुप्त [ a-gupta ]
- pp. unguarded.



अगुरु [ a-guru ]
- a. not heavy, light; m. n. aloe-wood.



अगुरुप्रयुक्त [ a-guru-pra-yukta ]
- pp. not directed by one's teacher.



अगुरुसार [ aguru-sra ]
- m. resin of the aloe.


Contents of this page


UKT 130830, 140713, 160515: There is no {a.gRa.}, but only {a.gRi}, formed from the Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel ऋ . Moreover, medials such as {a.gRa.} are found only in Pal-Myan. Bur-Myan {a.gra} has very little or no rhoticity and is pronounced similar to {a.gya.}. In Skt-Dev, there are only conjuncts like {ag~ra.}. 


अगृध्नु [ a-gridhnu ]
= अ ग ृ ध ् न ु
- a. liberal. [UKT: not restrictive ?]



अगृहीत [ - grihta ]
- pp. not seized, not grasped.



अगृह्लत्् [ a-grihnat ]
- pr. pt. not seizing; not taking (leech).



अगृह्य [ -grihya ]
- fp. inconceivable.


Contents of this page



अगोचर [ a-go-kara ]
- m. what is beyond reach: in. behind the back of (g.);
- a. beyond the ken of (g., --): vkm --, indescribable.



अगोपा [ -gop ]
- a. without a herdsman.



अगोपाल [ a-go-pla ]
- a. id.; m. no herdsman.



अगोरुध [ -go-rudha ]
= अ ग ो र ु ध
Skt: अगोरुध [-go-rudha] - a. admitting cows. -- Mac003c1
Skt: अगोरुध agorudha - adj. not driving away the cow -- SpkSkt



अगोह्य [ -gohya ]
- fp. not to be hidden (ep. of the sun).


Contents of this page

{ag} / {ag~}

{ag~ga.} अग्ग

UKT 160417: Since this form, , would play havoc with Mon-Myan word having the same shape, I have no choice but to use {a.gRra.} (pronounced with rhotic accent for Pal-Myan words) noting at the same time that it has nothing to do with {a.gRi.} derived from Skt-Dev rhotic vowel ऋ {iRi.}. Note the extended hood in {a.gRa.} for Pal-Myan, and very short hood {a.gra.} for Bur-Myan words.

अग्ग {ag~ga.}
Pal: {ag~ga.} - UHS-PMD0008
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. honourable, the foremost, what has reached top, excess.
  n. gain or profit, tip, top, shoot, sacred object. m. chief. . n. residence
Skt: अग्र [g-ra] = अ ग ् र --> {a.gRa.}
Skt: अग्र [g-ra] - n. front; beginning; point, tip, top, main thing: -- Mac003c2
Skt: अग्र agra - adj. first, anterior, supernumerary, prominent, chief, measure of amplitude, etc. -- SpkSkt

Contents of this page


अग्गि aggi
Pal: {ag~gi.} - UHS-PMD0010
  UKT from UHS: m. fire
Skt: अग्नि [ag-n] - m. fire; conflagration; god Agni. -- Mac003c1
Skt: अग्नि agni - m. fire, digestive faculty, gastric fluid, number three, bile, god of fire, gold,... -- SpkSkt

Contents of this page


अग्घ aggha
Pal: {ag~Ga.} - UHS-PMD0010
  UKT from UHS: m. price, material gift to a visitor, utensils used during offerings to a guest.
Skt: अर्घ argha - m. price, worth, respectful reception of a guest, collection of twenty pearls, value -- SpkSkt



अग्नायी [ agn&asharp;y ]
= अ ग ् न ा य ी
- f. Agni's wife.

UKT 150108: A frequently occurring derivative of {ag} is {ag~ni.} 'Fire god'. Fire was worshipped by ancient peoples not only in India but elsewhere in the world, and is personified. It is regarded as a dva {d-wa.} in India. Pal-Myan for {ag~ni.} is {ag~gi.} and is not worshipped in Myanmarpr.


Contents of this page



अग्नि [ ag-n ]
=  अ ग ् न ि --> {ag~ni.}
Skt: अग्नि [ag-n] - m. fire; conflagration; god Agni. -- Mac003c1
Pal: {ag~gi.} - UHS-PMD0010
  UKT from UHS: m. fire



अग्निकण [ agni-kana ]
- m. spark of fire.



- n. = agni-kriy



अग्निकार्य [ agni-krya ]
- n. making the sacred fire; prayers repeated in so doing.



अग्निकुण्x{093c}ड [ agni-kunda ]
- m. brazier of fire; hole in the ground for sacred fire.



अग्निकेतु [ agn-ketu ]
- a. fire-betokened.



अग्निक्रिया [ agni-kriy ]
- f. attendance on the sacred fire.



अग्निगर्भ [ agn-garbha ]
- a. containing fire within.



अग्निगृह [ agni-griha ]
- n. sacred fireplace; -kaya, m., -kayana, n. heaping up the fire-altar; -kt, a. keeping up the fire-altar; -gihv, a. fire-tongued; -gvalita-tegana, a. having a point blazing with fire.



अग्नित्रय [ agni-traya ]
- n. the three sacred fires; -tret, f. id.; -tva, n. fiery state; -da, a. incendiary; -dagdh, pp. burnt with fire; m. pl. kind of Ma'nes; -datta, m. N. of a Brhman: f. , N.; -dpta, pp. blazing with fire.

manes or Ma'nes pl. n. . The spirits of the dead, regarded as minor supernatural powers in ancient Roman religion. . used with a sing. verb The revered spirit of one who has died. - AHTD


अग्निदूत [ agn-dta ]
- a. having Agni for a messenger, brought by Agni.



अग्निध्् [ agndh ]
- m. fire-kindler; fire-priest.



अग्निपक्व [ agni-pakva ]
- pp. cooked with fire; -parikriy, f. care of sacred fire; -parikkhada, m. utensils for fire-sacrifice; -parishkriy, f. care of the sacred fire; -purna, n. N. of a Purna; -purogama, a. preceded by Agni; -pradna, n. consigning to the flames; -pravesa, m. voluntary death by fire: -na, n. id.

अग्नि पुराण agni purāṇa
- n. N. of a Purna
- one of the 18 Mahapurans.

See my note on Agni Purana



अग्निभु [ agni-bhu ]
- n. water; -mt, a. keeping up the sacred fire; -mitra, m. N. of a king.

अग्निभु  [agni-bhu]
Skt: अग्निभु  [agni-bhu] - n. water -- Mac003c1
Skt: अग्निभु agnibhu - n. water, fire produced -- SpkSkt 



अग्निमिन्ध [ agnim-indh ]
- m. fire-kindler, kind of priest, later agndh.



अग्निमुख [ agni-mukha ]
- m. Fire-mouth, N. of a bug; -varna, a. of the colour of fire; red-hot; -vel, f. time of kindling the sacred fire; afternoon; -sarana, n. sacred fireplace.


Contents of this page



अग्निशिख [ agni-sikha ]
- a. fire-pointed (arrow); m. N.; n. saffron; f. &asharp;, flame of fire.



अग्निशुद्धि [ agni-suddhi ]
- f. purification by fire; -susrsh, - f. careful tending of the sacred fire; -sesha, m. remains of fire.



अग्निष्टुत्् [ agni-shtut ]
- m. N. of a (Soma) sacrifice; -shtom, - m. (praise of Agni), liturgical rite in the Soma sacrifice; -shth&asharp;, f. corner of a stake facing the fire; -shvtt, pp. consumed by fire; m. pl. certain Manes.



अग्निसंस्कार [ agni-samskra ]
- m. sacrament of fire; -samkaya, m. great fire; -skshika, a. having Agni for a witness.



[agni-st-kri ]
- burn



- m. N.



अग्निहोत्र [ . agni-hotr ]
- n. fire-sacrifice: daily offering of milk morning and evening



अग्निहोत्र [ . agn-hotra ]
- a. sacrificing to Agni.



अग्निहोत्रहवणी [ agni-hotra-hvan ]
- f. ladle used in the fire-sacrifice.



अग्निहोत्रिन्् [ agni-hotrin ]
- a. offering the fire-sacrifice, maintaining the sacred fire.


Contents of this page



अग्नीन्द्र [ agni‿indr ]
- m. du. Agni and Indra.



अग्नीन्धन [ agni‿indhana ]
- n. kindling the sacred fire.


अग्नीषोम [ agn&isharp;-shma ]
- m. du. Agni & Soma.



अग्नीषोमभूत [ agn-shoma-bhta ]
- pp. being Agni and Soma.



अग्नीषोमीय [ agn-shomya ]
- a. relating to Agni and Soma.


Contents of this page



अग्नौकरण [ agnau-karana ]
- n. burnt offering.



अग्न्यगार [ agni‿agra ]
- m. place for sacred fire; -‿dhna,
- n. setting up the sacred fire; -‿dhya, n. id.; -‿hita, (pp.) m. one who has set up the sacred fire; -‿utsdin, a. letting out the sacred fire.


Contents of this page

{ag~ya.} or {a.gya.} : not realized but needed to explain r2c4 ?

UKT 160418:
The strange shape of r2c4 {Za.} in Bur-Myan & Mon-Myan, and the sounds unknown to the IE speakers, such as modern English and Hindi, and ancient Skt-Dev. 


Contents of this page

{ag~ra.} / {a.gra.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 eye-blink):

UKT 160502: Romabama is attempting to show the degree of rhoticity with the length of the hood of Ra'ric. However, when we take into consideration that Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, Pali-Myan slightly rhotic, Skt-Dev highly rhotic, and that Mon-Myan r1c5 has a hanging-{ra.}, my attempt is still in confusion.


अग्र [ g-ra ]
= अ ग ् र --> {ag~ra.}
- n. front; beginning; point, tip, top, main thing: -m, before (g., --); in. before (ac.); lc. before, in presence of (g., --); in the beginning, at first, in the first place; after (ab.): -bh, come forward.

अग्रभू agrabhū
Skt: [-bh] - come forward -- Mac003c2l
Skt: अग्रभू agrabhū - adj. at the head of; being at the top -- SpkSkt



अग्रकर [ agra-kara ]
- m. finger; first ray; -ga, a. going in front; going through the end of (--); -ganya, fp. to be accounted the first of (g.); -ga, a. firstborn; m. elder brother; -ganman, m. Brhman.

अग्रजा agra-jā
= अ ग ् र ज ा
Skt: अग्रजा [agra-ga] - a. first born; m. elder brother -- Mac003c2
Skt: अग्रजा agra-jā -- adj. first born, f. elder sister, older sister -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ag~ga.za.} - UHS-PMD0008
  UKT from UHS: m. elder brother



अग्रणी [ agra-n ]
- a. (nm. m. -s, n. i) leading; foremost.



अग्रतस्् [ agra-ts ]
- ad. in front, forward; at the head, in the beginning, first of all; --kri, place in front; prp. before, in presence of (g.).



अग्रतोरथ [ agrato-ratha ]
- a. whose chariot is in front.



अग्रनख [ agra-nakha ]
- m.n. tip of the nail; -nsik, f. tip of the nose, -beak; -payodhara, m. teat; -pda, m. toe; -pg, f. precedence; -bindu, m. first drop; -bhga, m. upper part, point, top; -bhmi, f. top storey; highest aim; -mahish, f. chief consort of a king; -yyin, a. going before; best of (--); -vra, m. chief hero, champion.

अग्रमहिषी  agramahiṣī
= अ ग ् र म ह ि ष ी  = {ag~ra.ma.hi.Si}  
Skt: -mahish, f. chief consort of a king -- Mac003c2
Skt: अग्रमहिषी  agramahiṣī - f. principal queen -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ag~ga.ma.h-i} - UHS-PMD0009
  UKT from UHS: f. principal chief queen.



अग्रशस्् [ agra-ss ]
- ad. from the beginning.



अग्रसंध्या [ agra-samdhy ]
- f. dawn.



अग्रसर [ agra-sara ]
- a. going before; -t, f. precedence.



अग्रह [ a-graha ]
- m. no planet.



अग्रहण [ a-grahana ]
- n. non-taking; a. not specified.



अग्रहस्त [ agra-hasta ]
- m. finger; tip of elephant's trunk.


Contents of this page



अग्रहार [ agra-hra ]
- m. land-grant to Brhmans.

UKT 130223, ..., 160418: The English transliteration "Brhmans" is very confusing, and it is best to describe the caste -- the profession, not ethnicity nor linguistic -- as a hyphenated word. The combined word Brahmana-Ponna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} or shortened to {poaN~Na:} are almost always portrayed as scheming advisors to royalty dressed in white dhoti with a bunny-ear head-dress. They are always villains in classical Myanmar drama. They usually keep to themselves in Agrahara {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na: rwa}.


Contents of this page

{ag~ra} / {a.gra} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)



अग्राक्षन्् [ agra‿akshan ]
- n. side-glance.



अग्रानीक [ agra‿anka ]
- n. van (of an army).



अग्राम्यभोजिन्् [ a-grmya-bhogin ]
- a. eating no food prepared in the village.



अग्राशन [ agra‿asana ]
- a. eating in presence of (ab.).



अग्राहिन्् [ a-grhin ]
- a. not taking (leech).



अग्राह्य [ a-grhya ]
- fp. not to be grasped; imperceptible, incomprehensible; not to be approved.


Contents of this page

{ag~ri.} / {a.gri.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk): refer to {a.gRi.} (highly rhotic) above


अग्रिम [ agr-i-m ]
- a. leading, first; following (of sequence in writing or speaking).



अग्रिय [ agr-i-y ]
- a. foremost, best; firstborn; n. what is best.


Contents of this page

{ag~ru.} / {a.gru.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk)


अग्रु [ gru ]
= अ ग ् र ु --> {ag~ru.}
- a. (&usharp;) single, unmarried; f. pl. fingers.


Contents of this page

{ag~r} / {a.gr} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)


अग्रेग [ agre-g ]
- a. going in front; -g&asharp;, a. id.; -g&usharp;, a. moving forward.



अग्रेदिधिषु [ agre-didhishu ]
- m. man united in first marriage with a widow;
- f. (brev;) younger sister married before her elder sister.



अग्रेपा [ agre-p&asharp; ]
- a. drinking first; -p&usharp;, a. id.



अग्रेसर [ agre-sara ]
- a. () going before.


Contents of this page


UKT 150109: It is quite common in English to find a vowel checked by more than one killed consonant. In {ag~r~ya.}, we find the vowel checked by two killed consonants. At present I can find no way of presenting it only with Pali-conjuncts.


अग्र्य [ agr-y ]
= अ ग ् र ् य --> {ag~r~ya.}
- a. foremost, best (of, g.,--); distinguished in (lc.).



अग्र्यतपस्् [ agrya-tapas ]
- m. N. of a sage; -mahish, f. chief consort.

Skt: [agrya-mahishi] - f. chief consort -- Mac003c3
Skt: अग्रमहिषी agramahiṣī = अ ग ् र महिषी  - f. principal queen -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ag~ga.ma.h-i} - UHS-PMD0009
  UKT from UHS: f. principal chief queen.


Contents of this page



अघ agh-a
Skt: अघ [agh-] - n. mischief; guilt; misdeed, wickedness; impurity; pain. -- Mac003c3
Skt: agh -- mfn. bad, dangerous RV -- MonWilli007c1
Skt: अघ agha - adj. dangerous, sinful, impure, bad. m. impurity, pain, suffering. n. mishap, sin, evil. -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.Ga.} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS: . n. poverty, state of being poor, wrongfulness. . mfn. unaffected, unattached, emptiness. n. unattached, sky.


अघगत aghagata : UKT 130727: not given in Skt dictionaries.
Pal: {a.Ga.ga.ta.} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS - mfn. one who reaches the sky


अघगामी aghagāmī
Pal: {a.Ga.ga-mi} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS: - mfn. ability to climb up the sky.



अघटित [ a-ghatita ]
Skt: अघटित [a-ghatita] - pp. impossible; -ghatita, pp. ill put together. -- Mac003c3
Pal: {a.Ga.Ti.ta.} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS: mfn. no relationship.

UKT note: The correct word is <intercourse>, including sexual intercourse, commercial intercourse, cultural intercourse, etc. However I have to avoid it because of its common meaning the sexual intercourse.



अघमर्षण aghamarṣaṇa
Skt: अघमर्षण [agha-marshana] - a. forgiving sins; n. kind of prayer;  m. N. of a Vedic Rishi: pl. his descendants. -- Mac003c3
Skt: अघमर्षण aghamarṣaṇa -- adj. sin-effacing -- Spk-Skt

UKT 130904: The name of the Rishi is given as आघमर्षण āghamarṣaṇa by SpkSkt . I haven't  found any info about him on the Internet.



अघर्म [ a-gharma ]
- a. not hot, cool; -dhman, m. moon.



-- m. who destroys sin; -vinsin , a. id.



अघशंस [ agh-samsa ]
- a. intent on mischief, malevolent.



अघशंसिन्् [ agha-samsin ]
- a. confessing guilt.


Contents of this page



अघायु [ aghy ]
- a. mischievous, malevolent.


Contents of this page



अघृण aghṛṇa
= अ घ ृ ण -->  {a.GRi.Na.}
Skt: अघृण [ a-ghrna ] - a. pitiless. -- Mac003c3
Skt: अघृण aghṛṇa -- adj. incompassionate -- SpkSkt
Pal antonym: {ka.ru.Na} - UHS-PMD0299
  UKT from UHS: f. pity



अघृणिन्् [ a-ghrinin ]
- a. not soft, not too compassionate.


Contents of this page



अघोर aghora
Skt: अघोर [-ghora] - a. not terrible. -- Mac003c3
Skt: अघोर aghora - adj. not terrible, not terrific.
   m. euphemistic of shiva, worshipper of ziva and durgA -- SpkSkt
Skt antonym: घोर ghora [ gho-r ]
  -- a. [√ghu] awful, sublime; terrible, dreadful; violent (pain, etc.); n. horror, terror; magic; spell. -- Mac089c3
Pal antonym: {Gau:ra.} - UHS-PMD0377
  UKT from UHS - mfn. rough, cruel



-- m. N. of devotees of Devi



अघ्नत्् [ -ghn-at ]
- pr. pt. not killing, not injuring.



अघ्र्य [ ghnya (also -y) ]
- m. bull; , f. cow.



अघ्रेय [ a-ghreya ]
- fp. not to be smelt.


Contents of this page

{a.nga.} / {ing} : look also for {n}

UKT 150110, 160419: Since /ŋ/ is not present in onset of Skt-Dev syllables, {a.nga.} is not realized, instead {ing} or { n } - {a.} checked by killed {ng} - is met. Unable to find a suitable replacement for English digraph ng used to represent the phoneme /ŋ/, I have to change { ing } to { n }. See my note on Nga or Gna - the velar /ŋ/
The most tell-tale phoneme in Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman)


अङ् [ a-ṅ ]
- aor. suffix -a (in a-gam-a-t); krit-suffix -a (in bhid-, &c.).



अङ्क [ aṅk- ] --> {n~ka.}
- m. bend, hook; flank, lap, side; proximity; embrace, hug; mark, sign, brand; act (of a play); -karana, n. branding.

अङ्क ank-a 
Skt: अङ्क [aṅk-] - m. bend, hook; flank, lap, side; proximity; embrace, hug; mark, sign, brand; act (of a play); -- MC003c3
Pal: aṅka - m. (√ac) a mark, the flank or side, hip, place - UPMT-PEDict004
Pal: {n~ka.} -- UHS-PMD0011

{hka:htic-hkwing-hkyi} - v. carry a child astride one's hip. - MED2010-055
Differentiate from carrying piggy-back. See an elder sister carrying her younger brother.



अङ्कन [ aṅk-ana ]
- n. branding (also fig.).



अङ्कपात [ aṅka-pta ]
- m. account, enumeration; -bandha,
- m. impress of a brand; -bhg, a. falling to one's (lap=) share; -bhrit, a. holding in the lap; -mukha, n. plot of a play.



अङ्कय [ aṅk-aya ]
- den. P. mark, brand: pp. aṅkita, marked, branded.



अङ्कलक्षण [ aṅka-lakshana ]
- n. mark, brand.



अङ्कस्् [ ṅk-as ]
- n. bend.



अङ्कावतार  [aṅka‿avatra]
= अ ङ ् क ा व त ा र
Skt: अङ्कावतार  [aṅka‿avatra] -- m.,  -na , n. transition to another act,
  preparation of spectators for next act. -- Mac003c2 ( p003c3end-p004c1begin)
Skt: अङ्कावतार aṅkāvatāra -- m. close of a dramatic act -- SpkSkt


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Agni Purana

- UKT 161124

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agni_Purana 130222, 161124 

The Agni Purana, अग्नि पुराण agni purāṇa is a {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} text and one of the eighteen major Puranas of Hinduism. [1] The text is variously classified as a Purana related to Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism, but also considered as a text that covers them all impartially without leaning towards a particular theology. [1] [2]

The text exists in numerous versions, some very different from others. [3] The published manuscripts are divided into 382 or 383 chapters, containing between 12,000 and 15,000 verses. [3] [4] The chapters of the text were likely composed in different centuries, with earliest version probably after the 7th-century, [5] [6] but before the 11th-century because the early 11th-century Persian scholar Al-Biruni acknowledged its existence in his memoir on India. [7] The youngest layer of the text in the Agni Purana may be from the 17th-century. [7]

The Agni Purana is a medieval era encyclopedia that covers a diverse range of topics, and its "382 or 383 chapters actually deal with anything and everything", remark scholars such as Moriz Winternitz and Ludo Rocher. [8] [9] Its encyclopedic secular style led some 19th-century Indologists such as Horace Hayman Wilson to question if it even qualifies as what is assumed to be a Purana. [10] [11] The range of topics covered by this text include cosmology, mythology, genealogy, politics, education system, iconography, taxation theories, organization of army, theories on proper causes for war, martial arts, [5] diplomacy, local laws, building public projects, water distribution methods, trees and plants, medicine, [12] design and architecture, [13] [14] gemology, grammar, metrics, poetry, food and agriculture, [15] rituals, geography and travel guide to Mithila ( Bihar and neighboring states), cultural history, and numerous other topics. [4]

UKT: more in the Wikipedia

Go back Agni-puran-note-b

Contents of this page

Nga or Gna - the velar /ŋ/
The most tell-tale phoneme in Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman)

UKT 130623, 160419, 160502 :

There are no entries beginning with {nga.} in either Macdonell Skt-Dev, and in U Hoke Sein Pal-Myan. However the phoneme r1c5 is very prominent in Bur-Myan, {nga.} with {a.} as intrinsic vowel.

When the consonant {nga.} is combined with vowel {} gives {ng} a syllable. Such syllables which begins with a consonant ending in a vowel all have the canonical structure CV , where C is the onset consonant and V is called the nuclear vowel of the syllable.

There can be other syllables beginning with the nuclear vowel and ending in a consonant which is called the coda. Such syllables have the canonical structure V. The most general canonical structure is CV.

As stated above {nga.} be in the onset. When it is in the coda, it must be devoid of its intrinsic vowel, as in {ing}. In the syllable {nging} we have the same {nga.} both in the onset and in the coda.

In Mon-Myan, r1c5 glyph has the shape ◄nga.► (pronounced as {ng} with {} as the nuclear vowel).

There is also an unusual glyph in Bur-Myan orthography {ngra.} < > /ɲ/. We pronounce {ngra.} as /ɲ/ the same as the Bur-Myan basic r2c5 {a.}, yet because of the differences in shape as well as from the meanings of words with this phoneme, I presume that there must be pronunciation differences between the two.

I have concluded that Nya'gyi {a.} is a non-nasal unlike Nya'le {a.}. Nya'le {a.} is a nasal. My presumption is based on the pronunciation of words with the killed-Nya'gyi {}, and killed-Nya'le {a.} as codas.

UKT 130907: The reason why there are no {a.nga.}-words in Skt-Dev, but only those with {ing} /ɪŋ/ had baffled me until I came to study the r2 row on {a.a.}. There are no {a.a.}-words in Skt-Dev also, but only those with {i} /ɪɲ/.

You should note that in going from {a.nga.} to {ing}, there is a vowel change from <a> to < i >. This phenomenon is not met when we are dealing with transliterations. However, when transcriptions are attempted, we run into this problem. 

The problem seems simple, but actually it is very complex. The syllable {ing} has the canonical structure of VC, where V the nuclear vowel, and the C is the coda. In {ing}, the onset-consonant is absent, and we have the case of vowel sound being checked by the coda-consonant. In the Abugida-Akshara-system, the coda-consonant is always a killed-consonant, represented by . Depending on whether is a plosive-stop consonant, a nasal, or an approximant the checking is either complete, or partial, or in between.

When you look at the akshara table, Skt-Dev does not seem to have a dedicated grapheme for this phoneme of r1c5. The glyph is actually, a borrowed one from r3:

ड + dot --> ङ

This shows that originally Skt-Dev had no r1c5 phoneme. Since {a.nga.} calls for an independent {nga.}, there no are entries. Even for {ing}, many of its words are spelled {n} or what they considered to be its equivalent {n}.

Go back Nga-Gna-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file