Update: 2016-11-24 11:16 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p003.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCv1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{a.gu.}
  p003c1
{a.gRi.} : refer to {ag~ri.} below
{a.gau:}
{ag}
  {ag~ga.} : UKT's inserts from Pal-Myan
  {ag~gi.}
  {ag~Ga.}
{ag~ni.}
  p003c2
{ag~ni}
{ag~nau}

{ag~ya.}* / {a.gya.} : not realized but needed to explain the akshara in cell r2c4 .

UKT 160502: Romabama is attempting to show the degree of rhoticity with the length of the hood of Ra'ric. However, when we take into consideration that Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, Pali-Myan slightly rhotic, Skt-Dev highly rhotic, and that Mon-Myan r1c5 has a hanging-{ra.}, my attempt is still in confusion.

{agra.} / {a.gRa.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 eye-blink):
  p003c3 :
{ag-ra} / {a.gRa} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)
{ag~ri.} / {a.gri.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk): refer to {a.gRi.} (highly rhotic) above
{ag~ru.} / {a.gRu.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk)
{ag~r} / {a.gR} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)
{ ag~r~ya.}

{a.Ga.}
{a.Ga}
{a.GRi.}
{a.Gau:}
{a.nga.} / { ing}/{ n} : look also for {n}

 

UKT notes :
Nga or Gna - the velar /ŋ/
  The most tell-tale phoneme in Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman)

*UKT 160418: We have a grand mix-up in pronouncing Burmese, Pali, and Sanskrit words involving English r . I am not giving the Skt-Myan glyphs for the present: I hope to resolve this in later editions.

The above entries, {ag~ya.} & {ag~ra.} are disyllables with differing degrees of rhoticity. Yet, I have to use the "medial-form" {a.gya.}, and {a.gRa.} (knowing fully well that the latter has nothing to do with Skt-Dev ऋ {iRi.}) to avoid confusion with Mon-Myan {nga.hsw:}. Need to check further with Mon in Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, available in TIL SD-Library
- MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160418)
I am postulating the non-rhotic, through slightly rhotic, to highly rhotic series for BEPS:
  {a.gyi.}, {a.gri.}, {a.gRi.}

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{a.gu.}

p003c1

p003c1-b00

अगुणज्ञ [ a-guna-ga ]
- a. ignoring merit; -vat, a. void of merit, bad; -sla, a. of bad disposition, worthless.

 

p003c1-b01

अगुणिन्् [ a-gunin ]
- a. devoid of merit.

 

p003c1-b02

अगुणीभूत [ a-gun-bhta ]
- pp. not become subordinate (gr.).

 

p003c1-b03

अगुप्त [ a-gupta ]
- pp. unguarded.

 

p003c1-b04

अगुरु [ a-guru ]
- a. not heavy, light; m. n. aloe-wood.

 

p003c1-b05

अगुरुप्रयुक्त [ a-guru-pra-yukta ]
- pp. not directed by one's teacher.

 

p003c1-b06

अगुरुसार [ aguru-sra ]
- m. resin of the aloe.

 

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{a.gRi.}

UKT 130830, 140713, 160515: There is no {a.gRa.}, but only {a.gRi}, formed from the Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel ऋ . Moreover, medials such as {a.gRa.} are found only in Pal-Myan. Bur-Myan {a.gra} has very little or no rhoticity and is pronounced similar to {a.gya.}. In Skt-Dev, there are only conjuncts like {ag~ra.}. 

p003c1-b07

अगृध्नु [ a-gridhnu ]
= अ ग ृ ध ् न ु
- a. liberal. [UKT: not restrictive ?]

 

p003c1-b08

अगृहीत [ - grihta ]
- pp. not seized, not grasped.

 

p003c1-b09

अगृह्लत्् [ a-grihnat ]
- pr. pt. not seizing; not taking (leech).

 

p003c1-b10

अगृह्य [ -grihya ]
- fp. inconceivable.

 

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{a.gau:}

p003c1-b11

अगोचर [ a-go-kara ]
- m. what is beyond reach: in. behind the back of (g.);
- a. beyond the ken of (g., --): vkm --, indescribable.

 

p003c1-b12

अगोपा [ -gop ]
- a. without a herdsman.

 

p003c1-b13

अगोपाल [ a-go-pla ]
- a. id.; m. no herdsman.

 

p003c1-b14

अगोरुध [ -go-rudha ]
= अ ग ो र ु ध
Skt: अगोरुध [-go-rudha] - a. admitting cows. -- Mac003c1
Skt: अगोरुध agorudha - adj. not driving away the cow -- SpkSkt

 

p003c1-b15

अगोह्य [ -gohya ]
- fp. not to be hidden (ep. of the sun).

 

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{ag} / {ag~}

{ag~ga.} अग्ग

UKT 160417: Since this form, , would play havoc with Mon-Myan word having the same shape, I have no choice but to use {a.gRra.} (pronounced with rhotic accent for Pal-Myan words) noting at the same time that it has nothing to do with {a.gRi.} derived from Skt-Dev rhotic vowel ऋ {iRi.}. Note the extended hood in {a.gRa.} for Pal-Myan, and very short hood {a.gra.} for Bur-Myan words.

अग्ग {ag~ga.}
Pal: {ag~ga.} - UHS-PMD0008
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. honourable, the foremost, what has reached top, excess.
  n. gain or profit, tip, top, shoot, sacred object. m. chief. . n. residence
Skt: अग्र [g-ra] = अ ग ् र --> {a.gRa.}
Skt: अग्र [g-ra] - n. front; beginning; point, tip, top, main thing: -- Mac003c2
Skt: अग्र agra - adj. first, anterior, supernumerary, prominent, chief, measure of amplitude, etc. -- SpkSkt

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{ag~gi.}

अग्गि aggi
Pal: {ag~gi.} - UHS-PMD0010
  UKT from UHS: m. fire
Skt: अग्नि [ag-n] - m. fire; conflagration; god Agni. -- Mac003c1
Skt: अग्नि agni - m. fire, digestive faculty, gastric fluid, number three, bile, god of fire, gold,... -- SpkSkt

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{ag~Ga.}

अग्घ aggha
Pal: {ag~Ga.} - UHS-PMD0010
  UKT from UHS: m. price, material gift to a visitor, utensils used during offerings to a guest.
Skt: अर्घ argha - m. price, worth, respectful reception of a guest, collection of twenty pearls, value -- SpkSkt

 

p003c1-b16

अग्नायी [ agn&asharp;y ]
= अ ग ् न ा य ी
- f. Agni's wife.

UKT 150108: A frequently occurring derivative of {ag} is {ag~ni.} 'Fire god'. Fire was worshipped by ancient peoples not only in India but elsewhere in the world, and is personified. It is regarded as a dva {d-wa.} in India. Pal-Myan for {ag~ni.} is {ag~gi.} and is not worshipped in Myanmarpr.

 

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{ag~ni.}

p003c1-b17

अग्नि [ ag-n ]
=  अ ग ् न ि --> {ag~ni.}
Skt: अग्नि [ag-n] - m. fire; conflagration; god Agni. -- Mac003c1
Pal: {ag~gi.} - UHS-PMD0010
  UKT from UHS: m. fire

 

p003c1-b18

अग्निकण [ agni-kana ]
- m. spark of fire.

 

p003c1-b19

[agni-karmn]
- n. = agni-kriy

 

p003c1-b20

अग्निकार्य [ agni-krya ]
- n. making the sacred fire; prayers repeated in so doing.

 

p003c1-b21

अग्निकुण्x{093c}ड [ agni-kunda ]
- m. brazier of fire; hole in the ground for sacred fire.

 

p003c1-b22

अग्निकेतु [ agn-ketu ]
- a. fire-betokened.

 

p003c1-b23

अग्निक्रिया [ agni-kriy ]
- f. attendance on the sacred fire.

 

p003c1-b24

अग्निगर्भ [ agn-garbha ]
- a. containing fire within.

 

p003c1-b25

अग्निगृह [ agni-griha ]
- n. sacred fireplace; -kaya, m., -kayana, n. heaping up the fire-altar; -kt, a. keeping up the fire-altar; -gihv, a. fire-tongued; -gvalita-tegana, a. having a point blazing with fire.

 

p003c1-b26

अग्नित्रय [ agni-traya ]
- n. the three sacred fires; -tret, f. id.; -tva, n. fiery state; -da, a. incendiary; -dagdh, pp. burnt with fire; m. pl. kind of Ma'nes; -datta, m. N. of a Brhman: f. , N.; -dpta, pp. blazing with fire.

manes or Ma'nes pl. n. . The spirits of the dead, regarded as minor supernatural powers in ancient Roman religion. . used with a sing. verb The revered spirit of one who has died. - AHTD

p003c1-b27

अग्निदूत [ agn-dta ]
- a. having Agni for a messenger, brought by Agni.

 

p003c1-b28

अग्निध्् [ agndh ]
- m. fire-kindler; fire-priest.

 

p003c1-b29

अग्निपक्व [ agni-pakva ]
- pp. cooked with fire; -parikriy, f. care of sacred fire; -parikkhada, m. utensils for fire-sacrifice; -parishkriy, f. care of the sacred fire; -purna, n. N. of a Purna; -purogama, a. preceded by Agni; -pradna, n. consigning to the flames; -pravesa, m. voluntary death by fire: -na, n. id.

अग्नि पुराण agni purāṇa
- n. N. of a Purna
- one of the 18 Mahapurans.

See my note on Agni Purana

 

p003c1-b30

अग्निभु [ agni-bhu ]
- n. water; -mt, a. keeping up the sacred fire; -mitra, m. N. of a king.

अग्निभु  [agni-bhu]
Skt: अग्निभु  [agni-bhu] - n. water -- Mac003c1
Skt: अग्निभु agnibhu - n. water, fire produced -- SpkSkt 

 

p003c1-b31

अग्निमिन्ध [ agnim-indh ]
- m. fire-kindler, kind of priest, later agndh.

 

p003c1-b32

अग्निमुख [ agni-mukha ]
- m. Fire-mouth, N. of a bug; -varna, a. of the colour of fire; red-hot; -vel, f. time of kindling the sacred fire; afternoon; -sarana, n. sacred fireplace.

 

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p003c2

p003c2-b00

अग्निशिख [ agni-sikha ]
- a. fire-pointed (arrow); m. N.; n. saffron; f. &asharp;, flame of fire.

 

p003c2-b01

अग्निशुद्धि [ agni-suddhi ]
- f. purification by fire; -susrsh, - f. careful tending of the sacred fire; -sesha, m. remains of fire.

 

p003c2-b02

अग्निष्टुत्् [ agni-shtut ]
- m. N. of a (Soma) sacrifice; -shtom, - m. (praise of Agni), liturgical rite in the Soma sacrifice; -shth&asharp;, f. corner of a stake facing the fire; -shvtt, pp. consumed by fire; m. pl. certain Manes.

 

p003c2-b03

अग्निसंस्कार [ agni-samskra ]
- m. sacrament of fire; -samkaya, m. great fire; -skshika, a. having Agni for a witness.

 

p003c2-b04

[agni-st-kri ]
- burn

 

p003c2-b05

[agni-svmin]
- m. N.

 

p003c2-b06

अग्निहोत्र [ . agni-hotr ]
- n. fire-sacrifice: daily offering of milk morning and evening

 

p003c2-b07

अग्निहोत्र [ . agn-hotra ]
- a. sacrificing to Agni.

 

p003c2-b08

अग्निहोत्रहवणी [ agni-hotra-hvan ]
- f. ladle used in the fire-sacrifice.

 

p003c2-b09

अग्निहोत्रिन्् [ agni-hotrin ]
- a. offering the fire-sacrifice, maintaining the sacred fire.

 

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{ag~ni}

p003c2-b10

अग्नीन्द्र [ agni‿indr ]
- m. du. Agni and Indra.

 

p003c2-b11

अग्नीन्धन [ agni‿indhana ]
- n. kindling the sacred fire.
 

p003c2-b12

अग्नीषोम [ agn&isharp;-shma ]
- m. du. Agni & Soma.

 

p003c2-b13

अग्नीषोमभूत [ agn-shoma-bhta ]
- pp. being Agni and Soma.

 

p003c2-b14

अग्नीषोमीय [ agn-shomya ]
- a. relating to Agni and Soma.

 

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{ag~nau}

p003c2-b15

अग्नौकरण [ agnau-karana ]
- n. burnt offering.

 

p003c2-b16

अग्न्यगार [ agni‿agra ]
- m. place for sacred fire; -‿dhna,
- n. setting up the sacred fire; -‿dhya, n. id.; -‿hita, (pp.) m. one who has set up the sacred fire; -‿utsdin, a. letting out the sacred fire.

 

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{ag~ya.} or {a.gya.} : not realized but needed to explain r2c4 ?

UKT 160418:
The strange shape of r2c4 {Za.} in Bur-Myan & Mon-Myan, and the sounds unknown to the IE speakers, such as modern English and Hindi, and ancient Skt-Dev. 

 

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{ag~ra.} / {a.gra.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 eye-blink):

UKT 160502: Romabama is attempting to show the degree of rhoticity with the length of the hood of Ra'ric. However, when we take into consideration that Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, Pali-Myan slightly rhotic, Skt-Dev highly rhotic, and that Mon-Myan r1c5 has a hanging-{ra.}, my attempt is still in confusion.

p003c2-b17

अग्र [ g-ra ]
= अ ग ् र --> {ag~ra.}
- n. front; beginning; point, tip, top, main thing: -m, before (g., --); in. before (ac.); lc. before, in presence of (g., --); in the beginning, at first, in the first place; after (ab.): -bh, come forward.

अग्रभू agrabhū
Skt: [-bh] - come forward -- Mac003c2l
Skt: अग्रभू agrabhū - adj. at the head of; being at the top -- SpkSkt

 

p003c2-b18

अग्रकर [ agra-kara ]
- m. finger; first ray; -ga, a. going in front; going through the end of (--); -ganya, fp. to be accounted the first of (g.); -ga, a. firstborn; m. elder brother; -ganman, m. Brhman.

अग्रजा agra-jā
= अ ग ् र ज ा
Skt: अग्रजा [agra-ga] - a. first born; m. elder brother -- Mac003c2
Skt: अग्रजा agra-jā -- adj. first born, f. elder sister, older sister -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ag~ga.za.} - UHS-PMD0008
  UKT from UHS: m. elder brother

 

p003c2-b19

अग्रणी [ agra-n ]
- a. (nm. m. -s, n. i) leading; foremost.

 

p003c2-b20

अग्रतस्् [ agra-ts ]
- ad. in front, forward; at the head, in the beginning, first of all; --kri, place in front; prp. before, in presence of (g.).

 

p003c2-b21

अग्रतोरथ [ agrato-ratha ]
- a. whose chariot is in front.

 

p003c2-b22

अग्रनख [ agra-nakha ]
- m.n. tip of the nail; -nsik, f. tip of the nose, -beak; -payodhara, m. teat; -pda, m. toe; -pg, f. precedence; -bindu, m. first drop; -bhga, m. upper part, point, top; -bhmi, f. top storey; highest aim; -mahish, f. chief consort of a king; -yyin, a. going before; best of (--); -vra, m. chief hero, champion.

अग्रमहिषी  agramahiṣī
= अ ग ् र म ह ि ष ी  = {ag~ra.ma.hi.Si}  
Skt: -mahish, f. chief consort of a king -- Mac003c2
Skt: अग्रमहिषी  agramahiṣī - f. principal queen -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ag~ga.ma.h-i} - UHS-PMD0009
  UKT from UHS: f. principal chief queen.

 

p003c2-b23

अग्रशस्् [ agra-ss ]
- ad. from the beginning.

 

p003c2-b24

अग्रसंध्या [ agra-samdhy ]
- f. dawn.

 

p003c2-b25

अग्रसर [ agra-sara ]
- a. going before; -t, f. precedence.

 

p003c2-b26

अग्रह [ a-graha ]
- m. no planet.

 

p003c2-b27

अग्रहण [ a-grahana ]
- n. non-taking; a. not specified.

 

p003c2-b28

अग्रहस्त [ agra-hasta ]
- m. finger; tip of elephant's trunk.

 

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p003c3

p003c3-b00

अग्रहार [ agra-hra ]
- m. land-grant to Brhmans.

UKT 130223, ..., 160418: The English transliteration "Brhmans" is very confusing, and it is best to describe the caste -- the profession, not ethnicity nor linguistic -- as a hyphenated word. The combined word Brahmana-Ponna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} or shortened to {poaN~Na:} are almost always portrayed as scheming advisors to royalty dressed in white dhoti with a bunny-ear head-dress. They are always villains in classical Myanmar drama. They usually keep to themselves in Agrahara {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na: rwa}.

 

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{ag~ra} / {a.gra} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)

 

p003c3-b01

अग्राक्षन्् [ agra‿akshan ]
- n. side-glance.

 

p003c3-b02

अग्रानीक [ agra‿anka ]
- n. van (of an army).

 

p003c3-b03

अग्राम्यभोजिन्् [ a-grmya-bhogin ]
- a. eating no food prepared in the village.

 

p003c3-b04

अग्राशन [ agra‿asana ]
- a. eating in presence of (ab.).

 

p003c3-b05

अग्राहिन्् [ a-grhin ]
- a. not taking (leech).

 

p003c3-b06

अग्राह्य [ a-grhya ]
- fp. not to be grasped; imperceptible, incomprehensible; not to be approved.

 

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{ag~ri.} / {a.gri.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk): refer to {a.gRi.} (highly rhotic) above

p003c3-b07

अग्रिम [ agr-i-m ]
- a. leading, first; following (of sequence in writing or speaking).

 

p003c3-b08

अग्रिय [ agr-i-y ]
- a. foremost, best; firstborn; n. what is best.

 

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{ag~ru.} / {a.gru.} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (1 blk)

p003c3-b09

अग्रु [ gru ]
= अ ग ् र ु --> {ag~ru.}
- a. (&usharp;) single, unmarried; f. pl. fingers.

 

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{ag~r} / {a.gr} (slightly rhotic - for Pali) (2 blk)

p003c3-b10

अग्रेग [ agre-g ]
- a. going in front; -g&asharp;, a. id.; -g&usharp;, a. moving forward.

 

p003c3-b11

अग्रेदिधिषु [ agre-didhishu ]
- m. man united in first marriage with a widow;
- f. (brev;) younger sister married before her elder sister.

 

p003c3-b12

अग्रेपा [ agre-p&asharp; ]
- a. drinking first; -p&usharp;, a. id.

 

p003c3-b13

अग्रेसर [ agre-sara ]
- a. () going before.

 

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{ag~r~ya.}

UKT 150109: It is quite common in English to find a vowel checked by more than one killed consonant. In {ag~r~ya.}, we find the vowel checked by two killed consonants. At present I can find no way of presenting it only with Pali-conjuncts.

p003c3-b14

अग्र्य [ agr-y ]
= अ ग ् र ् य --> {ag~r~ya.}
- a. foremost, best (of, g.,--); distinguished in (lc.).

 

p003c3-b15

अग्र्यतपस्् [ agrya-tapas ]
- m. N. of a sage; -mahish, f. chief consort.

[agrya-mahishi]
Skt: [agrya-mahishi] - f. chief consort -- Mac003c3
Skt: अग्रमहिषी agramahiṣī = अ ग ् र महिषी  - f. principal queen -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ag~ga.ma.h-i} - UHS-PMD0009
  UKT from UHS: f. principal chief queen.

 

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{a.Ga.}

p003c3-b16

अघ agh-a
Skt: अघ [agh-] - n. mischief; guilt; misdeed, wickedness; impurity; pain. -- Mac003c3
Skt: agh -- mfn. bad, dangerous RV -- MonWilli007c1
Skt: अघ agha - adj. dangerous, sinful, impure, bad. m. impurity, pain, suffering. n. mishap, sin, evil. -- SpkSkt
Pal: {a.Ga.} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS: . n. poverty, state of being poor, wrongfulness. . mfn. unaffected, unattached, emptiness. n. unattached, sky.

 

अघगत aghagata : UKT 130727: not given in Skt dictionaries.
Pal: {a.Ga.ga.ta.} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS - mfn. one who reaches the sky

 

अघगामी aghagāmī
Pal: {a.Ga.ga-mi} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS: - mfn. ability to climb up the sky.

 

p003c3-b17

अघटित [ a-ghatita ]
Skt: अघटित [a-ghatita] - pp. impossible; -ghatita, pp. ill put together. -- Mac003c3
Pal: {a.Ga.Ti.ta.} - UHS-PMD0011
  UKT from UHS: mfn. no relationship.

UKT note: The correct word is <intercourse>, including sexual intercourse, commercial intercourse, cultural intercourse, etc. However I have to avoid it because of its common meaning the sexual intercourse.

 

p003c3-b18

अघमर्षण aghamarṣaṇa
Skt: अघमर्षण [agha-marshana] - a. forgiving sins; n. kind of prayer;  m. N. of a Vedic Rishi: pl. his descendants. -- Mac003c3
Skt: अघमर्षण aghamarṣaṇa -- adj. sin-effacing -- Spk-Skt

UKT 130904: The name of the Rishi is given as आघमर्षण āghamarṣaṇa by SpkSkt . I haven't  found any info about him on the Internet.

 

p003c3-b19

अघर्म [ a-gharma ]
- a. not hot, cool; -dhman, m. moon.

 

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[agha-vighta-kartri]
-- m. who destroys sin; -vinsin , a. id.

 

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अघशंस [ agh-samsa ]
- a. intent on mischief, malevolent.

 

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अघशंसिन्् [ agha-samsin ]
- a. confessing guilt.

 

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{a.Ga}

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अघायु [ aghy ]
- a. mischievous, malevolent.

 

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{a.GRi.}

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अघृण aghṛṇa
= अ घ ृ ण -->  {a.GRi.Na.}
Skt: अघृण [ a-ghrna ] - a. pitiless. -- Mac003c3
Skt: अघृण aghṛṇa -- adj. incompassionate -- SpkSkt
Pal antonym: {ka.ru.Na} - UHS-PMD0299
  UKT from UHS: f. pity

 

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अघृणिन्् [ a-ghrinin ]
- a. not soft, not too compassionate.

 

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{a.Gau:}

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अघोर aghora
Skt: अघोर [-ghora] - a. not terrible. -- Mac003c3
Skt: अघोर aghora - adj. not terrible, not terrific.
   m. euphemistic of shiva, worshipper of ziva and durgA -- SpkSkt
Skt antonym: घोर ghora [ gho-r ]
  -- a. [√ghu] awful, sublime; terrible, dreadful; violent (pain, etc.); n. horror, terror; magic; spell. -- Mac089c3
Pal antonym: {Gau:ra.} - UHS-PMD0377
  UKT from UHS - mfn. rough, cruel

 

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[aghora-ghanta]
-- m. N. of devotees of Devi

 

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अघ्नत्् [ -ghn-at ]
- pr. pt. not killing, not injuring.

 

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अघ्र्य [ ghnya (also -y) ]
- m. bull; , f. cow.

 

p003c3-b30

अघ्रेय [ a-ghreya ]
- fp. not to be smelt.

 

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{a.nga.} / {ing} : look also for {n}

UKT 150110, 160419: Since /ŋ/ is not present in onset of Skt-Dev syllables, {a.nga.} is not realized, instead {ing} or { n } - {a.} checked by killed {ng} - is met. Unable to find a suitable replacement for English digraph ng used to represent the phoneme /ŋ/, I have to change { ing } to { n }. See my note on Nga or Gna - the velar /ŋ/
The most tell-tale phoneme in Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman)

p003c3-b31

अङ् [ a-ṅ ]
- aor. suffix -a (in a-gam-a-t); krit-suffix -a (in bhid-, &c.).

 

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अङ्क [ aṅk- ] --> {n~ka.}
- m. bend, hook; flank, lap, side; proximity; embrace, hug; mark, sign, brand; act (of a play); -karana, n. branding.

अङ्क ank-a 
Skt: अङ्क [aṅk-] - m. bend, hook; flank, lap, side; proximity; embrace, hug; mark, sign, brand; act (of a play); -- MC003c3
Pal: aṅka - m. (√ac) a mark, the flank or side, hip, place - UPMT-PEDict004
Pal: {n~ka.} -- UHS-PMD0011
-

{hka:htic-hkwing-hkyi} - v. carry a child astride one's hip. - MED2010-055
Differentiate from carrying piggy-back. See an elder sister carrying her younger brother.

 

p003c3-b33

अङ्कन [ aṅk-ana ]
- n. branding (also fig.).

 

p003c3-b34

अङ्कपात [ aṅka-pta ]
- m. account, enumeration; -bandha,
- m. impress of a brand; -bhg, a. falling to one's (lap=) share; -bhrit, a. holding in the lap; -mukha, n. plot of a play.

 

p003c3-b35

अङ्कय [ aṅk-aya ]
- den. P. mark, brand: pp. aṅkita, marked, branded.

 

p003c3-b36

अङ्कलक्षण [ aṅka-lakshana ]
- n. mark, brand.

 

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अङ्कस्् [ ṅk-as ]
- n. bend.

 

p003c3-b38

अङ्कावतार  [aṅka‿avatra]
= अ ङ ् क ा व त ा र
Skt: अङ्कावतार  [aṅka‿avatra] -- m.,  -na , n. transition to another act,
  preparation of spectators for next act. -- Mac003c2 ( p003c3end-p004c1begin)
Skt: अङ्कावतार aṅkāvatāra -- m. close of a dramatic act -- SpkSkt

 

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UKT notes

Agni Purana

- UKT 161124

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agni_Purana 130222, 161124 

The Agni Purana, अग्नि पुराण agni purāṇa is a {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} text and one of the eighteen major Puranas of Hinduism. [1] The text is variously classified as a Purana related to Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism, but also considered as a text that covers them all impartially without leaning towards a particular theology. [1] [2]

The text exists in numerous versions, some very different from others. [3] The published manuscripts are divided into 382 or 383 chapters, containing between 12,000 and 15,000 verses. [3] [4] The chapters of the text were likely composed in different centuries, with earliest version probably after the 7th-century, [5] [6] but before the 11th-century because the early 11th-century Persian scholar Al-Biruni acknowledged its existence in his memoir on India. [7] The youngest layer of the text in the Agni Purana may be from the 17th-century. [7]

The Agni Purana is a medieval era encyclopedia that covers a diverse range of topics, and its "382 or 383 chapters actually deal with anything and everything", remark scholars such as Moriz Winternitz and Ludo Rocher. [8] [9] Its encyclopedic secular style led some 19th-century Indologists such as Horace Hayman Wilson to question if it even qualifies as what is assumed to be a Purana. [10] [11] The range of topics covered by this text include cosmology, mythology, genealogy, politics, education system, iconography, taxation theories, organization of army, theories on proper causes for war, martial arts, [5] diplomacy, local laws, building public projects, water distribution methods, trees and plants, medicine, [12] design and architecture, [13] [14] gemology, grammar, metrics, poetry, food and agriculture, [15] rituals, geography and travel guide to Mithila ( Bihar and neighboring states), cultural history, and numerous other topics. [4]

UKT: more in the Wikipedia

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Nga or Gna - the velar /ŋ/
The most tell-tale phoneme in Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman)

UKT 130623, 160419, 160502 :

There are no entries beginning with {nga.} in either Macdonell Skt-Dev, and in U Hoke Sein Pal-Myan. However the phoneme r1c5 is very prominent in Bur-Myan, {nga.} with {a.} as intrinsic vowel.

When the consonant {nga.} is combined with vowel {} gives {ng} a syllable. Such syllables which begins with a consonant ending in a vowel all have the canonical structure CV , where C is the onset consonant and V is called the nuclear vowel of the syllable.

There can be other syllables beginning with the nuclear vowel and ending in a consonant which is called the coda. Such syllables have the canonical structure V. The most general canonical structure is CV.

As stated above {nga.} be in the onset. When it is in the coda, it must be devoid of its intrinsic vowel, as in {ing}. In the syllable {nging} we have the same {nga.} both in the onset and in the coda.

In Mon-Myan, r1c5 glyph has the shape ◄nga.► (pronounced as {ng} with {} as the nuclear vowel).

There is also an unusual glyph in Bur-Myan orthography {ngra.} < > /ɲ/. We pronounce {ngra.} as /ɲ/ the same as the Bur-Myan basic r2c5 {a.}, yet because of the differences in shape as well as from the meanings of words with this phoneme, I presume that there must be pronunciation differences between the two.

I have concluded that Nya'gyi {a.} is a non-nasal unlike Nya'le {a.}. Nya'le {a.} is a nasal. My presumption is based on the pronunciation of words with the killed-Nya'gyi {}, and killed-Nya'le {a.} as codas.

UKT 130907: The reason why there are no {a.nga.}-words in Skt-Dev, but only those with {ing} /ɪŋ/ had baffled me until I came to study the r2 row on {a.a.}. There are no {a.a.}-words in Skt-Dev also, but only those with {i} /ɪɲ/.

You should note that in going from {a.nga.} to {ing}, there is a vowel change from <a> to < i >. This phenomenon is not met when we are dealing with transliterations. However, when transcriptions are attempted, we run into this problem. 

The problem seems simple, but actually it is very complex. The syllable {ing} has the canonical structure of VC, where V the nuclear vowel, and the C is the coda. In {ing}, the onset-consonant is absent, and we have the case of vowel sound being checked by the coda-consonant. In the Abugida-Akshara-system, the coda-consonant is always a killed-consonant, represented by . Depending on whether is a plosive-stop consonant, a nasal, or an approximant the checking is either complete, or partial, or in between.

When you look at the akshara table, Skt-Dev does not seem to have a dedicated grapheme for this phoneme of r1c5. The glyph is actually, a borrowed one from r3:

ड + dot --> ङ

This shows that originally Skt-Dev had no r1c5 phoneme. Since {a.nga.} calls for an independent {nga.}, there no are entries. Even for {ing}, many of its words are spelled {n} or what they considered to be its equivalent {n}.

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