Update: 2018-10-25 04:27 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary
read with Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
- http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
by F. Edgerton, 1953
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<>
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, downloaded version is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries.
A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007 available in TIL library in Research Center in Yangon.
  The above as downloaded text from 1875 ed. in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- RCChilders-PaliLangDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180701)
Pali-Myanmar dictionary, by U Hoke Sein (in Pal-Myan) in ink-on-paper book used for reference.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

  To turn this dictionary into a learning tool, the first task is to digitize the original ink-on-paper copy. Macdonell's entries are in 3 columns-per-page from which we have to cut out the individual entries. For this purpose, we use the scanned images from the University of Cologne, and the digitized copy from the University of Chicago. This TIL version is finally checked with the ink-on-paper copy of Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 in TIL library. Caveat: Macdonell, and his contemporaries used the older form of Devanagari script which is different from the current form.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels and consonants. The intermediary language is Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} based on Bur-Myan phonology. An added problem is due to Macdonell's use of the older form of Devanagari script. The Indologists contemporary to Macdonell used an older form of Devanagari script.

For reference to Pal-Myan words, we rely on  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein, Min. of Religious Affars, Govt. of Burma, first print 1954, pp1180. 
- U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) ,
- U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)

index.htm | Top

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Consolidated TOC for vowels v1 & v2 :

UKT 180718:
Vol00:  p001-1.htm -- MC-v00-indx.htm - the folder for this link has been emptied and deleted
Macdonell's p001.htm has been split into { n} p001-1.htm, and {a.} p001-2 to include Bur-Myan { n}.
Pal-Myan has this phoneme-glyph only as {kn:si:} 'ridden by a centipede' in addition to {::tn}.
Bookmarks for Nasal Endings:
- {n.} - a02n1 / {n.} - a02n2
- {kn:si:} { n} - i02n2 / { n} - ing2 / { } - iny2

     p000.htm p001-1.htm p001-2.htm p001-3.htm p002.htm  p003.htm  p004.htm
p005.htm  p006.htm  p007.htm  p008.htm  p009.htm
p010.htm  p011.htm  p012.htm  p013.htm  p014.htm 
p015.htm  p016.htm  p017.htm  p018.htm  p019.htm
p020.htm p021.htm  p022.htm  p023.htm  p024.htm  
p025.htm  p026.htm  p027.htm  p028.htm  p029.htm
p030.htm  p031.htm  p032.htm  p033.htm  p034.htm 
p035.htm   p036-1.htm p036-2.htm p037.htm  p038.htm  p039.htm
p040.htm  p041.htm  p042.htm  p043.htm  p044-1.htm p044-2.htm*
p045.htm  p046.htm  p047-1.htm  p047-2.htm  p048.htm  p049.htm 
p050.htm  p051.htm  p052.htm  p053.htm  p054.htm 
p055-1.htm  p055-2.htm  p056-1.htm p056-2.htm p057-1.htm p057-2.htm
  p058.htm p059-1.htm p059-2.htm p059-3.htm
p060-1.htm  p060-2.htm
p060-3.htm on {ka.} belonging to MCc1pp-indx.htm

Effect of coda consonant on the nuclear vowel
Skt-Dev is given in IAST transliteration whereas Romabama gives a transcription. Pronouncing a word according to IAST gives a pronunciation vastly different from that given in Romabama.

UKT 150220: Though I am sure of the vowel change due to  {wag}-consonants, I am having trouble showing the vowel change due to to {awag}-consonants or the equivalents of IPA Approximants and Fricatives. The main cause is the undefined central vowel Schwa /ə/ in Akshara or Abugida system. Since /ə/ is non-ASCII, the only alternative available is // one of the closest to /ə/ in the vowel quadrilateral. We must note that in the Alphabetic system /ə/ is <a> the first vowel of English a, e, i, o, u vowels. In Georgian alphabet (probably a distant relative of the Myanmar akshara due to its circular round glyphs, particularly the letter თ and its sound), <a> is represented  by .
See Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_language 150220.
For sound files, I rely on http://ilanguages.org/georgian_vocabulary.php 150220.
  Ten: ათი (number)  Ten: ათი  [ati] ati<)) ; I heard it as: {a-ti}, which if I were to play on the length of vowel would be {a.ti.}.


UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Inherent vowel


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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

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Inherent vowel and its pronunciation

- UKT 150907, 180722

What is the inherent vowel intrinsic vowel present in a consonantal character in Abugida-Akshara system? What is its pronunciation in different languages of BEPS? How is it to be represented in transliteration and transcription?

From Principles of Script, Ch 9.1 Devanagari, The Unicode Standard 4.0 , 2003

Consonant Letters. Each consonant letter represents a single consonantal sound but also has the peculiarity of having an inherent vowel, generally the short vowel /a/ in Devanagari and the other Indic scripts. Thus U+0915 DEVANAGARI LETTER KA  represents not just /k/ but also /ka/. In the presence of a dependent vowel, however, the inherent vowel associated with a consonant letter is overridden by the dependent vowel.

Virama (Halant). Devanagari employs a sign known in Sanskrit as the virama [which I commonly shorten to viram ] or vowel omission sign. In Hindi it is called hal or halant, and that term is used in referring to the virama or to a consonant with its vowel suppressed by the virama; the terms are used interchangeably in this section.

The virama sign, U+094D DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA , nominally serves to cancel (or kill) the inherent vowel of the consonant to which it is applied. When a consonant has lost its inherent vowel by the application of virama, it is known as a dead consonant; in contrast, a live consonant is one that retains its inherent vowel or is written with an explicit dependent vowel sign. In the Unicode Standard, a dead consonant is defined as a sequence consisting of a consonant letter followed by a virama. The default rendering for a dead consonant is to position the virama as a combining mark bound to the consonant letterform.

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End of TIL file