Update: 2017-08-07 05:28 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{Ta.nga.} : Kin'si coda {Tn~}


UKT notes :
 - One of the three epistemological groups - rationalists and metaphysicians (takki-vimamsi) , and traditionalists (anussavika ), and Buddhists. Gautama Buddha claims direct personal knowledge (janam janami, passam passami). He invites others to find the truth (attanava janeyyatha).

epistemology  n. 1. The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity. -- AHTD


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टक्क [ takka ]
= ट क ् क --> {Tak~ka.} 
- m. miser.



टक्कदेश [ takka-desa ]
- n. country of the Takkas.



टक्करा [ takkar ]
- f. blow on the head.



-- m. N.

See my note on takki-vimamsi


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{Ta.nga.} : Kin'si coda {Tn~}


[ taṅka]
- chisel; mattock; a coin; a weight (= 4 mshs); N. of a caste or people; i-k , f. chisel.



टङ्कण [ taṅkana ]
Skt: टङ्कण [ taṅkana ] - m. borax - Mac104c1
Pal: {Tn~ka.Na.} - UHS PMD0423
  UKT from UHS: - m. borax

UKT 170807: See how borax was used by the ancients in:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borax 170807



टङ्कय [ taṅka-ya ]
- den. P. cover up. ud, pp. uttaṅkita, stamped, marked, with (--).


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टंकार [ tam-kra ]
- m. yell, cry; twang, sound: -rava, m. id.



टंकारित [ tam-krita ]
- n. humming; twanging; -krita, n. sound.


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[ tal ]
- I. P. tala - be confused


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टसत् [ tasat ],
- टसिति  tas-iti - ij. bang!



टाङ्क [ tṅka ]
- n. kind of intoxicating liquor.



टांकार [ tm-kra ]
- m., -krita, n. sound.


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[ tikka]
-- m. N.


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[ titti-bha]
-- m., i. , f. a bird (Parra jaeana); N. of a bug



टिण्ठा [ tinth ]
- f. gaming-house.



[ tk ]
- I. . tika - trip along; cs. tikaya , explain, elucidate



टीका [ tk- ]
- f. commentary which explains only difficult passages.



[ tti-bha],
- m., i, f. = titti-bha



टीत्कार [ tt-kra ]
- m. crash.


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[ tulla]
-- m. N.


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UKT notes


rationalists and metaphysicians (takki-vimamsi)

-- UKT 141111

Myanmar Buddhist elders, especially those with a large amount of world's experience, through age, through bookish learning, through world-wide travel, through multiple languages, etc., should NOT be content only with the literature that is available in Myanmarpr. Recitation of Parittas, taking courses on Abbhidamma, and going into Vipassana centres, is NOT enough to widen your knowledge.

In order to explain your personal views especially to those nearest to you -- your grown-up children and grand-children -- who have been brought up under Western oriented education systems (dominated by our colonial masters who would like to destroy our languages and traditional institutions to establish themselves as our masters, e.g. Lord Macaulay (1800-1859)), should widen your horizons. Otherwise your children will be Myanmar in name, in cuisine and dance only. They will start to lookdown and hate the Bur-Myan language and the Myanmar akshara, and think of you and your forefathers as half-savages who had been saved by the British by military conquest to remove the oppressing king and queen "Soup-Plate".

The first word I had to clarify to my grandchildren is the word "Buddha" commonly known in Bur-Myan as {Bu.ra:} - not {hpa.ra:}. Buddha is a human-being with a human-father and a human-mother, who has come to possess the highest "intelligence & knowledge". He is NOT an axiom like the "Creator". It is his wisdom that we must appreciate. Forget the Magical Powers when everyone claims that their God has more Powers than yours. In the light of modern science and space travel, who cares about such Magical Powers! You should focus on the Intelligence & Knowledge of the historical Gautama Buddha.

Excerpt from Rev. Wadinagala Pannaloka, A Comparative Reading into the Early Buddhist and Lockean Theories of Knowledge, Graduate Institute of Philosophy, National Central University, Taiwan. http://www.ncu.edu.tw/~ncu7020/Files/Phd_Repord/98/39/thesis.pdf 120302, 141111

In the Buddhas time, there were three epistemological groups who claimed the truth. According to the Pali Nikayas, those groups were traditionalists (anussavika - who were based on the authority of scriptures), rationalists and metaphysicians (takki-vimamsi), and those who claim direct personal knowledge. 2 The Buddha identifies himself with the third class of thinkers. 3 In many places of the Nikayas, we can find reference to direct personal knowledge by the Buddha (janam janami, passam passami) 4 . Through the refutation of sole dependence on authority (sruti) 5 and reason, the [Gautama] Buddha invites to exercise ones own capacity to find the truth (attanava janeyyatha).

... ... ...

First, early Buddhism was aimed to get liberation from the worldly suffering. Once the [Gautama] Buddha, mentions that his research was to seek freedom from birth, death etc and get sublime peace. 6 In order to realize the truth of phenomenal world, one need to develop knowledge but knowledge is not the final goal and it is only a means to liberation (nissaranathaya). 7

... ... ...

Early Buddhism has accepted the role of sense-perception as vital in human person. The cognitive modes of sanna (perception) and vinnana (sense-awareness ) represent the process of sense experience. 14 The standard description of the sense-experience has occurred in a discussion which accounts for the arising of different views (ditthi). The Pali reference to sense perception runs as:

Depending upon the visual organ and the visible object, O monks, arises visual consciousness; the meeting together of these three is contact; conditioned by contact arises feeling. What one feels one perceives; what one perceives, one reflects about; what one reflects about, one is obsessed with. What one is obsessed with, due to that, concepts characterized by such obsessed perceptions assail him in regard to visible objects cognizable by the visual organ, belonging to the past, the future, and the present. 15

According to this reference, the process of sense-experience consists of several stages. The initial step is the contact of internal senses with their external objects which give rise to bare awareness (vinnana). 16  Following the vinnana, there arises contact (familiarity) 17 and in turn, contact leads to feeling (vedana). Feeling is a crucial stage in this process since what one feels one perceives (yam vedeti tam sanjnati).
A notable characteristic in the Buddhist account of sense-perception is the element of emotion. The familiarity of the cognitive awareness gives rise to feeling (sensation); what one perceives is what one feels. Sensation gives rise to perception.

UKT: More in the original paper

Go back takki-vimamsi-note-b

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