Update: 2017-08-09 06:10 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{za} - cont

{Za} / {z~ya} : {za.ya} : a conjunct may be formed
  However since we have Pal: {zT~HTa.} --> Skt: ज्येष्ठा jyeṣṭhā
  = ज ् य े ष ् ठ ा - f. 16th lunar mansion (- SpkSkt), conjunct formation is not a certainty.

{zra.} / {z~ra.} : hanging {ra.} is not allowed in Mon-Myan


UKT notes :
Jnana : {Zaan}
Pure Land Buddhism - Mahayana

Caveat: Beware of the popular layman notion of {Zaan}, {Zaan-krwa.}, and {Zaan-pyn}
- v. journey by levitation through the exercise of supernatural powers obtained by practising Jhana - MLC MED2006-155

UKT 160311: By "levitation" is meant the opposite of scientifically observed gravitational forces. Do not forget that energy is required to lift the mass of human-body and make it "fly" through the air. As a material scientist, I cannot accept the notion of "levitation".


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{za} - cont



ज्ञातव्य [ g-tavya ]
- fp. to be ascertained or learned; to be considered as (nm.).



ज्ञाति [ g-ti ]
- m. near blood-relation; kinsman: -karman, n. business of a kinsman; -krya, n. kinsman's duty; -tva, n. consanguinity; -putra, m. son of a relative; -prabhuka, a. of high position among relatives; -prya, a. meant specially for blood-relations; -bhva, m. relationship: -tas, ad. on the strength of his relationship; -bheda, m. quarrel among kinsmen; -mat, a. having near kinsmen.



[ g-tri]
-- m. one who knows; acquaintance; witness 


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UKT 160311: Skt-Myan {za-na.}, derived aks-to-aks from Skt-Dev, is the same or comparable
to Pal-Myan {Za-na.} - UHS PMD0420 
and to Bur-Myan {Zaan}. See my note on Jnana
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 160311


ज्ञान [ g-na ]
- n. knowledge; true or superior knowledge (sts. pl.); wisdom; intention; assumption; consciousness; organ of sense: -knda, n. the part of revelation treating of the higher knowledge; -kakshus, n. eye of knowledge; a. seeing with the eye of knowledge; -da, m. imparter of knowledge; -prva, a. preceded by knowledge, i.e. well-considered; -maya, a. () consisting in or containing knowledge; -mrga, m. path of knowledge; -yoga, m. the theoretical Yoga; -vat, a. knowing; learned; possessed of superior knowledge; -sakti-mat, a. having the faculty of knowing; -siddhi, m. N.

ज्ञान [ g-na ]
Skt: ज्ञान [ g-na ] - n. knowledge; ... superior knowledge (sts. pl.); wisdom; ... consciousness; ... - Mac103c1
Bur: {Zaan} - UKT


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ज्ञानिन् [ gn-in ]
- a. knowing, understanding, wise; having the higher knowledge; m. fortune teller, astrologer: (i)-tva, n. fortune-telling.



ज्ञानेच्छाक्रियाशक्तिमत् [ gna‿ikkh-kriy-sakti-mat ]
- a. having the faculty of knowledge, will, and action.



ज्ञानेन्द्रिय [ gna‿indriya ]
- m. organ of perception or sense.



ज्ञापक [ g-p-aka ]
- a. (ik) causing to know, teaching, indicating; m. master of petitions (an official); n. precept; implicit rule (of grammar); -ana, n. notifying, indicating; -anya, fp. to be made known or notified as (nm.); -ayitri, m. instructor.



ज्ञीप्सा [ gp-s ]
- (des.) f. enquiry.


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ज्ञेय [ ge-ya ]
- fp. to be known, -learned, -understood; -investigated; -considered as (nm.): -m, (with in. of subject) one should know how to (inf.): -ga, m. mind (knowing the knowable); -t, f., -tva, n. knowableness, comprehensibility.


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{Za} / {z~ya}


ज्या [ . gy ],
-- IX. P. [ gn] -- overpower; oppress; deprive of (2 ac.); ps. giya or giy : pp. git



ज्या [ . gy ]
- f. superior power or force; excessive requirement.



ज्या [ . gy ]
- f. bowstring.



ज्याकृष्टि [ gy-krishti ]
- f. drawing of the bow string.



ज्यानि [ gy-n ]
- f. oppression; disappearance.



ज्यापाश [ gy-ps ]
- m. bowstring.



ज्याय [ gy-ya ]
- den. . represent a bowstring.



ज्यायस् [ gy-yas ]
- cpv. mightier; stronger; superior, better, greater; older; more venerable or distinguished; most excellent or distinguished: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -vat, a. recognising a superior, obedient.



ज्यायिष्ठ [ gyy-ishtha ]
- spv. a. most excellent or distinguished; first; best.



[ gyut ],
- I. . gyota , shine; cs. P. gyotya , illumine


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ज्येष्ठ [ gy‿ishtha (or ) ]
- spv. most excellent or beauteous; greatest; highest; best; first; chief; superior to (ab.); eldest: -m, ad. most, greatly; m. elder brother; (sc. ghata) ascending bucket on the water-wheel; N. of a month, May-June (= [gyaishtha] jyeshta ); , f. eldest wife; N. of the 16th (18th) lunar station; misfortune; n. chief thing.

Comparison of the difference in spelling of the name of the 16th Lunar Mansion
Skt: ज्येष्ठा jyeṣṭhā = ज ् य े ष ् ठ ा - f. 16th lunar mansion - SpkSkt
Pal: {zT~HTa} = : the first syllable derived by checking {z} with {T} = {Ta.}-killed
- - UHS-PMD0418
  UKT from UHS: mfn. the elder by age, by station or stature. . the lunar month when the Moon is in the {zT~HTa} nakshatra नक्षत्र nkṣatra with the Bur-Myan name {na.yoan}




ज्येष्ठतर [ gyeshtha-tara ]
- cpv. m. one of the elders; , f. nurse; -t, f., -tva, n. superiority, precedence; primogeniture; -pla, m. N.; -vayas, a. older than (--); -varnin, m. Brhman {poaN~Na:}; -vritti, a. behaving like an elder brother; -sman, n. N. of a Sman; a. one who chants this Sman; -sma-ga, a. id.; -‿srama, m. most excellent order (that of the householder); a. living in the householder stage.


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ज्यैष्ठ [ gyaishtha ]
- m. N. of a summer month (May-June); , f. day of full moon in Gyaishtha; -smika, a. relating to the gyeshtha-sman.


ज्यैष्ठ [ gyaishtha ] jyaiṣṭha
Skt: ज्यैष्ठ = ज ् य ै ष ्ठ jyaiṣṭha - m. Luni-solar month corresponding to May-June - SpkSkt
Pal: {zT~HTa.} , rhyming with {hkt} but commonly mis-pronounced as {z-HTa.}
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. elder, respectable, prominent in stature. . Lunar mansion of Jyeshta nakshatra corresponding to the third Bur-Myan Lunar month of {na.yoan} corresponding to May-June.



ज्यैष्ठिनेय [ gyaishth-in-ey ]
- m. son of the father's eldest wife.



ज्यैष्ठ्य [ gyashth-ya ]
- n. precedence; primogeniture.


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ज्योक् [ gyk ]
- ad. for a long time: -tamm, ad. longest.



ज्योतिरग्र [ gytir-agra ]
- a. (preceded by =) radiating light; -sa, -svara, m. N. of an author.



ज्योतिर्ज्ञ [ gyotir-ga ]
- m. astronomer; -maya, a. consisting of light, radiant; -lekh, f. N.; -vid, m. astronomer.



ज्योतिःशास्त्र [ gyotih-sstra ]
Skt: ज्योतिःशास्त्र [ gyotih-sstra ] - n. astronomy. - Mac103c3
Pal: {zau:ti.t~hta.} - UHS PMD0419
  UKT from UHS: n. predictive astrology



ज्योतिष [ gyotish-a ]
- n. astronomical science (one of the six Vedṅgas).



ज्योतिष्कण [ gyotish-kana ]
- m. spark; -prabha, m. N. of a Buddha, of a Bodhisattva, and of a prince; -praroha, m. (shoot of light): pl. rays; -mat, a. full of light, radiant, brilliant, heavenly; m. sun; N.: -, f. a form of trishtubh metre.



ज्योतिःष्टोम [ gyotih-shtoma ]
- m. (Praise of Light), kind of Soma sacrifice (which consists of four, Agnishtoma, Ukthya, Shodasin, and Atirtra, or seven parts: the same and Atyag nishtoma, Vgapeya, and ptoryma).



ज्योतिस् [ gyt-is ]
- n. light, radiance; fire; light of the eye; world of light; intelligence; light of life, freedom, joy, victory: pl. heavenly bodies, stars.



ज्योतीरस [ gyot-rasa ]
- m. (dew of light), kind of gem.



ज्योत्स्ना [ gyt-sn ]
- f. moonlight: -maya, a. consisting of moonlight; -vat, a. moonlight (night); bright.



[ gyotsu-ik]
-- f. N. of a singer



ज्यौत्स्न [ gyautsna ]
- m. (moonlit half =) light half of the month.

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{zra.} / {z~ra.}

Hanging {ra.} cannot be allowed in BEPS, because it will play havoc in Mon-Myan


ज्रयस् [ gry-as ]
- n. expanse, space.



[ gri ]
- I.P. [ grya] with upa - go to (ac.)


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[ gvar ],
- I. P. [ gvara] - be hot; cs. gvaraya, cause to be feverish, sam , be distressed 



ज्वर [ gvar-a ]
- m. fever; sorrow: -pralpa, m. delirious raving.



ज्वरित [ gvar-ita ]
- pp. feverish; -in, a. id.



[ gval ] 
- I.P. (E. also .) gvala, blaze, burn, flame, glow, flash; be red-hot: pp. gvalita, flaming, blazing, flashing, shining; cs. gvlaya, kindle; illuminate; intv. g-gvalati or ggvalyate, blaze powerfully; shine brilliantly. ud, flare up. cs. set aflame, kindle; illuminate; pra, begin to blaze or flash: pp. flaming, blazing; shining; cs. kindle. abhi-vi, shine towards. sam, blaze; cs.-gvlaya, kindle. 



ज्वल [ gval-a ]
- m. flame; -at, pr. pt. burning, shining etc.; m. burning fire.



ज्वलन [ gval-an ]
- a. burning; shining; m. fire; caustic potash [ Potassium hydroxide KOH]; n. flaming: -kana, m. spark.



ज्वलित [ gval-ita ]
- (pp.) n. shining, sheen.



ज्वाल [ gvla ]
- m. flame; torch; , f. illumination; flame, bright light: -dhvaga, m. fire, -mukha, m. (Flame-mouth), kind of ghost; N. of a Brahmarkshasa, -liṅga, n. N. of a temple of Siva.



ज्वालिन् [ gvl-in ]
- a. flaming.


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UKT notes


UKT 170805: The concept of Jnana {Za-na.} aka {Zaan} is so important in Theravada Buddhism, that I have written my notes two times. Note: Many Myanmar Buddhists, including myself at one time, think wrongly think that {Zaan} is the ability to "levitate" {Zaan kwra.} and "fly" {Zaan-pyn}. Gautama Buddha, and his Arahats travelled on foot: they did not fly physically. They had physical bodies which have Mass or Weight, and flying without wings is going against Gravity. They were human beings and all have died.

See also: http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/g_m/jhaana.htm 170806
for Jhana .

There are several stages of Jhana such as the First Jhana, the Second Jhana, the Third Jhana, etc. Gautama Buddha was used to them and while his consciousness was fixed in them he enjoyed complete "bliss". The "Bliss of Jnana" is unknown to common experience, and while in such a state the person is conscious but oblivious to physical pain and mental pain. The person is enjoying complete Joy.

Just before his death, after bidding farewell to those around him, the Buddha went into the First Jhana. Then he "arose" from it and went into the Second. And then into the Third. And then into the Fourth. While he was in the Fourth, he appeared to have died to Shin Arahan (who hadn't become an Arahat yet).

Shin Arahan had been watching him closely, and shed tears, at which the more accomplished Arahat Shin Anuruddha told Ananda that the Buddha had not given up his life-force, jiva, and was still alive. The Buddha after "arising" out of the Fourth Jhana did not go up into the Fifth Jhana, but "climbed down" into the Third, and then into the Second, and then into the First. From the First he "climbed up" into the Second and then into the Third. However, after arising from the Third, he did not go into the Fourth, but gave up his life-force instead. Only then did the Buddha "die" in the common sense of the word.

-- UKT 141111:

Many Theravada Myanmar Buddhist will tell you that {Zaan} is the ability to fly through the air. It is probably derived from the common sight of an "adapt yogi"  looking directly without blinking at a {ka.eiN:} object, such as the midday Sun. (Such a sight can be sometimes seen on Shwdagon pagoda platform. Common people just ignore them.) Such a practice instead of making him or her blind would bring on mystic powers such as levitation and the ability to fly through the air. Such yogic practices are not encouraged by the mainstream Theravada Buddhism. They are undoubtedly remnants of the pre-Buddhist faiths and might be related to Bon religion of Tibet.

{Zaan-krwa.} - v. journey by levitation through the exercise of supernatural powers obtained by practising jhana . -- MLC MED2006-155

UKT edited from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 120301

Jāna or gāna (English-IPA: /dʒəˈnɑːnə/ , [1] Hindi-IPA: ज्ञान [ɡjaːnə], from Pali āna, Skt: jāna) is a Sanskrit and Pali word that means knowledge. It has various nuances of meaning depending on the context. The idea of jnana centers around a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced. [2] It is knowledge inseparable from the total experience of reality, especially a total reality, [2] or supreme being within Mahesha-dhama (and/or material world) such as Siva-Sakti. [3]

UKT: I have to point out in above that by <English> or <Hindi> what Wiki has given are the IPA transcriptions. The Pal-Myan is: {Za-na.} .
- - UHS-PMD0420

UKT from UHS: n. close observation of a phenomenon, intense concentration on an object of {ka.eiN:}, the {Zaan} of the {wi.pa~a.na}.

In Buddhism, it refers to pure awareness that is free of conceptual encumbrances, and is contrasted with vijnana, which is a moment of 'divided knowing'. Entrance to, and progression through the ten stages of Jnana, will lead one to complete enlightenment and nibbana. [4]

UKT 141113: Though Pali nibbana and Sanskrit nirvana are commonly taken to be the same, they are widely different. Pali nibbana means the cessation of mental suffering even while the person is living. With death comes parinibbana . Sanskrit nirvana is realized only after death, when the Soul or Personal Atta goes to Heaven which on closer analysis is the world of Dva and goes on "living" a happy life. The idea of Soul aka Atta is axiomatic and has been rejected by the Gautama Buddha.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

UKT 141113: The question remains what happens to a "person" after death who had become
#1. an Anagam 'non-returner" , e.g. {sait~ta. u-krw  (sp to be checked)
#2. an Arahat , e.g. {rhing a-ri-poat~ta.ra} and {rhing maug~ga.ln}
#3. a Buddha, e.g. Gautama Buddha

To look into this question, you will have to know something about the Buddhist Cosmology. The following is an excerpt from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology 141113

The Śuddhāvāsa (Pāli: Suddhāvāsa; Tib: gnas gtsang ma) worlds, or "Pure Abodes", are distinct from the other worlds of the Rūpadhātu in that they do not house beings who have been born there through ordinary merit or meditative attainments, but only those Anāgāmins ("Non-returners") who are already on the path to Arhat-hood and who will attain enlightenment directly from the Śuddhāvāsa worlds without being reborn in a lower plane. Every Śuddhāvāsa deva is therefore a protector of Buddhism. (Brahma Sahampati, who appealed to the newly enlightened Buddha to teach, was an Anagami from a previous Buddha [5]).

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Continue reading below:

- UKT 160313, 170805

The occupants of the cells r2c4 & r2c5 of the Akshara-Matrix are very controversial in Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan), Mon-Myanmar (Mon-Myan), Pali-Myanmar (Pali-Myan), and Sanskrit-Myanmar (Skt-Myan) (derived by aks-to-aks transformation from Sanskrit-Devanagari).

In Bur-Myan, the True-Za {Za.} - the occupant of r2c4 - is an important phoneme with indigenous words such as {Z:} 'a market place' and its derivatives. However in other languages, there are other phonemes (shown by the respective glyphs) in this cell. All in all:

Bur-Myan: "look alike of {sa.ya.pn.} -
   Mon-Myan: "look alike of {za.ya.pn.} - /

Skt-Myan: "look alike of {za.a.hsw:}  -   - derived aks-to-aks from Skt-Dev ज्ञ
   Mon-Myan: "look alike of {za.a.hsw:} -

Whatever the glyph may look like, to the Buddhists {Za.} is important because of the word for Jhana 'knowledge'
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 160311
and the various stages of Jhana in a person's quest for Nirvana.

Our first study is therefore to find what this Jhana (Skt-Dev) is, and how it is related to Nyana {a-Na.} (Pal-Myan), and to {Zaan} (Bur-Myan). The idea of {Zaan} in popular notion is entirely different from the idea of Jhana (Skt-Dev), and refers to the human power of levitation and ability to fly through the air in the physical body weighing about 150 lbs. It is connected to two words {Zaan-krwa.}, and {Zaan-pyn}. See MLC MED2006-155, which defines the power as:
- v. journey by levitation through the exercise of supernatural powers obtained by practising Jhana .

A human being is supposed to come to possess this power by either the Left-Hand Path (Black Magic of Witches) or the Right-Hand Path (White Magic of Waik'zas)

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana 160311

Jāna , ज्ञान jāna [Wiki Pali: āṇa {a-Na.}], a term for "knowledge" in Indian philosophy and religion.

The idea of jnana centers on a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced. It is knowledge inseparable from the total experience of reality, especially a total or divine reality (Brahman). [1]

UKT 160311: It was the experience of my youth when my father U Tun Pe explained to me the idea of "Brahman". The prime reason was my confusion with the word for the human Brahmana-Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}. Because of this, I have struck out the words connected to unseen and unrealistic idea of the "Brahman".

The root jā- is cognate to English <know> [note: <k> is made silent in English because of the absence of the /ŋ/ (velar), /ɲ/ (palatal) & /ɳ/ (retroflex) phonemes], as well as to the Greek γνώ- (as in γνῶσις <gnosis> [note <g> is made silent in English]). Its antonym is ajāna "ignorance".

In Myanmar Theravada Buddhism

In the Vipassanā tradition of Buddhism there are the following anas [Bur-Myan {aaN}] according to Mahasi Sayadaw. [3]. As a person meditates these anas or "knowledges" will be experienced in order. The experience of each may be brief or may last for years and the subjective intensity of each is variable. Each ana could also be considered a jhāna although many are not stable and the mind has no way to remain embedded in the experience. [UKT ]

UKT 160311: Note the implication that there is a difference between ana {aaN} and jhāna {Zaan} .
Also please note that I am giving the Bur-Myan equivalents instead of Pal-Myan to show the viram.

Experiencing all the anas will lead to the first of the Four stages of enlightenment then the cycle will start over at a subtler level. [3]

01. Analytical Knowledge of Body and Mind (nama-rupa-pariccheda-ana)
  (corresponds to First jhana {pa.HTa.ma. zaan}
02. Knowledge by Discerning Conditionality (paccaya-pariggaha-ana)
03. Knowledge by Comprehension (sammasana-ana)

UKT 160311, 170805: Prince Siddhartha as a child had experienced the First Jhana while his father was performing the Royal Ploughing ceremony. What caught his sight was a bird swooping down on a worm that had been exposed when a lump of earth was overturned. The bird had no intention to kill: he had only picked up his food - yet it resulted in a killing-act. One day, perhaps, the bird would also become food for a larger bird-of-prey. The larger one would only be picking up his food - the smaller bird. Yet it results in killing, and the starvation and death of all the nestlings of the smaller bird. When would this cycle of gathering food resulting in deaths and miseries end.

Please note that in the Sixth Synod version of Myanmarpr, the prince was still in his crib when he entered the First Jhana.

In both versions of the "age" of the child, we must accept that, the prince was still very human and that he had not reached puberty. Because of this, I interpret the First Jhana as a kind of inborn human intelligence similar to the ability to play music at a very early age (musical genius), and the ability to solve complex arithmetic problems as children (mathematical genius). Though such intelligences are very rare, they are nevertheless inborn human traits. 

04. Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away (udayabbaya-ana)
  (corresponds to Second jhana)

05. Knowledge of Dissolution (bhanga-ana)
  (corresponds to Third jhana)

06. Awareness of Fearfulness (bhayatupatthana-ana)

07. Knowledge of Misery (adinava-ana)

08. Knowledge of Disgust (nibbida-ana)

09. Knowledge of Desire for Deliverance (muncitu-kamyata-ana)

10. Knowledge of Re-observation (patisankhanupassana-ana)

11. Knowledge of Equanimity about Formations (sankhar'upekkha-ana)
  (corresponds to Fourth jhana)

UKT 170806: The Buddha on his death-bed, while in the Fourth jhana experienced nirodha-samāpatti, which to a non-Arahat like Shin Ananda like "death" without "jiva". But to the Arahat Shin Anuruddha, it was only nirodha-samāpatti, from which the Buddha would emerge alive. - I still have to check my facts.

12. Insight Leading to emergence (vutthanagamini-vipassana-ana)

13. Knowledge of Adaptation (anuloma-ana) (one-time event)

14. Maturity Knowledge (gotrabhu-ana) (one-time event)

15. Path Knowledge (magga-ana) (one-time event)

16. Fruition Knowledge (phala-ana) (corresponds to Nibbāna)

17. Knowledge of Reviewing (paccavekkhana-ana)


In Mahayana Tibetan Buddhism

In Tibetan Buddhism, it refers to pure awareness that is free of conceptual encumbrances, and is contrasted with vijnana, which is a moment of 'divided knowing'. Entrance to, and progression through the ten stages of Jnana/Bhimis, will lead one to complete enlightenment and nirvana. [2]


In Hinduism

Sahu explains:

Prajnanam iti Brahman - wisdom is the soul/spirit. Prajnanam refers to the intuitive truth which can be verified/tested by reason. It is a higher function of the intellect that ascertains the Sat or Truth in the Sat-Chit-Ananda or truth-consciousness-bliss, i.e. the Brahman/Atman/Self/person [...] A truly wise person [...] is known as Prajna - who has attained Brahmanhood itself; thus, testifying to the Vedic Maha Vakya (great saying or words of wisdom): Prajnanam iti Brahman. [4]

And according to David Loy,

The knowledge of Brahman [...] is not intuition of Brahman but itself is Brahman. [5]

Jnana Shakti is "the power of intellect, real wisdom, or knowledge". [6]

Jnana yoga (Yoga of Knowledge) is one of the three main paths (margas), which are supposed to lead towards moksha (liberation) from material miseries. The other two main paths are Karma yoga and Bhakti Yoga. Rāja yoga (classical yoga) which includes several yogas, is also said to lead to moksha. It is said that each path is meant for a different temperament of personality.

A notable mantra within the International Society for Krishna Consciousness refers to the transition from (spiritual) ignorance to (spiritual) under the guidance of a guru: [7]

oṁ ajāna-timirāndhasya /
jānājana-śalākayā /
cakṣur unmīlitaṁ yena /
tasmai śrī-gurave namaḥ

"from darkest ignorance /
with the torch of knowledge /
he has opened [my] eye /
honour be to [my] venerable teacher"

Go back jnana-note-b

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Pure Land Buddhism : Mahayana

UKT 141113:

UKT 141113: To me who is a material scientist, the Buddhist Cosmology is pure fiction. I cannot accept it in face of modern technology of Space travel and Deep Space telescopes. I am content with the first sermons of Gautama Buddha: The Noble Truths, The Signs of Anatta, and Basis of Human Thoughts and Actions, which are all free of axioms.

UKT 170806: To many, an axiomatic being is just like a physical being of Space and Mass. Thus a "ghost" such as Minga'l Nat {mn:ka.l: nt} is as real as a human being and is capable of "marrying" a real woman (who may already have a human husband). Nat-weddings are celebrated as real-weddings including a nuptial-bed. Pix shows the nuptial bed of Cupid (axiomatic) and Psyche (human woman of flesh and blood). For the story of Cupid and Psyche, see: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cupid_and_Psyche 170817

I consider the idea of Pure Land of Mahayana Buddhism as a mix up of axiomatic and non-axiomatic Cosmology of Mass and Space. The English translation "Land" should not be used: I prefer the term "Realm".
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pure_land 141113

A Pure Land, in Mahayana Buddhism, is the celestial realm or pure abode of a Buddha or Bodhisattva. The term "pure land" is particular to the Chinese (Ch. 净土, jngtǔ) and related East Asian traditions; in Sanskrit the equivalent concept is called the "Buddha field" (Skt. buddha-kṣetra). The various traditions that focus on Pure Lands have been given the nomenclature Pure Land Buddhism. Pure lands are also evident in the literature and traditions of Taoism and Bn.

The notion of 'pure lands' was inherited from other Indian religions already evident in the Dharma. The notion of a pure land may have evolved from the Uttarakuru, a divine continent in ancient Indian cosmology. [1] The pure realms are all accessible through experiential meditation.

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