Update: 2017-08-03 01:43 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{za.la.} - cont
/ {za} : Maukcha-Weikcha Rule
/ {za-ga.}
{za-nga.} : as coda


UKT notes :
Headwaters of the Ganges
Hydrophobia - tribute to chemist Louis Pasteur : UKT 170801 - this note has been moved to new p099.htm
Jahallaksana - Philosophy of Language
Jataka tales - includes my personal belief
Ujjain - the ancient city 

Maukcha-Weikcha Rule : {mauk-hkya.}-{weik-hkya.} rule

- UKT 160310:
I hold that there is a reason why certain glyphs are based on a single-circle, whilst others are based on double-circles. The reason is either on "pronunciation" or on "meaning", and I try to stick to the rule which I had learnt as a child, that {mauk-hkya.} is used for single-circle glyphs and {weik-hkya.} is for double circles. My friend U Tun Tint of MLC has disputed what I have remembered and holds that the choice of {mauk-hkya.} or {weik-hkya.} is set arbitrarily.


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{za.la.} - cont



जलद [ gala-da ]
- m. (water-giver), cloud: -kla, m. rainy season; -kshaya, m. (disappearance of clouds), autumn; -taskara, m. robber of a cloud; -samaya, m. rainy season; -‿gama, m. (arrival of clouds), rainy season; -‿atyaya, m. autumn.



जलदान [ gala-dna ]
- n. libation of water (festival in Uggayin); -dravya, n. ocean-product, pearl; -dhara, m. (water-bearer), cloud: -ml, f. tract of clouds, -‿abhyudaya, m. (rise of the clouds), rainy season; -dhr, f. stream of water, shower; -dhi, m. ocean, sea: -t, f. abst. ɴ., -rasan, f. ocean-girt (earth); -nidhi, m. ocean, sea; -pakshin, m. water bird; -patha, m. sea-voyage; -pda, m. (water-foot), N. of a frog-king; -pra, m. full channel (of a river); -prusha, m. water pixie [ fairy or elf ]; -pravha, m. current; -plava, m. deluge; -bindu, m. drop of water: -durdina, n. shower of rain; -budbuda, m. water-bubble; -bhgana, n. water-vessel; -maya, a. ( ) consisting of water; -mnusha, m. () fabulous aquatic being; otter; -muk, a. discharging rain; m. cloud.

See my note on Ujjain - the ancient city



जलयन्त्र [ gala-yantra ]
- n. squirt; water-clock: -ka, n. squirt, -kakra, n. water-wheel, -mandira, n. apartment with shower-bath; -rsi, m. waters; sea, ocean; -ruh, -ruha, m. day lotus (growing in the water); -rekh, f. streak on the water; strip of water; -lekh, f. id.; -lava-muk, m. (shedding drops of water), cloud; -vat, a. abounding in water; -vsa, m. abode in the water; a. living in the water; -vs-in, a. living in the water: (i)-t, f. abst. ɴ.; -vha, a. bearing water: -ka, m. water carrier; -sayy, f. lying in the water (as a penance); -samnivesa, m. reservoir, pond; -srya: -ka, m. reflection of the sun in the water; -stha, a. being in the water; -sthna, n. reservoir, lake; -snna, n. bathe; -hastin, m. (water-elephant), crocodile; -hra, m. water-carrier; , f.



जलांशु [ gala‿amsu ]
- m. (cool-rayed), moon (= gadmsu); -‿gama, m. rain; -‿agali, m. two handfuls of water in honour of the dead; farewell for ever (fig.); -‿atyaya, m. (cessation of the rain), autumn; -‿dhra, m. reservoir, pond.



जलाय [ gal-ya ]
- den. . turn into water.



जलायुका [ gal-yu-k ]
- f. leech.



जलार्थिन् [ gala‿arthin ]
- a. thirsty; -‿rdra, a. wet, moist: , f. wet garment; damp cloth (used for fanning); -rdrik, f. id. (-- a.); -‿saya, m. reservoir, pond, lake; sea; a. resting in the water; stupid.



जलाष [ glsha ]
- a. soothing, healing; -bheshaga, a. having soothing remedies.



जलाहति [ gala‿hati ]
- f. downpour of rain.



जलेचर [ gale-kara ]
- a. () living in the water; m. aquatic animal (-- a. f. ); -saya, a. abiding in the water; ep. of Vishnu.



जलेश [ gala‿sa ]
- m. lord of water, ep. of Varuna, ocean.



जलेश्वर [ gala‿svara ]
- m. lord of water, ep. of Varuna.



-- m. N. of a king



जलोदर [ gala‿udara ]
- n. (water-belly), dropsy; -‿uddhata-gati, a. moving violently in the water; f. a metre; -udbhava, a. sprung from the water; m. aquatic animal; N. of a water sprite.


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जलौक [ gala‿oka ]
- m. leech; , f.: -‿okas, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal; N. of a king; f. leech; -‿oka‿avakaranya, fp. treating of the application of leeches.



जलप् [ galp ],
- I. P. [glpa]  murmur; speak, talk, converse with (in. srdham); address (ac.) : ... 



जल्प [ galp-a ]
- m. talk, conversation, words: pl. prate; -aka, a. chattering; m. chatterer; -ana, n. speaking, talking; -ka, a. chattering, loquacious; -ita, pp. n. talk; words; -in, a. speaking, talking (--); -ya, n. chatter.


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जव [ gav- ]
- a. swift; m. swiftness, speed; haste: ab. at once; -ana, a. () quick, swift; n. quickness, swiftness; -anik, f. curtain.



जवस् [ gv-as ]
- n. swiftness.



जवा [ gav ]
- f. China rose.



जवाधिक [ gava‿adhika ]
- a. running faster.



जविन् [ gav-n ]
- a. swift; quick, speedy, hasty.



जविष्ठ [ gv-ishtha ]
- spv. swiftest, quickest; -yas, cpv. quicker or swifter than (ab.).


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[ gash] 
-- m. kind of aquatic animal.


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[ gas ]
- i. [ gsa] - be exhausted; cs. ...



जसु [ gs-u ]
- f. exhaustion; -uri, a. exhausted; -van, a. wretched.



[ gasma-rga ]
- m. N.


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जहका [ ghak ]
- f. hedgehog.



जहत्स्वार्थ [ gahat-svrtha ]
- a. giving up its original meaning; , f. = gahal-lakshan.



जहल्लक्षणा [ gahal-lakshan ]
- f. mediate designation giving up the primary meaning (e.g. "on the Ganges", meaning 'on the bank of the Ganges'.

See my note on Jahallaksana - in the Philosophy of Language. My illustration:
UKT 170802:  What is the difference between? :
#1. Mandalay is a city on the Irrawaddy.
#2. Mandalay is a city on the bank of the Irrawaddy.
We should be aware that preciseness of language is important, but preciseness should not be pushed to the extreme. If both the speaker and hearer already knew that Irrawaddy is a river, and that a large city such Mandalay cannot be a "floating city", statement #1 is good enough. However, if it is case of an author of book and the reader of another period in time, when there is no common understanding, statement #2 is preferable.


जहित [ ga-hi-t ]
- pp. (√h) forsaken, forlorn.



जहु [ gahu ]
- m. young of an animal.



जन्हु [ gahnu ]
- m. N. of a king who adopted the Ganges; N. of a cave in the Himlaya from which the Ganges issues: -kany, f. daughter of Gahnu, Ganges; -sut, f. id.

See my note on the Headwaters of the Ganges
"The Ganges River issues full force from an ice cave in the snout of the Gangotri Glacier at ... "
Illustrated Atlas of the Himalyas by David Zurick, Julsun Pacheco - 2006 - Reference - 228 pages -- Google book preview



[ gahla]
-- m. N.


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/ {za}

UKT 160310: I hold that there is a reason why certain glyphs are based on a single-circle, whilst others are based on double-circles. The reason is either on "pronunciation" or on "meaning", and I try to stick to the rule which I had learnt as a child, that {mauk-hkya.} is used for single-circle glyphs and {weik-hkya.} is for double circles. My friend U Tun Tint of MLC has disputed what I have remembered and holds that the choice of {mauk-hkya.} or {weik-hkya.} is set arbitrarily.


  जा [ g ]
- a. -- = -ga, born; m. f. (nm. -s) offspring: pl. progeny.


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/ {za-ga.}


जागत [ ggata ]
- a. composed in gagat metre.

UKT 160310: Jagati meter is one of the seven main meters in Sanskrit poetry with 4 padas of 12 syllables containing 48 syllables in each stanza. The study of meter is one of the six Vedanga disciplines which are more important to the Myanmar Buddhists than RigVeda itself which is made up of mainly hymns and mantras directed to the Hindu gods and goddesses. See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_meter 160310


जागर [ g-gar-a ]
- m. waking; waking vision; -aka, m. waking; -ana, a. awake; n. waking; -it, pp. wakeful; n. waking: -sthna, a. being in a wakeful condition; -ishnu, a. wakeful; -&usharp;ka, a. watchful; occupied with (--).



[ ga-gri ]
-- intv. (of √gri) wake, be watchful; awake, be roused; watch over ...



जागृवि [ ggri-vi ]
- a. watchful; bright; stimulating.



जाग्रत् [ ggr-at ]
- pr.pt. watching; n. waking: -svapn, m. du. waking and sleep.


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जाघनी [ gghan ]
- f. tail (connected w. gaghana).


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{za-nga.} : as coda


जाङ्गल [ gṅgala ]
- a. open, dry, even, and productive (country); existing in such a country; m. quail; n. game, meat.



जाङ्घिक [ gṅgh-ika ]
- a. swift-footed; m. runner


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जाजिन् [ gg-in ]
- m. fighter.


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जाठर [ gthara ]
- a. () relating to the belly; (with agni, m. digestive fire, hunger); m. son.


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जाड्य [ gd-ya ]
- n. chilliness; want of sensation, dullness; stupidity; inanimateness.



जाड्यभाव [ gdya-bhva ]
- m. stupidity.


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  जात [ g-t ]
- pp. (√gan); m. son; n. creature; birth; race, kind, genus; --, all that is comprised by --, sum total of --, any --, every kind of --: lc. in general.

जात [ g-t ]
Skt: जात [ g-t ] - pp. (√gan); m. son; n. creature; birth; race, kind, genus; -- Mac100c3
Pal: {za-ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0411
  UKT from UHS: mfn. has taken birth, has become, has hatched. n. occurred



जातक [ gta-ka ]
- a. --, begotten by --; born under (a star); m. new-born child; n. (astrological) nativity; story of one of Buddha's former births.

जातक [ gta-ka ]
Skt: जातक [ gta-ka ] - a. --, begotten by --; born under (a star); m. new-born child; n. (astrological) nativity; story of one of Buddha's former births. - Mac100c3
Pal: {za-ta.ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0411
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what had taken place. n. a former-life story of the Gautama Buddha

See my note on Jataka tales



जातकर्मन् [ gta-karman ]
- n. after-birth ceremony; -dosha, a. guilty; -nashta, pp. having appeared and disappeared; -paksha, a. fledged; -prya, a. almost come to pass; -preta, pp. first born and then deceased; -mtra, a. but just born, only just arisen; -rpa, a. of native beauty, beauteous; golden; n. gold: -maya, a. () golden; -vat, a. born; containing a derivative of the √gan; -vsaka, n. lying-in room; -vsa-griha, n. (apartment in which living takes place), sitting room; ()-vidy, f. science of the origin or of the essence of things, metaphysics; -vinashta, pp. = gta-nashta; -visvsa, a. having confidence engendered, inspired with confidence; ()-vedas, a. having knowledge of beings; m. Agni; (C.) fire; -vesman, n. chamber of a new-born infant; lying-in room; -sil, f. (real = ) massive stone; -samkalpa, a. resolved; enamoured.

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जातापत्य [ gta‿apatya ]
- a. having offspring; -‿amarsha, a. having one's anger roused, enraged; -‿avamna, a. filled with self-contempt.



जाति [ g-ti ]
- f. birth, origin, rebirth; existence, life; state; rank, caste; family, tribe, race; genus (opp. species), species (opp. individual), kind, class; disposition; normal character, genuineness: in. -tas, --, by birth.


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जातिजानपद [ gti-gnapada ]
- a. relating to the castes and to the districts; -bhg, a. subject to birth; -bhramsa, m. loss of caste; -bhrashta, pp. having lost caste; -mat, a. high-born; capable of being classed under a general notion; -mtra, n. mere rank: -‿upa-gvin, a. subsisting by the name of his caste only; -vakana, n. generic term; -sampanna, pp. endowed with good family, high-born; -smara, a. remembering one's former existence: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -smarana, n. remembrance of a former birth; -hna, pp. destitute of good family, of low birth or rank.



जाती [ g-t ]
- f. rarer form of gti; nutmeg tree: -kosa, m. nutmeg.



जातीय [ gtya ]
- a. belonging to the caste, family, race, kind, or genus, of (--): -ka, a. id.


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जातु [ g-tu ]
- ad. at all; ever; possibly, perhaps, once: na gtu, not at all, by no means, never (sts. with kid or kad kid added).



-- m. = ytu-dhna



जातुष [ gtusha ]
- a. () made of or painted with lac.



जातूकर्ण [ gt-karna ]
- m. N. of an old teacher, physician, and author of a law-book; , f. N. of Bhavabhti's mother: -putra, m. son of Gtkarn, Bhavabhti.



जातूकर्ण्य [ gtkarnya ]
- m. descendant of Gtkarna.


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जातेर्ष्य [ gta‿rshya ]
- a. having jealousy engendered, jealous; -ishti, f. sacrifice on the birth of a child.


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UKT notes

Headwaters of the Ganges

- UKT 141106

The Ganges River {gn~ga mric} of India is prominent not only in Theravada Buddhist texts but also in the culture and legends of Myanmarpr. It flows from west to east in the general direction. It should be compared to the Irrawaddy River {-ra-wad~di mric} of Myanmarpr which flows from north to south. Both have sources in the Himalayan range, and might be described as the "daughters of the Himalaya". The Hindus worship Ganges River as a Mother-goddess, whereas in Myanmarpr, the Irrawaddy River is just a water way, the main artery of trade and culture.

From this we may say that peoples of Myanmarpr have never been animists - in the sense used by the British colonialists - from the pre-Buddhist days down to the present. I would describe my ancestors as more practical than the mantra-chanting Hindus. Perhaps it has been the custom of Tib-Bur speaking people who had lived just south of the Himalayas not to worship everything they meet. Perhaps, it was the tradition of the new comers into India - the Indo-Europeans - who had worshipped every single thing they see to seek protection from their priests and their kings. It is now in this light that I study the Rig Vda which originally was a source of knowledge now tempered to worship the gods and goddess. I view the Vdinga as the original source of knowledge and the Rig to be less important.

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganges 120225

The Ganges begins at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers. The Bhagirathi is considered to be the true source in Hindu culture and mythology, although the Alaknanda is longer. [18] [19] [UKT ]

The headwaters of the Alakananda are formed by snowmelt from such peaks as Nanda Devi, Trisul, and Kamet. The Bhagirathi rises at the foot of Gangotri Glacier, at Gaumukh, at an elevation of 3,892 m (12,769 ft). [20]

Although many small streams comprise the headwaters of the Ganges, the six longest and their five confluences are considered sacred. The six headstreams are the Alaknanda, Dhauliganga, Nandakini, Pindar, Mandakini, and Bhagirathi rivers. The five confluences, known as the Panch Prayag, are all along the Alaknanda. They are, in downstream order, Vishnuprayag, where the Dhauliganga joins the Alaknanda; Nandprayag, where the Nandakini joins; Karnaprayag, where the Pindar joins, Rudraprayag, where the Mandakini joins; and finally, Devprayag, where the Bhagirathi joins the Alaknanda to form the Ganges River proper. [18]

Go back Head-Ganges-note-b

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Hydrophobia - Louis Pasteur

UKT 141106: The disease hydrophobia is commonly known as rabies in English, "rage" in French, or 'mad-dog disease'. However, it can infect almost all warm blooded mammals. In Myanmarpr, stray dogs, stray cats and bats are the common carriers, while in Canada and US, the lovable raccoons and deer which inhabit areas near human habitations are the common carriers. Intermittent supply electricity in Myanmarpr, and the loss of refrigeration - in storage and transportation - has been one of the causes of the serum becoming a source of infection.

A person or an animal suffering from it has an intense fear of water - hence the name "hydrophobia". In the final stages, frothing of saliva at the mouth is a common sign. The disease is almost 100% curable by giving serum antigen - which must be kept refrigerated - within hours of a dog bite.

The French chemist Louis Pasture (1822-1895) was the discover of cause of the disease. In many countries, including Burma, there are laboratories known as Pasture Institutes carrying on the work of the French chemist. The name of Pasture had been dropped in Myanmarpr - by a political decision supported by medical doctors - much to the sorrow of many chemists of my generation. In Burma, Pasture Institute was also the office of Chemical Examiner.

Go back Hydrophob-note-b

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Jahallaksana - Philosophy of Language

- UKT 120225  Jahallaksana - Philosophy of Language

The dictionary meaning:
जहल्लक्षणा jahallaksana [ gahal-lakshan ]
-- f. mediate designation giving up the primary meaning (an example is: "on the Ganges", meaning "on the bank of the Ganges"). -- Mac100c2

The above word and its meaning is important in my work on BEPS. Browsing for this word on the Internet has brought up a PhD thesis by Ivan Kocmarek, Pancaprakriya of Sarvajnatman: a study with translation, notes, and a philosophical introduction , to McMaster University, Canada, and accepted 1980. The following is the abstract: I have cut up the abstract into portions and have also highlighted words to bring out the import of the word जहल्लक्षणा jahallaksana.

"Pancaprakryla which belongs to the relatively early Advaita Vedanta thinker Sarvajhatman (first half of the tenth century) and a thematic analysis of the contents of that work. The Pancaprakriya is a manual of Advalta Vedanta philosophy of language which, for Sarvajhatman, can eventually be reduced to the discernment of the proper meaning of certain freat Ubanisadic statements or mahavakya-s such as "I am Brahman" and "That thou art." [UKT ]

UKT 170802: Advaita Vedanta is an ancient philosophy of Upanishad period. It has undergone various stages of developments to this day. The latest as explained by Swami BhajanAnanda of Ramakrishna Mission has been downloaded and is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- SwBhajan-4BasicPrinAdvVed<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170802)
The author of the present paper, on p03, states: "Swami Vivekananda found immense practical significance for Advaita Vedanta in solving the individual and collective problems of day-to-day life. Swamiji has shown how Advaitic knowledge can serve as the basis of morality, basis of inner strength and courage, and as the basis for social justice and equality as well. Above all, Advaita provides the basis for Sri Ramakrishnas message of service to man as service to God, śivajāne jīva-sevā, which Swami Vivekananda popularized as the new gospel of social service. All the service activities of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission are inspired by this gospel of service."

"It has been demonstrated in the analytic portion of the thesis that the Sarvajhatman who is the author of Samksepasariraka and the Sarvajhatman who is the author of Pancaprakriya are one and the same. [UKT ]

"In addition to this, the thesis has brought to the force the close philosophical indebtedness of Sarvajhatman to Sankara and Suresvara before him, in terms of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of language and the problem of the locus of ignorance (ajhanasraya), though the traditional connection between Sarvajhatman and Suresvara, as direct pupil and teacher respectively, has been denied. From our analysis, Sarvajhatman appears to be the first of the relatively early Advaita Vedanta thinkers to make use of two of perhaps the most central notions in the Advaita Vedanta philosopgy of language. The first of these is the classification of Upanisadic statements about Brahman into 'great statements' (mahavakya-s) and into 'subsidiary statements' (avantaravakya-s) allowing the latter to contribute to the understanding of the former. The second is the formulation of the three-fold division of the secondary usage of language into non-inclusive secondary usage (jahallaksana), inclusive secondary usage (ajahallaksana), and both inclusive and non-inclusive secondary usage (jahadajahallaksana), along with the determinatation that it is only the last of these which is suitable for obtaining the proper import of a mahavakya."

For further study see the MA thesis by the same author:

Kocmarek, Ivan, "Language and Soteriology: Vedāntic and Buddhist" (1976). Open Access Dissertations and Theses. Paper 4537.

Abstract: "The body of this work consists of the study of the notion of language in Rg Veda, Sarikara, Pali Suttas, and Nagarjuna with perhaps the main emphasis of the work falling on the two philosophers mentioned. In each instance I have attempted to come to an understanding of the notion of language in terms of its relation to what might be described as "ultimate concerns", or in other words, those of metaphysical inquiry and soteriological endeavour. The main scheme that I work towards is a heuristic one, revolving around the bifurcation of language conceived of as "divine" in the Brahmanical traditions studied, and as "diaboligcal" in the Buddhist ones. However, this distinction, since it is an heuristic one, should not be pressed too far."

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Jataka tales

UKT 120226:

This note is directed to my children and to grandsons, and also to my reader.

As of today I have already spent 77 years on this earth. I note that the Gautama Buddha died when he was 80. And if I were to set that as a reference I do not have many years to live. So the question is: would there be a another birth after death.

I have been asked this question by the Christian missionaries including the Jehovah Witnesses and the Mormons alike, many times in Deep River. Canada, and my answer is the same: that I as a physical scientist, and a "skyptical chemist" at that (ref. to Robert Boyle), I simply don't know. Do I care? No. Why? Does it matter whether I do or not. So my aim has been all along that I would do what I could in this life with the goal of being able to control my own Greed {lau:ba.}, Anger {dau:a.}, Sensuality {ra-ga.} and Pride {ma-na.}.

I have no interest to what would happen to my physical body or whatever (soul?) the instant after I lost consciousness and my brain has stopped functioning.

UKT 170802: I haven't died. I am now 83 and can hardly walk. My mental ability has remain the same. My aim remains the same. Trying to control myself, my Greed {lau:ba.}, Anger {dau:a.}, Sensuality {ra-ga.} and Pride {ma-na.}, has given me a resolve: neither to give up on Life, nor look forward to Death. It is useless to engage in philosophical questions which distracted me from my endeavour to control myself.

Now to Jataka tales:

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jataka_tales 120226

The Jātakas (Skt: जातक) refer to a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births (jāti) of the Buddha. These are the stories that tell about the previous lives of the Buddha, in both human and animal form. The future Buddha may appear in them as a king, an outcast, a god, an elephant but, in whatever form, he exhibits some virtue that the tale thereby inculcates.[1]

In Theravada Buddhism, the Jatakas are a textual division of the Pali Canon, included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka. The term Jataka may also refer to a traditional commentary on this book.


The Jatakas were originally amongst the earliest Buddhist literature, with metrical analysis methods dating their average contents to around the 4th century BCE. [2] The Mahāsāṃghika Caitika sects from the Āndhra region took the Jatakas as canonical literature, and are known to have rejected some of the Theravada Jatakas which dated past the time of King Ashoka. [3] The Caitikas claimed that their own Jatakas represented the original collection before the Buddhist tradition split into various lineages. [4]

UKT insert from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahāsāṃghika 120226
   "The Mahāsāṃghika (Skt: महासांघिक mahāsāṃghika; traditional Chinese: 大眾部; pinyin: dzhng-b), literally the "Great Saṃgha", was one of the early Buddhist schools in ancient India.
   "The origins of the Mahāsāṃghika sect of Buddhism are still extremely uncertain, and the subject of debate among scholars. One reason for the interest in the origins of the Mahāsāṃghika school is that their Vinaya recension appears in several ways to represent an older redaction overall. Many scholars also look to the Mahāsāṃghika branch for the initial development of Mahāyāna Buddhism. [1]"

According to A.K. Warder, the Jatakas are the precursors to the various legendary biographies of the Buddha, which were composed at later dates.[5] Although many Jatakas were written from an early period, which describe previous lives of the Buddha, very little biographical material about Gautama's own life has been recorded. [6]

The Theravada Jatakas comprise 547 poems [UKT: the number rounded to 550 in Myanmar without any additions], arranged roughly by increasing number of verses. According to Professor von Hinber, [7] only the last 50 were intended to be intelligible by themselves, without commentary. The commentary gives stories in prose that it claims provide the context for the verses, and it is these stories that are of interest to folklorists. Alternative versions of some of the stories can be found in another book of the Pali Canon, the Cariyapitaka, and a number of individual stories can be found scattered around other books of the Canon. Many of the stories and motifs found in the Jataka such as the Rabbit in the Moon of the Śaśajtaka (Jataka Tales: no.316), [8] are found in numerous other languages and media. For example, The Monkey and the Crocodile, The Turtle Who Couldn't Stop Talking and The Crab and the Crane that are listed below also famously feature in the Hindu Panchatantra, the Sanskrit niti-shastra that ubiquitously influenced world literature. [9] Many of the stories and motifs being translations from the Pali but others are instead derived from vernacular oral traditions prior to the Pali compositions. [10]

Sanskrit (see for example the Jatakamala) and Tibetan Jataka stories tend to maintain the Buddhist morality of their Pali equivalents, but re-tellings of the stories in Persian and other languages sometimes contain significant amendments to suit their respective cultures

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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From: http://articles.ayurvedguru.com/articles/history-of-ayurveda/jatukarna-185.html 120226

Not much is known about Jatukarna, the co-student of Agnivesa and Agnivesa and a great medical author of the Golden Age of Ayurveda. He is also said to have compiled a medical treatise. But it is not availlable now. It seems it was available up to Carakapanis time as we find profuse quotations from Jatukarna in Carakapanis work. Carakapani seems to have selected passages more from Jatukarna than Bhela.

In Satapatha Brahmana he is described as the propounder of Brahma Vidya. He is also a great seer whose name is reverently used to denote a gotra .

The word Jatukarna as such means Bat-Eared. We do not know whether our Jatukarna had ears like a bat or whether it was just a proper noun without any relation to its derivation.

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Ujjain - the ancient city

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjain 120224

Ujjain (Hindi: उज्जैन aka Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River (Hindi: क्षिप्रा), today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.

In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini. As mentioned in the Mahabharata epic, Ujjayini was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom, and has been the Prime Meridian for Hindu geographers since the 4th century BCE. Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cities (Sapta Puri) of the Hindus, and the Kumbh Mela religious festival is held there every 12 years. It is also home to Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines to the god Shiva and is also the place where Lord Krishna got education with Balarama and Sudama from Maharshi Sandipani.

There is an interesting tale behind the sanctity of the city. It's origin is ascribed to the mythological legend of Sagar Manbthan (churning of the primordial ocean to discover the pot of nectar). [UKT ]

UKT: See Samudra manthan or Ksheera Sagara Mathanam, Churning of the Ocean of Milk is one of the most famous episodes in the Puranas. The story appears in the Bhagavata Purana, the Mahabharata and the Vishnu Purana. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samudra_manthan 120224

The story goes that after the nectar was discovered, there was a chase between the gods [Devas] and the demons [Asuras] to have the nectar first and thus attain immortality. [UKT ]

UKT: The Buddhists regard the Devas and the Asuras to be of the same kind, and thus the terms 'gods' and 'devils' are not appropriate. In their cosmic14ight the Devas got the upper hand and the Asuras lost. The king of the Devas then took the daughters of the Asura king as his queens which means all the Devas now have to 'worship' the Asura females.

During this chase a drop of nectar spilled and fell on Ujjain, thus making the city sacred. Apart from mythological legends, the city has a long and distinguished history. It was governed by the likes of Chandragupta II Today, Ujjain represents an interesting blend of an age old legacy and the modern day lifestyle. This is the cultural city of Madhya Pradesh that allures thousands of people to come here every year. Nestling with pride in the central part of India, this is a great pilgrimage destination in India. The picturesque city of Ujjain is considered the Greenwich of India due to the fact that the first meridian of longitude passes through it. Ujjain is one city that has a web of myths associated with it. According to the legends river Shipra that flows across Ujjain is regarded to have its originated due to the churning of the gods and goddess.[1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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