Update: 2017-08-01 12:13 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{za.ga.} - cont
{ga.nga.} : as coda
  {za.} ज्ञ  : Pseudo-Za is comparable to r2c4 {Za.}-Bur & / {Za.}-Mon
{za.za.} : spelled with Pseudo-Za

UKT 141104: Lord of the Universe :
Buddhist Myanmar {lau:ka.nt} maintaining peace & order by timing with his cymbals  and dance posture with his hands, and on the left the Hindu Dva-god Nataraj dancing with perfect timing. What a great pair they make!.

UKT notes :
Dandaka forest - of Ramayana
English word Juggernaut : Lord of the Universe
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za :
  {kSa.} क्ष & {za.} ज्ञ


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{za.ga.} - cont



जगदन्तक [ gagad-antaka ]
- m. destroyer of the world, death; -antara‿tman, m. universal soul, ep. of Vishnu; -sa, m. lord of the world, ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva; -svara, m. lord of the world, ep. of Siva and of Indra; king; -ekantha, m. monarch of the world.

See my note on the English word Brahman



जगद्गुरु [ gagad-guru ]
- m. father of the world, ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva; -dala, m. N. of a prince; -dpa, m. light of the world, sun; -dhtri, m. creator of the world, ep. of Brahman and Vishnu; -yoni, f. source of the world, ep. of Brahman, Vishnu or Krishna, Siva, and Prakriti.

UKT120221: Bur-Myan readers should take care of 'meanings' given in a dictionary. The meaning given 'father of the world' for the word guru is wrong for our culture. To us a guru {gu.ru.} is a mentor who may not be a genetic ancestor. See UTM-PDMD034



जगन्नाथ [ gagan-ntha ]
- m. protector of the world, ep. of Vishnu and his incarnations; N.; -nivsa, m. abode = pervader, of the world, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -netra, n. eye of the world, ep. of the moon: du. ep. of the sun and moon; -mtri, f. mother of the world, ep. of Durg and of Lakshm.

जगन्नाथ  jagannatha [ gagan-ntha ]
Skt: [ gagan-ntha ] -- m. protector of the world, ep. of Vishnu and his incarnations; N.; -- Mac098c1
Pal: {zag~ga.} + {na-hta.} : UKT note: the glosses given below are from UHS.
  {zag~ga.} 'awakened' -- UHS-PMD0405
  {na-hta.} 'worshipable' or 'Buddha' -- UHS-PMD0513

UKT 141103: See my notes on English word Juggernaut
Lord of the Universe {lau:ka.nt}



जगुरि [ gg-uri ]
- a. leading (road).



-- m. N. of a man



जग्ध [ gag-dh ]
- pp. of √1. gaksh.



जग्धि [ gg-dhi ]
- f. eating; food.



जग्ध्वाय [ gag-dhv-ya ]
- gd. of √1. gaksh.



जग्मि [ g-gm-i ]
- a. going, nimble; hastening to (ac., lc.).


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जघन [ gaghna ]
- m. (V.), n. buttock, posterior; rump; hip; pudenda; n. back part (of an altar); rear-guard of an army: -kapal, f. lascivious woman; a metre; -vipula, a. having large buttocks: , f. a. metre; -‿ardh, m. hinder part; rear-guard.

pudendum n. pl. pudenda . The human external genitalia, especially of a woman. Often used in the plural. [Latin, neuter gerundive of pudereto make or be ashamed] -- AHTD 



जघनेन [ gaghnena ]
- in. ad. behind (ac. or g.); with back turned towards (ac.).



जघन्य [ gaghan-y ]
- a. hindermost, last, latest; lowest, meanest, worst; of low birth: -ga, a. last-born, youngest; -prabhava, a. of low origin.



जघ्नि [ g-ghn-i ]
- a. slaying (ac.).



जघ्निवत् [ ga-ghn-i-vat ]
- a. containing a form of the root han .



जघ्रि [ g-ghr-i ]
- a. sputtering, boiling.


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{ga.nga.} : as coda


जङ्ग  [ gaṅ-ga ] 
Skt: -- m. N. of a man (Walker) -- Mac098c1
Skt: jaṅga N. of a man Rājat. Viii, 863 -- MonWilli408 

UKT 120221: The word spelled with a {kn:si:} seems to refer to 'motion' of living things. See below.



जङ्गम [ gaṅ-gam-a ]
- a. moving (int.), animate, living; N. all that moves, living beings: -tva, n. mobility.

जङ्गम [ gaṅ-gam-a ]
Skt: [ gaṅ-gam-a ] -- a. moving (int.), animate, living; N. all that moves, living beings: -- Mac098c1
Pal: {zn~ga.ma.}
- - UHS-PMD0405
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what is going, moving across the surface of earth, moveable. m. creature, a living being.

UKT120221: Whenever you use the words <animal> or <animate>, the implication in Bur-Myan is 'one who knows only 'how to eat, sleep, and mate': it does not include <humans>. The word <mate> implies 'mating in public' in the manner of a dog which would mate even with its own mother.



जङ्गल [ *gaṅ-gal-a ]
- a. [very thirsty], dry, desert; deserted; m. desert (jungle).



जङ्घा [ gṅ-gh ]
- f. [goer: √h] leg (esp. from ankle to knee).



जङ्घाकरिक [ gaṅgh-karika ]
- m. nimble with the legs; m. runner; -gaghanya, a. lowest if performed by the legs (actions); -bala, n. strength of leg = flight (Pr.).



जङ्घाल [ gaṅgh-la ]
- a. swift-footed.


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जज [ gaga ]
- m. warrior: -‿ogas, n. bravery.



जज्ज [ gagga ]
= ज ज ् ज
- m. N. of a man: -la, m. id.


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{za.} ज ् ञ

UKT 160306: You'll note that in
जज्ञि [ g-g-i ] = ज ज ् ञ ि 'a. germinating', given below, ज ् ञ = ज्ञ is an unusual conjunct. It is the second unusual conjunct that we are running into, the first being
क ् ष --> क्ष  {kSa.} /kə.sa/ on p077.htm
See my note on Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za 
{kSa.} क्ष & {za.} ज्ञ .


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[ ga-g-an ]
- pf. pt. act. of √ga



जज्ञि [ g-g-i ]
= ज ज ् ञ ि
- a. germinating.


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जञ्जपूक [ ga-gap-ka ]
- a. muttering prayers zealously.


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जटा [ gat ]
- f. braid of hair (as worn by ascetics, Siva, and by mourners): -kalpa, m. cue, pigtail; -gla, n. braided locks, cue; -gta, m. top-knot; -dhara, a. wearing braided hair; m. ascetic; Siva; -dhrin, a. id.; -bhra, m. mass of braided hair: -dhara, a. wearing a --; -mandala, n. circle of braided locks on the crown.

   - v
. braided braiding braids v. tr. . a. To interweave three or more strands, strips, or lengths of in a diagonally overlapping pattern: braided the rags into a strong rope. b. To create (something) by such interweaving: braid a rug. c. To style (the hair) by such interweaving. d. To mingle (discrete elements, for example) as if by such interweaving: braided the ideas into a complex thesis. . To decorate or edge (something) with a trim of interwoven strands: finished the jacket by braiding the collar and cuffs. . To fasten or decorate (hair) with a band or ribbon.
   - v. intr. . To flow, twist, or wind as if interwoven: a stream braiding through the woods.
   - n. . A braided segment or length, as of hair, fabric, or fiber. . Ornamental cord or ribbon, used especially for decorating or edging fabrics. . A ribbon or band used to fasten the hair. 4. Slang Naval officers of high rank. [Middle English braiden from Old English bregdan to weave] - AHTD
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braid 170731

जटा  [ gat ]
Skt: जटा  [ gat ] -- f. braid of hair (as worn by ascetics, Siva, and by mourners)
- Mac098c1
Pal: {za.Ta} - UHS-PMD406
  UKT from UHS: matted hair, {ta.Nha} intense mental attachment (not necessarily sexual desire) or concentration

UKT 141103: The hair worn by Siva's hair is matted - not braided.


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जटायु [ gat-yu]
-- m. N. of a fabulous vulture slain by Rvana while endeavouring to rescue St.

UKT 120221, 170731: Bur-Myan readers should note that meanings given in a dictionary may be misleading. Here the vulture was trying to rescue Princess Sita (wife of Prince Rama) from the hands of her abductor King Ravana aka  {da.a.gi.ri.} (sp?). In the fight the heroic vulture was mortally wounded by the abductor.



जटाल [ gat-la ]
- a. wearing braided locks; filled with, full of (--).



जटावल्कलिन् [ gat-valkalin ]
- a. wearing braided locks and a garment of bark.

UKT120221 : The term "garment of bark" is not a garment with pieces of bark from trees or bamboos stitched together. It is a woven cloth made of thread obtained from the fibers produced by beating of tree bark, tall grasses and hemp. The woven cloth is extremely coarse and is very harsh on the skin that comes into contact with it. Because of its roughness, the garment soon becomes infected with skin lice (a larger insect than hair lice) and can cause "cabin fever" well known to the Western pioneers. Due to extreme shortage of cotton during WWII, many rural folks in Myanmarpr had to use such clothing. The term in Bur-Myan for an ascetic would be {lhyau-t n~kn:} (BO-MLC249)



जटिन् [ gat-in ]
- a. wearing braided hair; m. ascetic, pious mendicant; Siva; -ila, a. wearing braided locks; tangled (hair); full of (--); m. ascetic; Siva.



-- fill or cover with



[ gath-ara]
-- . a. hard; old (incorrect for garatha); . (-ra), n. belly; womb; cavity, interior, front of the body (opp. back): in with one's front; 
-‿agni , m. fire of the belly, i.e. of digestion


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जड [ gad-a ]
- a. cold, cool; rigid, numb; immovable, motionless; dimmed, dulled; obtuse, dull, stupid, imbecile; inanimate; --, incapable of -through stupidity; m. idiot; n. water.



जडता [ gada-t ]
- f. rigidity, motionlessness, numbness, apathy; obtuseness, stupidity; -tva, n. id.; -dh, a. dull-witted; -prakriti, a. id.; buddhi, a. id.; -bhva, m. coolness, freshness; -mati, a. dull-minded, stupid.



जडय [ gada-ya ]
- den. P. enfeeble, dull; render apathetic regarding (lc.): pp. gadita.



जडांशु [ gada‿amsu ]
- m. moon (cool-rayed); -‿tmaka, a. cool; stupid; irrational; -‿tman, a. id.



जडाय [ gad-ya ]
- den. . become dumb (with inf.).



जडाशय [ gada‿saya ]
- a. stupid.



जडिमन् [ gad-i-man ]
- m. coldness; rigidness; dullness, stupidity.



-- render rigid, benumb; -bh , become rigid or stupid 



जतु [ gatu ]
- n. lac, gum; -griha, -geha, n. house filled with lac and other inflammables; -maya, a. full of lac; -sarana, n. = gatu-griha.



जतू [ gat&usharp; ]
- f. bat (animal).



जत्रु [ gatr ]
- m. pl. (V.) certain (16) bones; n. collar-bone.


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जन् [ gan ] ,
- i . gna (V); iv. . gya (E. also P.); P. and cs. ganya, tr. beget (by, lc.); bring forth, bear (to, ab.); generate, produce; make fruitful; cause to be (2 ac.); ., int. (E. also P.) be born; be produced, arise, grow; be by nature (2 nm.); be born again; be, become (with predicate in nm.); be changed into (d.); fall to the share of (g.); take place, be possible or admissible: pp. gt, born (by, lc.), begotten by (in., ab.); new-born (by, lc.), begotten by (in. ab.); new-born; grown, sprung up, arisen (from, ab.); existing; become; happened; conducive to (d.); often - a. = having -, e.g. gta-danta, a. having teeth (lit. having produced teeth), sts. -, e.g. danta-gta, id. adhi, be born; be begottne (by, in.); become (nm.). anu, be born afterwards; be born after (ac.); be born like (ac.): pp. similar by birth to (ac.); born again. apa, pp. degenerate (son). abhi, be born or predestinated to, claim by birth (ac.); be born according to (ac.); be produced, be born; be born again (in trans-migration); become: pp. nobly born; well-bred. , be born, be produced; cs. beget; make fruitful. upa, be born; be produced; arise, appear; be; be born again: pp. -a. in whom - has arisen -inspried with, seised by, filled with, having; cs. produce, cause; attempt. sam-upa, cs. produce. pra, be born; be produced arise; procreate, bear; cs. propagate. sam-pra, spring up, appear, arise; exist: pp. f. having calved. prati, be born again; spring up anew. vi, bring forth, breed. sam, be born; arise; grow; appear; happen become; pass, elapse; pp. often - a = having; cs. produce. abhi-sam, arise.


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जन [ gn-a ]
- m. creature; man; person; race, tribe; people, subjects; folks, -kind (often -- with coll. mg.); low person; this person; ayam --, esha --, or asau --, = we, I, my lover here.



जनक [ gan-ak ]
- a. begetting; producing; m. father; N., esp. of a king of Videha (Mithil).



जनककाण [ ganaka-kna ]
- m. N. (one-eyed Ganaka); -kandra, m. N.; -tanay, f. St; -t, f. paternity; -bhadra, m. N.; -rga, m. N.; -simha, m. N.; -sut, f. daughter of Ganaka, St; -‿tmag, f. id.



-- m. kandla 



जनचरणामलिन [ gana-karana‿amalina ]
- a. not yet dirtied by people's feet; ()-t, f. community; people, subjects; mankind; -dhasthna, n. crematory; -deva, m. king, prince.



जनन [ gn-ana ]
- a. () bringing forth; producing; m. producer, creator; , f. mother; n. birth; existence, life; bringing forth; production; -vat, a. endowed with production.



जननाथ [ gana-ntha ]
- m. lord of men, king, prince.



जननान्तर [ ganana‿antara ]
- n. another = former life.



जनपति [ gana-pati ]
- m. lord of men, prince, king; -pad, m. (tribe-place), district, country, realm; tribe: also pl. community, people (as opposed to king): -vadh, f. woman of the country, -‿adhipa, m. king; -pravda, m. popular rumour (sg. and pl.); -maraka, m. pestilence; -mra, m. , f., id.; -mrana, n. slaying of men.



जनमेजय [ ganam-egay ]
- m. N. (terrifying men).



  [gan-ay-i-tri ]
-- m. father;  -tri , f. mother



जनरव [ gana-rava ]
- m. popular rumour; -rg, -rgan, m. ruler of men; -vda, m. gossip; -sruti, f. rumour.



जनस् [ gn-as ]
- n. race; ind. (-ar) world lying beyond Mahar-loka.

UKT: Those who would like to know more of Puranas and lokas in puranas,
refer to the many PDF versions on the Internet. I've downloaded some to TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries :
- http://humanityhealing.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/The-Vishnu-Purana.pdf  
  HumanHeal-VishnuPuran<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170801)
-The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, [1840], at sacred-texts.com
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp065.htm (link chk 170801)



जनसंमर्द [ gana-sammarda ]
- m. throng of people; -sthna, n. N. of a part of the Dandaka forest.

See my note on Dandaka forest


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जना [ gan- ]
- f. birth, origin.



जनातिग [ gana‿atiga ]
- a. superhuman; -‿adhipa, m. king, prince; -‿antikam, ad. (speak) close to a person, in a low voice so as not to be overheard; (say) in a stage whisper; -‿antike, lc. ad. in the neighbourhood of men; -‿apavda, m. slander (pl.); -‿rava, m. popular rumour; -‿arnava, m. (sea of men), caravan; -‿ardana, m. ep. of Vishnu or Krishna (harasser of men); -‿sraya, m. caravanserai.


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जनि [ gn-i (or ) ]
- f. woman; wife (pl. fig. the fingers); birth, origin.



-- a. ( tri ) arising; producing



[gn-i-tri ] (or -tr )
-- m. father;  -tri  , f. mother



-- ab. g. inf. of √gan


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UKT notes


UKT 170730:

There is always a confusion of the English word (transcribed from Devanagari) Brahman :
It could either be Brahman , or Braahman. Both these words are also spelled clearly in Bur-Myan.
Brahman (short a ) is an axiomatic entity, {brah~ma}
Braahman (long ā ) is a human, {braah~ma.Na.} aka {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}.

To avoid confusion just use the word Poannar {poaN~Na:} 'bramin'.

Let's see the dictionary meanings:

Brahman n. . Also Brahma Hinduism a. A religious formula or prayer and the holy or sacred power in it and in the officiating priest. b. The holy or sacred power that is the source and sustainer of the universe. c. The single absolute being pervading the universe and found within the individual; atman. . Hinduism Variant of Brahmin . . Also Brahma or Brahmin  One of a breed of domestic cattle developed in the southern United States from stock originating in India and having a hump between the shoulders and a pendulous dewlap. Well adapted to hot climates, it is used chiefly for crossbreeding. [Sanskrit Sense 2, from brāhmaa- brahmanic from brahman] -- AHTD
See also Wikipedia articles:
 Hindu god
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahma 170730
 Metaphysical concept ब्रह्मन् brahman = ब ् र ह ् म न ् 
 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahman 170730

Remember, the Hindu Brahma is almost the diagonal opposite of the Buddhist kind.

The Hindu is sexual and he has a wife, worships Agni 'Fire', and drinks Soma 'Alcohol'. He is supposed to have created the World. The Buddhist kind is not differentiated into male and female, and therefore asexual and cannot have a wife. There is no Creator or Creation in Buddhist. Fire is just fire - Buddhists do not worship fire. The Buddhist kind is either a mental or almost mental being whose thinking must not become clouded by being intoxicated (because of alcohol). The Hindu Brahma has 4 heads or faces to look at all 4 directions of compass so that he can see everything around him, and 4 mouths to utter the contents of all the 4 Vdas continuously for his chosen ones the Poannar {poaN~Na:} 'bramin'. The Theravada Buddhist Brahma (no differentiation looks almost the same as a Dva (male).

Go back Brahman-note-b

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Dandaka forest

-- UKT 141103

To the people of Myanmarpr, the Hindu dva-god Rama aka Ram was a beloved human king who had been deified and worshipped by his people. His fame spread to the neighbouring countries including Myanmarpr, and these people came to respect the "foreign" king.

It is my conjecture that when the Vishnu worshippers came in from the north-west from ancient Persia (roughly the modern Iran), their priests promptly "grab" the deified King Rama and identified him as a reincarnation of their supreme god. We must note that though Rama had been once a human, we do not really know whether Vishnu had ever been a human. I believe Vishnu as a supreme god was just a figment of imagination of the newcomers - an axiom. Out of my respect for my Hindu friends including ethnic Mon-Myan (who I will not name), I will accept Vishnu but only as an axiom.

Excerpt from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danda_Kingdom 120222

The forest of Dandaka was the biggest forest in ancient India. It stretched from Vindhya ranges in central India to the banks of river Krishnavenna (now known as Krishna River) and Tughabhadra in the south. Mention of this forest is found in Mahabharata at (3-85). The sacred forest of Dandaka is mentioned here along with its possible boundaries and the rivers flowing within it. Surparaka (southern Gujarat) probably formed its western boundary. Mahendra Mountains in Orissa formed its eastern boundary. The rivers Godavari, and Krishnavenna run through this forest. the river or lake Payoshni is mentioned at the northern entrance of this forest. [UKT ]

In epic Ramayana no kingdom except the Dandaka kingdom and Kishkindha Kingdom is mentioned as lying within this forest. During epic Mahabharata many regions that was formerly Dandaka forest were found to be habitable kingdoms.

Dandaka Kingdom was a kingdom of Rakshasas in the midst of the Dandaka forests

Raghava Rama lived for some time in the forest of Dandaka, from desire of slaying the Rakshasas. At Janasthana (the capital of Dandaka Kingdom ) he cut off the head of a wicked-souled Rakshasa (as per epic Ramayana, his name was Khara) with a razor-headed shaft of great sharpness (9,39)

Raghava Rama, that foremost of bowmen, taking his bow and in company with his queen (Sita and brother (Lakshmana), with the view of compassing his fathers welfare, began to reside in the Dandaka forest. From Janasthana (the capital of Dandaka Kingdom ), that mighty Rakshasa monarch, the wicked Ravana, carried away Ramas queen. (3,146).

A southern path through the Dandaka woods existed during the time of Raghava Rama. He travelled through this path in search of his wife, abducted by Ravana. Many uninhabited asylums of ascetics, scattered over with seats of Kusa grass and umbrellas of leaves and broken water-pots, and abounding with hundreds of jackals were seen along that path.(3,277).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

Go back Dandaka-forest-note-b

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-- UKT 141103

English speakers has incorporated many foreign words into their language. A famous example is <Juggernaut> meaning "unstoppable", obviously from India. However, if we were to take out the Hindu Dva-gods and transcribe the idea in plain Bur-Myan (Tib-Myan linguistic group), we get "one worship-able for the creatures of the world", the  {lau:ka.nt}. See UTM-PDMD279 and MLC PMD2006-437

From: Rath Yatra The Chariot Festival of Puri, India.htm 141103

Many believe that the custom of placing idols on grand chariots and pulling them is of Buddhist origin. Fa Hien, the Chinese historian, who visited India in the 5th century AD, had written about the chariot of Buddha being pulled along public roads.

When the British first observed the [Chariot Festival of Juggernaut] Rath Yatra in the 18th century, they were so amazed that they sent home shocking descriptions which gernaut', meaning "destructive force". This connotation may have originated from the occasional but accidental death of some devotees under the chariot wheels caused by the crowd and commotion. 

The Skt-Dev जगन्नाथ  jagannatha [ gagan-ntha ] can be transcribed into Pal-Myan as a compound word,  {zag~ga.} 'awakened' (UHS-PMD0405) and {na-hta.} 'worship able' or 'Buddha' -(UHS-PMD0513). Presumably a Magadhi word {na-hta.} 'worship able' is thought to be origin of Bur-Myan {nt}, and has been supposed to be related to dva a celestial being in Buddhism and Hinduism. However, it is possible that the word is applicable to anyone who must be worshipped out of respect or even out of fear. We find a compound in Bur-Myan as {nt-d-wa}.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagannath 141103

Jagannath (or Jagannatha) meaning "Lord of the Universe", is a deity worshipped by Hindus, mainly in the Indian states of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Assam, Manipur and Tripura [1] and by Hindus in Bangladesh. Jagannath is considered a form of Vishnu [2] or his avatar Krishna by the Hindus. Jagannath is worshipped as part of a triad on the "Ratnavedi" (jewelled platform) along with his brother Balabhadra and sister Subhadra.

UKT 141103: I opine that Jagannath to be no other than deified human King Krishna, his brother, and his sister. These were worshipped by the original Tib-Bur speakers. Vishnu worshipping Hindu priests claimed that Krishna was an avatar of Vishnu. You will notice that the areas given above were once Buddhist, and Jagganath instead of standing for temporal power (as king), could very well be Buddha representing Wisdom and Guidance.

The icon of Jagannath is a carved and decorated wooden stump with large round eyes and with stumps as hands, with the conspicuous absence of legs. The worship procedures, practices, sacraments and rituals of Jagannath do not conform with those of classical Hinduism.[3] It is made of wood, which is an exception to common Hindu iconographic deities of metal or stone.[4] The origin and evolution of Jagannath worship, as well as iconography, is unclear and has been subject to intense academic debate.

Jagannath lacks a clear vedic reference and is also not a member of the traditional Dashavatara concept or the classical Hindu pantheon, [5] though in certain Oriya literary creations, Jagannath has been treated as the Ninth avatar, by substituting Buddha. [6]

Jagannath considered as a form of the Hindu Dva-God Vishnu, is non-sectarian [7][8][9] and has not been associated with any particular denomination of Hinduism in entirety, though there are several common aspects with Vaishnavism, Saivism, Shaktism, Smartism, as well as with Buddhism and Jainism.

The oldest and most famous Jagannath deity is established in Puri. The temple of Jagannath in Puri is regarded as one of the Char Dham (sacred Hindu pilgrimage places) in India. [10]

The most famous festival related to Jagannath is the Ratha yatra, where Jagannath, along with the other two associated deities, comes out of the Garbhagriha of the chief temple (Bada Deula). They are transported to the Gundicha Temple (located at a distance of nearly 3 kilometres (1.9 mi)), in three massive wooden chariots drawn by devotees. Coinciding with the Rath Yatra festival at Puri, similar processions are organized at Jagannath temples throughout the world.

William Bruton, the first English traveler to visit Puri and to see the Jagannath temple, made a certain counter-factual observation in 1633 that the image of Jagannatha "is in shape like a serpent, with seven heads" and the holy pagoda is "the mirror of all wickedness and idolatry". Thus, Jagannath became known to Europeans as a pagan divinity of monstrous form. To the Europeans, the iconography of Jagannatha remained a mystery from the time of Bruton's visit until the 19th century. Bernier visited Puri in 1667 and left the first reliable description of the Car Festival, but failed to give any account of the image.[53] Jean-Baptiste Tavernier later described in detail the priceless jewellery of Jagannatha, which however, he never saw.[53]

With the more enlightened views of the 19th century, the problem of the iconography of Jagannath became a fascinating field for speculation. After the British occupation of Odisha in 1803, the temple and its priests received special treatment from the East India Company, which decided to protect the institution for economic and political reasons. Europeans were still excluded from the great sanctuary and even General Alexander Cunningham, one of the doyens of Indian archaeology, had a rather vague knowledge of the appearance of the Puri images, chiefly based, it seems, on secondary sources. The restrictions imposed on non-Hindus did not prevent a number of scholars from observing the strange rites at Puri, which included the suspension of caste-rules during the Car Festival, nor from drawing conclusions concerning the origins of the cult of Jagannath. [6]

As noted by Jagannath cult researcher, O. M. Starza, [54] since the complex rites of the Brahmins had given Christian scholars a low opinion of Hinduism, they endeavored to explain the enlightened features of the Jagannath cult by suggesting that it originated in the noble religion of the Buddha. It was thought, for instance, that the temple of Puri occupied almost certainly the site of an earlier Buddhist shrine, without any real evidence to support this view; while General Alexander Cunningham's suggestions that the figure of Jagannath was derived from the Buddhist symbol of the triratna (or taurine) was accepted even by such authorities as the Sri Lankan Buddhist scholar Ananda Coomaraswamy.

In the Bhilsa Topes monuments, Alexander Cunningham has identified the Jagannath triad as the Buddhist triad. Cunningham argues that the following two points are sufficient to conclude in favour of the Buddhist triad: "the suspension of caste during the festival and the belief that the image contains the relics or bones of Krishna". In support of second point he says that "(it) is also not at all Brahmanical, it is eminently characteristic of Buddhism."[55] Cunningham also asserts that the Brahma Padartha/Mani (Divine Life material) is nothing but a Buddhist relic (Buddha's Tooth). [55]

Along the same lines, noted writers like W. W. Hunter,[56] A. Stirling, John Beames, N. K. Sahu in the book A History of Orissa, Harekrushna Mahatab in his History of Orissa, [57] and Mayadhar Mansingh in his The Saga of the Land of Jagannatha[58] opine that it is a Buddhist triad.

In fact, there is no historical evidence of worship of Jagannath at Puri prior to the 10th century, when Yayati Kesari was the ruler. The Buddhist King Indrabhuti's Jnanasiddhi mentions [6] about the place of Jagannath. Nilakantha Das has mentioned that the Savaras were worshipping the image of Jagannath made of neem wood in a place called Sambal (Samal, now in Talcher of Angul District) in Oddiyana, the kingdom of Indrabhuti, which was even prior to the rule of Yayati Kesari -I. Indrabhuti[59] has described Jagannath as Buddhist deity in Jnanasiddhi.

In the narrative by Indrabhuti, Jagannath was worshipped by the Savaras in one of the Budha Viharas. During the rule of King Sasanka and feudatory chief Madhav Raj-II, many anti-Buddhist campaigns were undertaken. Therefore, the Buddhist Jagannath was shifted before the arrival of Hieun-Tsang and destruction of the Puspagiri Vihar. In this period, Indrabhuti emerged as a worshipper of Jagannath in 717. There are various opinions about the place where the image of Jagannath was lying buried. The Madala panji (The Temple Chronicles) identifies this place with the village Gopali of Sonepur district of Odisha. The Madala panji records a legend of King Yayati recovering the wooden images of Jagannath from the Sonepur region, where they lay buried for over 144 years. Thereafter, King Yayati reconstructed the wooden images from Sonepur forest tribes.

The book Gyanasidhi written by Indrabhuti, as published from Baroda, has descriptions about Jagannath worshipped as Buddha.

Pranipatya jagannatham sarvajinabararcitam |
Sarvabuddhamayam siddhi byapinam gaganopamam |
Sarvadam sarvasattwebhyah sarvajna vara vajrinam |
Bhaktyaham sarvabhaven kakshye tatsadhanam vajrinam |

"Jagannath is worshipped by the greatest Jainas, he is in the form the almighty Buddha, full of wisdom and compared to the sky. He offers everything to all the living beings. He is omniscient and best among the Bajjajanis. I offer my solemn prayer to that Jagannatha with devotion and tell the way of his Sadhana".[60]
Many of the ancient poets of Odisha have also explained Jagannath as the form of Buddha and worshipped as Baudhabatara (incarnation of The Buddha). ...

... The texts of the above prove that Jagannath was worshipped in Puri by the Oriyas as a form of Buddha from a long time. Jayadeva, in Gita Govinda also has described Buddha as one among the Dasavatara. Indrabhuti, the ancient king of Sambalaka (present Sambalpur district) of Oddiyan used to worship Jagannath as Buddha. [UKT ]

This culture also influenced Buddhism in Nepal and Tibet. That is how Buddha is also worshipped as Jagannath in Nepal.[66]

Anangavajja, the guru of Indrabhuti (Also described as Acharjya, Jogi, Jogiswara and Mahacharjya in the Tengur cannons). Pragyonpayabiniscayasidhi, written by Indrabhuti and published from Baroda also has description of Jagannath by Siddha Anangavajja.

Sada parahitascaiva carjayahkampyacetasa |parjyupasyo jagannatho guruh sarvarthasidhida dah |[67]

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Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za

- UKT 151223 

There are two special conjuncts in Skt-Dev which I am calling Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za. They are formed as:

Pseudo-Kha : क ् ष --> क्ष  {kSa.} /kə.sa/

Pseudo-Za : ज ् ञ --> ज्ञ  {za.} /zə. ɲa/

If you go by strictly Bur-Myan akshara rules, both are not pronounceable because of the viram. However, you will have pronounce them in Skt-Dev, for which you will have to include a schwa. These types of conjuncts are known in Mon-Myan as [don't pronounce Mon-Myan from Romabama] or in Bur-Myan as {hsw:by:} 'aksharas with hangers-on'. For these "hanging conjuncts", see Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, p046 or pdf051/251, in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> (link chk 160306)

Ya'pin {ya.pn.} : from {ya.}/ {} we get {ya.pn.}
Nya'pin {a.pn.} : similarly, from {a.}/ {}, we should get {a.pn.},
  that leaves us with Nya'l:hsw {a.l:hsw:} from which we will get Pseudo-Za : ज ् ञ --> ज्ञ  {za.} /zə.sa/.
Caveat: Don't shorten the foot of Nya'l: otherwise you will end up with a vulgar implication.

Shown below are the first four I ran into: {na.hsw:}, {ma.hsw:}, {la.hsw:}, & {wa.hsw:}.

. Now, I'll add - the {a.l:hsw:}

If we were to go by this description, we will have to call Pseudo-Kha क्ष  {kSa.} as {ka.Sa.hsw:}, and Pseudo-Za ज्ञ  {za.} as {za.a.l:hsw:}. What has been {ka.a.kri:hsw:} in Mon-Myan should be called {ka.a.pn.}.

Based on my recent understanding of Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}, and its killed-form {}, I have reclassified it as the Palatal Approximant after moving {ya.} & {} to the Velar position. As it is, to be consistent with {ya.pn.}, I will rename the process as {a.pn.}. 

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