Update: 2017-07-28 02:03 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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{hsa.} छ : pronounced as Palatal-affricate / {hkya.}/ : <))cha/hsa


UKT notes :
Umbrella as a sign of rank,
and the story of my great-grandfather U Yan Shin.

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{hsa.} छ : pronounced as Palatal-affricate / {hkya.}/

छ cha
Pal: {hsa.} - UHS-PMD0399
  UKT from UHS: mfn. numeral six, six items

UKT 160305: There are several problems in connection with the palatal plosive-stops. Firstly, the Engl-Latin and Skt-Dev speakers, pronounce both the first {sa.}, and the second {hsa.} as Affricates.
See p090-2.htm for {sa.}.

Secondly, the Engl-Latin speakers "heard" the {hsa.} just as a voiceless "aspirate" of /s/. However to the Indic- and Myanmar-speakers {hsa.} is a basic akshara in its own right. Articulation may be under your control, but "hearing" is not for you as an individual to control. You are a prisoner of your culture. See Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Remember, Chinese traditional music is "noise" to our ears, and so is Burmese traditional music to many "modern" Myanmars especially the teens. To us, older generation, what the teens like is an abhoration!
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapir-Whorf_hypothesis 070914

There are other problems, but for the time being, I'll just name these two. Just note that I am not giving both IPA and IAST transliterations to avoid more problems, and also that Romabama transcriptions are based on Bur-Myan phonology and not on that of Mon-Myan.


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छगल [ khaga-l ]
Skt: छगल (pronounce as / {cha.ga.la.}/) -- m. goat: , f. she-goat. -- Mac096c1
Pal: {hsa.ga.la.} -- UHS-PMD0399
  UKT from UHS: m. goat


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छटा [ khat ]
- f. lump, mass, multitude; brilliance.

छट्ठ chaṭṭha
= छ ट ् ठ
Skt: षाष्ठ ṣāṣṭha - adj. sixth - SpkSkt
Pal: छट्ठ chaṭṭha - numeral (ordinal) sixth  - https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/... 170726
Pal: {hsT~HTa.} - UHS-PMD0399
  UKT from UHS: mfn. the sixth . Note the horizontal conjunct.


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छत्‍‍‍त्र [ khat-tra ]
- n. [shader], umbrella (one of the insignia of royalty): -grhin, f. female umbrella-bearer; -dhra, m. umbrella-bearer: -tva, n. office of --; -dhrana, n. use of an umbrella; -dhrin, m. umbrella-bearer; -vat, a. having an umbrella; -vriksha, m. N. of a tree.

छत्‍‍‍त्र chattra [ khat-tra ]
= छ त ् ‍ ‍ ‍ त ् र
Skt: छत्‍‍‍त्र [ khat-tra ] -- n. [shader], umbrella (one of the insignia of royalty) -- Mac096c1
Pal: {hst~ta.} -- UHS-PMD0399
   UKT from UHS: n. royal umbrella, mushroom

See my note on the Use of Umbrella
as a sign of rank, and the story of my great-grandfather U Yan Shin.



छत्‍त्राक [ khattr-ka ]
- n. mushroom; -ik, f. small umbrella; -in, a. having an umbrella (prince): (i)-nyya, m. way of calling a king an umbrella-bearer = excusable tautology.



[khattr-kri ]
-- turn into or use as an umbrella


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[1. khad ]
- of the simple stem only pp. khanna, covered, concealed; obscured, eclipse; unobserved, disguised; covert: -m or -, ad. secretly, tacitly; cs. khdya, P. (E. also .) cover; spread (as a cover); conceal; protect. ava, pp. covered up; covered with (in.); cs. cover up; conceal, keep secret; pp.khdita. , cs. cover; conceal; obscure; clothe; put on (clothes, ac.: P. .); dress oneself (.). upa, pp. covered, concealed, hidden. pari, pp. covered; disguised in (-); cs. cover. pra, pp. covered; concealed; disguised; unobserved; secret: -m or -, privately, secretly; cs. cover. pra, pp. covered; concealed; disguised; unobserved; secret: -m or -, privately, secretly; cs. cover; conceal; keep secret; envelope oneself in (in.) prati, pp. covered; shrouded, concealed, hidden; unrecognised; cs. envelope. sam, pp. id.


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[2.  khad ]
- x. [ khadya] , [ khand ], x. [ khandya ] (v.e.)
-- appear, seem; seem good; please; ...



छद [ khad-a ]
- a. covering (--); m. cover, covering; wing; leaf; n. plumage; -ana, n. cover, covering; wing; leaf; -i, -in, a. covering (--); -s, n. cover (also of a wagon); roof.



छद््मन् [ khad-man ]
- n. roof; guise, disguise; plea, pretext; fraud, hypocrisy; --, the mask of--; --, only in appearance, fraudulent, hypocritical.


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छद््मरूपिन् [ khadma-rpin ]
- a. disguised in the form of (--); -sthita, pp. feigning (--).



छद््मिन् [ khadm-in ]
- a. disguised as (--).


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छनच्छनिति [ khana-kkhan-iti ]
- ad. hissing.



छन्द् [ khand ]
- v. √2. khad .



छन्द [ khnd-a or khand- ]
- a. pleasing, alluring; m. appearance, form; pleasure, will: in. or -tas, independently, according to one's own pleasure, at one's will; in., ab., or -tas, according to the will of (--, g.).



छन्दक khanda-ka, -˚न [ -na ]
- a. pleasing, winning.



छन्दस् [ khnd-as ]
- n. pleasure, desire, will; magical or sacred hymn; hymn which is not Rik, Sman, or Yagus; Vedic text, Veda; metre, prosody: (h)-sstra, n. manual of prosody (esp. Piṅgala's); (s)-krita, pp. composed in metre; (h)-stra, n. (Piṅgala's) stra on prosody.



छन्दानुगामिन् [ khanda‿anugmin ]
- a. complaisant, obedient; -‿anuvritta, n. complaisance.


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UKT notes

Umbrella - the insignia of rank

-- UKT 141101, 170726

My father, U Tun Pe, used to tell me that his grandfather U Yan Shin of Sal township in Magw Division (near Mount Popa in central Myanmarpr) had the use of customary umbrella. According to my father who used to describe the funerals of both his grandmother - the first wife of U Yan Shin, and U Yan Shin himself. Though his grandfather married again - a Shan descendant of Gyobingauk in southern Myanmarpr, my father seemed to have very little affection his step grandmother.

U Yan Shin and his first wife together with children were refugees in southern Myanmarpr after being reported to the King (probably King Mindon or Thibaw) by the mayor of Sal as a leader of a revolt. The intrigue was started by the mayor who used to be a childhood friend. Because of that report U Yan Shin came to be known as Nga Yan Shin in court-parlance, or Bo Yan Shin among his people as the head of a rebellion.

U Yan Shin had no choice but to flee from his native lands - toddy plantations extending from Myingyan to Sal. After seeing that his family was safe in Gyobingauk in southern Myanmarpr then under the rule of British, he promptly went back to Sal and had the Mayor invited to a Toddy-drinking party. He then executed the Mayor (by beheading him with his long sword) at the junction of the road from Sal to Kyaukpadaung. It is obvious that U Yan Shin had indeed armed men under him but whether he was planning to revolt the then king, we do not know.

U Yan Shin because of his intimate knowledge of the jungles of Pegu Yoma took to his horse, at times feeling his way on the trunks and barks of trees and shrubs at night. He was also a practitioner of Indigenous Medicine and had visited the depths of the forests in search of medicinal plants accompanied by his trusted pupil, U Sein, who later came to be his son-in-law.

My great grandmother who passed away before my father was five had two funeral objects buried with her. One was the "fruit & vegetable basket" for carrying picked fruits and vegetables, and the other a {tn-hkyu} - a long bamboo pole with a small basket and sickle at the top end to pick and collect the fruit from top branches. My father had described his grandmother as a member of a Burmese-tribe known as {tan u myo:} or "agriculturalists" probably of the same group as {tan-u-kri:mn:} of ancient Pagan. And these funeral objects were the insignia of her tribe. If so she was a worshipper of Naga {na.ga:} 'the hooded-serpent deity' worshipped in Ancient Pagan and Ancient Tagaung.

My father who by that time was about ten remembered his grandfather's funeral very well. The forehead of the body was plastered with genuine gold-leaf, and his hearse had four golden umbrellas at the corners as a sign of rank.

When I described the funerals to Hanthawaddy U Ba Yin - a noted scholar of his day, U Ba Yin had said that my great grandfather was not of linage of kings, but of Burmese chieftains - or Kalan - the same as that of Kyansittha who later became a famous king of Pagan.

The umbrellas were of many kinds. At the top is the White Umbrella with multiple tiers reserved for the Buddha. Then came the White Umbrella of the King, and then the Golden Umbrella of royal princes (both hereditary and appointed), and those of Kalan. Respected elders, both monks and laymen, are allowed the use of Umbrellas of Ranks especially at their funerals.

Go back umbrella-note-b

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End of TIL file