Update: 2017-11-23 06:17 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{Ga.Ta.} - contd
{Gar~} : repha


UKT notes :
Bur-Myan herbal steam bath
ghanta - the prayer bell

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{Ga.Ta.} - contd



घट [ ghat-a ]
- a. zealous, active (in, lc.); m. jar, pitcher, pot: -ka, a. performing, promoting; procuring; m. pot, jar, pitcher; -karpara, m. N. of a poet; n. title of a poem composed by him; potsherd; -kra, -krit, m. potter.

घट ghaṭa
Skt: घट [ ghat-a ] - a. zealous, active (in, lc.); m. jar, pitcher, pot: - Mac089c1
Pal: {Ga.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0374
  UKT from UHS: group, thicken, promote, pot, water-pot

Skt: -karpara, m. N. of a poet; n. title of a poem composed by him; potsherd; - Mac089c1

See my note on Ghatakarpara
घटकर्पर  कাव्यं  of Kalidasa

घटक [ ghat-aka ]
Skt: [ -ka] - a. performing, promoting; procuring; m. pot, jar, pitcher - Mac089c1
BHS: ghaṭaka - m., or adj., who or which reveals or expounds - FE-BHS219c1



घटन [ ghat-ana ]
- n. union with (in. or --): , f. course of action, doings, practice; striving for (lc. or --); exertion; discharging (arrows, --); accomplishment, success; union with (--); literary composition; procuring, finding; producing, creating.



घटयितव्य [ ghat-ay-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be joined or closed.



घटा [ ghat- ]
- f. multitude, host, troop.



घटादि [ ghat-di ]
- pl. the gana beginning with ghat (gr.).



घटिका [ ghat-ik ]
- f. pot, jar, pitcher.



घटी [ ghat- ]
- f. jar, pot; a measure of time: 24 minutes: -yantra, n. water-wheel: -ka, n. small water-wheel.



घटोत्कच [ ghata‿utkaka ]
- m. N. of a Rkshasa; -‿dhn, a. f. having a jar-shaped udder (cow).



घ्ट्ट [ ghatt ]
- i. . (only with vi and sam ) ghatta , and cs. ghattaya , p. pass over, touch; shake, stir. ava , cs. touch; besmear; stir. pari , cs. rub all over (ear). vi , break; cs. disperse, scatter, sever; shake, rub against; open (door). sam , grind; cs. cause anything (ac.) to rub against (in.); stir, touch, collect: pp. laid together, clapsed (hands).



घट््ट [ ghatt-a ]
- m. shock, collision; landing stair, bathing-place: -gvin, m. ferryman.



घट्््टन [ ghatt-ana ]
- n. stroke, contact; stirring.


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घण्टा [ ghant ]
= घ ण ् ट ा
- f. bell: -karna, n. N. of a Rkshasa; -tda, a. striking a bell; -patha, m. high-road; title of a commentary on the Kirtrgunya; -rava, m. sound of a bell; -rva, m. id.; -vat, a. furnished with a bell or bells.

See my note on ghanta - the worship bell



घण्टिक [ ghant-ika ]
- m. alligator; -ik, f. little bell; -in, a. furnished with a bell.


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घन [ ghan- ]
- a. striking; slaying; firm, hard; dense, solid, thick; uninterrupted; dark, murky; deep (tone); whole; --, full of: -m, ad. closely, firmly; m. slaying; slayer; club, hammer; lump, solid mass; --, nothing but, pure (cognition); cloud: pl. rabble.



घनकाल [ ghana-kla ]
- m. rainy season; -t, f. density, solidity; condition of a cloud; -tmasa, a. pitch dark; -timira, n. cataract (of the eye); -tva, n. density, toughness; -padav, f. (cloud-path), sky; -vartman, n., -vthi, f. id.; -vri, n. rain-water; -vyapya, m. disappearance of the clouds, autumn; -samaya, m. rainy season; -sra, a. firm, strong; m. camphor.



घनागम [ ghana‿gama ]
- m. arrival of the clouds, rainy season; -‿atyaya, m. departure of the clouds, autumn; -‿anta, m. id.



घनाघन [ ghan-ghan ]
- intv. a. fond of striking, warlike; m. dense cloud.



घनाय [ ghan-ya ]
- den. . be in crowds.



घनास्थिक [ ghana‿asthika ]
- a. hvg. a hard bone.


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घनीकृ [ ghan-kri ]
- make thick; strengthen; -bh , become thick or dense

घनी करोति { घनीकृ }  ghanī karoti {ghanīkṛ}
- v. thicken - SpkSkt


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घनोरू [ ghana‿ur ]
- a. f. having firm thighs.


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घरट््ट [ gharatta ]
- m. hand-mill: -ka, m. id.


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{Gar~} : repha


घर्घर [ ghar-ghar-a ]
- a. rattling; m. laughter: -dhvani, m. snorting.



घर्घरिका [ gharghar-ik ]
- f. little bell as an ornament; kind of musical instrument.


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घर्म [ ghar-m ]
- m. heat (both of sun and of fire); hot season; milk-kettle (for the Asvin sacrifice); hot milk or other hot libation (esp. for the Asvins).



घर्मकाल [ gharma-kla ]
- m. hot season; -kkheda, m. (end of the heat), rainy season; -gala, n. sweat; -toya, n. id.; -ddhiti, m. sun; -dgha, -dh (nm. -dhk), a. yielding warm milk; -dyuti, m. sun; -payas, n. sweat; -bhnu, -rasmi, m. sun; -vri, n. sweat; -sd, a. dwelling in the glow.



घर्मांशु [ gharma‿amsu ]
- m. (hot-rayed), sun.



घर्मान्त [ gharma‿anta ]
- n. end of the heat, rainy season; -‿ambu, n. sweat; -‿ambhas, n. id.



घर्मित [ gharm-ita ]
- pp. heated; -n, a. offering the hot libation.



घर्मेष्टका [ gharma‿ishtak ]
- f. kind of brick; -‿udaka, n. sweat.

See my note on Bur-Myan herbal steam bath



घर्म्य [ gharm-ya ]
- n. vessel for preparing the hot libation.



घर्ष [ gharsh-a ]
- m. friction, collision; -ana, n. friction, grinding; rubbing in.


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{Ga.Sa.}/ {Ga.a.


[ ghas ]
= {GaS}
- ii. p. ghas-ti , eat, devour; des. gighatas , wish to devour, - rob



घस [ ghas-a ]
- m. devourer, N. of a demon of disease; N. of a Rkshasa; -ana, n. devouring.

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घस्मर [ ghas-mara ]
- a. voracious; eager for (--); -vara, a. voracious.



घात [ ght-a ]
- a. killing (--); m. blow (with or on, --); killing; sacking, destruction; -aka, a. () killing; destroying; m. murderer; -ana, n. killing, murdering; -an, f. kind of club.



घातय [ ghta-ya]
- p. (.) den. chastise: kill; destroy; cause to kill. vi , defeat; torment ; impede, interrupt.



घातिन्् [ ght-in ]
- a. killing, murdering; destroying; injurious; m. murderer; -ya, fp. to be killed or destroyed.



घार्तिक [ ghrtika ]
- m.(?) kind of pastry.



घास [ ghs- ]
- m. food; fodder: -kta, n. hayrick.


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घु [ ghu ]
- cry out, shreik



घुट् [ ghut ]
- only pp. ghotta with ava , cushioned, and gd. -ghutya , and pp. -ghutita with vi‿ , returned



घुण [ ghuna ]
- m. wood worm; -ktaka, m. id.; -gargara, a. worm-eaten; -‿akshara, n. worm mark in wood looking like a letter: -nyyena, -vat, ad. quite accidentally, by a lucky chance.



घुत्कारवत् [ ghut-kra-vat ]
- a. filled with the screeches of (--).



घुमघुमाय [ ghuma-ghum-ya ]
- den. . hum.



- . rattle in the throat, snort



[ ghush ]
- i. p. () ghosha , resound; fill with sound ; proclaim ; pp. resounding, loud; offered; cs. ...




घुष्टस्वर [ ghushta-svara ]
- a. with a loud voice; -‿anna, n. food offered by invitation.



घूक [ gh-ka ]
- m. owl.



घूत्कार [ ght-kra ]
- m. screech.



[ ghrn ]
- ghrna , sway ; rock, roll, quiver : pp. ...



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घूर्ण [ ghrn-a ]
- a. swaying; vacillating; -ana, n., , f. swaying, waving, oscillation.


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घृ [ ghri ]
- iii. p. gighar-ti , sprinkle, abhi , pp. abh-ghrita , sprinkled. ...



घृण [ ghri-na ]
- m. heat; , f. warm sympathy, compassion; pity; contempt; disgust.



घृणालु [ ghrin-lu ]
- a. compassionate.



घृणि [ ghr-ni ]
- m. heat; sunshine; ray; day.



घृणित्व [ ghrini-tva ]
- n. compassion; contempt.



घृणिन् [ ghrin-in ]
- a. wild, impetuous; warm hearted, compassionate; fretful, morose.



घृत [ ghri-t ]
Skt: घृत [ ghri-t ] - pp.; n. clarified butter that has cooled, ghee; fat (=fertility). - Mac089c3

UKT 170706: Bur-Myan people, and especially those of Chinese descent, cannot digest cow's milk because of its lactose (milk-sugar) content, and generally do not consume milk-products. Ghee is unknown to them. As the word here implies "best food", ghee should be translated as {hsi-U:htau:pt} 'the first pressing of oil from vegetable oil seeds' or the best food.



घृतकीर्ति [ ghrita-krt ]
- f. mention of ghee; -kumbha, m. pot of ghee; -ghata, m. id.; -p&usharp;, a. clarifying ghee; -pra, m. kind of pastry; ()-prishtha, a. whose back is dripping with ghee; ()-pratka, a. whose face is shining with ghee; -prsana, n. eating ghee; -prsh, a. scattering ghee or showering blessings; -madhu-maya, a. consisting of ghee and honey; ()-vat, a. abounding in ghee; -skt, a. dripping ghee; -sn, 1. a. dipped in ghee; ()-snu, 2. a.= ghrita-prishtha; -havishka, a. accompanied by a ghee offering; -homa, m. offering of ghee.



घृताक्त [ ghrita‿akta ]
- pp. anointed with fat.



घृताची [ ghrita‿ak- ]
- a. f. abounding in ghee; f. sacrificial ladle for ghee.



घृतान्न [ ghrita‿anna ]
- n. whose food is ghee; -‿abdhi, m. ocean of ghee; -‿hut, f. libation of ghee.



घृतेष्टका [ ghrita‿ishtak ]
- f. kind of brick.



घृतौदन [ ghrita‿odana ]
- n. rice with ghee.



घृत्य [ ghrt-ya ]
- a. consisting of ghee.



घृष् [ ghrish ]
- i. p. gharash , rub, grind : . rub oneself ; ps. ghrisshya , be ground or wornout; pp. ...




घृषु ghrsh-u, घृष्वि [ ghrsh-vi ]
- a. exuberant, wild.


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घेद् gha̮id, घेम् [ gha‿m ]
- v. � gha.


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घोट ghota, -˚क [ -ka ]
- m. horse.



घोणा [ ghon ]
- f. nose; snout; beak.



घोर [ gho-r ]
- a. [√ghu] awful, sublime; terrible, dreadful; violent (pain, etc.); n. horror, terror; magic; spell.

See my note on Ghauramanta {Gau:ra.mn~ta.}



[ ghora-t ]
- f. -tva , n. awfulness; horribleness ; -darsana , a. terrible-looking ; -rpa , a. of terrible form



घोराकार [ ghora‿kra ]
- a. of terrible appearance; -‿kriti, a. id.; -‿atighora, a. excessively terrible (designation of a hell); -‿saya, a. cruelly disposed towards (lc.).



घोल [ ghola ]
- m. curdled milk mixed w. cream.



घोलय [ ghola-ya ]
- den. P. stir together, knead.



घोष [ ghsh-a ]
- m. noise, din; shout, battle-cry; roar (of waters); cry, yell (of animals); sound; rumour; proclamation; herdsman's station; herdsman.



घोषक [ ghosha-ka ]
- m. crier, bell-man.


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UKT notes

Bur-Myan herbal steam bath

- UKT120209.

When a very hot brick is placed in water containing herbs,  copious steam loaded with essential oils and other medicinal constituents from the herbs is produced. When a patient  is placed in a simple contraption for such herbal steam bath, the infection can be sweated out. Such a treatment is also given to a woman a few days after childbirth to 'purify blood'. I wonder if the above entry refers to this kind of sweating.

It is the personal experience of my wife Daw Than Than, when a part of placenta remained in her body after each childbirth. Both our children were born in the best clinic in Rangoon, and each time she was discharged from the clinic after a week. Her mother, Daw Th Th, a villager from Kyaukchaung village in Henzada district, because of her distrust of the modern methods insisted that her daughter (my wife) take a herbal steam bath. In both childbirth the placenta that had remained discharged by itself the next day.

Go back herbal-steam-bath-note-b

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ghanta - the prayer bell

- UKT 141007:

Ideas in the practices and rituals of the Eastern-derived faiths: Buddhism (Mahayana, Theravada, Vijayana), Christianity (Catholic, Coptic, Orthodox, Reforms such as Anglican, Baptist, Lutheran), Hinduism (Devi-worship, Shiva-worship, Vishu-worship) are very similar but fundamentally different. Unless you are certain, you should not say that they are the same. As an example let's look into the use of musical instruments and recitation & singing.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghanta 120209

A ghanta is an Indian bell used in Hindu rituals. The same term is also used to describe [Mahayana]  Buddhist bells.

UKT 141007: Myanmar Theravada pagodas and sometimes monasteries have rather large bells which are struck at the end of good deeds to proclaim the deed to the seen entities such as humans and animals, and, unseen entities such as Asuras, Brahmas, Devas (in alphabetical order) down to the inmates of various Purgatories (note there is no such thing as eternal Hell as you would find in Christianity, Jewish and Islamic faiths).

The idea is to pass on the message of a good deed being done, so that those who would and could also enjoy the the merits of the deed. It is known as {a.mhya.w-hkring:} 'broadcasting the joy of good deed'. Those who received the message would respond {a-du.} 'well-done' three times. Instead of the bell a brass triangular gong would be struck producing a note that goes up and down.

Myanmarpr boasts the largest functioning brass bell, (brass weight: 90,718 kilograms or 199,999 pounds), in the world. It is known as the Mingun bell and is located at the pagoda of the same name near Mandalay.

The bell is generally made out of brass. A clapper is attached to the inside and the bell makes a high pitched sound when rung. The top of the bell handle is usually adorned with a brass figure - bells intended for use in the worship of Lord Shiva will have a figure of Lord Nandi [the Bull the mount of Shiva], while those used in the worship of Lord Vishnu or his avatars as Rama, Narasimha or Krishna will have a figure of Garuda [the GaLoan-bird the mount of Shiva] or Panchajanya shanka or Sudarshana Chakra.

Because the ghanta is believed to chase away Asuras and summon the Devas (Gods), it is used in a lot of Hindu rituals such as puja. Generally the ghanta is held in the left hand during worship and rung continually while the various items are offered with the right hand. A second person may ring the ghanta if both hands are needed for the offering.

A bell hangs at the gate of many Hindu temples, which is rung at the moment one enters the temple.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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-- UKT 141007
घट ghaṭa {Ga.Ta.}

From: http://www26.us.archive.org/.../GhatakaparaKavyaOfKalidasa...djvu.txt 120209,
pdf download 141007

With the Commentary of ABHINAVAGUPTA. The Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies, No. LXVII.

From pdf download:
घटकर्पर  कাव्यं

INTRODUCTION: The poem which is presented in the following pages is called Ghatakarpara and consists of twenty one stanzas in all. It is called Ghatakarpara because in the concluding stanza the word Ghatakarpara is used by the author who takes a vow that he would voluntarily accept the service, even so mean as that of bearing water in a broken pot, of him who defeats him in the art of writing alliterative verses.

alliteration n. 1. The repetition of the same consonant sounds or of different vowel sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables, as in on scrolls of silver snowy sentences Hart Crane [From ad- Latin littera letter] -- AHTD

The author of the poem according to Abhinavagupta whose commentary accompanies the text in the present edition is the famous poet of India, namely, Kalidfisa.

In the Bombay edition of the Ghatakarpara the number exceeds by one stanza, although strictly speaking even the twentieth stanza is an interpolation on the authority of Abhinavagupta, The present edition differs also from the Bombay edition in the matter of the arrangement of the stanzas. The former begins jw&fa the stanza ^ri^T etc. and the latter with ftf%?T etc.

The poem describes the sad plight of a young lady whose husband is away from her during the rainy season. The stanzas 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11,12,13 and 14 are put in the mouth of the young lady and the 6th and the 7th in the mouth of the female messenger from the husband. In the last two stanzas there appears the poet himself as a speaker.

The author of the Vivriti or the commentary is Abhinavagupta as is mentioned above. He refers to his famous teacher in the poetics, Indurij. In the exposition of the text Abhinava has tried his best as an advocate of the Dhvant School of the Rhetoricians to lay stress more on the implied sense than on the denotation of the words.

The edition in question forms the 67th issue of the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies, and is based on the transcript, prepared by the copying branch of the Research Department, from the Manuscript of the Raghunatha Temple Library, Jamnriu.

UKT: More in the article which I cannot read.

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UKT 141008, 170706:
The word {Gau:ra.} is part of the name of one of the Five Great Gods, worshipped in the Bur-Myan Worship of the Nine Worshipables aka Bura . Note: I am using the term "worshipable" for Bur-Myan {Bu.ra:} 'someone who should be worshipped', whether out of respect (such as worship of Gautama Buddha and his Arahats), out of fear (such as worship of Planet-gods), or out of expectations (such as worship of Divinities, Nats, aka Gods.). The name is Gawra-manta {Gau:ra.mn~ta.} who Dr. Htin Aung assumes to be Vishnu aka Peikthano {bai~a.no:}. It is obvious he had based his view of Hinduism as that of the Vishnavite-Hindus. If only he had taken into account the views of Shaivite-Hindus, he might have taken him to be Nataraj - the South-India Supreme god or Shiva who would dance the Tandava dance to destroy the human world. See my dissension to Folk Elements in Buddhism by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch01.htm & ch02.htm (link chk 170706)
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandava 170706
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End of TIL file