Update: 2017-11-21 06:10 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{k~ru.}/ contd

{k~la.} : {la.hsw:} 'hanging {la.}'
{k~wa.} : {wa.hsw:} 'hanging {wa.}'

{ksa.} derived from {k~Sa.} with ~ removed, and de-capitalization of S: 
  {ksa.Na.} : Pal: {hka.Na.}


UKT notes :
Pseudo-Kha and True-Kha

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{k~ru.}/ contd



क्रुध्् [ krudh ]
- f. anger: in. in anger: -a, the root krudh (gr.); -mn, a. irritable.



क्रुमु [krmu ]
- f. N. of a tributary of the Indus



क्रुमुक [ krumu-k ]
- m. splint to catch the flame from the tinder.



क्रुश् [ krus ]
- i.p. (.) krsa, cry; lament; invoke (ac.) : pp. ...



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क्रूड् [ krd ]
- x. p. krdaya , thicken



क्रूर [ kr-r ]
- a. wounded; sore; cruel; formidable, terrible; ferocious; rough, hard; n. sore, wound; roughness, cruelty: -karmakrit, a. *doing cruel deeds; m. beast of prey; -karman, n. horrible deed; hard task; a. doing cruel deeds; -keshtita, (pp.) a. acting cruelly; -t, f. cruelty.

क्रूर [ kr-r ]
Skt: क्रूर [ kr-r ] - a. wounded; sore; cruel; formidable, terrible; ferocious; rough, hard;
   n. sore, wound; roughness, cruelty - Mac077c1
Skt: क्रूर krūra - m. cruelty - SpkSkt



क्रूराक्ष [ krra‿aksha ]
- m. N. of an owl; -‿k ra, a. of cruel conduct: -vihra-vat, a. ferocious in conduct and delighting in cruelty; -‿saya, a. containing terrible monsters; cruel-hearted.


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क्रेङ्कार [ kreṅ-kra ]
- m
. the sound kreṅ.



क्रेतृ [kre-tri ]
- m. buyer; -tavya , -ya , fp. purchaseable


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क्रोड [krod-]
- m. breast; cavity, interior; boar: (a)-vla, m. hog's bristle.



क्रोध [ krdh-a ]
- m. anger: -kakshus, n. angry eye; -ga, a. springing from wrath; -mukha, a. () angry-faced; -vasa, m. power of anger.

क्रोध [ krdh-a ]
Skt: क्रोध [ krdh-a ] - m. anger: - Mac077c2
Skt: क्रोध krodha - m. passion, anger, wrath - SpkSkt
Pak: {kau:Da.} - UHS PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: m. becoming angry, {a.myak dau:a.} 'fault of anger'
  ("Anger" is associated with {dau:a.} 'fault'. See:UHS PMD0488)



क्रोधन [ krodh-ana ]
- a. passionate, angry with (lc.); n. anger.



क्रोधालु [ krodh-lu ]
- a. passionate.



क्रोधिन्् [ krodh-in ]
- a. angry, passionate.



क्रोश [ krs-a ]
- m. cry, shout; ear-shot (measure of distance).



क्रोष्टृ [krosh-tr ]
= क ् र ो ष ् ट ृ
Skt: क्रोष्टृ [krosh-tr ] - a. crying, yelling; lamenting; m. jackal; -tu ; -ka , m. jackal - Mac077c1
Skt: क्रोष्टृ kroṣṭṛ - adj. lamenting, crying. m. jackal, crier - SpkSkt



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क्रौञ्च [ krauka ]
- m. () curlew; N. of a mountain cleft by Krttikeya; -ripu, -satru, m. ep. of Krttikeya.



क्रौड [ krauda ]
- a. () belonging to the boar.



क्रौर्य [ kraur-ya ]
- n. cruelty, hardheartedness.

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UKT 170412: In the following entries, Dev orthography in Mac seems to be different from SpkSkt. I still need to check.


क्लथ् [ klath ]
Skt: क्लथ् [ klath ] - i. p. kltha , turn (int.) - Mac077c1
Skt: क्लथति { क्लथ् } klathati {klath} - v. kill, be formed into clots or lumps, hurt - SpkSkt



क्लन्द् [ kland ]
Skt: क्लन्द् [ kland ] - i. . klanda , resound - Mac077c1
Skt: क्लन्दते { क्लन्द् } klandate { kland} - v. be confounded or troubled, sound - SpkSkt 
Skt: क्लन्दति { क्लन्द् } klandati { kland} - v. weep, call, lament - SpkSkt



क्लम् [ klam ] - iv. p.
- klamya , grow tired, be exhausted, flag: gnly. pp. klnta , fatigued, exhausted; withered; slender, thin. pari , feel greatly exhausted: ...

क्लम् [ klam ] - iv. p.
Skt: क्लम् [ klam ] - iv. p. - klamya , grow tired, be exhausted, flag: - Mac077c1
Skt: { क्लम् } { klam } - v1. par  be fatigued - SpkSkt



क्लम [ klam-a ]
- m. fatigue, exhaustion, languor: -‿apaha, a. dispelling fatigue.



क्लव्् [ KLAV ]
- only pp. klavita, faltering.


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क्लान्ति [ kln-ti ]
- f. fatigue, languor, exhaustion.


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क्लिद्  [ klid ] iv.
- klidya , p. become wet : pp. ...




क्लिश् [ klis ] ix
- klisn , iv. klisya , p. torment, plague, annoy, trouble; iv. . (p.) be troubled, ...

... annoyed, afflicted; damaged, worn out; painful, distressing; ...



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क्लिष्टवृत्ति [ klishta-vritti ]
- a. leading a wretched life.

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क्लीब [ klb ]
- a. emasculated, impotent; unmanly, timorous, cowardly; waterless (cloud); m. eunuch; weakling, coward; n. neuter (gender): -t, f. impotency; weakness.



क्लेद [ kled-a ]
- m. moisture, humidity; -ana, n. moistening.



क्लेश [ kles-a ]
- m. torment, pain, suffering, affliction, distress; -in, a. painful, distressing; hurting.



क्लैब्य [ klab-ya ]
- n. impotence; timidness, faintheartedness; cowardice; weakness.


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क्लोमन्् [ kl-man ]
- m. (V.), n. right lung.



क्लोमहृदय [ kloma-hriday ]
- n. sg. right lung and heart.


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क्व [ kv ]
- ad. = lc. of ka; where? whither? often emphasized with the pcls. ha, d, iva, nu, nu khalu, and svid: kva svid also = somewhere; with bh and as = what has be come of --? = it is all over with; kva tadgatam, how about that? without verb = it is out of the question; kva--kva, expressing incongruity = how great is the difference between --and--, there is nothing in common between - and --; with api and kid =kasmin+api or kid; somewhere, in a certain place; some time, once; sometimes, ever; kvakit kvakid, here and there, now and then; kvakid kvakid, here--there; now--now; kva‿api, kva kit, kvaka, kvakana, with na, nowhere, in no case, never, with preceding yatra, wherever, whenever, in whatever case.



क्वण् [ kvan ]
- i. p. kvana , cry out, croak, buzz; sound; ring, tinkle: pp. -ita , n. sound



क्वथ् [ kvath ] 
- i. kvatha , boil (tr. and int.). ud , boil over (fig.)



क्वथ [ kvath-a ]
- m. decoction, extract; -ana, n. boiling.



क्वसु [ k-vas-u ]
- the suffix vas (gr.).



क्वस्थ [ kva-stha ]
- a. where situated or to be found?


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क्वाचित्क [ kvkit-ka ]
- a. () occurring only here and there, occasional.



क्वाण [ kvna ]
- m. sound.



क्वाथ [ kvtha ]
- m. boiling; decoction.



क्विप्् [ k-v-ip ]
- fictitious suffix v added to the simple root used nominally (gr.).

( end of old p077-1.htm )

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{ksa.} from {k~Sa.} with ~ removed as the first step, and de-capitalization of S in the second step : it is {Sa.hsw:} 'hanging {Sa.}' cf. Hanging consonants in Mon-Myan.

* {Sa.hsw:} 'hanging {Sa.}'

UKT 151203, 160306, 171121: You'll note that in क ् ष --> क्ष  {kSa.} /kə.sa/, we are running into an unusual conjunct. This conjunct is used in Skt-Dev for क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ] the equivalent of Pal-Myan: {hkt~ti.ya.} 'belonging to ruling class'. Many {hka.}-words in Pal-Myan are found as {kSa.}-words in Skt-Dev, which has led me to call  {k~Sa.} as Pseudo-Kha. Because {kSa.}, though a conjunct, is commonly used in Skt-Dev like a basic consonant, it is deemed appropriate to drop the ~ sign, resulting in {kSa.}. Caveat: However, it is usual to de-capitalized the S and becomes {ksa.}. It stands for Pali kha in many Sanskrit words.

The second unusual conjunct, the Pseudo-Za is in जज्ञि [ g-g-i ] = ज ज ् ञ ि 'a. germinating' which you'll meet on p098.htm (link chk 170412).
See my note in that file on Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za .



क्षण् [ kshan ]
- v. क्षन् [ ksan ]


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{kSa.Na.} : Pal: {hka.Na.}


क्षण [ kshan-a ]
= क ् ष ण
- m. (n1.) moment; opportunity; leisure; joyful moment, festival: -m, for or in a moment; --, in., ab. in a moment, immediately; lc. every moment; kshant--kshant, at one moment - at another; kshanamkri, wait a moment; give any one (g.) an opportunity (also d); -m labh, find an opportunity.

क्षण [ kshan-a ]
Skt: क्षण [ kshan-a ] - m. (n1.) moment; opportunity; leisure; joyful moment, festival: - Mac077c2
Pal: {hka.Na.} - UHS PMD0342
  UKT from UHS: . time-duration lasting a click of thumb, moment, opportunity. . m. digging 



क्षणदा [ kshana-d ]
- f. night: -kara, -krit, m. moon, -kara, m. night-walker, Rkshasa; -drishta-nashta, pp. appearing and disappearing in a moment.



क्षणन [ kshan-ana ]
- n. hurting, wounding.



क्षणमात्र [ kshana-mtra ]
- n. only a moment: -m, for a moment only, in. in a moment; -vidhvamsin, a. collapsing in a moment; -hna, pp. joyless.


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क्षणान्तर [ kshana‿antara ]
- n. space of a moment, little while: lc. after a while, thereupon.



क्षणिक [ kshan-ika ]
- a. () momentary: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -in, a. being at leisure.


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क्षत [ ksha-ta ]
- pp. √kshan: , f. violated girl; n. hurt, wound: -ga, n. blood.



क्षति [ ksha-ti ]
- f. injury, loss, harm, damage, destruction: -mat, a. wounded.



[kshat-tr ]
- m. carver, distributor (of food); N. of various castes



क्षत्र [ ksha-tr ]
- n. sg. & pl. dominion, power; powers that be; military (second) caste; man of the second caste.



क्षत्रधर्म [ kshatra-dharma ]
- m. duty of the warrior caste; -dharman, a. fulfilling the duties of the warrior caste; -bandhu, m. member of the second caste; -vidy, f. science of the warrior caste; -vriddhi, f. increase of military power.

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UKT 140414: Pal: {hkt~ti.ya.} :
the only way to learn the sound of क्षत्र ksa-tra / {kSa.t~ri.ya.} is to listen to Hindi speakers


क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ]
= (क ् ष) (त ् र ि) (य) --> {ksa.} {t~ri.} {ya.}
- a. ruling; m. ruler; man, , f. woman, of the military caste; n. sovereign power, dominion: -‿anta-kara, m. ep. of Parasurma.

क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ]
Skt: क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ] - a. ruling; m. ruler; man - Mac077c3
Pal: {hkt~ti.ya.} - UHS PMD0343
  UKT from UHS: mfn. ruler of land & water, belonging to ruling class, m. one who becomes king


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क्षद् [ kshad ]
- i. . kshda , carve; slaughter


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क्षन् [ kshan ]
- viii. p. kshan-o , -u , hurt, wound; break; . hurt or wound oneself: pp kshat , hurt, wounded; broken, injured; destroyed; violated.upa , pari , vi , pp. hurt, wounded



क्षन् [kshan]
- 3. pl. aor, √kshan



क्षन्तव्य [ kshan-tavya ]
- fp. to be forgiven: -m, one should forgive some one (g.), for (ab.).

( end of old p077-2.htm )

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क्षप् [ kshap ]
- i. kshapa , practise abstinence or mortification



क्षप्् [ kshp ]
- f. night.



-. m. Buddhist or Jain mendicant; n. fasting, mortification; . a. destroying; m. destroyer; n. destroying; spending (time), waiting.

UKT 140414: Buddhist or Jain monks are not wanton destructionists. What they are destroying is their attachment to Greed, Anger, and Sex in their own body. They are therefore celibate, whereas the Hindus are for the family based on sexual relations. A praiseworthy wife to a Buddhist is one who is faithful to one husband, but to the Hindus, an example of a praiseworthy wife is Draupadi who was married to 5 men at the same time, giving birth a son for each husband.



क्षपणक [ kshapana-ka ]
- m. mendicant (esp. naked Buddhist or Jain).

UKT 140414: Hindu religionists being believers in Atta 'permanance' consider Buddhists and Jains to be their adversaries, because the latter would not believe in a creator. Since this is a Sanskrit dictionary, Macdonell has given the Hindu meanings. Here 'mendicant' means 'begger'. Little did the Hindus know (or care) that the Buddhist and Jain monks do not beg. They do a service to laity to earn merit by providing food. It is up to the laity to thank the monks!

mendicant -  adj. 1. Depending on alms for a living; practicing begging. n. 1. A beggar. 2. A member of an order of friars forbidden to own property in common, who work or 3. beg for their living. - AHTD

UKT 110906 : The English word <mendicant> or <mendicant monk> applied to Buddhist and Jain clergy stems from the days the Westerner first coming into Burma and India. The Westerners had looked down on these holy men because they go on alms-round every morning. The <bowls> used for receiving alms were dubbed <begging bowls>. Little do the Westerner knows that the monks are forbidden to beg. The monks receive the alms so that the laity can earn merit and it is the laity who has to thank the monk.

Another point I have to make is the Buddhist monks must be fully clad, whereas the Jain monks (in their parlance) are 'sky clad' and are not 'naked'.



क्षपणिक [ kshapan-ika ]
- m. boatman; a. destructive.



क्षपा [ kshap-&asharp; ]
- f. night: ()-kara, -krit, m. moon; -kara, m. night-walker, Rkshasa; nocturnal beast or bird; -gala, m. night dew; -‿atyaya, m. end of night, day-break; -‿apaha, m. sun; -ramana, m. moon: -sekhara, m. ep. of Siva; -‿ardha, n. (?) midnight; -‿avasna, n. end of night: lc. on the morrow; -‿aha, m. (?) day and night.



क्षपितव्य [ kshap-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be spent (time).



क्षपेश [ kshap‿sa ]
- m. moon.

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UKT 171121: {ksa.ma.} is spelled with Pseudo-Kha , whereas {kau:stu.Ba.} comes from {Sta.} -> {sta.} - the tenuis consonant.

- 'endure' - Whit028.



[ ksham ]
- i. . (p.) kshma (iv. . kshamya ), have patience; submit to (d.); endure, put up with; pardon (g. or d. of person, ac. of thing); grant anything (ac.) to (g.), allow to (pot.); show indulgence to (ac.); be able to (inf.): pp. kahnta, patient; cs. kahmaya, ask any one's (ac.) pardon or indulgence for (ac.)



क्षम्् [ kshm ]
- strong base ksh&asharp;m, weakest kshm, earth.



क्षम [ ksham- ]
- a. patient; enduring (--); capable of, able to, equal to (in., lc., or --); endurable; suitable, useful, favourable (for, d., g., lc., inf., or --; inf. or -- after verbal ɴ. having a passive sense): -t, f., -tva, n. capacity for, ability to (lc. or --).



क्षमा [ksham-]
- f. patience, forbearance, indulgence (towards, lc. or prati); tameness; earth: -pati, m. king; -bhrit, m. mountain; king; -mandala, n. orbis terrarum, whole earth; -liṅga‿tma-pd-vat, a. in which proof of forbearance and loss on one's own part is adduced (leg.); -vat, -sla, a. patient, indulgent, forbearing; compassionate.


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UKT notes

Pseudo-Kha and True-Kha

UKT 140413, 171121: From the beginning of my study of Skt-Dev, I have realized that there are two special conjuncts one of which is  क्ष = क ् ष {kSa.} -> {ksa.} and it is used as stand-in for Bur-Myan {hka.}. It is a source of confusion in the name of an ancient city Pyu city Sri Ksetra {a.r hkt~ta.ra} in Myanmarpr.

The first conjunct {ksa.} क्ष = क ् ष is disyllabic. Bur-Myan speakers cannot pronounce it properly, because we are only used to monosyllabic medials such as {kya.} formed from {ka.} and {ya.}.

{kSa.} क्ष  is a typical disyllabic conjunct found in Skt-Dev. The phoneme {Sa.}/ {S} ष is not known in Bur-Myan, and for BEPS, I have to recognize its presence. However, in order not to bring havoc for inter-transcription between Burmese and English, I have used the same glyph for both {sa.}/ {c} (palatal plosive-stop) and {Sa.}/ {S} (dental hissing fricative or hisser) for coda consonants. They are differentiated only in the coda. 

One thing you must remember about medials and conjuncts in Bur-Myan is that they are very unstable, and usually breaks up whenever you check it with a killed consonant.

UKT 151206: There are at least two very troublesome Skt-Dev Pseudo-consonants. They are what I am calling Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za. Whereas the True-Kha (or the Regular-Kha) can be under a virama, or be checked by a killed consonant:

{hka.} --> {hk}
as in Moak {moahk} 'entrance to a sacred place'.

I still have to check whether Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za are unstable or not.

In Bur-Myan {moahk} is the only or probably one of a very few, where a c2 (voiceless) is under a viram. Mostly, it is usual to have a corresponding c1 (tenuis-voiceless) killed.

In Bur-Myan, we only have Aksharas and combinations that can be pronounced. It is the hall-mark of the language. However, in English (Eng-Lat) which writes in Alphabetic-letters, there are combinations which cannot be pronounced, such as <kn> as in <knee> and <mb> as in <plumber>. English solves this problem by "saying" that the letters k & b are silent.

Magadhi, the Tib-Bur language, is said to be so easy to pronounce that even animals can speak it. The male-oriented Indo-Europeans considering their females to be almost equal to animals, would have their females and horses (and other animals like birds) speak the Prakrit Magadhi. It is only the male Teachers, Kings, and nobility, are supposed to be able speak such a refined language - Sanskrit .

The Sanskrit dramatists like Kālidāsa {ka-li.da-a.} uses this concept: Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} (Vaishnavite: Vishnu-worshippers: mostly Hindi-speakers of north) as well sa {i-wa. poaN~Na:} (Shaivite - Shiva-worshippers: mostly Tamil-speakers of south), and the nobility speak Sanskrit whilst females & animals speak Prakrit. I still have to learn enough Skt-Dev to read Sanskrit dramas before I can confirm this notion. An example of such a drama is the Cloud Messanger  मेघदूत meghadūta:
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meghad%C5%ABta 151206
or watch a cartoon clip in TIL HD-VIDEO from Meghaduta मेघदूत meghadūta 'Cloud Messenger' by Kālidāsa 
- Meghaduta-cartoon<>  bkp<> (link chk 170412)

UKT 170412: For a long time, up to 140414, I have no idea of what these Skt-Dev conjuncts were. Then, I realized that, I must include new phonemes into BEPS to handle Sanskrit and English - the IE languages as in Skt-Dev: Husher श /ʃ/, Hisser ष /S/, and Sibilant-Tha स /s/. In Bur-Myan we have only the Thibilant-Tha {a.} /θ/, whereas in Sanskrit, they have only the Sibilant-Tha. English alone has both Sibilant and Thibilant.

Go back Pseudo-True-Kha-note-b

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