Update: 2018-03-16 03:33 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{k~ta.} : Hswei'byi {hsw:by:} 'hanging consonant}

UKT 171122: The following are comparable to Bur-Myan medials, but pronounced as disyllable
See my note on Slightly/Highly rhotic syllables

{kya.} - non-rhotic disyllabic: Ya'pin {ya.pn.} 'lifted by {ya.}'

{kRa.} - rhotic disyllable: Ra'ric {ra.ric} 'rounded by {ra.}': not the non-rhotic Bur-Myan {kra.}
  {kRa.ka.}/ not {kra.ka.} which is pronounced the same as {kya.ma.} in Irrawaddy dialect.
  {kRa.ta.}/ not {kra.ta.}
  {kRa.pa.}/ not {kra.pa.}
  {kRa.ma.}/ not {kra.ma.}

   {kRa.ya.}/ not {kra.ya.}
   {kRa.wa.}/ not {kra.wa.}
   {kRa.sha.}/ not {kra.sha.}

   {kRa.Sa.}/ {kra.Sa.}
  {kRa}/ {kra} 

  {kRi.} क्रि / not {kri} : don't get mixed up with {k-Ri.} कृ
  {kRi} क्री / not {kri} : don't get mixed up with {k-Ri} कॄ
  {kRu.} / not {kru.}

UKT 180316: In next file, you'll come across La'hsw and Wa'hsw
which are present in both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan


----- on line downloaded for p076 on 171121.

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UKT notes :
Approximants as Medial formers
Hanging consonants of Mon-Myan
La'hsw and Wa'hsw
Slightly rhotic and Highly rhotic syllables :
  Bur-Myan dialect of Irrawaddy valley is non-rhotic, whereas Pali-Myan and Bur-Myan dialect of Rakhine State is slightly rhotic. Romabama has to satisfy all their needs with slightly varying glyphs.

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{k~ta.} : hanging-consonant

UKT 140411, 170623, 171121: Formerly I had thought Skt-Dev, just like Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, would have monosyllabic medials. I am now finding that it has only disyllabic conjuncts, and so what I had thought to be {kya.} must be written as {k~ya.} with {ya.} hanging below. No wonder my Indian friends in Canada could not properly pronounce my Burmese name KYAW.

These disyllabic conjuncts are also found in Mon-Myan as Hanging consonants {hsw:by:}. See Hanging consonants in Basic Mon-Myanmar Language by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007, p047. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries -
- NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180114)
In Mon-Myan, there are 11 hanging consonants : hanging r1c5 , hanging r2c5 , ...

p076c1-b05/ p058-012 

क्त [ k-ta ] = क ् त  --> {k~ta.} pronounced as disyllable
- suffix ta of the pp. (gr.).
12) क्त (p. 58) k-ta ta of the pp. (gr.).

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{k~na.} / Mon-Myan representation:

UKT 140412: There are many English words with <kn> such as <knee> /niː/ & <know> /nəʊ/ (US) /noʊ/. And, you know what the modern English speakers had done.

They "cheated" and simply dubbed <k> to be silent. And because of their cheating, the poor Celtic Gnome who is rich in gold has become a "Nome". I was really surprised to find many silent letters in English, which we will not allow in Bur-Myan. When the western phoneticians insisted that we must not pronounce as it is spelled, it only shows their ignorance of the Akshara languages which are based on sound phonemic principles.

p076c1-b06/ p058-011 

क्नथ [ knath-a ]
- the root knath (gr.).
11) क्नथ (p. 58) knath-a


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/ {k~ya.} - the disyllabic, not monosyllabic

CAUTION: Bur-Myan and its counter-part Skt-Dev consonantal pairs have looks-alike: 
{hta.}   (U0925)  &   {ya.}    (U092F).

UKT 120127, 140412, 170410, 180316:

Over two years my position has changed, and please note that as my understanding of BEPS languages increased, my opinions will change further.

For the present, I hold that monosyllabic medials such as {kya.} & {kra.} are not present in Sanskrit. They are present only in Bur-Myan among the BEPS languages. I am still not sure of Pali, however I expect Pal-Myan will be similar to Bur-Myan in most cases. After listening repeatedly the Mon-Myan sounds, I feel that it is similar to Sanskrit, {kya.} & {kra.} are disyllabic. Moreover, of the old Mon dialects, the only dialect remaining is the Mataban dialect of present day Mon-state. However, even this dialect sounds different as one goes from west to east into Thailand and Cambodia. The dialect of Pegu-Mons - that of my great-grandmother Daw MMa - which had been adulterated by Telugu, has completely disappeared.

Bur-Myan (Irrawaddy valley dialect of Mandalay and Rangoon)
  - non-rhotic monosyllabic medials: {kya.}, {kra.}
Bur-Myan (Rakhine dialect, and dialects of outlying areas), & Pal-Myan
  - non-rhotic monosyllabic medial: {kya.}
  - slightly rhotic monosyllabic medial: {kra.}
Skt-Myan (not well known)
 - non-rhotic {k~ya.} - disyllabic,
 - repha-rhotic  {k~ra.}, rhotic {kRi.}, highly rhotic {k~Ri.}

Formation of medials in Bur-Myan are from approximants {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.} (in Daw dialect), {wa.} and {ha.}. The processes of formation are known as {ya.pn.}, {ra.ric}, {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:}, and {ha.hto:}. {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:} are "hanging-consonants" and shapes of the hanging-on consonant {la.} and {wa.} remain unchanged: whereas there is change in shape in {ya.pn.}, {ra.ric} and {ha.hto:}. 


√knū, 'wet'. - Whit024


p076c1-b07/ p058-010

क्नूय्् [ KNY ]
- only cs. knopaya, P. drench. abhi, wet, moisten.
10) क्नूय्् (p. 58) KNY knopaya,

UKT 151201, 170623, 171121: Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat do not have the Bur-Myan medials which are monosyllabic. They could pronounce our Bur-Myan medial {kya.} only as disyllabic vertical conjuncts such as {k~ya.}. The rhoticity of {kra.} is so slight that Bur-Myan of Irrawaddy basin - most of the population of Myanmarpr - pronounce {kya.} & {kra.} the same. They are pronounced differently in the Bur-Myan dialect of Arakan and Pal-Myan. This presents a unique situation in BEPS transcription.

The high rhoticity is found in Skt-Dev close vowel {i~Ri.} ऋ. When {ka.} क, is modified by this vowel we get {kRi.} कृ . Compared to {kRi.}, {kri.} is almost non-rhotic, and Bur-Myan of Irrawaddy basin pronounce it as {kyi.}. BEPS differentiates lightly or non-rhotic {kri.} and highly rhotic {kRi.} by the length of the hood.

Bur-Myan has a set of syllables very close in pronunciation to {kyi.} (1 blnk) & {kri.} (1 blnk). It is spelled with Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}, and is perfectly non-rhotic. Though traditionally assigned to r2c5 cell in Bur-Myan, because of its ability to be under the viram sign, it has been moved to the Palatal-approximant position, the neighbour of Velar-approximant {ya.}/ {}.

{k.} (1 blnk), {k} (2 blnk), {k:} (emphatic 2 blnk)

In Pali-Myan, Nya'gyi cannot be placed under virama {a.t}: it breaks up into two Nya'l: {~a.}


p076c1-b08/ p058-009

क्याकु [ kyku ] --> {k~ya-ku.} --> {kya-ku.}
- n. mushroom.
9) क्याकु (p. 58) kyku mushroom.


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{kRa.} : rhotic disyllable

UKT 151201, 180114: The conjunct क्र = क ् र cannot be written with a hanging {ra.}, because it would be confusing in Mon-Myan. It is written as {kRa.}. It is rhotic, and is an important prefix in Sanskrit which can be followed by other consonants,  {kRa.ka.}. Note a special case in Sanskrit : for the sound /i/, there is a highly rhotic consonant {k~Ri.} more common than {kRi.}.


p076c1-b09/ p058-008

क्रकच [ krakaka ]
Skt: क्रकच [ krakaka ] - m.n. saw; m. a plant. - Mac076c1
8) क्रकच (p. 58) krakaka
Skt: क्रकच - m.n. a saw. m. kind of musical instrument, Ardea virgo, plant Capparis aphylla , name of a hell
- MWilliams: SktDict

The demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) [syn. Ardea virgo] is a species of crane found in central Eurasia, ranging from the Black Sea to Mongolia and North Eastern China. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demoiselle_crane 171122
Capparis decidua [syn. Capparis aphylla ] is commonly known as karira, [2] is a useful plant in its marginal habitat. Its spicy fruits are used for preparing vegetables, curry and fine pickles and can attract helpful insectivores; the plant also is used in folk medicine and herbalism." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capparis_decidua 171122


√krakṣ, 'crash'. - Whit024


p076c1-b10/ p058-007

क्रक्ष्् [ kraksh ] = क ् र क ् ष ् --> {krak~S}
- only pr. pt. krkshamna, (V.) raging, roaring.
7) क्रक्ष्् (p. 58) KRAKSH

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p076c1-b11/ p058-006

क्रतु [ kr--tu ]
- m. power, might, efficacy; counsel, intelligence, wisdom; inspiration; plan, purpose, wish, will; sacrifice (sts. personified); N. of the three liturgies forming the prtar anuvka; N. of a son of Brahman (one of the Pragpatis and of the seven Rishis); a star in the Great Bear.
6) क्रतु (p. 58) kr--tu


p076c1-b12/ p058-005

  क्रतुदेव [ kratu-deva ]
- m. N.; -mat, a. resolute; intelligent, wise; -rg, m. chief sacrifice (Asvamedha and Rgasya); -vikrayin, a. selling the rewards for a sacrifice; -vd, a. powerful, inspiring.
5) क्रतुदेव (p. 58) kratu-deva


p076c1-b13/ p058-004

क्रतूय [ krat-y ]
- den. P. will earnestly.
4) क्रतूय (p. 58) krat-y


√krath, 'be jubilant'. - Whit024


p076c1-b14/ p058-003

क्रथ्् [ krath ]
- only cs. krthaya, P. be extravagant or wild.
3) क्रथ्् (p. 58) KRATH


p076c1-b15/ p058-002

क्रथ [ krath-a ]
- the root krath (gr.).
2) क्रथ (p. 58) krath-a


p076c1-b16/ p058-001

क्रथकैशिक [ kratha-kaisika ]
- m. pl. N. of a people (descended from Kratha son of Vidarbha and from Kaisika).
1) क्रथकैशिक (p. 58) kratha-kaisika 

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Romapada 171122
"Romapada or Chitraratha was the youngest son King Vidarbha of Yadava and an adopted son of King Dharmaratha of Anga."


p076c1-b17/ not online

- m. N. of a camel


p076c1-b18/ not online

क्ननद् [ krand ] i.
- krnda , neigh, roar; wail; resound, rattle; implore piteously (ac.) ; cs. krandaya, P. cause to neigh d. or = simple vb; intv. knikrant-ti, -te: pt. kni-krat, knikradat, kanikradyimna, = simple vb. akkh, cs. cry to. abhi, roar (at). , call on, invoke; cry piteously; invoke the aid of (ac.); cs. cry out to.


√krand, kland, 'cry out'. - Whit024


p076c1-b19/ p058-032

क्रन्द [ krnd-a ]
- m. neigh; cry: -dhvani, m. cry of pain; -ana, n. crying aloud; lamentation; -as, n. battle-cry: du. the two contending hosts.
32) क्रन्द (p. 58) krnd-a


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p076c1-b20/ not online

क्नप् [ krap ]
Skt: क्नप् [ krap ] - vkrip - Mac076c1
Skt: क्रपते { क्रप् } krapate - v. compassionate, go - SpkSkt

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√kram, 'stride'. - Whit025


p076c1-b21/ not online

क्नम् [ kram ] , i.
- krma-ti ( -te ), krma-te (-ti), stride, step ; go to (ac. or lc.); take refuge with (lc.); pass through, traverse; tower above; take possession of, occupy, fill; . succeed, take effect: pp. krnta; cs. krm-aya, cause to step; iniv. kaṅkranate, kaṅkramyate, kaṅkramiti, walk about. ati, pass by, go beyond, traverse, cross; overstep, neglect; depart from (ab.); be deprived of (ab.); pass, elapse; exceed, surpass; trespass, transgress; cs. allow to pass by; disregard. abhiati, overcome. viati, overstep; pass by (of time), elapse; neglect. trespass; wrongly surrender oneself to (ac.) sam-ati, vl. anu, follow, go through in order, enumerate; particularize; state in an index. apa, go away, depart, retreat from (ab). ava, depart, retreat from (ab.). ava, depart, withdraw; escape. , come up, approach, enter; step on (ac., lc.); press upon (ac.); seize, attack; gain possession of; ocupy, overspread; rise, ascend (.); begin (inf.); pp. see s. v.; cs. cause to enter adhi‿, fall upon; choose, occupy. nir-, issue forth (from, ab.). prati‿, step back. sam-, step upon (ac.); assail, take possession of; occupy. ud, rise; go out; leave (ab.); depart (life); avoid. prati‿ud, depart. vi‿ud, overstep; pass over, neglect. upa, come up, approach (ac., lc.); treat; physic; perform begin (ac., d., or inf.). sam-upa, A. begin (inf.). nis, go out of, leave (ab.); depart; pp. nish-krnta, = exit, exeunt; cs. cause to leave, let out of (ab.); drive out. abhi-nis, go out of (ab.). vi-nis, step out, emerge from (ab.). par, stride forth, be valorous, put forth one's strength, do one's best. pari, walk about (esp. on the stage); traverse, visit; surround; overtake. anu-pari, inspect in turn. sam-pari, walk round (ac.); visit. pra, stride along; go aside; traverse; rise to (ac.); assail courageously; be valorous; fight with (ac.); pp. courageous, valorous, brave. sam, come together, unite; go to; enter; pass from (ab.) to (lc.); pp. transferred from (ab.) to (--); cs. lead to (v ac.); transfer to (lc.) upa-sam, approach.

क्रमपद kramapada - n. conjunction of words in the krama reading - SpkSkt

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p076c2-b01/ p058-031

क्रम [ krm-a ]
- m. step; gait; course; posture for attack; regular order, succession, gradation; inheritance; method, manner, way; usage, ritual; occasion, reason for (--, g.); a way of reciting the Veda: in., ab., or -tas, in order, in turn; in., ab., --, in due course, regularly, gradually; in. in the course of (--).
31) क्रम (p. 58) krm-a


p076c2-b02/ p058-030

क्रमगत [ krama-gata ]
- pp. coming in the way of (g.).
30) क्रमगत (p. 58) krama-gata


p076c2-b03/ p058-029

क्रमण [ krm-ana ]
- n. step, tread; walking; treading on (--).
29) क्रमण (p. 58) krm-ana


p076c2-b04/ not online

- m. N. of a grammarian


p076c2-b05/ p058-028

क्रमपाठ [ krama-ptha ]
- m. krama method of reciting the Veda; -prpta, pp. inherited; -yoga, m. regular order, succession; -rgya, n. N. of a locality; -varta, N. of a country; -vriddhi, f. gradual increase; -sas, ad. in order, in turn; gradually.
28) क्रमपाठ (p. 58) krama-ptha


p076c2-b06/ p058-027

क्रमाक्रान्त [ krama‿krnta ]
- pp. seized at one bound; -‿gata, pp. come by succession, inherited; -‿yta, pp. id., hereditary.
27) क्रमाक्रान्त (p. 58) krama̮krnta


p076c2-b07/ p058-044

क्रमिक [ kram-ika ]
- a. inherited, hereditary; successive.
44) क्रमिक (p. 58) kram-ika


p076c2-b08/ p058-045

क्रमुक [ kramu-ka ]
- m. betel-nut tree.
45) क्रमुक (p. 58) kramu-ka


p076c2-b09/ p058-046

क्रमेलक [ kramela-ka ]
- m. camel.
46) क्रमेलक (p. 58) kramela-ka


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p076c2-b10/ p058-026

क्रय [ kray- ]
- m. purchase; price: -krta, pp. bought; -vikraya, m. (sg. and du.) purchase and sale; trade; -vikrayin, a. buying and selling, bargaining.
26) क्रय (p. 58) kray-


p076c2-b11/ p058-025

क्रयण [ kray-ana ]
- n. purchase; -na-ka, a. marketable; -ika, -in, m. buyer.
25) क्रयण (p. 58) kray-ana


p076c2-b12/ p058-024

क्रय्य [ kry-ya ]
- fp. purchasable.
24) क्रय्य (p. 58) kry-ya


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p076c2-b13/ p058-023

क्रविष्णु [ kravish-n ]
- a. eager for raw flesh.
23) क्रविष्णु (p. 58) kravish-n eager for raw flesh.


p076c2-b14/ p058-022

क्रविस्् [ krav-s ]
- n. raw flesh, carrion.
22) क्रविस्् (p. 58) krav-s


p076c2-b15/ p058-021

क्रव्य [ krav-y ]
- n. id.: -bhakshin, -bhug, a. flesh-eating; -mukha, m. N. of a wolf; -vhana, a. carrying away bodies (v. l. for kavya-).
21) क्रव्य (p. 58) krav-y 


p076c2-b16/ p058-020

क्रव्याद्् kravya◡́ad, ˚द [ -da ]
- a. flesh-eating, corpse-consuming; m. beast of prey.
20) क्रव्याद्् (p. 58) -da


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p076c2-b17/ p058-019

क्रशय [ krasa-ya ]
- den. P. emaciate.
19) क्रशय (p. 58) krasa-ya


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p073c3-b00/ not online

क्रशिमन् [kras-i-man]
Skt: क्रशिमन् [kras-i-man] - m. thinness, slenderness, shallowness. - Mac076c3
Skt: क्रशिमन् kraśiman - m. shallowness, emaciation, leanness - SpkSkt

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p073c3-b01/ p058-018

क्रष्टव्य [ krash-tavya ]
- fp. to be dragged; to be extracted.
18) क्रष्टव्य (p. 58) krash-tavya 

( end of old p076-1.htm )

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p073c3-b02/ p058-043

क्राणा [ kr-n ]
- ad. (pr. pt. √kri) willingly; straightway.
43) क्राणा (p. 58) kr-naN


p073c3-b03/ p058-043

क्रान्त [ krn-t ]
- pp. √kram; n. step; -ti, f. ecliptic.
42) क्रान्त (p. 58) krn-t


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{kRi.} क्रि: don't get mixed up with {k~Ri.} कृ .

Wrapped around by the foot of {ra.}" - {ra.ric}

UKT 151201, 170411, 170623, 180114:
I was in a dilemma {kri.} would be mistaken for highly rhotic {kRi.} कृ until I differentiate non-rhotic {kri.} from rhotic {kRi.} by the length of the hood and the literal "wrapped around by the foot of {ra.}" - {ra.ric}. In Bur-Myan the non-rhotic language (especially in the Irrawaddy valley dialect), we rarely spell non-rhotic syllables with {kri.} for this phone: we usually use {kr.}. We find only one entry
  - {kri.ti.kran-tan} - adv. 'in a daze' - MLC MED2006-037c2
However, in Pal-Myan the slightly-rhotic language, this orthography may be used, e.g.
  - {kRi.ya} 'verb' - MLC MED2006-038c1

p073c3-b04/ p058-041

क्रिमि [ krmi ]
- incorrect spelling of krimi.
41) क्रिमि (p. 58) krmi


p073c3-b05/ p058-040

क्रिया [ kri-y ]
- f. making, doing; performance; business, transaction; action, act; work; trouble; labour; notion of the verb, verb (gr.); literary work; rite, ceremony; medical treatment, cure; (legal) proof.
40) क्रिया (p. 58) kri-y


p073c3-b06/ p058-039

क्रियाकुल [ kriy‿kula ]
- a. busy, overwhelmed with business; -‿tmaka, a. whose nature is activity: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -dveshin, a. evading the evidence; -‿antara, n. interruption of an action; another action; -pada, n. verb; -prabandha, m. continuity of an action; -‿abhyupagama, m. express promise; -yoga, m. connexion with an action or verb; employment of means; the practical Yoga; -yogya, a. fitted for work; -‿artha, a. having an action as an object; -lopa, m. failure of ceremonies; -vat, a. performing actions, active; performing sacred rites; -vidhi, m. specific rule of action; employment of a verb; -viseshana, n. adverb; -sakti, f. capacity of acting: -mat, a. capable of acting.
39) क्रियाकुल (p. 58) kriy̮kula


p073c3-b07/ p058-038

क्रिवि [ krvi ]
- m. water-skin: pl. N. of a people (in C.= Pakla).
38) क्रिवि (p. 58) krvi


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√krī, 'buy'. - Whit025


p073c3-b08/ not online

क्री [ kr ] ix. kr-n , -ni 
- n, buy from (ab., g.) for (in.: price): pp. bought, purchased; captivated by (in.). , upa, id. nis, buy off, redeem (from, ab.). pari, buy, barter, for (in.); hire (in. or a. of price). vi, barter or sell for (in.); des. vi-kikri-sha, . wish to exchange for (in.); intend to give up.


√kriḍ, 'play'. - Whit025


p073c3-b09/ not online

क्रीड् [ krd ] i
Skt: क्रीड् 1. P. (क्रीडति, क्रीडित) 1 To play, amuse oneself; ... - Apte:SktDic


p073c3-b10/ p058-037

क्रीड [ krd- ]
- a. playing, dallying; -ana, n. playing, play: -ka, m. plaything; -anya, n. id.
37) क्रीड (p. 58) krd-


p073c3-b11/ p058-036

क्रीडा [ krd- ]
- f. play, sport, jest, dalliance: -kapi-tva, n. jesting imitation of a monkey; -knana, n. pleasure-grove; -ksra, m. pleasure-pond; -kopa, n. simulated anger; -kautuka, n. wanton curiosity; -kausala, n. art of jesting; -grha, m. n. pleasure-house; -parvata, m. (artificial) pleasure-hill: -ka, m. id.; -mayra, m. pet peacock; -markatapota, m. pet young monkey; -mahdhra, m. pleasure-hill; -rasa, m. enjoyment of sport or fun: -maya, a. consisting in the water of play; -vesman, n. pleasure-house; -sakunta, m. pet bird; -saila, m. pleasure-hill; -saras, n. pleasure-lake.
36) क्रीडा (p. 58) krd-aN


p073c3-b12/ p058-035

क्रीडि [ krd- ]
- a. playing, dallying; -ita, pp. one who has played; n. play; -n, a. playing, dallying; -: -mt, a. id.
35) क्रीडि (p. 58) krd-


p073c3-b13/ p058-034

क्रीत [ kr-ta ]
- pp. √kr; n. purchase: -ka, a. (son) acquired by purchase; -‿anusaya, m. repenting of a purchase.
34) क्रीत (p. 58) kr-ta

( end of old p076-2.htm )

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√kru, 'be rough or raw' - Whit026


p073c3-b14/ not online 

क्रु [kru]
- be rough or raw


p073c3-b15/ p058-033

क्रुञ्च्् [krka] (nm. kruṅ), क्रुञ्च [ krka ]
- m. curlew.
33) क्रुञ्च्् (p. 58) krka

curlew - n. . Any of several brownish, long-legged shore birds of the genus Numenius, having long, slender, downward-curving bills. - AHTD


√krudh, 'be angry'. - Whit026


p073c3-b16/ not online

क्रुध् [ krudh ] iv. p.
- (.) krdhya , be or grow angry (with, d., g.; at, lc.) : pp. krud-dh , angry, enraged, with (d., g., lc., upari, or prati); cs. krodhya , enrage, abhi , be angry with (ac.) : pp. enraged, prati , return any one's (ac.) anger. sam , be angry: pp. angry.

Skt: [krudh] - be angry, IV. P. krdhyati; red. ao. inj. cukrudhāma, ii. 33, 4. -- Mac:SktDict
Skt: krudh क्रुध् 4 P. (क्रुध्यति, क्रुद्ध) To be angry (with the dat. of the person who is the object of anger); ... -- Apte:SktDict

(end of new p076c3)

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UKT notes

Approximants as Medial formers 

- UKT 170409

In modern Bur-Myan language there are 4 medial formers: {ya.}, {ra.}, {wa.}, and {ha.}. They are approximants, and all give monosyllabic medials, e.g. with {ka.} giving {kya.}, {kra.} (non-rhotic pronounced similar to {kya.}, but slightly rhotic in Rakhine dialect), and {kwa.}.

{ha.} will not modify {ka.}, but will form medials with nasals, e.g. with {na.} giving {nha.}.

Based on {a.}/ {} being stable under a virama, similar to {ya.}/ {}, I have included it as a approximants. We must also not forget that {a.} is a hanger-on in Mon-Myan.

However, these medial-formers in Skt-Dev, give rise to disyllabic conjuncts.

In Mon-Myan we find a similarity to Sanskrit. However I may have to change my position as my progress in Mon language increases.

Inset def: Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language by J.M. Haswell, Rangoon, American Mission Press, 1874, p031.
- MV1874-indx > con-ka1.htm (link chk 170409)

Because of the formation of disyllables, I will have to call {ya.}, {ra.}, {wa.}, as hangers-on, a term from Mon-Myan.

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Compare {Ska.}, {Sta.}, {Sna}, {Spa.}, {Sma} with the hanging-consonants of Mon-Myan:
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Nai Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries (pix from p048)
- NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180114)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 170406)

According to Nai Mg Toe, {sa.}/ {c}) च ca [NOT the hisser ष ṣa] will allow only the following as "hangers-on": {a.}, {na.}, {ma.}, {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}. This indicates that Mon-Myan hanging-consonants are not lisping-consonants.

My comment on what Nai Maung Toe Hla has said is, it is of the same genre as Weikcha and Maukcha arbitrary rule. Such rules need to be eliminated from Burmese and Mon speeches for new comers to learn the languages. I've found to my surprise that many of Mon descent in Yangon city, especially the children, are reluctant to learn their ancestral language: Mon is an endangered language.

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La'hsw and Wa'hsw

UKT 180306:

Look for La'hsw {la.hsw:} 'hanging {la.}': it can be pronounced either as: (monophthong) or {k-la.)(diphthong). But once you have been exposed to English sounds such as <class> and <slow>, you can pronounce it as monophthong.

Wa'hsw {wa.hsw:} 'hanging {wa.}', and Hisser-sa'hsw {Sa.hsw:} 'hanging hisser {Sa.}' - on  p077.htm
Note: Palatal {sa.}/ {c} and Dental {Sa.}/ {S} are clearly differentiated in Romabama.

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Slightly rhotic and Highly rhotic syllables

UKT 180113

Consider the case of क्रि  = {kra.} vs. कृ  = {kRi.}. In Bur-Myan, there is no of mix up between {kra.} and {kya.} even though both are pronounced the same in Irrawaddy dialect. How, they are pronounced differently in the Ra'khine dialect.

Faced with the problem of pronunciation, I had to split up the original p076.htm to concentrate on the difference in rhoticity between Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan involving the Ra'ric {ra.ric} sound. I also have to take note of the highly rhotic Skt-Dev ऋ (1 blnk)/ ॠ (2 blnk), and also the fact that the International Pali does not have the "emphatic 2 blnk" sound. The result is I've come up with the scheme (using the length of the hood to represent the degree of rhoticity:

sound involving /a/:
Bur-Myan: {kra.}, {kra}, {kra:}
Pal-Myan : {kRa.}, {kRa}, {kRa:}

Not present in Skt-Dev, and therefore no confusion between Pali-Myan and Skt-Myan. For this representation to be applicable to the Ra'khine dialect of Bur-Myan, I've to include {kRa:} (emphatic 2 blnk). Pal-Myan, conforming to International Pali, has only two {kRa.} (1 blnk) and {kRa} (2 blnk).

At one time, I had thought of representing Pal-Myan {kRa.} as Ra'kauk-hsw {ra.kauk-hsw:}. However, I had to give up the idea when I started learning Mon-Myan where r1c5 {gna.}/ {ng} has a Ra'kauk-hsw {ra.kauk-hsw:}, unlike the Bur-Myan r1c5 {gna.}/ {ng}.

Note: Bur-Myan r1c5 {gna.}/ {ng} is not a true nasal as in the case of {na.}/ {n}. Remember I am learning to speak Mon-Myan, and with more knowledge I may have to modify my view on {gna.}/ {ng}. I came up with the idea of differentiating the true nasals {na.}/ {n} and {ma.}/ {m} with the sound /n/, and semi-nasal {gna.}/ {ng}, after coming across the fact that in "Peguan dialect (now dead) of Mon-Myan, there is no /g/ sound, except in the case involving {gna.}/ {ng} which has the sound of /ŋ/ (velar)". Whereas, in the Mataban dialect of Mon-Myan (still extent), there is the /g/ sound.
Listen to - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 
which I heard as {ka.}, {hka.}, {g}, {hk}, {ng}.

Remember I was born in Kungyangoan, now incorporated into Greater Yangon, where the inhabitants (including my relatives) who once spoke the Peguan Mon-Myan lives. My childhood pronunciation involving /ŋ/ and /r/ are quite different from that of Irrawaddy dialect of Bur-Myan, e.g. we pronounce the name of the village {Bu.ra:kri:} as /hpa.ra.gyi:/ which in Irrawaddy dialect is pronounced /hpa.ya:gyi:/.

However, in sound involving /i/, because of the presence of ऋ (1 blnk)/ ॠ (2 blnk), Pali and Sanskrit would be the same.

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