Update: 2018-01-12 09:24 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kau-Sa.} transformed from {kau-a.}

UKT 171120: Pal-Myan {a.} /θ/ becomes three phonemes in Skt-Dev: श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /s/. Unless I take this into consideration, I ran into trouble in comparing Pali to Sanskrit, and have trouble in words like:
कौस्तुभ [ kaustubha ] = (क ौ) (स ् त ु) (भ) --> {kau-~tu.Ba.} = {kau-Stu.Ba.}

----- on line downloaded for p076 on 171121.

UKT notes :
Lisping consonants of English and Sanskrit
Pronouncing the lisping-consonants in English speech
  - practice on new aksharas in BEPS basic consonants


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{kau-Sa.} transformed from {kau-a.}


p076c1-b00/ p058-017

कौसल्य [ kasal-ya ]
- a. belonging to the Kosalas; m. king of the Kosalas; , f. queen of Kosala (mother of Rma).
17) कौसल्य (p. 58) kasal-ya


p076c1-b01/ p058-016

कौसीद [ kausda ]
- a. () proceeding from a loan.
16) कौसीद (p. 58) kausda


p076c1-b02/ p058-015

कौसुम [ kausuma ]
- a. coming from or made of flowers; -‿yudha, a. relating to Kma {ka-ma.} 'sex'
15) कौसुम (p. 58) kausuma

UKT 171121: Do not think that all flowers are sweet-smelling. The largest individual flower is Rafflesia arnoldii - a species of flowering plant in the parasitic genus Rafflesia. It is noted for producing the largest individual flower on earth. [the largest on record is 3.4 ft.] It has a very strong and horrible odour of decaying flesh, earning it the nickname "corpse flower". It is endemic to the rainforests of Sumatra and possibly Borneo. [1] -- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafflesia_arnoldii 171121

p076c1-b03/ p058-014

कौसुम्भ [ kausumbha ]
- a. () coming from, coloured with or like safflower; n. substance coloured with safflower.
14) कौसुम्भ (p. 58) kausumbha

" Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safflower 170405


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p076c1-b04/ p058-013 

कौस्तुभ [ kaustubha ] = (क ौ) (स ् त ु) (भ) --> {kau-~tu.Ba.} = {kau-Stu.Ba.}
- m. n. jewel produced at the churning of the [Cosmic] ocean, an ornament of Vishnu; -bhrit, m. ep. of Vishnu.
13) कौस्तुभ (p. 58) kaustubha

UKT 170408, 171121: Compare the Lisping consonants {Sta.},  {Sna}, {Spa.}, {Sma}, and {Stu} in <stupid> , with the hanging consonants of Mon-Myan. See:
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language and Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script:
- NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170623)
- spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 170406)
The following entry : क्त [ k-ta ] = क ् त  is an example of hanging consonant: {k~ta.}

UKT: p076c1-b05, ... on hanging consonants moved to p076C.htm

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----- online 171121 : p076.htm search for कौसल्य

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UKT 180112: Remainder moved to following page p076C.htm.


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UKT notes

Lisping consonants

- UKT 170408

Lisp - n. . A speech defect or mannerism characterized by mispronunciation of the sounds (s) and (z) as (th) and ( th ). . A sound of or like a lisp: The carpenter ['s] . . . plane whistles its wild ascending lisp Walt Whitman
- v. lisped lisping lisps
- v. intr. . To speak with a lisp. . To speak imperfectly, as a child does.
- v. tr. . To pronounce with a lisp. -- AHTD

UKT 170406, 171121:

One of insurmountable difficulties in transcription between English and Burmese is the hissing and hushing sounds of IE languages. Finally, I was forced to introduce new aksharas into the basic consonants. Because, of strong objections to name the coined setup as traditional Myanmar akshara, I will have to name it the Basic consonants of BEPS shown on the right.

One of the important observations I have to make is that in order to incorporate IE phonemes into Bur-Myan - the Tib-Bur speech - I have to recognize the presence of the low tongue-tip /s/ in English. See TIL PDF libraries: GBorden-LowTongueTipS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171121)

Pronunciation of c- , s- , z- in Tiddim-Chin (Tib-Bur speakers) was observed by E. J. A. Henderson, in 1965. The author noted both the tongue-tip up and down in the speeches of two informants, HG & VZT. See the whole paper in TIL PDF libraries:
- EJAHenderson-TiddimChin<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171121)

Unless a Bur-Myan speaker has been trained to speak English correctly very few among the population of Myanmarpr, are able to pronounce {Ska}, {Sta.}, {Spa.} as tenuis plosive-stops; {Sna.}, {Sma.} as nasals; and {Sla.}, {Swa.} as fricatives.

I train my students starting from {Spa.} to {Ska} as in English: {Spa.} in <spin>, {Sta.} in <stand>, {Ska.} in <skin>.
They can use other vowel-trios and proceed to vowel-pentos. See my notes on pronouncing the lisping consonants for speaking English.

Go back to lisp-conson-note-b

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Pronouncing lisping-consonants in English speech

- UKT 170406

We, as children, had to learn Bur-Myan according to rules of Thin'boan'gyi - the native system in use for hundreds if not thousands of years based on phonetic system. Those were the by-gone days, before our native language has been destroyed by Myanmar Language Commission of the British-Burma, headed by colonialists such as John Jardine (following Lord Macaulay (1800-1859) in British-India), and who have been derogatorily called Macaulay's children by Indian nationalists.
See: Myanmarpr before the British incursion in The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833, and Introduction by John Jardine
Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 130925
Sangermano's work proper -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 130925
Downded paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- Sangermano-BurEmp3ed<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170406)
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macaulayism 170406
"We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population, " Macaulay declared. [2]

In Bur-Myan Thinboangyi method we had to repeat the vowels according the series: 
  {a.} a {a} ā , {i.} i {i} ī , {u.} u {u} ū , , {au.} {ao} , {n} {a:}

Then, in combined form with {ka.} as:
  {ka.} {ka} , {ki.} {ki} , {ku.} {ku} , {k} {k:} , {kau.} {kao} , {kn} {ka:}

Now, extension for Thinboangyi using the vowel-quadrilateral :
Remember, the vowel at corners of quadrilateral, especially <a> <i> <u> are well defined. They can be short (1 blnk) and long (2 blnk) giving: a ā , i ī , u ū, known as  {a.wN} 'beautiful pairs'. The middle vowels are not well defined. Yet they are given as pairs known as {a.a.wn} 'ugly pairs'. You can tie the PTK-consonants with these vowels and practice pronouncing the lisping consonants for speaking English:
Now, you can practice: in English <k> sometime sounds <c>
  Corner-vowels:  {Spa.} in <span>, {Sta.} in <stand>, {Ska.} in <scan>
-------------------- : {Spi.} in <spin>, {Sti.} in <stile>, {Ski.} in <skit>
-------------------- : {Spu.} in <spurt>, {Stu} in <stupid>, {Sku} in <school>
  Mid-vowels:  {Sp} in <special> , {St} in <stair> , {Sk} in <scare>
---------------- :  {Spo} in <sport> , {Sto} in <stow> , {Skew} in <skew>

Go back pronounce-lisp-note-b 

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