Update: 2017-11-20 08:28 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kRiS~} / {kRiS} (1 blnk): Dental-{Sa.} simulating Kin'si  - cont
{kRi} (2 blnk)

{kLi.} : words made up of highly Lateral vowel ऌ

What follows on {k} and {k:}
have been transferred to a separate folder p074E.htm
Note: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}

UKT notes :
Bur-Myan as a dialect of Magadhi-Asokan language
Problem of mid-vowels in BEPS


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{kRiS~} / {kRiS} : Dental-{Sa.} simulating Kin'si  - cont



कृष्णगति [ krishna-gati ]
- m. (black-pathed), fire; -katurdas, f. 14th day of the dark half [of lunar month] = new moon [ {la.kw n.} 'no moon']; -ganma‿ashtam, f. a certain eighth day which is Krishna's birthday; -t, f., -tva, n. blackness; -nayana, -netra, a. black-eyed; -paksha, m. dark fortnight (full moon to new moon); -bhma, m. black soil; -bhogin, m. kind of black snake [ {ln: mrw} ?]; -mukha, a. () black-mouthed; -mriga, m. black antelope; -yagurveda, m. Black Yagur-veda.



कृष्णल [ krishn-la ]
- (m.) n. kind of black berry (used as weight and coin).



कष्णवर्ण [ krishna-varna ]
- a. black-coloured; -vartman, m. fire (black-tracked); ()-vla, a. black-tailed; -sakti, m. N.; -sarpa, m. kind of black snake; -sra, a. chiefly black, spotted black and white; m. spotted antelope; ()-sraṅga, a.; m. f.; id.



कृष्णागुरु [ krishna‿aguru ]
- n. kind of aloe; -‿agin, n. skin of the black antelope.



कृष्णाय [ krishn-ya ]
- den. P. behave like Krishna; . blacken.



कष्णायस्् [ krishna‿ayas ], ˚स [ -sa ]
- n. iron; -‿ahi, m. black serpent.



कृष्णिका [ krishn-ik ]
- f. blackness; -i-man, m. id.



कृष्णी [ krishn&isharp; ]
- f. night (the black one).



कृष्य [ krish-ya ]
- fp. to be ploughed.

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  कृसर [ krisara ]
- m. n., , f. dish of rice and sesamum.

Sesamum is a genus of approximately 20 species in the flowering plant family Pedaliaceae. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with edible seeds. The best-known member of the genus is sesame, Sesamum indicum (syn. Sesamum orientale), the source of sesame seeds. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesamum (170401)


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कॄ [ kr ]
- vi. p. kir , pour out, scatter, bestrew, dishevelled; covered, filled with; stopped (ears). apa-skira, . scrape (with feet). ava, pour down, scatter; emit semen;  bestrew, cover: pp.  bestrewed, covered; caught  in; having emitted semen; full of, being wholly in the power of (-.) anuava, scatter about.  , strew, bestow abundantly: pp. strewn ; covered, filled, crowded; surrounded by (in.). apa‿, abandon; refuse. vi‿, pp. dishevelled; dim. sam-, cover over, fill up: pp. covered or filled with. carved, engraved; overwhelmed with(-). sam-ud, pp. pierced. vi-ni, shatter; cover; abandon. sam-ni, pp. stretched out. pari  scatter round; swarm round: liver up. pra, scatter: pp dispersed; squandered; dishevelled; confused; various. vi-pra, pp scattered; dishevelled; extended. prati-skira, lacerate: pp. akirna, injured. vi, scatter, disperse; cleave, split; bestrew; heave (sight); dishevel. pra-vi, scatter spread. sam, pourort, bestow abundantly; overwhelm; mix: pp: crowded with, full of; mixed, combined with (-)irnpure; born of a mixed marriage; in rut (elephant).


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{kLi.} : words made up of highly Lateral vowel ऌ


कॢप् [ klip ] , i. .
- klpa, be fit, capable or use; prosper, succeed; agree with, conform to (in.); appear as (in.), be qualified for (lc.); serve for, conduce to, cause (d.); participate in (d.); fall to the lot of (d. g., lc.); became (nm., d.); pronounce to be, regard as (2 ac.): pp. klipt, arrange, ready, prepared; trimmed, cut (hair, nail, etc.); settled; prescribed; firm (conviction); existing; ...









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क्लृपि [ klip-i ]
= क ् ल ृ प ि
- the root klip (gr.).



क्लृप्तकेशनखश्मश्रु [ klipta-kesa-nakha-sma-sru ]
- a. having his hair, nails, and beard trimmed.



क्लृप्ति [ klp-ti (also-t) ]
- f. coming about, success.

( end of old p074-1.htm )


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UKT notes


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Problem of BEPS mid-vowels

- UKT 151112:

Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}. Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has. We all, with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words. Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.

There are at least two sets of words in Bur-Myan with which I am having difficulty which I suspect is due to our misunderstanding of the Myanmar akshara vowel system:

{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{ko.} (1 blk); {ko} (2 blk): {ko:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{kau.} (1 blk); {kau} (2 blk); (2 blk + emphasis)

Mon-Myan - {a.a.wuN} 'dissimilar' pair
{k} (2 blk) vs. {k} (2 blk)
{kau} (2 blk) vs. {ou} (2 blk)
  - The vowel {ou} is absent in Bur-Myan. If a Bur-Myan were to pronounce this vowel he would surely pronounced it as emphatic: for which I have not come up with a glyph. I still have to learn more Mon-Myan.

I first ran into this problem in 1989 soon after my wife Daw Than Than and I settled in Canada. I was writing a teaching program with the help of my wife Daw Than Than - Burmese for Foreign Friends, now included in Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script :
- BurMyan-indx.htm > B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 151112)
I have to train myself in disciplines related to Linguistics and Phonology resulting in establishing Tun Institute of Learning website - a distance education university dedicated to BEPS - about 13 years ago. 

I had run into various problems: 

Problem #1: We, Bur-Myan, pronounce:

{kau.} (1 blk); {kau} (2 blk); (2 blk + emphasis)

However, from the word {kauk} 'paddy' - MLC MED014, we can say that {kau:} can be followed by a coda, meaning the syllable-vowel of {kau:} can be killed. From it we can say that {kau:} should not be treated as an emphatic and that its duration is 1 blnk.

Problem #2: Next comes the problem of killed-Nya'gyi {} in words such as {.}.

{} (1 blk) --> {.} (1/2 blk); (2 blk)
ref. {.} - guest - MED2010-625

In Pal-Myan, we are told that Nya'gyi {a.} cannot be killed. It is a horizontal conjunct, and placing it under {a.t} to kill breaks up the conjunct:

Pal-Myan: {a.} + viram -->  {~a.} (mute)
giving us the pronunciation of words liked {pi~a} 'education' which must be pronounced as //.
Please note that this is a case where IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet} fails me. I have to rely on Romabama.

The solution to this problem is to assign Nya'l {a.} as the sole occupier of cell r2c5 of Myanmar akshara matrix, and moving down Nya'gyi {a.} down the Approximant row under as Palatal-group, and moving {ya.} under Velar-group.

UKT 151129: Compare words with prefixes {kau:} & {k}, and place the words in the vowel diagram. In meanings {kau:} implies lower portions like the genitals whilst {k} the higher portions like head and head hair. In the vowel diagram {kau:} is in mid-back position whilst {k} is mid-front. It is an example of contrasting vowel sounds giving opposing meanings.

Go back BEPS-mid-vowel-note-b

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End of TIL file