Update: 2017-11-20 08:12 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{ku.la.} ु : cont
  {kul} / {kul~}: lepha aka super-L


{ku} ू : UKT 170607 - √kū 'design' implying "fraud", and other "ill-meaning" words . See W. D. Whitney, 1885 below.


Downloaded Roots
from W. D. Whitney, 1885


UKT notes :
Funerary art
Orbis terrarum: King Burengnong of Hongsawadee 


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कुलयोषित्् [ kula-yoshit ]
- f. virtuous woman; -rgadhn, f. royal capital; -vat, a. of noble race; -vardhana, m. support of a family; -vidy, f. knowledge hereditary in the family; -vrata, n. family practice (religious or moral): -dhara, a. maintaining the family virtue; -sla-vayo-vritta-vitta-vat, a. of good family, character, age, conduct, and means; -sikharin, m., -saila, m.= kula-parvata; -saṅkhy, f. being accounted of good family; -samgata, m. acquaintance of the family; -samtati, f. progeny; -samnidhi, m. presence of many persons: lc. in the presence of witnesses; -samudbhava, a. sprung of a noble house; -sevaka, m. excellent servant; -stamba, m. family like a bunch of grass; -str, f. virtuous woman; -sthiti, f. family usage; -hna, pp. of ignoble race.

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कुलाङ्कुर [ kula‿aṅkura ]
- m. scion of a family; -‿aṅgra, m. firebrand = destroyer of his own family; -‿akala, -‿adri, m. chief mtn. or mtn. range; -‿anuguna-vat, a. having merits corresponding to his race; -‿anta-karana, a. destroying a race; -anvaya, m. noble descent; -‿anvita, pp. of noble race; -‿pda, m. ornament of the family.



कुलाय [ kuly-a ]
- m. n. web, tissue; nest; lair; dwelling; -n, a. nest-like.



कुलाल [ klla ]
- m. potter; , f. wife of a potter.

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कुलिक [ kul-ika ]
- m. relation.



कुलिङ्ग [ ku-liṅga ]
- m. kind of mouse; N. of various birds.



कुलिज [kuliga]
- n. a measure of capacity



कुलिश [ k-lisa ]
- m. axe; n. thunderbolt; diamond: -t, f. state of a thunderbolt; -dhara, -pni, -bhrit, m. ep. of Indra.

कुलिश [k-lisa]
Skt:- m. axe; n. thunderbolt; diamond: -- Mac071c1
Pal: {ku.li.a.}
- UHS-PMD03030
  UKT from UHS: n. weapon carried by Indra (MLC-MED2006-471), thunder bolt.

UKT 140315: the meaning given by Macdonell "diamond" suggests flashes of light or lightening. It reminds me of Mahayana Diamond Sutra http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_Sutra 140315
Skt: वज्रच्छेदिकाप्रज्ञापारमितासूत्र, vajracchedikā prajāpāramitā sūtra
Downloaded papers of Max Muller's Sacred Texts Vol49 is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- MaxMuller-SacredTextsVol49<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170320)


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कुलीन [ kul-na ]
- a. noble (of race and character); belonging to the race of (--): -tva, n. noble birth; -ya, a. belonging to the family of (--).



कुलीर [ kulra ]
- m. crab; -ka, m. little crab.



- m. pl. N. of a people

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कुलोद्गत [ kula‿udgata ]
- pp. coming of a noble stock; -‿udvaha, a. continuing the race of, descended from (g., --).

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{kul} / {kul~}: lepha aka super-L

UKT 140326, 170320: The question arises how to class {kul}: similar to {ku~} or to {kur~} . If to the former we would write {ku~l}, or if to the latter as {kur~} with different pronunciations. Remembering the Bur-Myan word for a military officer, {bo~l} /boːl/ (MLC MED-2006-315), pronounced as / {bo}/, I would pronounce {ku~l} if it were in Pal-Myan, and {kul} in Skt-Myan.



कुल्माष [ kulmsha ]
- m. sour gruel.



कुल्य [ . kul-ya ]
- a. referring or belonging to a family.



कुल्य [ . kulya ]
- n. receptacle for the bones of a cremated corpse.

UKT 140312: I would translate the above as "a family urn", because of the prefix {kul}. I need to check again. See my note on Funerary art



कुल्या [ kuly ]
- f. rivulet, canal.



कुल्याय [ kuly-ya ]
- den. . become a rivulet.



- m. N. of a commentator on Manu, who probably lived in the 16th century.

( end of old p071-1.htm )

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कुवणिञ् [ku-vanig ]
- m. a rogue of a merchant



कुवधू [ ku-vadh ]
- f. wicked woman; -vartman, n. wrong road, heresy.



कुवल [ ku-vala ]
- a tree; n. its fruit; water-lily.



कुवलय [ . ku-valaya ]
- n. terrestrial orb, orbis terrarum.

See my note on the orbis terrarum : 'the world, the Earth'



कुवलय [ . ku-vala-ya ]
- n. blue lotus (which opens at night): -dris, -nayan, f. lotus-eyed woman; -ml, f. N. of a mare; -vat, f. N. of a princess.

UKT 140313, 170320: Water-lilies {kra} are of two kinds: those that open during day, and those that open during night. However, we find in Bur-Myan literature five kinds of water-lilies listed in: Burmese-Myanmar Buddhist (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm (link chk 170321)
Group of Five: 1. white lotus, 2. red lotus, 3. blue lotus, 4. {kra-tn-hsaip}, 5. {kra-hkan:lan:}



कुवलयादित्य [ kuvalaya‿ditya ]
- m. N. of a king; -‿nanda, m. T. of a rhetorical work; -‿pda, m. N. of a Daitya changed into an elephant; N. of a king; -‿aval, f. N. of a queen.

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कुवलयित [ kuvalay-ita ]
- pp. adorned with water-lilies.



कुवलयेश [ kuvalaya‿sa ]
- m. lord of earth, king: -t, f. dominion.



कुवस्त्र [ ku-vastra ]
- n. bad dress; a. ill-clad: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -vkya, n., -vk, f. ill word; -vdika, m. charlatan, quack; -vsan, f. wrong notion.



कुविद्् [ kuv-d ]
- ad. perchance? I wonder?



कुविन्द kuvinda, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. wearer.



कुविवाह [ ku-vivha ]
- m. low marriage; -vritti, f. poor maintenance; -vedhas, m. evil fate; -vaidya, m. bad physician; -vypra, m. low occupation.

( end of old p071-2.htm )

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कुश् [ kus ]
- enclose, encircle



कुश [ kus- ]
--> kuśa
- m. grass, esp. sacrificial grass; N.: - nbha, m. N.

कुश [kus-] --> kuśa   
Skt: कुश [kus-] - m. grass, esp. sacrificial grass; N.:-- Mac071c1
Pal: {ku.a.} - UHS-PMD0331
  UKT from UHS read with MLC-MED2006-490 & 106:
- m. . kusa grass, long and sharp bladed grass, Eragrostis zeylanica , Leesia hexandra . lots {sa-r:tn} to decide either the recipient or the gift in a religious offering to Buddhist monks (equivalent of drawing straws) .

See Wikipedia: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drawing_straws 140317
Read stories of Mahadoat-lots, and Kusa & Pavawati, and on the merit of offering food to the Buddha or his monks in my note below.



कुशल [ ksa-la ]
- a. appropriate, fitting; profitable; salutary; healthy, well; skilful, expert, experienced (in, g., lc., inf., --): -m man, approve; -m, ad. duly; mildly; n. good condition, due order; welfare, prosperity; health; expertness, skill; kusalam te, how do you do? good luck to you! -m br, -vak, or -vad, wish any one good luck; -m, in., --, duly, regularly.



कुशलकारण [ kusala-krana ]
- n. cause due to welfare; -t, f. skill, experience (in, lc.); -prasna, m. enquiry as to health; -vat, a. healthy, well; -vk, a. eloquent.



कुशलिन्् [ kusal-in ]
- a. well, safe and sound; favourable, good (news).



कुसलीकृ [kusal-kri ]
Skt: कुशलीकृ [kusal-kri ] - put in order, set right - Mac071c2
Skt: कुशली करोति { कुशलीकृ } kuśalī karoti { kuśalīkṛ } - v. make right or proper, arrange in due order - SpkSkt



कुशवत्् [ kusa-vat ]
- a. abounding in Kusa grass; -stamba, m. bunch of Kusa grass.



कुशाग्र [ kusa‿agra ]
- n. point of a blade of Kusa: -buddhi, a. whose intellect is as sharp as a needle.



कुशावती [kus-vat ]
- f. N. of a city



कुशिक [kusik]
- m. N. of a sage; pl. N. of a people



कुशिष्य [ ku-sishya ]
- m. bad pupil: -sishya, m. bad pupil as a pupil.



कुशील [ ku-sla ]
- n. bad character: -va, m. bard, actor: du. N. of the two sons of Rma.



कुशूल [ kusla ]
- m., v.  kusla.



कुशेशय [ kuse-saya ]
- a. lying on Kusa grass; n. (day) lotus: -‿aksha, a. lotus-eyed.



कुश्रुत [ ku-sruta ]
- pp. imperfectly heard; n. evil report.

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कुष् vi.
- kusha , ix. p. kush-n , pinch, tear. nis , tear out:
pp. nish-kushita , turn out



कुषीतक [kushtaka ]
- m. kind of bird; N.



कुषुम्भ [ kushmbha ]
- m. poison sac.



कुष्ठ [ k-shtha ]
= क ु ष ् ठ
- m. n. a plant; , f. point, beak; leprosy.



कुष्ठिका [ kshthik ]
- f. contents of the entrails.



कुष्ठिन्् [ kushth-in ]
- a. leprous.



कुष्माण्ध [kushmnda]
Skt: कुष्माण्ध [kushmnda] - m. a plant; pl. a species of demon
Skt: कुष्माण्ड kuṣmāṇḍa - m. pumpkin gourd, class of demons


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कुसखी [ ku-sakh ]
- f. bad friend; -sakiva, m. bad minister; -sambandha, m. bad relation; -sarit, f. shallow river.



कुसीद [ k-sda ]
- a. inert; n. usury: -vriddhi, f. usurer's interest.

See my note on usury



कुसीदिन्् [ kusd-n ]
- m. usurer.



कुसुम [ kusuma ]
- n. flower, blossom: -krmuka, m. Kma (having a bow of flowers); -ketu, -kpa, m. id.; -komala, a. soft as flowers; -druma, m. flowering tree; -dhanus, -dharvan, m. Kma (having a bow of flowers); -pura, n. Flower city, ep. of Ptaliputra; -bna, m. flower-arrow; - maya, a. () consisting of flowers; -mrgana, m. Kma.

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कुसुमय [ kusum-aya ]
- den. P. furnish with flowers: pp. -ita, flowering, blossoming.



कुसुमलक्ष्मन्् [ kusuma-lakshman ]
- m. ep. of Pradyumna; -lat, f. flowering creeper; -lv, f. flower gatherer; -sayana, n. couch of flowers; -sara, a. having flowers as arrows (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); m. Kma: -‿sana, m. id.; -syaka, m. Kma; -sra, m. N. of a merchant; -surabhi, a. fragrant with flowers; -stabaka, m. bunch of flowers.



कुसुमाकर [ kusuma‿kara ]
- m. spring; -‿agali, m. two handfuls of flowers; -‿yudha, m. Kma; N.; -‿sava, m. honey; -‿starana, n. couch of flowers; -‿astra, m. Kma.



कुसुमित [ kusum-ita ]
- (pp.) n. blossoming, flowering time.



कुसुमेषु [ kusuma‿ishu ]
- m. Kma (flower-arrowed).



कुसुम्भ [ kusumbha ]
- m. safflower; (hermit's) water-pot: -kshetra, n. field of safflower; -vat, a. carrying a water-pot.



कुसूल [ kusla ]
- m. granary; -dhnyaka, a. having plenty of corn in his granaries.



कुसृति [ ku-sriti ]
- f. by-path; fraud, deception.



कुसौहृद [ ku-sauhrida ]
- m. bad friend; -str, f. bad woman; -sthna, n. miserable place; -svmin, m. bad master.


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कुह [ k-ha ]
- ad. where? (often -svid); -kid, somewhere; wherever.



कुहक [ kuha-ka ]
- m. rogue, cheat, juggler; hypocrite; n., , f. jugglery; deception.



कुहर [ kuha-ra ]
- m. N. of a Nga; cave, cavity; copulation.



कुहा [kuh]
- f. a plant



कुहु [kuhu]
- cry of the cuckoo (also )



कुहू [ kuh&usharp; ]
- f. new-moon (personified as the daughter of Aṅgiras).

( end of old p071-3.htm )

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{ku} ू


 कू kū      
- vi. . kava , cry. , intend



कू [ k&usharp; ]
- ad. where? with kid, somewhere.

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कूची [ kk ]
- f. brush, pencil.



कूज् [ kg ]
- i. p. kga , utter monotonous sounds; cry, hum, coo, buzz, murmur, twitter. ud , cry, utter a (monotonous) coo; lament, wail. vi , cry, twitter. sam , id .



  कूज [ kg-a ]
- m., -ana, n. cry, coo, murmur; -ita, (pp.) n. id.


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कूट [ . k&usharp;ta ]
- n. forehead; horn; m. n. peak, top; heap, multitude; n. deception, fraud, falsehood.



कूट [ . kt ]
- a. hornless (cattle); deceptive; spurious; concealed; invidious; -ka, a. false (coin); n. prominence; -karman, n. fraud; -kraka, m. forger, false-witness; -krit, m. forger (of, g.); briber; -kkhadman, m. sharper, cheat; -tpasa, m. counterfeit ascetic; -tul, f. false balance; -pkala, m. elephant's fever; -psa, m. snare, trap; -bandha, m. id.; -yuddha, m. treacherous fight; -rakan, f. fraud; trap, snare; -lekha, m., -lekhya, n. forged document; -slmali, m. f. fabulous cotton shrub with sharp thorns employed to torture criminals in Yama's realm; -ssana, n. forged edict: -kartri, m. forger of edicts; -skshin, m. false-witness; -stha, a. occupying the highest place, chief; being in the midst of (--); immovable, immutable; -svarna, n. counterfeit gold.


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Downloaded roots

UKT 170607:

The Roots, Verb-Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language, by William Dwight Whitney, 1885,
The downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- WDWhtney-RootsVerbForms<>  Bkp<> (link chk 160828)

Remember copying from pdf is unreliable. 

√kū , 'design' - Whit0021
Pres. [6.] kuvate cb'.
Verb. -kūta AV. + ;  -kāvam TS.
Deriv. : -kūti V. + kav V. +   kavīyas SV.
Used only with ā , except in niṣkāvam, the belonging of which is doubtful (as is also that of kav ). RV. has -kava, kavatn, kavār, 'stingy', of questionable relationship. The grammarians set up roots 1 ku, 2 ku or , 'shout', giving them a full set of forms ; and Nir. once uses their intens. kokūyate.

√kūj , 'hum'. - Whit0021
Pres. [1.] kujati etc. AV.+, -te etc. E.
Perf. cukiija -je etc. c.
Aor. 1. akuji c.
[Fut. kiijisyati, kujita.]
Verb, kujita e. + ; kujitva c.
[Sec. Conj.: cokiij-, eukiijisa-, kujaya-.]
Deriv. ; kuj a E.+ kujanaE. + kujitavya e.

√kūḍ , kūl , 'burn'. - Whit0021
Sec. Conj.: Caus, kūḍayati etc. RV1. AB1. +, kūlayati etc. S.+
  (kūlita C, -kūḍya S.C.)

UKT Note: Whitney continues with {kRi.} p072R.htm


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UKT notes

Funerary art

- UKT 140312

Ancient Pyus of Myanmarpr had used funeral urns to preserve the remains of their dead ones. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyu-city-states 140312). Modern Theravada Buddhists would sometimes rebury the ashes after cremation in urns. This is especially done to some monks and very aged grandparents and parents. 

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funerary_art#Pre-history 140312

In Neolithic and Bronze Age societies , a great variety of tombs are found, with tumulus mounds, megaliths, and pottery as recurrent elements. [UKT ]

UKT 140312: The metal of choice of Ancient Pyus of Myanmarpr was brass, an alloy of copper & zinc, which according to Ancient Jews, brass was a religious metal unlike bronze, the alloy of copper & tin. Bronze according to Jews was a metal of war, and it was forbidden to use bronze at their Altar of Burnt Offering. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altar-Bible 140312). Because of this fact, I would refer to our ancestral Pyus as the people of peace - not of war.  

In Eurasia, a dolmen is the exposed stone framework for a chamber tomb originally covered by earth to make a mound which no longer exists. Stones may be carved with geometric patterns (petroglyphs), for example cup and ring marks. Group tombs were made, the social context of which is hard to decipher. Urn burials, where bones are buried in a pottery container, either in a more elaborate tomb, or by themselves, are widespread, by no means restricted to the Urnfield culture which is named after them, or even to Eurasia. Menhirs, or "standing stones", seem often to mark graves or serve as memorials, [13] while the later runestones and image stones often are cenotaphs, or memorials apart from the grave itself; these continue into the Christian period. The Senegambian stone circles are a later African form of tomb markers.[14]

UKT 140322: My mother's father, Zhu Lai Guang (in Pinyin, or, "C." in traditional Chinese use in Burma), was one of the wealthiest Cantonese Chinese at the beginning of the 20th century in southern Burma. Having had an English education, he made his fortune by becoming a building contractor to the British-Burma government.

My mother told me of how her father's body was exhumed three years after his sudden death of plague just as he was turning 40. On opening the coffin, my mother, who was still a child, had a last look at her father's body which was still intact as it was placed in the heavy Chinese coffin 3 years before. Then as the outside air came to act, the body slowly turned to fine powder and only the bones were left. The bones, down to the smallest digits of the fingers and toes were then sifted out of the dust, and cleansed in green-coconut water using small brushes. The bones then became pearly white. Then they were attached to each other with silver-wire. The skeleton was then placed in a sitting position in the burial urn ('che'in' was how my pronounced) with its chin resting on the knees. A small cushion was placed under the pelvic bone so that it looks as if it was sitting. Then the urn was moved into the family horse-shoe tomb.

An article on Chinese burial in Hong Kong by B. D. Wilson, in J. Hong Kong branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc. Vol.1 1961 . http://www.cultus.hk/cemetery_lecture/Wilson.pdf 140312 , p. 120
Downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- BDWilson-ChineseBurialHongKong<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170320)
   "After five years or more, the body is exhumed. The bones will be cleaned by the family and be placed either in a funerary urn kam t'aap or in a formal masonry grave shaan fan shaped like a horseshoe. In the funerary urn, the bones will be arranged in a manner as if the deceased were sitting in the Buddhist lotus posture."

The whole process was very labour-intensive and very expensive. Only the wealthy could afford it. Unfortunately, because my father was not Chinese, my mother could not visit her father's tomb at Thaton regularly. (I have never been there either.) However she continued the ancestral worship every year at home just outside the building. Her father's tomb was not left unattended, because it was he who had purchased the land and had donated it for use as a Cantonese cemetery, and he was also the permanent member (even after death) of his clan society. His clan society continued to honour him for at least 80 years after his death. My mother would send money now and then to the clan society for repair to the tomb. I am told that his tomb and all others from the cemetery had now been moved.

Go back funerary-note-b

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Merit of offering food

Every year, every Buddhist household is invited to draw Mahadoat (from: Mahāduggata) {sa-r:tn} lots to receive the gift of religious offering. See the story of Mahāduggata below:

Dict. of Pali proper names, by Gunapala Piyasena Malalasekera (1899-1973), vol 2: N-H, first publication in UK1937, book-preview. p504. - https://books.google.ca/books... 170321
or, http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 170321

Mahāduggata - A very poor man of Benares in the time of Kassapa Buddha. The citizens of Benares once invited the Buddha and his monks and went about asking people to help in their entertainment. In spite of their extreme poverty, Mahāduggata and his wife undertook to look after one monk; they both worked hard to earn the necessary money and then prepared a simple meal. Sakka knowing what was to come, came in the guise of a labourer to help them. When the time came for the meal it was found that in allotting the monks to their several hosts, Mahāduggata's house had been overlooked. Mahāduggata wrung his hands and burst into tears, but somebody pointed out to him that nobody was yet entertaining the Buddha. He, therefore, went to the vihāra and invited the Buddha, who accepted the invitation, while princes and nobles waited outside wishing to conduct him to their own palaces. The Buddha ate the food prepared by Mahāduggata and Sakka and returned thanks. That same day, by the power of Sakka, the seven kinds of jewels fell from the sky and filled Mahāduggata's house, and when it was reported to the king that he was the wealthiest man in the city, he was appointed Treasurer. Mahāduggata built a new house and discovered many hidden treasures while digging the foundations. With the money from these he entertained the Buddha and his monks for seven days, and, after death, was reborn in heaven. He is identified with Paṇḍitasāmaṇera. Dha. ii. 127-38.

See another story on the merit of offerings in the Jataka story of King Kusha and Pabhavati : The Story of Kushinagar - http://usamyanmar.net/Buddha/Article/KusaandPapavatiFinal.pdf 140317
The pdf paper is undoubted based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/j5/j5024.htm 140317
See downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDV & SD-PDV libraries
- MaungPaw-KusaPavavati<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170321)

Go back merit-offering-food-note-b

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Orbis terrarum : World Atlas

-- UKT 140314, 170320 

"The Latin Phrase Orbis Terrarum has many meanings, mainly: the world, the Earth. "
-- http://www.latinwordlist.com/latin-words/orbis-terrarum-21108133.htm 140314

From the Latin phrasal noun, by adding "theatrum", we get 'World Atlas'

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatrum_Orbis_Terrarum 140314

Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (pronounced [tʰɛˈaːtrʊm ˈɔrbɪs tɛˈrːaːrʊm], "Theatre of the World") is considered to be the first true modern atlas. Written by Abraham Ortelius, strongly encouraged by Gillis Hooftman [2] and originally printed on May 20, 1570, in Antwerp, [3] it consisted of a collection of uniform map sheets and sustaining text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved.
The Ortelius atlas is sometimes referred to as the summary of sixteenth-century cartography.

UKT 140314, 170320: My interest is the geographical position of Myanmarpr. Inset enlarged from the original map. However, for those interested in history, read: The changing nature of conflict between Burma and Siam as seen from the growth and development of Burmese states from the 16th to the 19th centuries , by Pamaree Surakiat, in Asia Research Inst. Working Paper Series no. 64. Downloaded paper in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- ARI-Burma-Siam16-19c<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170607)

The timeline in Burma (Myanmarpr) in 1570 AD was during Bayinnaung Empire.

The following timeline is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Burmese_history  140314.

UKT 140314: this Wiki article did not do justice to King Bayinnaung aka Burengnong of Hanthawaddy aka Hongsawadee  with his capital at Pegu. He had probably dreamt of a federation of fraternal kingdoms of South-East Asia

1550Apr30 : King Tabinshwehti assassinated by Mons.
1555Jan22 : Bayinnaung of Taunggo captures Ava, and annexes Upper Burma
1557Jan-Mar : Bayinnaung annexes cis-Salween Shan States; abolishes animal sacrifice at Popa Hill and human sacrifice at Shan Hills.
1558Apr02 : Bayinnaung annexes Lan Na
1563Mar : Bayinnaung captures farther Shan States (Kentung and Chinese Shan states)
1564Feb19 : Siam becomes Burmese vassal following the Burmese-Siamese War (1563-64)

UKT 140314: King Burengnong of Hongsawadee (King Bayinnaung) did not seem to have the ambition of taking over Siam. He brought the royal family to his capital (probably as unwilling invited guests), and adopted the Siamese crown-prince , Prince Naresuan, as his own, and had him trained in the Burmese martial arts together with his own sons, the eldest being Naungdawgyi. When the Siamese prince came of age, Bayinnaung sent back the Siamese prince to Siam to rule it as a sovereign king owning Bayinnaung as his father. The adopted son remained loyal to Bayinnaugn until the father's death (1581Nov10), at which he revolted along with all the sons of Bayinnaung now kings in their own kingdoms. The eldest "brother" Naungdawgyi now as Bayinnaung's heir tried to put down his "younger brother" the Siamese king.

On the last day of battle, the rash young Siamese king found himself mounted on his elephant alone right in the middle of the Burmese camp, and saw his elder brother resting under a tree. The younger brother asked for single combat on elephants from the elder brother, which was graciously granted by the elder. Naungdawgyi could have refused and gave an order to his troops to capture the Siamese king. But being a warrior worthy of his father, King Bayinnaung, he granted single combat.

During the single combat, the younger brother killed the elder brother thereby breaking up what the father Bayinnaung had planned to be a confederation of fraternal kingdoms. It is said, that the Siamese king, with genuine sorrow gave his elder the Burmese king a royal funeral. -- I am writing this from memory from reading a historical article written by a modern prince of Thailand. I got the names of Prince Naresuan, Burengnong, Hongsawadee  from:  http://www.watyaichaimongkol.net/index.php?lite=article&qid=200146 140314

Though King Burengnong of Hongsawadee aka King Bayinnaung, has been portrayed as an expansionist Burmese king, I do not consider him to be such. I regard him as a far sighted statesman, far ahead of his time, with a dream of a confederation of fraternal kingdoms. I now cite Wikipedia on Lanna Kingdom: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanna 140314
"But the king was captured by Burmese forces in November 1564, and sent to then Burmese capital Pegu. Bayinnaung then made Visuttidevi , a Lan Na royal, the queen regnant of Lan Na." - I see this as the second case of statesmanship of Bayinnaung.

1569Aug08 : Burmese-Siamese War (1568-69) restores Burmese rule in Siam after the Siamese revolted in 1568
Burma conquers Lan Xang
1584May03 : - Siam declares independence; Repeated Burmese invasions fail to re-conquer Siam (1593)
1593 : - Lan Xang, Manipur and Lan Na throw off allegiance to Burmese throne. Siam regains Tenasserim coast up to Tavoy (to 1594)
1597 : All regions of the kingdom now in revolt 
1599 : Fall of First Toungoo Empire after Pegu [UKT: capital of Hanthawaddy kingdom under King Bayinnaung. The name "Toungoo Empire is inappropriate.] sacked by the Arakanese and Toungoo (city) forces. Siam captures the entire Tenasserim coast to Martaban. Arakanese capture delta ports; appoint Portuguese mercenary de Brito governor of Syriam.

An excerpt from: http://www.watyaichaimongkol.net/index.php?lite=article&qid=200146 140314

King Bayinnaung had the greatest influence on Prince Naresuans life and really deserves praise. King Bayinnuang not only clarified the teachings of Sun Tzus strategies (The Art of War) in the light of his seemingly limitless learning and wisdom, but also in love and care of young prince as though the crown prince had been his own son. The spirit of a great warrior was gradually implanted in the heart of Prince Naresuan from the age of nine to adulthood. Over many years of heart-felt advice, King Bayinnaung natured those seeds of courage Queen Suriyothai had sowed in Prince Naresuan blossom.

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UKT 140317, 170322:

Usury is the practice of lending something, usually money, at unethical high interest rates. The oldest condemnation of this practice was found in the Vedas. There are many tricks used by the usurers to cover their practice such as charging compound interest which to the uninitiated would appear as a very low interest rate if they were unaware of the method of compounding. The Chettiar bankers from southern India have been accused of using this method on uneducated Burmese farmers during the British occupation of the country because of which they are very much hated even after many years. See Wikipedia articles on:
#1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usury 140317
#2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chettiar 140317

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