Update: 2017-06-07 12:19 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{ku.hta.} ु : cont of {ku.ta.}-group
{ku.da.} / {koad}
{ku.na.} / {koan}

{ku.ma.} / {koam}

{ku.ya.} : {ku-} --> {kw} 
{ku.ra.} : {kur}
{kur~} : repha

कुक्कुट kukkuta
= क ु क ् क ु ट
- m. cock: , f. hen; -ka, m. son of a Nishda and a Sdr.


UKT notes :
Kuntala - country
Velarization, lip-rounding, and missing nasal


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{ku.hta.} : cont of {ku.ta.}-group



कुथ् [ kuth ]
- stink; pp. -ita , fetid; cs. kothaya , cause to putrefy 



कुथ kutha
Skt: कुथ [kutha] - m., , f. coloured woollen blanket. -- Mac070c1
Pal: {ku.hta.} - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: m. mattress on elephant's back, a kind of sacred grass Poa cyanosuroides

UKT 140316: Poa cyanosuroides Retzius is Kusha grass -- http://ecoheritage.cpreec.org/Viewcontall.php?$mFJyBfK$MA5hj$m1Rt&wm 140316 


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{ku.da.} / {koad}

कुदार kudāra
--> {ku.da-ra.}
Skt: कुदार kudāra - adj. having a bad wife -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ku.da-ra.} - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: m. bad wife, detestable wife. mfn. having a bad wife.



कुदारदार [ ku-dra-dra ]
- m. pl. bad wife as a wife; -drishta, pp. imperfectly seen; -drishti, f. defective sight; false system; a. heterodox; -desa, m. bad country; -daisika, m. bad guide.



- hoe, spade



कुद्रव्य [ ku-dravya ]
- n. bad wealth; -dvra, n. back-door; -dh, a. foolish; m. fool; -nakha, -nakhn, a. having deformed nails; -nadik, f. insignificant rivulet; -nad, f. id.; -na ra‿indra, -‿svara, m. bad king; -nta, n. bad guidance; -nripa, -nripati, m. bad king.

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{ku.na.} / {koan}


कुन्त [ kunta ]
- m. spear, lance.



कुन्तल [ kuntala ]
= क ु न ् त ल --> {koan~ta.la.}
- m. hair of the head; m. pl. N. of a people.

UKT: Notice the spelling of kuntalā from which we could get the name of the play by Kalidasa Shakuntala śakuntalā which is based on a mythical story. The name of play is derived from Shakunta शकुन्त śakunta.
See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 170316
You can read a translation of the play by A. W. Ryder (1877-1938) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- AWRyder-KalidasShakuntala<> / bkp<>
See my note on Kuntala


कुन्तवनमय [ kunta-vana-maya ]
- a. consisting of a forest of spears.



- n. N. of twenty organs alleged to be in the abdomen; a certain section of the Atharva-veda



कुन्ति [ kunti ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of the Kuntis; -bhoga, m. N. of a king of the Kuntis, who adopted Kunt.



कुन्ती [ kunt ]
- f. ep. of Prith, wife of Pndu; -suta, m. son of Kunt (ep. of the sons of Pndu).



कुन्द [ kunda ]
- m. kind of jasmine; n. its flower; -lat, f. jasmine creeper.

( end of old p070-1.htm )

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कुप् [ kup ]
- iv. kupya , become agitated; grows angry, be angry with (




कुप [ kup- ]
- m. beam of a balance.



कुपट [ ku-pata ]
- m. poor garment; -patu, a. stupid; -pathita, pp. who has learnt (his part) badly; -pati, m. bad husband; bad king; -parigta, pp. ill-comprehended; -parksha-ka, a. estimating badly; m. bad estimator; -parkshita, pp. ill-investigated; -ptra, n. unworthy person; -putra, m. bad son; -purusha, m. contemptible man; coward.



कुप्य [ kupya ]
- n. base metal, i.e. any but gold and silver; m. N.; -ka, --, a. base metal.



कुप्रभु [ ku-prabhu ]
- m. bad lord; -plava, m. unsafe boat.

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UKT 140316, 170316: The problem of mixing up {ku.ba.} and {ku.wa.}, is accentuated by the existence of Labio-dentals in Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat: {fa.} & {va.} which can give rise to pronunciations like /{ku.va.}/. Labio-dentals are absent in regular Bur-Myand and Pal-Myan.  


कुबन्ध [ ku-bandha ]
- m. degrading brand; -buddhi, f. wrong view; a. wickedly disposed; stupid.



  कुबेर [ kbera ]
- m. N. of the regent of the spirits of the lower regions and of darkness (V.); god of wealth, the world guardian of the North; -datta, m. N. of a mythical being; -vallabha, m. N. of a Vaisya.

कुबेर [ kbera ]
Skt: कुबेर [ kbera ] - m. N. of the regent of the spirits of the lower regions and of darkness (V.); god of wealth, the world guardian of the North; - Mac070c1
Pal: {ku.w-ra.} - UHS PMD0331

  UKT from UHS: - m. {w~a.wN nt}, ruler of the North of Mt. Mru, ruler of the Ogres {Bi-lu:}.

UKT 170316: There are two kinds of Bilus in Myanmar mythology: the ferocious kind are the man-eaters who have bald heads or helmets. The Bilu of Ramayana are Nat-Bilus who have tiered helmets and are equals of the Dvas and Humans. The inset shows the Ogress (?) probably from Cambodia. See Bilu island in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilu_Island 170317



कुब्ज [ kubg ]
- a. hunch-backed; crooked; (a)-ka, a. id.; m. an aquatic plant.



कुब्रह्मन्् [ ku-brahman ]
- m. bad Brhman.


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कुभ् [kubh ]
- kumbh , be curved



कुभर्तृ [ku-bhartri]
- m. bad husband; -bharya, f. bad wife; -bhikahu, m. rogue of a beggar; -bhukta, n. bad meal; -bhritya, m. bad servant; -bhoga, poor enjoyment; -bhogana, bad food; -bhogya, n. id.; -bhratri, m. bad brother; -mata, false doctrine; -mati, f. wrong opinion; stupidity; a. stupid; -mantra, m. bad advice; evil spell; -mantrin, m. bad counsellor.


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कुभा [ kbh- ]
- f. N. of a river (Cabul).


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कुमार [ ku-mr ]
- m. [dying easily], (new born) child; boy; youth, son; prince; ep. of Skanda; (a)-k, m. little boy, boy, youth; --, a young --; -tva, n. boyhood, youth; sonship; -datta, m. N.; ()-deshna, a. giving but fleeting gifts; -dhr, f. N. of a river; -bhukti, f. apanage of a crown prince; -bhrity, f. fostering of a child; midwifery; -vana, n. Kumra's grove; -vikrama, a. valiant as the god of war; -vrata, n. vow of chastity; -sambhava, m. birth of the war-god: T. of a poem by Klidsa; -sena, m. N. of a minister; -sevaka, m. prince's servant.

appanage also apanage - n. . A source of revenue, such as land, given by a sovereign for the maintenance of a member of the ruling family. . Something extra offered to or claimed by a party as due; a perquisite: The leaders of the opposition party agreed to accept another government's appanages, and in doing so became an officially paid agency of a foreign power. . A rightful or customary accompaniment or adjunct. -- AHTD



कुमारिका [ kumr-ik ]
- f. girl; N. of a part of Bhratavarsha; -n, a. possessed of children.



कुमारिदत्त [ kumri-datta ]
- m. N.; -la: -bhatta, -svmin, m. N. of a Mmmsist.



कुमारी [ ku-mr&isharp; ]
- f. girl, virgin; daughter; ()-pura, n. part of harem where girls live; -bhga, m. daughter's portion.

कुमारी ku-mari
--> {ku.ma-ri}
Skt: कुमारी  [ku-mri] - f. girl, virgin; daughter; -- Mac070c2
Pal: {ku.ma-ri} - UHS-PMD0328
  UKT from UHS: f. maiden (bride), girl, Aloe vera

UKT 140317: Aloes and Cactuses are not the same.
See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera 140317



कुमार्ग [ ku-mrga ]
- m. wrong way, evil courses; -mlana, m. N.; -mitra, n. bad friend: -mitra, n. bad friend as a friend.



कुमुद [ k-muda ]
- n. (white) night lotus; m. N. of a Nga; N. of a man: -ntha, m. moon; -maya, a. consisting entirely of white lotuses; -‿kara, m. lotus group: -t, f. abst. ɴ.

कुमुद [k-muda]
--> {ku.mu.da.}
Skt: कुमुद [k-muda] - n. (white) night lotus; m. N. of a Nga; N. of a man: -- Mac070c2
Pal: {ku.mu.da.} - UHS-PMD0328
   UKT from UHS: n. white lotus, a numeral  1e105 (1 followed by 105 zeros), {ku.mu.da.}-elephant



कुमुदिका [kumud-ik]
- f. N.



कुमुदिनी [ kumud-in ]
- f. night lotus; group of night lotuses: -nyaka, -vadhvara, m. lover of lotuses, ep. of the moon.



कुमुद्वत्् [ kmud-vat ]
- a. abounding in lotuses: -, f. night lotus; group of night lotuses; N.



कुमुहूर्त [ ku-muhrta ]
- m. evil hour.


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UKT 170318: Below you'll see entries with glosses that seem to have no relations to each other: e.g. pot, testes (male-sex organ), frontal protuberances of an elephant, demon, raksha, common prostitute, Rishi Agastya, Rasi Kumbha, crocodile, etc. Unless you look into Astrology, Metrology, and Pali myths you will not understand their relationships.


कुम्भ [ kumbh ]
- m. pot, jar, urn (--, a. jar shaped); a measure of grain (=20 Dronas); du. frontal protuberances of an elephant; (a)ka, --, a. id.; m. n. religious exercise consisting in closing the nostrils with the right hand to suspend breathing: -karna, m. N. of a Rkshasa (brother of Rvana); -karnya, den. . resemble Kumbha-karna (in sleeping long);
 -kra, m. potter (a mixed caste); -krik, f. wife of a potter; -ganman, m. ep. of Agastya; -ds, f. common prostitute; -dhnya, a. having only a potful of grain; -yoni, m. ep. of Agastya; -sambhava, m. id.

कुम्भ [ kumbh ]
Skt: कुम्भ [ kumbh ] - m. pot, jar, urn (--, a. jar shaped); a measure of grain (=20 Dronas); du. frontal protuberances of an elephant; - Mac070c2
Pali: {koam~Ba.} - UHS PMD0328c1
  UKT 170318: water pot (for carrying on the head of females), frontal protuberances, 1/3 of a cart-load, Kumba Rasi aka Koam Rasi {koam ra-i} (shorted to {koam}).

UKT 170318: The Planet-god ruling Koam Rasi {koam ra-i} 'Aquarius' with the 'Water-carrier Sign' is Saturn, who also rules the preceding Rasi, the Maraka Rasi मकर राशि {ma.ka.ra. ra-i} 'Capricorn'. Note the Planet-god Saturn is the ruler of 2 houses. The Animal Sign of this house is the mythical aquatic animal मकर makara described as Sea-goat {ma.kn:}. See UTM PDMD225. Incidentally, this animal is the animal vehicle of the river Goddess Ganga. She is also sometimes shown riding on a crocodile.
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makara_(Hindu_mythology) 170318

  कुम्भकार [kumbh-kra ]
Skt: -kra, m. potter (a mixed caste) - Mac070c2
Skt: कुम्भकार kumbhakāra - m. potter - SpkSkt
BHS: kumbhakāraka - m. fem. rikā . potter - FE-BHS187c1
Pali: {koam~Ba. ka-ra.} - UHS PMD0328c2
  UKT from UHS: m. potter



कुम्भाण्ड [kumbha‿anda] kumbhāṇḍa
Skt: कुम्भाण्ड [kumbha‿anda] - m. kind of demon - Mac070c2 

Skt: Kumbhāṇḍa   Pal: Kumbhaṇḍa .
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumbhanda 140317



कुम्भिका [ kumbh-ik ]
- f. small pot or jar; -n, m. elephant (having frontal protuberances); *-ila, m. thief.



कुम्भी [ kumbh&isharp; ]
- f. pot, jar, pan; -dhnyaka, a. having grain in jars; ()-nsa, m. kind of snake; -nas, f. N. of a Rkshas; -pka, m. sg. & pl. kind of hell.



कुम्भीर [ kumbh-ra ]
- m. crocodile; *-la, m. id.



कुम्भोदर [ kumbha‿udara ]
- m. (pot-bellied), N. of a servant of Siva; -‿udbhava, m. ep. of Agastya; -‿udhta, m. id.

( end of old p070-2.htm )

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{ku.ya.} / (not pronounceable by present-day Bur-Myan speakers)

{ku-} --> {kw}

According to U Tun Tint, MLC (personal communication), the vowel {tic-hkaung:nging-ya.t} had existed in Pagan period (11th to 13th CE), but it has given way to {a.w-hto: wa.hsw:}. The changes have been:


UKT 140325: Macdonell does not give any Skt-Dev entry for {ku.ya.}. Similarly U Hoke Sein also does not give any for Pal-Myan. However, when {ya.} is further velarized by making it into a {ya.ping.}-medial, as {yya.}, a Pal-Myan word is possible.
See my note on velarization of consonants.

Pal: {ku.yya.ka.}
- -- UHS-PMD0329

UKT from UHS, read with MLC-PMD2006-133: m. a thorny climber Acacia pennata
Not listed in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by Agricultural Department (Planning), Government of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp 65.


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कुरङ्ग [ kuraṅga ]
- m. antelope: -ka, m. id.; -nayan, -netr, -lokan, -‿aksh, a. f. gazelle eyed.



कुरङ्गाय [ kuraṅg-ya ]
- den. . become an antelope.



कुरङ्गी [ kuraṅg ]
- f. female antelope, gazelle; N. of a daughter of Prasenagit: -dris, f. gazelle-eyed.



कुरबक [ kuraba-ka ]
- m. crimson amaranth or purple Barleria; n. its flower.


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  कुरर [ kurara ]
- m., , f. osprey.



कुरहस्य [ ku-rahasya ]
- n. base secret; -rgan, m. bad king; -rgya, n. bad rule.



कुरु [kur-u]
- . 2 sg. impv. of √kri , do



कुरु [kru]
- . m. N. of the progenitor of the Kurus : pl. N. of a people



कुरुक्षेत्र [ kuru-kshetr ]
- n. plain of Kuru; m. pl. people of Kurukshetra; N. of a country.



कुरुता [kurut]
- f. N. of a woman



कुरुनन्दन [ kuru-nandana ]
- m. ep. of Arjuna and of Yudhishthira; -pakl, m. pl. the Kurus and Paklas; -pndava, m. du. pl. descendants of Kuru (i.e. of Dhritarshtra) and of Pndu.



कुरुबक kurubaka, ˚वक [ -vaka ]
- probably in-correct form of kurabaka, -vaka.



कुरुविन्द [ kuru-vinda ]
- m. kind of barley; ruby.



कुरूप [ ku-rpa ]
- a. deformed, ugly: -t, f. deformity, ugliness.



कुरूरु [ kurru ]
- m. kind of vermin.

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{kur~} : repha


कुर्कुट [ kur-kut-a ]
- m. cock.



कुर्कुर [ kur-kur-a ]
- m. dog.



कुर्वत्् [ kurv-at ]
- pr. pt. of √kri, do.



कुर्वाण [ kurv-na ]
- pr. pt. . of √kri, do.

( end of old p070-3.htm )

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कुल [ kl-a ]
- n. herd, flock, swarm; multitude; race, family; community, guild; noble lineage; abode, house; --, often = chief, eminent; -m padtnm, infantry.



कुलक [ kula-ka ], -
- a. multitude; n. little family;

Skt: कुलक kulaka - m. any artisan of eminent birth, chief of a guild, ant-hill, ... - SpkSkt




कुलक्षण [ ku-lakshana ]
- a. bearing a baneful mark.



कुलग्न [ ku-lagna ]
- n. fatal moment.



कुलघ्न [ kula-ghna ]
- a. (, ) destroying the race; -m-kula, a. going from house to house; -ga, a. of noble race; born in the family of (--).



कुलटा [ kulat ]
- f. unchaste woman.



कुलतन्तु [ kula-tantu ]
- m. thread on which a family hangs = the last of a race; -deva, m.: -t, f. family deity; -daiva: -ta, n. id.; -dhara, m. N. of a prince; -dharma, m. usage of a family; -dhurya, a. able to bear the burden of a family; m. head of a family; -nandana, a. ɴ. (child) delighting the family; -nr, f. virtuous woman; -nimnag, f. main or noble stream.



कुलपतन [ kula-patana ]
- n. fall --, degradation of the family; -pati, m. head of the family; -parvata, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; -p, m. f. head of the family or community; -pmsan, f. disgrace to her family; -plik, f. N.; -putra, m. son of a good family; virtuous youth: -ka, m. id.; -purusha, m. man of good family; virtuous man; -pratishth, f. support of the race; -prasta, pp. born of a noble race; -bhava, a. coming of a noble race; -bhavana, n. chief residence; -bhta, pp. being the head of the guild; -bhbhrit, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; model of a prince; -mrga, m. ancestral path; -mitra, n. friend of the family.

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UKT notes

Kuntala - country 

UKT 140310: Surfing the Net with the search string "kuntala people of ancient India" brought me to
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty 140310
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bellary 140310

Excerpts from the two:

"Chronology of Telugu people & Andhra history .... The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. .... Apilaka, Meghasvati and Kuntala Satakarni, who are thought to have been under the suzerainty of ..... Ancient India."

" Bellary was once part of an area also known as Kuntala Desha (ಕುಂತಲ ದೇಶ) [1] [2] [3] or Kuntala Vishaya (ಕುಂತಲ ವಿಷಯ) (Vishaya a territorial division or district of a kingdom). Many inscriptions refer to the Western Chalukyas as rulers of Kuntala or Kondala. [4] [5]

UKT 140310: Since the Telugu speakers were and are still mostly Hindus and Buddhists, I am wondering if these people had had a strong influence on the Mons of Myanmar who eventually earned the discredited name of Talaing .

Go back kuntala-note-b

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Velarization , lip-rounding, and missing nasal

- UKT 140325, 170319

The English approximant-consonant w is always pronounced by Bur-Myan speakers as {wa.} /w/. However, because the two speeches, English and Burmese belong to different linguistic-groups - IE and Tib-Bur - I am never sure whether it is correct or not. Lately, I have come across a research article English /w,j/ : frictionless Approximants or Vowels out of place? by Leigh Lisker (19182006) , Haskins Laboratories, Univ. of Pennsylvania, in Producing Speech - contemporary issues by F. Bell-Berti and L. J. Raphael, 1995. See downloaded pdf papers in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
LLisker-EnglishWJSounds<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170319)

Moreover, I am interested in the missing Bur-Myan nasal Nya'gyi {a.} which is definitely a basic consonant on the strength of its stability under Virama.

First of all lets recap what we know (as of 170319) of the BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit) consonants.

BEPS consonants are of several kinds which can be differentiated not only by their POA (Point of Articulation), but by their influence (as coda) on the preceding vowel in a syllable. The POAs have been studied for thousands of years in India, and for about a few centuries in the West. I am sure the coda-influence had also been studied especially by Panini and others when they codified the Prakrits into Sanskrit. There had been many grammars in that period, but only that of Panini has been accepted to this day.

One grammarian who was not well recorded was a Buddhist monk known to Bur-Myan speakers as Shin Kicsi {kic~s:}.
See A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {kic~s:} [alternate title: Kaccayana Vyakarana]
  - PEG-indx.htm  (link chk 170319)
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 
  - on line: http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517
  Downloaded versions of 251 pdf pages are available in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm<> / bkp<> (link chk 170319)
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm-German<> / bkp<> (link chk 170319)
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影) version of Kicsi Pali Grammar, 1st distribution in 2015
  -  FMasonMazard-PalGramm<> / bkp<> (link chk 170313)
Kicsi Pali Grammar from Burmese point of view, 1872.
  - FMason-PaliLangBurView<> / bkp<> (link chk 170313)
Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha: "Monks Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano."

UKT 140326: Note the {a.} - it must not be broken up into two {a.}. What the Indologists have done is totally wrong! - showing that they do not realized that {{a.} is present in the name as a basic consonant and not a conjunct.

If the conjecture were right, we will have to conclude that Shin Kicsi {kic~s:} was a Bur-Myan speaker (probably of ancient Tagaung) who had travelled to the west - India - and had met the Buddha himself. 

The coda has not been well studied in the West. The result is that the present day IPA transcriptions have been very misleading when applied to the aksharas of Asoka (Brahmi) group, particularly Bur-Myan.

  r1c1, r1c2, r1c3, r1c4
  r2c1, r2c2, r2c3, r2c4
  r3c1, r3c2, r3c3, r3r4
  r4c1, r4c2, r4c3, r4c4
  r5c1, r5c2, r5c3, r5c4
nasals (which may be considered to be an appendix of wag-consonants):
  r1c5, r2c5, r3c5, r4c5, r5c5
approximant semi-consonants (aka semi-vowels):
  r6c1, r6c2, r6c3, r6c4, {a.} - which appears as r2c5 in Bur-Myan matrix
approximant fricatives:
  r6c5 (thibilant), 2 Skt-aksharas {Sa.} & {sha.} (hissing-sibilants)
approximant deep-H (produced deep down in the throat without POA) in Bur-Myan phonology.
  However, it is an "aspirate" in Mon-Myan.

IPA gives the English y as a palatal approximant and transcribed it as /j/ . It is also possibly true for European consonants. However, it is not true for Bur-Myan {ya.}. We have another approximant {a.} (known as "Nya-gyi") which is definitely palatal. Therefore, I have to move {ya.} into velar position. We therefore have:

palatal approximant, {a.}/ {}
velar approximant, {ya.}/ {} 

corresponding to:

palatal nasal, {a.} /ɲ/, and palatal plosive-stop {sa.} /s/ or /c/
velar nasal, {nga.} /ŋ/, and velar plosive-stop {ka.} /k/

Skt-Dev speakers, and to some extent Eng-Lat speakers, got mixed up in the Palatal plosive-stops the row#2 aksharas: they pronounce them as Affricates. Because of these mis-pronunciations, I have to be very careful in using IPA and IAST in Romabama.

Skt-Dev speakers realized r1c2 {sa.}/ {c} as Affricate {kya.}, and
Eng-Lat speakers deny the existence Palatal /c/ , and
introduce the Dental hissing sibilant {Sa.}/ {S}.
Skt-Dev speakers deny the existence of /θ/ , even though they knew
of its existence in common English word like <thin> /θɪn/ & <thorn> /θɔːn/ .

Bur-Myan being a non-sibilant and non-hissing language has no need of {Sa.}/ {S}. To Bur-Myan speakers {sa.} is always Palatal plosive-stop. However, Romabama has to introduce the hisser {Sa.}/ {S} . Romabama differentiates the two in the coda as killed-aksharas.

Palatal plosive-stop: {sa.}/ {c}
Dental fricative - the hissing sibilant aka hisser: {Sa.}/ {S} 

We can further refine the pronunciation of BEPS consonants by making them into medials. Remember medials are monosyllabic and are present in Bur-Myan, and possibly in Pal-Myan, but absent in Skt-Dev. Eng-Lat occupies an intermediate position. There are 4 or 5 types of medial-formation:

1. {ya.ping.}, shown as  
2. {ra.ric}, shown as or :
  differentiate from highly rhotic vowel-signs by the length of the hood /. These are Romabama innovations
  to incorporate Pal-Myan. Note Skt-Dev rhotic vowel ऋ / ृ is denoted in Romabama as {iRi.}
3. {la.hsw:}, shown as : present only in Daw dialect
4. {wa.hsw:}, shown as
5. {ha.hto:}, shown as  

To handle BEPS languages as a group, Romabama has to formulate the following Non-rhotic to Rhotic series using {ka.} as the "dummy" consonant:

(non-rhotic): {kya.} , {kra.} , {kar~}* , {kRa.} (rhotic)
* Repha: see Repha in Romabama: introduction
- RBM-intro-indx.htm > Romabama-rule4-9.htm (link chk 170319)
under Romabama Rule 06

The formation of medials is important as it gives us insight into the "full pronunciation" of a consonant. Thus we know that, for example, the velar plosive-stop {ka} /k/, has a deep-H flavour because it cannot be made into a {ha.hto:}, whereas the velar nasal {nga.} /ŋ/ can become {ngha.}.

It should be noted that the colonial British-Burma European administrators had recognized that {nga.} has a /g/ flavour (even though it is designated as nasal /ŋ/), and had spelled the name of a village in Hanthawaddy District as {gnak au sm:} where the Catholic orphanage for Anglo-Indian boys, De La Salle, was situated from 1919, through the WWII, and for some years after Independence. The village of {gnak au sm:} being in the Public Health area under my father's control, the Catholic Brothers of the school became our family's friends. I remember Brother John and one or two companions comming to our house in Kungyangon to have dinner more than once. My mother, who was a school teacher (English and Geography) was one of the few in the town who could speak fluent English. She used to give them a proper English dinner. Brother John and his Catholic brothers, being French, stayed at the school throughout the War years, unmolested by the Japanese. See also: http://sauvita.wordpress.com/ 140325

This immediately bring back to my mind two English words with the digraphic coda made up of the same <g> & <n> pair but spelled differently, thereby producing different pronunciations:

<sign> /saɪn/ (DJPD16-488
<sing> /sɪŋ/ (DJPD16-490

I hade given much thought to this problem when I was deciding how to transcribe {nga.} either as {gna.} or {nga.}.

Medial-formation in Mon-Myan is different: I still need to learn the Mon language and the formation of {ya.pn.}.

For me, who has no training in Phonetics, terms in that discipline are still obscure. For example I am not sure how to describe medial-formation in phonetic terms: Velarization and Palatalization.

From: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/624756/velarization 140325

Velarization, in phonetics, secondary articulation in the pronunciation of consonants, in which the tongue is drawn far up and back in the mouth (toward the velum, or soft palate), as if to pronounce a back vowel such as o or u . Velarization is not phonemic in English, although for most English speakers the l  in <feel> is velarized, but the l  in <leaf> is not. It is distinctive in some languages (e.g., Arabic). Velarized consonants may be distinguished from velar consonants, in which the primary articulation involves the back of the tongue and the velum; in velarized consonants there must always be some other primary articulation.

Excerpt from: https://irishpalatals.sites.ucsc.edu/getting-started/introduction/ 170319
Listen to the Irish pronunciations from: http://www.teanglann.ie/en/fuaim/_b 170319

Irish consonants come in pairs consisting of a slender version and a broad version. For example, the slender b is the first sound in the word beo (alive), whereas the first sound in the word b (cow) is the broad b. Beo and b differ only in the slenderness vs. broadness of the b .

In phonetic terms, both the slender and the broad consonant of a pair are articulated with the same primary gesture. For b, this primary gesture is the lips closing to stop the airflow from the mouth. However, they differ in their secondary articulation the details of how they are pronounced.

The slender consonants like the b in beo are palatalized, meaning that the tongue body moves up and forward toward the hard palate, as if making a y [j] sound, while the primary articulatory gesture is going on. (This is known as secondary palatalization. A consonant with a palatal primary articulatory gesture is English y (IPA /j/) as in you.)

The broad consonants, in contrast, are velarized. The term velarized refers to the velum, or soft palate, toward the back of the mouth. When a velarized consonant like the b in b is pronounced, the tongue body moves back and up toward the velum. The velum is the place of primary articulation for consonants like /k/ in kangaroo and /g/ in gorilla.

UKT 170319: Listening Irish b in b , and in beo (alive) have convinced me that  b is {bo} and beo is {byo}. The second sound beo is {byo} has the Bur-Myan {ya.pn.} sound.

Almost all Bur-Myan wag-consonants can be modified with {ya.pn.} sound giving monosyllables, with the possible exception of {tya.} in which is pronounced as a disyllabe: {t~ya.}.

Go back velarization-note-b

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