Update: 2018-01-25 01:58 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Note this page is the first page related to Univ Chicago p055.

{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.} : contd
{ka-Sa.} : Dental
{ka-a.} : √kās {kaa}, 'cough'. - Whit019
-----see p068c1-b17/ p055-025   कास [ . ks- ]

{ki.} / {kin} : The problem of paucity of nasals in IE
  p068c2 : -------- is solved by the introduction of a universal stand-in {kin}.

? / {kan} :
{kin-sa.}/ {kai}

{ki.ta.} / {kait}




UKT 170227: Paucity of nasals in IE - Eng-Lat & Skt-Dev - has necessitate the introduction of a sort of universal stand-in {kin}. It is allowed by Shin Kicsi: - the Buddhist grammarian praised by Gautama Buddha.
See in {kan} & {kai} .


----- on line 171217 : p068.htm - search for काश्मल्य


UKT notes :
Arundo karka
 Dot-above problem or {::tn}
Kikata - the non-Aryans
Kirata : Himalayan race
Primary suffix : kṛt-pratyaya (a special kind of suffix).
Rishi Kasyapa of Kashmir


Contents of this page

{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.}


p068c1-b00/ p055-013

काव्य [ . kvya ]
- m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem; -kartri, m. poet; -goshth, f. discussion on poetry; -gva-ga, m. Venus, Jupiter, and Mercury, or a. understanding the purport of a poem; -t, f., -tva, n. condition of a poem; -dev, f. N. of a queen; -praksa, m. Light of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Mammata and Alata (11th or 12th century); -mmmsaka, m. rhetorician; -rasa, m. flavour of poetry; -sstra, n. poetry and learning (--); treatise on poetry; Poetics: T. of a work.
13) काव्य (p. 55) 3. kvya

काव्य [ . kvya ]
Skt: काव्य [ . kvya ]  - m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem - Mac068c1
Pal: {ka.bya.} - UHS PMD0293
  UKT from UHS: n. poetry . m. Planet Venus


p068c1-b01/ p055-012

काव्यादर्श [ kvya‿darsa ]
- m. Mirror of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Dandin (6th century AD.); -‿alamkra, m. Ornament of poetry: T. of a work by Vmana (9th century): -stra, n. pl. Vmana's Stras, -vritti, f. his commentary on them.
12) काव्यादर्श (p. 55) kvya̮darsa

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p068c1-b02/ not online

[ks ]
- i. . (p.) be visible, appear; shine; pp. -ita , shining, bright; intr. kkas , shine brightly. nis , cs. show; turn or drive out, pra , appear, become manifest; shine; cs. make visible, show, display; announce; illumine. vi , intv. illuminate.


p068c1-b03/ p055-271

काश [ ks-a ] --> Skt: {ka-sha.} = {ka-a.}
Skt: काश [ks-a ] - m. kind of shining white grass. - Mac068c1
  271) काश (p. 55) ks-a shining white grass.
Pal: {ka-a.}
- UHS-PMD0314
  UKT from UHS: . m. {ak-k-kri:} - kind of grass used for roofing, {hpan:hka:mrak}. . m. a disease accompanied by coughing

UKT 140318: Botanical names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept., 2000 gives {ak-k-kri:} gives: #59-1576 - {ak-k-kri:} - Themeda bilosa , fam. Gramineae
My reference above does not list {hpan:hka:mrak}


p068c1-b04/ p055-011 

काशि [ ks- ] --> Skt: {ka-shi.} = Pal: {ka-i.}
- m. closed hand or fist; handful: pl. N. of a people; f. i or , Benares {ba-ra-Na.i.}: i-ka, a. coming from Ksi or Benares: , f. Benares; T. of a commentary (probably 7th century AD.) on Pnini by Vmana and Gayditya (sc. vritti); -in, a. having the appearance of (--); i-pti, m. lord of the Ksis; -pur, f. city of Benares.
11) काशि (p. 55) ks-

काशि [ks- ] 
--> {ka-shi.}
Skt: काशि [ks- ] - m. closed hand or fist; handful: pl. N. of a people; -- Mac068c1
BHS: kāśi (see also kāśi-skṣma ), ... ... some large number) , . some valuable textile product of Benares, fine cotton cloth (?) [UKT: I would interpret as "linen" produced from fibres of leaves of Kasi grass which is soft and silky] ... ... . a. thousand pieces (of money) [UKT: gold or silver coins] ... ... -- FE-BHS181
Pal: {ka-i.}
- - UHS-PMD0315 
  UKT from UHS: m. country of {ka-i.}, one thousand (UKT: probably pieces of silver or gold).


p068c1-b05/ p055-010  

काश्मल्य [ ksmal-ya ]
- n. despondency, despair.
10) काश्मल्य (p. 55) ksmal-ya


p068c1-b06/ p055-009  

काश्मीर [ ksmra ]
- a. () belonging to Kasmra; m. king of Kasmra: pl. N. of a people and a country; n. saffron: -ka, a. belonging to Cashmere; i-k, f. princess of Cashmere; -ga, n. saffron.
9) काश्मीर (p. 55) ksmra

UKT 171218: For the story of Kashmir , see Nilamata Puranam, by R L Kaniilal, 1924,  in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: - RLKaniilal-NilamataPuran<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171218)
"That land is protected by Nila, the lord* of all the Nāgas, whose regal parosal is formed by the circular pond [of the Nīlakunḍa] with the Vitastā's newly rising stream as its stick." - (Stein, Rājata I , 28)

* The word "lord" probably means a rishi who was the leader of the population, because on p005 of Introduction, and following pages, we find the word "sage Nila". Also, we must take the Nagas to be a people who worship the Naga the mythical creature. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 171219


p068c1-b07/ not online 

= ksmraka 


p068c1-b08/ p055-008  

काश्य [ ksya ]
- m. king of the Ksis; , f. princess of the Ksis.
8) काश्य (p. 55) kaNsya


p068c1-b09/ p055-007  

काश्यप [ ksyapa ]
- a. () belonging to Kasyapa; m. pat. descendant of Kasyapa.
7) काश्यप (p. 55) kaNsyapa

UKT 171219: For the name "Kasyapa", see Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 171219.
There are at least three individuals who had the name "Kasyapa":

1. Buddha Kasyapa aka Kassapa Buddha - the mythical Buddha preceding the historical Gautama Buddha. He is the third Buddha of bhadrakalpa 'Auspicious aeon'.

2. A chief disciple of Gautama Buddha - Mahākāśyapa aka Shin MahaKathahpa - the Arahat who presided the First Buddhist Council (ca. 400 BCE) together with Shin Ananda "Buddha's secretary".

3. Rishi Kasyapa of Kashmir - the semi-historical person. 


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UKT 151105: Dental {Sa.}/ {S} is different from Palatal {sa.}/ {c}.
Palatal {sa.}/ {c} is present in Burmese, but Dental {Sa.}/ {S} is absent, but we need it in BEPS and for transcription of English into Burmese.

p068c1-b10/ p055-006  

काष [ ksha ]
- m. rubbing (--).
6) काष (p. 55) ksha


p068c1-b11/ p055-005  

काषाय [ kshya ]
- a. brownish red; n. brown red garment; , f. kind of bee or wasp.
5) काषाय (p. 55) kshya


p068c1-b12/ p055-029  

काष्ठ [ kshth ] = क ा ष ् ठ
- n. (piece of) wood, log; a measure of length; a measure of capacity; -kutta, m. kind of woodpecker; -kta, m. id.; -bhrika, m. carrier of wood; -maya, a. () made of wood; -raggu, f. rope for tying wood together; -loshta-maya, a. made of wood or clay; -stambha, m. beam.
29) काष्ठ (p. 55) kshth


p068c1-b13/ p055-028

काष्ठा [ kshth ]
- f. race-course, celestial course (of wind and cloud); quarter; goal, boundary; summit; height, maximum; a measure of time.
28) काष्ठा (p. 55) kaNshth 


p068c1-b14/ p055-027

काष्ठिक [ kshth-ika ]
- m. wood-carrier.
27) काष्ठिक (p. 55) kshth-ika

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√kās {kaa}, 'cough'. - Whit019


p068c1-b15/ not online 

- i. . cough


p068c1-b16/ p055-026

कास [ . ks-a ]
- m. going, moving.
26) कास (p. 55) . ks-a


p068c1-b17/ p055-025

  कास [ . ks- ]
- m., , f. cough; -vat, a. coughing.
25) कास (p. 55) . ks-


p068c1-b18/ p055-024

कासार [ ksra ]
- m. pond, lake.
24) कासार (p. 55) ksra

UKT 171219: The word कासार ksra 'pond, lake' is intruding.
Read my note on Rishi Kasyapa of Kashmir and Nilamata Purana


p068c1-b19/ p055-172

कासिका [ ks-ik ]
- f. (slight) cough; -in, a. coughing.
172) कासिका (p. 55) kaNs-ik

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p068c1-b20/ p055-023 

काहल [ khala ]
- a. indecent; excessive; dry; m. large drum; , f. kind of wind instrument.
23) काहल (p. 55) khala


p068c1-b21/ p055-022

काल्हार [ khlra ]
- a. derived from the white water-lily.
22) काल्हार (p. 55) khlra

( end of old p068-1.htm )

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{ki.} / {kin}

p068c1-b22/ p055-021

कि [ . ki ]
- inter. prn. st. in kim, kiyat, kdris, &c.
21) कि (p. 55) . ki


p068c1-b23/ p055-020

कि [ . k-i ]
- suffix i in pap-i, &c. (gr.).
20) कि (p. 55) . k-i


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{kin}/ {kaing} ?

UKT 140304: I am wondering if is {ki.} checked by {ng}. Or, something else such as being checked by {}. See below the discussion on {::tn} or Dot-above problem


p068c2-b00/ p055-019

किंयु [ kim-y ]
- a. desiring what? -rpa, a. of what form or appearance? -vadanta, m. N. of a demon: , f. report; saying, proverb; -varna, a. of what colour? -vishaya-ka, a. relating to what? -vritta, pp. surprised at what has happened, incautious; -vypra, a. occupied with what?
19) किंयु (p. 55) kim-y


p068c2-b01/ p055-018

किंशुक [ kim-suka ]
- m. a tree; n. its (scentless red) blossom; -sakhi, m. bad friend; -suhrid, m. id.; -hetu, a. caused by what?
18) किंशुक (p. 55) kim-suka


p068c2-b02/ p055-017

किक्नस [ kiknasa ]
- m. particles of bruised grain.
17) किक्नस (p. 55) kiknasa

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p068c2-b03/ p055-016

किंकर [ kim-kar ]
- m. servant, slave: -tva, n. servitude; , f. female servant or slave; -kartavya-t, f. perplexity as to what is to be done next; -krya-t, f. id.
16) किंकर (p. 55) kim-kar 

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? / {kan}

p068c2-b04/ p055-015

किङ्किणी kinkin-i
= क ि ङ ् क ि ण ी
- f. small bell; -ik, f. id.; -ik-in, a. adorned with small bells.
15) किङ्किणी (p. 55) kiṅ-kin-

कङ्कणीका kaṅkaṇīkā = क ङ ् क ण ी क ा --> {kan-ki.Ni}
Skt: कङ्कणीका kaṅkaṇīkā - f. ornament furnished with bells, string tied round the wrist -- SpkSkt
Pal: {kan~ki.Ni.ka}
- - UHS-PMD0316
  UKT from UHS: f. Hkyu-bells, Hsi-l bells

UKT 140319: The two kinds of small bells work on different principles, and are not the same.
Hkyu-bell is a round small bell with a freely moveable brass pellet or even a pebble inside.
Hsi-l bell is a small bell on pagoda-umbrella which act as wind-chimes. The bell has open bottom, and the striker is a small brass pellet suspended in the bell-body. The striker is attached to a sail below which moves with the wind making the striker strike the inside of the bell.

p068c2-b04/ not online 

किङ्किणी [ kiṅ-kin- ]
- f. small bell; -ik, f. id.; -ik-in, a. adorned with small bells.

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{kin-sa.} / {kai}

किंचन  kaṅcana
Pal: {kai~sa.na.} - UHS-PMD0317
  UKT from UHS: n. something, anxiety


p068c2-b05/ p055-014

किंचन्य [ kimkan-ya ]
- n. property.
14) किंचन्य (p. 55) kimkan-ya


p068c2-b06/ p055-004 

किंचित्क [ kimkit-ka ]
- indef. prn. with preceding ya, any, every; -kara, a. significant; (n)-mtra, n. a little bit.
4) किंचित्क (p. 55) kimkit-ka


p068c2-b07/ not online

- stamina (esp. of lotus); -in , a. furnished with stamina


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p068c2-b08/ p055-003 

किटि [kit i ] --> {ki.Ti.}
Skt: किटि [kit i ] - m. wild boar. -- Mac068c2
  3) किटि (p. 55) kiti wild boar.
Skt: किटि kiṭi - m. sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas - Bot.], hog -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ki.Ti.] - UHS-PMD0317
  UKT from UHS: m. pig

UKT 140304: The word "pig" can mean one of the three words here, boar, hog, and pig, all referring to the genus Sus.
" A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates." -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig 140304
"A boar is an uncastrated male pig. It doesn't have to be a wild pig. A female pig is a sow. Rhymes with that other farmyard female, the cow. In North America, a hog is any sort of pig. In other parts of the world, hog may mean a large, castrated pig." -- http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=871703 140304
"Pig = a general term for any species/gender/castration status of swine. Hog = not really used in NZ. Boar = I guess a male pig, but also strong connotations of "wild boar"/"wild pig". I'm not sure what a female wild pig is called??
-- http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=871703 140304

UKT 140319: Seeing "sweet potato" and "Hog" given together has brought to my mind the question: What did Buddha ate that caused his death? Pork, truffle, or mushroom - not sweet potato. In Pali it is "Sukaramaddava" and various translators translate it as pork, truffle, or mushroom.


p068c2-b09/ p055-002

किट्््ट [ kitta ]
- n. secretion.
2) किट्््ट (p. 55) kitt


p068c2-b10/ p055-001

किण [ kina ]
- m. callosity; scar.
1) किण (p. 55) kina callosity; scar.


BHS:  kiṇīkṛta - ppp. (Skt: kiṇa plus kṛ- ), made callous, hardened, in fig. sense, of mentality (as in Eng. hard or callous: ... - FE-BHS183c1



p068c2-b11/ p055-044

किण्व [ kinva ]
- n. yeast; ferment (used in making spirit).
44) किण्व (p. 55) kinva

UKT 140305: The English word spirit used by Macdonell is very misleading. The word used should be alcohol or even better ethanol. The chemical process involved is "fermentation" of sugars into ethanol.


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Bur: {kait} -  UTM-PDMD018c2


p068c2-b12/ p055-043

कित्् [ k-it ]
- a. having k as its it (gr.).
43) कित्् (p. 55) k-it


p068c2-b13/ p055-042

  कितव [ kitav ]
- m., , f. gamester; cheat, rogue.
42) कितव (p. 55) kitav


p068c2-b14/ p055-041

किद्वत्् [ kid-vat ]
- ad. like a kit (gr.).
41) किद्वत्् (p. 55) kid-vat

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{ki.na.} / {kain}

p068c2-b15/ p055-040

किन्् [ k-i-n ]
- a primary suffix i (gr.).
40) किन्् (p. 55) k-i-n i (gr.).

UKT 171220: See my note on Primary suffix : kṛt-pratyaya (a special kind of suffix).

p068c2-b16/ p055-039

किन्दुबिल्व kindu-bilva, ˚विल्ल [ -villa ]
- N. of a race or of the birthplace of Gayadeva.
39) किन्दुबिल्व (p. 55) -villa

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jayadeva 171220
for the poet (b. c. 1170 CE)


p068c2-b17/ p055-038

किंनर [ kim-nara ]
- m. fabulous being (half man half animal) in the service of Kubera Skt: कुबेर ; N. of various persons; -nmaka (ik), -nmadheya, -nman, a. having what name? -nimitta, a. occasioned by what? -m, why?
38) किंनर (p. 55) kim-nara


p068c2-b18/ not online

किम् [km]
Skt: किम् [km] - (nm, ac. n. of ka) what? why? often simple inter. pcl. not to be translated = num, an ); often used with other pcls.: -aṅg , why, pray? how much more? ...


किम् [km]
Skt: किम् [km] - (nm, ac. n. of ka) what? why? often simple inter. pcl. not to be translated = num, an ); often used with other pcls.: - Mac068c2

Skt: किम् kim - indecl. what? - SpkSkt 
  अथ किम् ? atha kim expr. Then? sent. Of course! What else? (rhetorical expression)
  न किमपि na kimapi indecl. nothing, not at all 


p068c2-b19/ p055-037

किमधिकरण [ kim-adhikarana ]
- a. directed to what? -abhidhna, a. how named? -artha, a. having what purpose? -m, ad. for what purpose? wherefore? -khya, a. how named? -dhra, a. relating to what?
37) किमधिकरण (p. 55) kim-adhikarana

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p068c3-b00/ not online

- m. kind of demon


p068c3-b01/ p055-218

किमीय [ kim-ya ]
- a. belonging to whom or what place?
218) किमीय (p. 55) kim-ya

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p068c3-b02/ p055-036

किंपरिवार [ kim-parivra ]
- a. having what retinue? - prusha (or ), m. kind of elf, dwarf (attendants of Kubera); -prabhva, a. how mighty? -prabhu, m. bad lord; -phala, a. producing what fruit? -bala, a. how strong? -bhta, pp. being what? having what attribute (in commentaries w. reference to nouns)? -bhritya, m. bad servant; -mya, a. consisting of what? -mtra, a. of what extent?
36) किंपरिवार (p. 55) kim-parivra

( end of old p068-2.htm )

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p068c3-b03/ p055-035

कियच्चिरम्् [ kiyak-kiram ]
- ac. ad. how long? -kirena, in. ad. how soon?
35) कियच्चिरम्् (p. 55) kiyak-kiram


p068c3-b04/ p055-034

कियत्् [ k-yat ]
- a. how great? how far? how long? how various? of what kind? of what value? kyat, ad. how far? how much? wherefore? = uselessly; indef. prn. a. small, little, some; n. ad. a little, somewhat; with following ka & preceding yvat, however great; of what ever kind; with api, however great; kyati‿, (lc. with prp. ) since how long?
34) कियत्् (p. 55) k-yat


p068c3-b05/ p055-033

कियद्दूर [ kiyad-dra ]
- n. some distance: -m, lc., --, not far, a short way.
33) कियद्दूर (p. 55) kiyad-dra


p068c3-b06/ p055-032

कियन्मात्र [ kiyan-mtra ]
- a. of little importance; n. trifle.
32) कियन्मात्र (p. 55) kiyan-mtra


p068c3-b07/ not online

- n. an aquatic plant


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UKT 140319: I suspect the pronunciation is /kiːr/ (note IPA triangular column following the long vowel). If so there might be a lengthening of vowel to {kiir}. Need to check carefully.

p068c3-b08/ not online

किर्् [. kir ]
- kirti &c., v  कृ kri , scatter 


p068c3-b09/ p055-031

किर्् [ . kir ]
- a. scattering, pouring out (--).
31) किर्् (p. 55) . kir


p068c3-b10/ p055-030

किरण [ kir-na ]
- m. dust; mote; ray.
30) किरण (p. 55) kir-na dust; mote; ray.


p068c3-b11/ p055-059

किराट [ kirta ]
- m. merchant.
59) किराट (p. 55) kirta


p068c3-b12/ p055-058 

किरात [ krta ] --> {ki.ra-ta.}
- m. pl. N. of a barbarous mountain tribe of hunters; sg. man or king of the Kirtas: , f. Kirta woman; -‿argunya, n. Arguna's combat with Siva disguised as a Kirta: T. of a poem by Bhravi (6th cent. A.D.).
58) किरात (p. 55) krta

किरात [krta]
Skt: किरात [krta] - m. pl. N. of a barbarous mountain tribe of hunters; sg. man or king of the Kirtas: -- Mac068-b12
Pal: {ki.ra-ta.} - UHS-PMD0319
  UKT from UHS: m. wild tribe, a medicinal plant known as Shan Bitter {rhm:hs:hka:}

See my note on Kirata - the Tib-Bur tribes of Himalayas down into the mountains of western Myanmar.

UKT 140320: Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept., Govt. of Union of Myanmar gives: -- Agri2000-indx.htm
entry 20-0520 - {hs:hkha:kri:} - King of bitters - Andrographis paniculata - fam. Acanthaceae
entry 52-1391 {rhm:hs:hka:kri:} - Grewia humilis  fam. Tiliaceae 


p068c3-b13/ p055-092

किरीट [ kirt-a ]
- n. diadem; m. merchant; -in, a. adorned with a diadem; m. epithet of Indra and of Arguna.
92) किरीट (p. 55) kirt-a


p068c3-b14/ p055-091

किर्मिर [ kirmi-r ]
- a. variegated; -ra, a., [ -rita, pp. id.
91) किर्मिर (p. 55) kirmi-r

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UKT 140319: I suspect the pronunciation is /kiːl/ (note IPA triangular colon following the long vowel). If so there might be a lengthening of vowel to {kiil}. Need to check carefully.

p068c3-b15/ p055-260

किल [ . kla (V. sts. ) ]
- ad. quidem, indeed, certainly, it is true; that is to say, it is said or alleged; as is well known.
260) किल (p. 55) . kla

Roman-Latin: quidem 
1. indeed - Usage note: Do not confuse quidem with quidam. Sometimes emphasizes the word that comes before it. e.g. Magister quidem verba deponentia coniugationis primae imperavit, sed haec sunt mihi enigma.
  English translation by Google: "Deponent [Latin verb], and rebuked the union, the union of the first words which are indeed the Master , but these are to me, "

p068c3-b16/ p055-275

किल [ . kila ]
- a. playing.
275) किल (p. 55) . kila


p068c3-b17/ p055-274

किलञ्ज [ kilaga ] = क ि ल ञ ् ज --> {ki.li~za.}
- m. mat.
274) किलञ्ज (p. 55) kilaga mat.


p068c3-b18/ p055-231

किलास [ kils-a ]
- a. leprous; n. leprosy; -in, a. leprous.
231) किलास (p. 55) kilaNs-a


p068c3-b19/ p055-273

किलिञ्ज [ kiliga ]
- m. mat.
273) किलिञ्ज (p. 55) kiliga


p068c3-b20/ p055-057

किल्बिष [ kilbish-a ]
- n. transgression, guilt, sin; injustice, injury: -sprit, a. removing or avoiding sin; -in, a. guilty, sinful; m. sinner.
57) किल्बिष (p. 55) kilbish-a

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p068c3-b21/ p055-056

किशोर [ kisor ]
- m. foal; young of an animal; -ka, m. id.
56) किशोर (p. 55) kisor

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p068c3-b22/ p055-055

किष्किन्ध [ kishkindha ]
- m. N. of a mountain; , f. N. of a cave.
55) किष्किन्ध (p. 55) kishkindha 


p068c3-b23/ p055-054

किष्कु [ kishku ]
- m. fore-arm; handle (of an axe).
54) किष्कु (p. 55) kishku

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p068c3-b24/ not online

किस् [ks ]
- inter. pcl.


p068c3-b25/ p055-053

किसलय [ kisalaya ]
- n. bud, shoot, sprout; den. P. cause to sprout; arouse: pp. i-ta, sprouted; having young shoots.
53) किसलय (p. 55) kisalaya

( end of old p068-3.htm )

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p068c3-b26/ not online

[kkata ]
- m. pl. N. of a non-Aryan people

See my note on Kikata - the non-Aryans


p068c3-b27/ p055-052

कीकस [ kkasa ]
- m. spine; n. bone.
52) कीकस (p. 55) kkasa


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p068c3-b28/ p055-051

कीचक [ kkaka ]
- m. kind of bamboo; m. a general of Virta, vanquished by Bhmasena: pl. N. of a people. - Mac068c3
  51) कीचक (p. 55) kkaka
Pal: {ki-sa.ka.} - UHS PMD0321
  UKT from UHS: m. a kind of bamboo with hollow stem which produces sound when the wind blows over it. Arundo karka 


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p068c3-b29/ p055-050

कीट [ kta ]
Skt: कीट [ kta ] - m. insect; worm; worm of a --, = wretched (--); -ka, m., i-k, f. id.; -ga, n. silk; -mani, m. fire-fly. - Mac068c3
  50) कीट (p. 55) kta
Skt: कीट kīṭa - n. feces -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ka.ri-a.} - UHS-PMD0299
  UKT from UHS: . a small area for rice cultivation . . spent food, feces, dried cow-dung


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----- online 171217 : p068.htm - search for काश्मल्य


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UKT 171221: Entries left over from p068.htm moved over to p069.htm


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UKT notes

Arundo karka

- UKT 151105, 170302 :

Back in 2015, when I was looking for A. karda in Wikipedia, I found only the French version. Now in 2017, when I look for it again, I came to be aware that I must look for the genus Phragmites .

From Wikipedia: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites_karka 151105

Phragmites karka est une espce de roseau asiatique de la famille des Poaceae. Elle pousse dans les savanes humides d'Afrique, d'Asie et d'Australie.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites 170302

Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, maintained by Kew Garden in London, accepts the following four species: [1]

1. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. cosmopolitan
2. Phragmites japonicus Steud. Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Russian Far East
3. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. tropical Africa, southern Asia, Australia, some Pacific Islands
4. Phragmites mauritianus Kunth central + southern Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius

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Dot-above or {::tn} problem

UKT 140304, 140319, 171220:

We have met the Dot-above or {::tn} problem for vowels long time ago. Now it is for consonants. Because Skt-Dev did not really have a /ŋ/ (velar), it had to borrow the grapheme from r3c3 , the retroflex:

   ड + dot --> ङ  

For pronunciation, Shin Kic'si {rhn kic~s:}, the celebrated Buddhist grammarian who preceded Panini, made an allowance and said it can be borrowed from {n} /ʌn/ (ending with dental-nasal) and represented it with a dot-above {n}. The sound {n} ends with an open mouth which the IE speakers could not articulate. So they borrowed from {m} /ʌm/ (which ends with bilabial-nasal with a closing mouth).

If so, {kin} is {kan}, which rhymes with {lan} 'lingam' or male sexual organ used for injecting sperm into female vagina. See MLC MED2006-451 for {lan}.

There is another nasal that cannot be fully represented by IE languages. It is /ɲ/ (palatal). on being checked by {} is another candidate for {kin} . e.g. Pal: {kai~sa.na.}. This example shows that Pal-Myan is not IE.

The third nasal that is beyond the representation by IE languages is /ɳ/ (retroflex). However, since it is close to /n/ (dental) , we do not have many problems.

At present all syllables, {n}, {i}, {N}, {n}, {m}, ending with nasal codas are represented with {n}.

The Dot-above problem is the first I encountered when I first studied Skt-Dev starting with vowels.

I intend to write a comprehensive note later after going through more consonants and then approximants. In the meantime, I have to create a convention shown on the right.

Among the approximants, we will meet another Bur-Myan phoneme known as NyaGyi {a.} which is similar to {ya.} the velar-approximant in many ways. Though it is included in the cell r2c5 together with NyaLe {a.}. it is not a palatal plosive-stop. It is the palatal-approximant. We will have to compare {} & {} / {}.

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Kikata - the non-Aryans

UKT 170302, 180123:

I cannot find who the Kikata people were. They seem to be the original inhabitants of Magadha. The ancient name of "Magadha" is said to be Kikata. Since the Kingdom of Tagaung founded by King Abiraza, in northern Myanmarpr was culturally linked to the Magadha region long before the time of Gautama Buddha, I wonder if the Kikata people had been related to the old inhabitants of Myanmarpr.

Continue reading below into Kirata : Himalayan race .

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Kirata - Himalayan race

UKT 140320

The Kirata are the Tib-Bur tribes of Himalayas down into the mountains of western Myanmarpr. See a downloaded video from:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHrUwOvJ_9Q 171221
- Kiratas<> (link chk 171221)
Inset map from the above video. The legend in the map:
"The karatas were ... in Ramayana and Mahabharata, and in many Puranas. ..."
The map shows their area extending into the Arakan Yoma area - the are of Chins of Myanmarpr.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirata 140320

The Kirāta , किरात {ki.ra-ta.} is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who lived in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India [UKT: Assam, Manipur, Tripura] and who are postulated to have been Mongoloid in origin. [1] [2] It has been theorized that the word Kirata- or Kirati- means people with lion nature. [3] It is derived from two words Kira (meaning Lion) and Ti (meaning people). [3] The reference of lion as well as them staying in the Himalayan Mountains may suggest their possible relation to the mythical lion-headed tribe called Kimpurusha.

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Primary suffix

UKT 171220:

Online Skt-Dev grammar:
http://learnsanskrit.org/start/words/primary 171220

"Also known as: kṛt-pratyaya (a special kind of suffix). ... Such suffixes are often called primary suffixes because they're the first thing to follow the verb root. ... e.g.:
सर्ज् sarj 'send forth' → सर्ग sarga 'creation; the creation of the world'
विसर्ज् vi-sarj 'send forth' → विसर्ग vi-sarga 'the visarga'
जय् jay 'win, conquer' → जय jaya 'victory'

When relating to Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, remember that row#2 aksharas are pronounced as Affricates - instead of Plosive-stops - in Sanskrit, e.g. {za.} is pronounced as {gya.} (derived from {ga.}). An added problem is when {a.} is involved which is pronounced as Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/ in both Skt-Dev and Mon-Myan. The main difference between Skt-Dev and Mon-Myan is in the pronunciation of {Ga.}.

Go vertical. lesson10-61-txt<)) 

However, in Mon-Myan of Peguan dialect, the rule {za.} --> {gya.} (derived from {ga.}) breaks down, because {ga.} is not pronounced with a /g/ sound. See - MonMyan-indx.htm and listen to lesson10-61-txt<)) .
Because of this, Romabama transcription is untenable for Mon-Myan.

It shows that in the study of BEPS, we have to take into consideration the language groups involved, keeping in mind that the two speech-to-script systems, the Abugida-Akashara and the Alphabet-Letter, are different though related.

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Rishi Kasyapa

of Kashmir and Nilamata Purana

I'm working on a hunch [being a hunch it could only led me on a wild goose chase - yet it introduces me to books that I should have read] that it is connected to Kashmir and Rishi Kasyapa - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 171219

Search for " King Abhimanyu the First of Kashmir "
Return: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didda 171219

It has led me further to:
#1. Nilamata Purana, by R L Kaniilal, 1924
- RLKaniilal - NilamataPuran<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180124)
#2. Rajtarangini, vol 1 & 2, by M A Stein, 1900
- MAStein-KalhanaRajtarangini01<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180124)
- MAStein-KalhanaRajtarangini02<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180124)

In #1: Nilamata Purana, by R L Kaniilal, 1924

   On p006 of Introduction, we find "the acceptance of Buddha as an Avatāra of Viṣṇu was unquestionably established in 1000AD."

   On p009 of Introduction: "Then follows the elucidation of the sanctity of Kashmir which obliged Śrikrishna [King Krishna - before his death and subsequent deification as a dva] to anoint the queen of Dāmodara himself. This according to Vaiśampāyana consisted in Kashmir's being nothing else than the manifestation of Pāravati [a Tib-Bur m-tau before being taken up by Hindu god Shiva]. In course of his eulogistic description of the manifold charms of Kashmir, the sage [the rishi] discloses that in previous Manvantaras it was a lake called Satīsaras. This revelation excites Janamejaya to ask further an account of the transformation of the lake into a beautiful and populated valley. ..."

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End of TIL file