Update: 2018-04-18 11:32 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{kaar~} : Repha on long a


----- on line 171208 : p065.htm - search for कल्पाय

UKT notes :
• Marriage and religion in Myanmarpré
  ¤ Eight modes of Hindu marriage
• Potsherd : construction of magic Yantra { ķng:} using a abandoned piece from a Monk's alms bowl.
See a video on the Harappan civilization which may throw light on the origin of circularly rounded Myanmar akshara: 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eL7wDzBpOho#aid=P-nFFvgGkS0 140226
• Skanda - the god of war

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p066c1-b01/ p053-071

• कादम्बिनी [ kādambinī ]
- f. dense bank of cloud.
71) कादम्बिनी (p. 53) kādambinī


p066c1-b02/ p053-070 

• काद्रव [ kādrava ]
- a. blackish yellow, reddish brown.
70) काद्रव (p. 53) kādrava


p066c1-b03/ p053-084

• काद्रवेय [ kādraveyį ]
- m. descendant of Kadrū, metr. of various serpents.
84) काद्रवेय (p. 53) kādraveyį

UKT 170216: Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kadru 170216
"In Hindu mythology, according to the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata, Kadru (Kadrū) is usually regarded as the daughter of Daksha. Kashyapa married Kadru and the other eleven daughters of Daksha. ..."
• Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Parva 170216
"The Adi Parva or the Book of the Beginning is the first of eighteen books of the Mahabharata. आदि is a Sanskrit word that means first. ... Adi Parva is part of an Epic fiction. Writers, including those such as Shakespeare or Homer, take liberty in developing their characters and plots, they typically represent extremes and they do not truthfully record extant history. ..."


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p066c1-b04/ not online

• [k-āna-k ],
- suffix āna of the pf. pt.


p066c1-b05/ p053-069

• कानन [ kānana ]
- n. forest (sts. with vana): -‿anta, n. forest region, forest.
69) कानन (p. 53) kānana


p066c1-b06/ p053-068

• कानीन [ kānī-nį ]
- a. born of an unmarried woman.
68) कानीन (p. 53) kānī-nį

UKT 170226: See my note on Marriage and religion in Myanmarpré


p066c1-b07/ p053-067

• कान्त [ ¹. kānta ]
= क ा न ् त  --> {kaan-ta.} 
- pp. (√kam) desired; beloved; charming; m. lover, husband: ā, f. sweet heart, wife; -ka, m. N.; -tva, n. loveliness, charm.
67) कान्त (p. 53) 1. kānta (√kam)


p066c1-b08/ p053-066

• कान्त [ ². ka‿anta ]
- a. ending in ka (gr.).
66) कान्त (p. 53) 2. ka̮anta


p066c1-b09/ p053-065

• कान्ताय [ kāntā-ya ]
- den. Ā. play the lover.
65) कान्ताय (p. 53) kāntā-ya


p066c1-b10/ p053-064

• कान्तार [ kāntāra ]
- m. n. great forest; wilderness; -bhava, m. forester; -‿anda-ga, m. forest frog.
64) कान्तार (p. 53) kāntāra

© कान्तार [ kāntāra ]
Skt: कान्तार [ kāntāra ] - m. n. great forest; wilderness; - Mac066c1
Pal: {kūn~ta-ra.} - UHS PMD0289
  UKT from UHS: mn. difficult journey, desert


p066c1-b11/ p053-063

• कान्ति [ kān-ti ]
- f. (a. --°, f.  ĭ) charm, loveliness, grace, beauty; brightness, radiance (of the moon): -prada, a. conferring brightness; -mat, a. lovely, charming, beautiful: , f. N., -tā, f. grace, beauty.
63) कान्ति (p. 53) kān-ti

UKT 171217: The following entry is not present in both Univ of Cologne and Nataraj editions. I've given the entry number as -b11.2

p066c1-b11.2/ p053-062

• कान्तिसुधामय [kānti-sudhā-maya]
- a. (ī) consisting of the nectar of loveliness.
62) कान्तिसुधामय (p. 53) kānti-sudhā-maya


p066c1-b12/ p053-094

• कांदिशीक [ kām-dis-īka ]
- n. fleeing in all directions, fugitive.
94) कांदिशीक (p. 53) kām-dis-īka


p066c1-b13/ not online

• [kānya-kubga]
- n. N. of a city, Kanauj [city 27°04'N 79°55'E ]

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannauj 171213
"The city's name is a modern form of the classical name Kanyakubja [1] (The city of the hunchbacked maidens)."

UKT 171213: The city name can be literally transcribed as {ka.Ńa koab~za.}. The name {koab~za.} (aka Khujjuttarā - the hunch-back nurse) is related to the story of Thamawadi (aka Sāmāvatī ) and Magandi (aka Māgandiyā), queens of King of Udena. I still could not trace the story, but for the story of how Magandi came to hate the Buddha can be seen in The Buddha and his Teachings, by Ven. Narada Thera, 1988, in pdf downloads in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- NaradaThera-BuddhaTeachings<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 171213)
See the story of Māgandiyā on p192. The full story is in Buddhist Legends, by E W Burlingame, 1921. My attempts to download it have failed. Most of the Pali names given above are from Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names - http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 171213

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p066c1-b14/ p053-093

• कापट [ kāpata ]
- a. (ī) fraudulent.
93) कापट (p. 53) kāpata


p066c1-b15/ p053-092

• कापथ [ kā-patha ]
- m. bad road; evil course.
92) कापथ (p. 53) kā-patha


p066c1-b16/ p053-091

• कापाल [ kāpāl-a ]
--> {ka-pa-la.}
- a. (ī) connected with or made of skulls; m. pl. school of Kapālin; -ika, m. Saiva sectary (wearing and eating out of human skulls); a certain mixed caste; -in, m. ep. of Siva; N.; a. practised by a Kāpālika.
91) कापाल (p. 53) kāpāl-a

© कापालिक «kāpālika»
Skt: -ika, m. Saiva sectary (wearing and eating out of human skulls); a certain mixed caste -- Mac066c1
Skt: कापालिक «kāpālika» - adj. relating to or belonging to a skull. f. potsherd. m. kind of zaiva ascetic who carries a human skull and uses it as a receptacle for his food. n. kind of leprosy -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ka-pa-li.ka.} - UHS-PMD0306
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what is like a potsherd.

See my note on the use of potsherd
Potsherds from Buddhist-monk alms-bowls (broken pieces of consecrated objects) are used for construction of evil Yantra { ķn: } in Left-hand path practice.


p066c1-b17/ p053-090 

• कापिल [ kāpil-a ]
- a. (ī) relating or peculiar to Kapila; m. disciple of Kapila; -eya, m. descendant of Kapila.
90) कापिल (p. 53) kāpil-a


p066c1-b18/ p053-089

• कापिशायन [ kāpisāyana ]
- n. kind of spirituous liquor.
89) कापिशायन (p. 53) kāpisāyana


p066c1-b19/ p053-088 

• कापुरुष [ kā-purusha ]
- m. contemptible man, coward.
88) कापुरुष (p. 53) kā-purusha


p066c1-b20/ p053-087

• कापोत [ kāpota ]
- a. (ī) peculiar to pigeons.
87) कापोत (p. 53) kāpota

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p066c1-b21/ p053-086 

• काबन्ध्य [ kābandh-ya ]
- n. condition of a trunk. [UKT 140226: torso ?]
86) काबन्ध्य (p. 53) kābandh-ya

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p066c1-b22/ p053-085 

• काम [ kćma ]
- m. wish, desire, for (d., g., lc.); intention; pleasure; desired object; benefit; (sexual) love; god of love; --°, a. (often after inf. in -tu) desirous of, intending to: ab. willingly; voluntarily; intentionally.
85) काम (p. 53) kaNma
Pal: {ka-ma.} - UHS-PMD0306
  UKT from UHS: m. love (between two sexual partners), desire.

UKT 140227: The Westerners misuse the word <love>. The "love" between two sexual partners is quite different from that between a mother and her child, or that between a religious teacher and his student. The "love" between a mother and her child or that between a religious teacher and his student is {mķt~ta} in Bur-Myan. See MLC PMD2006-355. However, see UHS-PMD0786 which gives two Pal-Myan words, one with short vowel ending and the second with long vowel ending. The two have different meanings. I feel that MLC and UHS are not quite in agreement.


p066c1-b23/ p053-083 

• कामकाम [ kāma-kāma ]
- a. having all kinds of desires; -kāmin, a. id.; -kāra, a. fulfilling the wishes of (g.); m. voluntary act; freedom of will: -tas, in., ab., °--, intentionally; voluntarily; -krita, pp. done intentionally; -ga, a. going anywhere at one's own free will; following one's desires; -gati, a. going anywhere at will; -gama, a. id.; -go, f. cow of plenty; [UKT ¶]

-kara, a. (ī) moving at will: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -kārį, m. freedom of action; voluntary or intentional action; self-indulgence: -kāra-vāda-bhaksha, a. acting, speaking, and eating at will; -kār-in, a. moving at will: -i-tva, n. freedom of action; -ga, a. produced from love of pleasure; begotten through sensual passion; -tantra, n. T. of a work (book of love); -taru, m. Kāma (as a) tree; -tas, ad. through desire, lust, or love of pleasure; voluntarily; intentionally; -da, a. granting desires: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -daminī, f. ironical N. of a lascivious woman (love-controlling); -dśgha, a. milking = yielding every wish: ā, f. cow of plenty; -duh, f. (nm. -dhuk) id.; -deva, m. god of love; -dhenu, f. cow of plenty.
83) कामकाम (p. 53) kāma-kāma

© कामचर [ kāma-kara ]
Skt: a. (ī) moving at will: - Mac066c1
Skt: कामचर «kāmacara»
- adj. moving freely, following one's own pleasure, unrestrained - SpkSkt


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p066c2-b01/ p053-082 

• कामना [ kām-anā ]
- f. wish, desire.
82) कामना (p. 53) kām-anā


p066c2-b02/ p053-081 

• कामन्दक [ kāmanda-ka ]
- m. N. of a Rishi; ī, f. N. of a Buddhist nun; N. of a city; i, m. pat. N. of a writer on polity: -sāstra, n. Institutes of Kāmandaki; ī-ya, a. composed by Kāmandaki.
81) कामन्दक (p. 53) kāmanda-ka


p066c2-b03/ p053-080 

• कामपाल [ kāma-pāla ]
- m. N.; -pūra: -ka, a. fulfilling wishes; -prada, a. granting wishes; -bhaksha, m. eating at pleasure; -bhoga, m. pl. sensual enjoyments.
80) कामपाल (p. 53) kāma-pāla


p066c2-b04/ p053-105

• कामम्् [ kćmam ]
- ac. ad. at will, at pleasure; to one's heart's content; according to desire, willingly, gladly; indeed; at all events; yet; even though, supposing (generally with impv.); kāmam -tu, kim tu, ka, kim ka, punar, athā pi or tathāpi, it is true -but, although yet; kāmam -na tu or na ka, certainly--but not, rather -than; yadi‿api -kāmam tathāpi, although -yet.
105) कामम्् (p. 53) kaNmam


p066c2-b05/ p053-104

• काममूत [ kćma-mūta ]
- pp. impelled by love.
104) काममूत (p. 53) kaNma-mūta


p066c2-b06/ p053-103

• कामया [ kāmayā ]
- (in. f.) ad. frankly (with brūhi or pra-brūhi).
103) कामया (p. 53) kāmayā


p066c2-b07/ p053-102

• कामरसिक [ kāma-rasika ]
- a. indulging in love; libidinous; -rūpa, n. any form desired; a. assuming any form at will; m. pl. N. of a people in western Assam; -rūpin, a. id.; -vat, a. enamoured; -varsha, a. raining as desired; -vāda, m. talking as one lists; -vāsin, a. changing one's abode at pleasure; -vritta, pp. indulging one's desires, pleasure-loving; -sara, m. arrow of Kāma; -sāsana, m. ep. of Siva; -sāstra, n. treatise on love, T. of various works; -sū, a. granting desires; -sūtra, n. a Sūtra treating of love; -haituka, a. caused by desire only.
102) कामरसिक (p. 53) kāma-rasika


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p066c2-b08/ p053-101

• कामातुर [ kāma‿ātura ]
- a. love-sick; -‿ātman, a. voluptuous; filled with love: (a)-tā, f. sensuality; -‿andha, a. blinded by love; -‿ari, m. ep. of Siva (foe of Kāma); -‿asoka, m. N. of a king.
101) कामातुर (p. 53) kāma̮ātura

UKT 171214: The following entry is not present in both Univ. of Cologne and Nateraj editions. I've given the entry number as -b08.2

p066c2-b08.2/ p053-100

• कामवृत्ति kāma-vritti  = क ा म व ृ त ् त ि
- a. self-willed, independent.
100) कामवृत्ति (p. 53) kāma-vritti self-willed, independent.


p066c2-b09/ p053-099

• कामिक [ kām-ika ]
- a. desired; -i-gana, m. lover; -i-tā, f. condition of a lover; -ķn, a. eager for, desirous of (ac., --°); loving, in love (with, ac. or sārdham); m. lover: , f. woman in love; girl, woman.
99) कामिक (p. 53) kām-ika


p066c2-b10/ p053-098 

• कामुक [ kćm-uka ]
- a. desirous (of, --°); in love with (ac.); m. lover: -tva, n. amorousness.
98) कामुक (p. 53) kaNm-uka


p066c2-b11/ p053-097 

• कामुकाय [ kāmukā-ya ]
- den. Ā. play the lover: pp. -yi-ta; n. conduct of a lover. 
97) कामुकाय (p. 53) kāmukā-ya


p066c2-b12/ p053-096

• कामेश्््वर [ kāma‿īsvarį ]
- m. ep. of Kubera.
96) कामेश्््वर (p. 53) kāma̮īsvarį


p066c2-b13/ p053-095 

• कामोन्मत्त [ kāma‿unmatta ]
- pp. mad with love.
95) कामोन्मत्त (p. 53) kāma̮unmatta

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p066c2-b14/ p053-120 

• काम्पिल्य [ kāmpil-ya ]
- n. N. of a city of the Pańkālas: -ka, m. a plant; -laka, m. id.
120) काम्पिल्य (p. 53) kāmpil-ya


p066c2-b15/ not online 

• [kāmbuva]
- m. N. of a locality


p066c2-b16/ p053-119

• काम्बोज [ kāmboga ]
- a. coming from Kamboga; m. N. of a people = Kamboga.
119) काम्बोज (p. 53) kāmboga


p066c2-b17/ p053-118

• काम्य [ kćm-ya ]
- a. desirable, dear; amiable, pleasant; connected with a wish, interested; optional: -ka, m. N. of a forest and of a lake; -tā, f. loveliness, beauty.
118) काम्य (p. 53) kaNm-ya


p066c2-b18/ p053-117

• काम्या [ kāmyā ]
- f. desire, wish for, striving after (g., --°).
117) काम्या (p. 53) kāmyā desire, wish for, striving after (g., --°).

( end of old p066-1.htm )

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p066c2-b19/ p053-116

• काय [ ¹. kćya ]
- a. relating to the god Ka (Pragāpati); m. nuptial form of Pragāpati; root of the little finger (sacred to Pragāpati).
116) काय (p. 53) 1. kaNya


p066c2-b20/ p053-115

• काय [ ². kāya ]
- m. body; mass, extent, group; capital: -klesa, m. bodily distress; -danda, m. perfect control over the body; -māna, n. tent of grass, foliage, &c.: i-ka-niketana, n. id.; -vat, a. incarnate; -siro-grīva, n. body, head, & neck; -stha, m. writer (mixed caste).
115) काय (p. 53) 2. kāya

© काय [kāya]
Skt: - ². m. body; mass, extent, group; capital: -- Mac066c2
Skt: ². - kāya m. (√ci Pāṇ. 3-3, 41), the body KātyŚr. Mn. &c - MonWilli274-c1


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p066c3-b01/ p053-114

• कायिक [ kāy-ika ]
- a. (ī) bodily.
114) कायिक (p. 53) kāy-ika


p066c3-b02/ p053-113

• कायिका [ kāy-ikā ]
- a. f. (sc. vriddhi) kind of interest.
113) कायिका (p. 53) kāy-ikā


p066c3-b03/ p053-112

• कायोढज [ kāya‿ūdha-ga ]
- a. born of a woman married after the manner of Pragāpati.
112) कायोढज (p. 53) kāya̮ūdha-ga

See: Eight modes of Hindu Marriage
• Rite of the Prajapati - (Prajapatya) where the father gives away his daughter after blessing the couple with the text "May both of you perform together your duties".

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p066c3-b04/ p053-111

• कार [ kār-a ]
- a. (ī) making, producing, fashioning, performing; m. maker (--°); fashioner, author; making, action; --°, sound, letter; uninflected word; -aka, a. (-ikā) making, producing, causing, performing (g. or --°); *about to do (ac.); effecting an object; m. maker, fashioner; agent; n. relation of noun to verb, case-notion; -ana, --°, a. making, causing, producing; n. (--°, f. ī) cause, occasion, motive (g., lc.,--°); prime cause, element; basis; argument, proof; means, instrument; organ of sense; in., ab., lc., °--, from some cause: w. kena, kasmāt, kasmin, for what reason? why? kim kāranam, why? ab. for the sake of (g., --°); kenāpi kāranena, for some reason or other; yat kāranam, yena kāranena, because.
111) कार (p. 53) kār-a 


p066c3-b05/ p053-110

• कारणकोप [ kārana-kopa ]
- a. angry with reason; -krudh, a. id.; -guna, m. quality of the cause; -tas, ad. for some reason; -tā, f., -tva, n. causality; -sarīra, n. causal body.
110) कारणकोप (p. 53) kārana-kopa


p066c3-b06/ p053-109

• कारणा [ kār-anā ]
- f. action.
109) कारणा (p. 53) kār-anā


p066c3-b07/ p053-108

• कारणात्मन्् [ kārana‿ātman ]
- a. being essentially the cause of (g.); -‿antara, n. special cause.
108) कारणात्मन्् (p. 53) kārana̮ātman


p066c3-b08/ p053-107

• कारणिक [ kāran-ika ]
- m. judge.
107) कारणिक (p. 53) kāran-ika


p066c3-b09/ p053-106

• कारण्डव [ kārandava ]
- m. kind of duck.
106) कारण्डव (p. 53) kārandava


p066c3-b10/ p053-130

• कारयितव्य [ kārayi-tavya ]
- cs. fp. that should be caused to be done; to be managed; to be effected or procured; -tri, m. causer of action; barber.
130) कारयितव्य (p. 53) kārayi-tavya


p066c3-b11/ not online

• [kāra-skara]
- m. kind of poisonous plant


p066c3-b12/ p053-129

• कारा [ kārā ]
- f. prison, gaol; -‿agāra, -griha, n. id.; -patha, m. N. of a country; -vāsa, m. gaol, imprisonment.
129) कारा (p. 53) kārā


p066c3-b13/ not online

• कारावर [kāra‿avara]
Skt: कारावर [kāra‿avara] - m. a certain mixed caste. (offspring of  Nishāda and Vaidshī ) - Mac066c3
Skt: कारावर «kārāvara» - m. man of a mixed and low caste - SpkSkt
Skt: कारावर «kārāvara» - m. a man of a mixed and low caste (born from a niṣāda- father and vaidehī- mother, working in leather and hides) - http://sanskritdictionary.com/ ... 170222


p066c3-b14/ p053-128

• कारिका [ kār-ikā ]
- f. activity; torment; memorial verse explaining obscure grammatical rules or philosophical doctrines.
128) कारिका (p. 53) kār-ikā


p066c3-b15/ p053-127

• कारित [ kār-ita ]
- pp. caused, produced by, relating to (--°); ā, f. (sc. vriddhi) excessive interest offered by debtor under pressure.
127) कारित (p. 53) kār-ita


p066c3-b16/ p053-132

• कारिन्् [ kār-in ]
- a. ¹. making, doing, producing (g., --°); acting; ². dispersing, destroying.
132) कारिन्् (p. 53) kār-in


p066c3-b17/ p053-131 

• कारु [ kār-ś ]
- m. poet, singer; -u, m. artisan (f. ū): -ka, m. id.
131) कारु (p. 53) kār-ś


p066c3-b18/ p053-133 

• कारुणिक [ kārun-ika ]
- a. compassionate; -ya, n. compassion.
133) कारुणिक (p. 53) kārun-ika


p066c3-b19/ not online

• [kārūsha]
- m. a mixed caste (offspring of outcast Vaisya).

( end of p066-2.htm )

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{kaar~} : Repha on long a 


p066c3-b20/ p053-134

• कार्कश्य [ kārkas-ya ]
Skt: कार्कश्य [ kārkas-ya ] - n. firmness, hardness; harshness. -- Mac066c3
134) कार्कश्य (p. 53) kārkas-ya
Skt: कार्कश्य «kārkaśya» - n. firmness, sternness, hardness, roughness, rough labour -- SpkSkt


p066c3-b21/ not online

• [kārkotaka ]
- n. N. of a city 

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p066c3-b22/ p053-126 

• कार्तवीर्य [ kārtavīrya ]
- m. pat. of Arguna, prince of Haihaya.
126) कार्तवीर्य (p. 53) kārtavīrya


p066c3-b23/ p053-125

• कार्तस्वरमय [ kārta-svara-maya ]
- a. golden and sounding piteous.
125) कार्तस्वरमय (p. 53) kārta-svara-maya


p066c3-b24/ p053-124

• कार्तान्तिक [ kārtānt-ika ]
- m. astrologer.
124) कार्तान्तिक (p. 53) kārtānt-ika astrologer.


p066c3-b25/ p053-123

• कार्त्तिक [ kārttika ]
--> {kaa~t~ti.ka.}
- m. N. of a month (Oct-Nov): ī, f. day of full moon in Kārttika; e-ya, m. met. of Skanda, god of war.
123) कार्त्तिक (p. 53) kārttika

UKT 170222: See my note on Skanda - the god of war

© कार्त्तिक [ kārttika ]
Skt: कार्त्तिक [ kārttika ] - m. N. of a month (Oct-Nov) - Mac066c3
Skt: कार्त्तिक «kārttika» - m. Oct-Nov. m.n. name of the first year in Jupiter's period of revolution - SpkSkt
Pal: {kūt~ti.ka.} - UHS-PMD0286
  UKT from UHS: m. the lunar month {tūn hsaśn moan: la.} when the Moon becomes full in star-cluster Pleiades.
Bur: {krūt~ti.ka} - n. astronomy asterism of seven stars in the shape of a brood of young chicks; the third Lunar Mansion, Pleiades aka {hpyauk hsaip} - MLC MED2006-044

UKT 151104: See ¤ Festivals of Lights in Folk Elements in Buddhism
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch06a-lightfest.htm (link chk 180418)

The full moon night is the night when the sky is clear of clouds and all the 27 nakshatras are visible. It is the end of the four lunar months of Monsoon and the ocean and rivers are calm. It is beginning of the sailing season. It is also the Night of Thieves and young men played "thieves" and steal property such as store-front sign boards to hang in front unlikely places such a public toilet.


p066c3-b26/ p053-122

• कात्स्न्‍र्य [ kārtsn-ya ]
- n. totality: in. completely.
122) कात्स्न्‍र्य (p. 53) kārtsn-ya

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p066c3-b27/ p053-121

• कार्दम [ kārdama ]
- a. muddy.
121) कार्दम (p. 53) kārdama

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UKT notes

Marriage and religion in Myanmarpré

- UKT 140226, 170216:

Marriage in Bur-Myan law has nothing to do with religion, whether it be Theravada Buddhism, Christianity or Islam. Myanmars in general look down on those whose marriage and married life is controlled and interfered by religious leaders who usually translate their religious texts according to his or her understanding of Latin or Arabic both being foreign archaic languages. Because most are not linguists, they usually depend on the translating language: English for Latin, and Urdu for Arabic. Again since most are not proficient in either English and Urdu, they ended up relying to Bur-Myan translations interspersed with passages in Latin and Arabic.

As the matter now stands, what is legal in Myanmarpré would amount to an "unmarried status" in other countries. I quote, Daw Mya Sein *:
"The wedding is not a religious ceremony but a civil contract — in fact no ceremony is necessary at all; a man and woman can simply make known their decision to "eat and live together."
-- http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1958/02/the-women-of-burma/306822/ 140226

Thus, a Bur-Myan Buddhist of both sexes, when entering into a "religious marriage" after being converted usually becomes confused, and in order not to fall into disfavour of the dominant partner, become more "conservative" in religious outlook than the partner. I speak after observing many mixed-marriages including those in my own extended family on both my father's and mother's side. In writing this note, I have to be careful not to offend my cousins some of whom have become Christians and some Muslims and are spread out all over the world particularly in Malaysia and United States.

*[ DAW MYA SEIN, born in 1904 in Moulmein, is of Mon and Arakanese stock. Her distinguished career typifies the increasingly active role of women in Burmese public life. Mother of two children, she has still found time to be headmistress of several schools, editor and broadcaster, first woman elected to the Rangoon City Corporation, delegate to the London Round Table Conference of 1931 and the Paris UNESCO Conference of 1946, President of the National Council of Women, and a leader in social work. She is Lecturer in history at Rangoon University and has made two lecture tours in the United Stales.]. I have met her during my Rangoon University days as a student. The Bur-Myan term for the above marriage is {pu.hso:tūn:tķn a.krķn lķn ma.ya:} "man's (husband) lower garment on woman's (wife) upper clothe-line". -- MLC MED2006-258 .
See also my note on Eight modes of Hindu marriage.
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Eight modes of Hindu marriage

- UKT 120125

From http://hinduism.about.com/od/matrimonial1/a/typesofmarriage.htm 120125

There are eight types of marriage described in the ancient Hindu text of Manusmriti (Laws of Manu) or "Manava Dharma Shastra":

• Rite of Brahmana (Brahma) - where the father of the bride invites a man learned in the Vedas and a good conduct, and gives his daughter in marriage to him after decking her with jewels and costly garments.

• Rite of the Gods (Daiva) - where the daughter is groomed with ornaments and given to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice during the course of its performance of this rite.

• Rite of the Rishis (Arsha) - when the father gives away his daughter after receiving a cow and a bull from the bright groom.

• Rite of the Prajapati - (Prajapatya) where the father gives away his daughter after blessing the couple with the text "May both of you perform together your duties" . Go back Eight-modes-marriage-note-b2

• Rite of the Asuras (Demons) - when the bridegroom receives a maiden after bestowing wealth to the kinsmen and to the bride according to his own will.

• Rite of the Gandharva - the voluntary union of a maiden and her lover, which arises from desire and sexual intercourse for its purpose.

• Rite of the Rakshasa - forcible abduction of a maiden from her home after her kinsmen have been slain or wounded and their houses broken open.

• Rite of the Pisaka - when a man by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping or intoxicated or is mentally disbalanced or handicapped.

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Potsherd : use in construction of Yantra {ķn:}

UKT 140226, 170216:

For construction of what is known as an attack-yantra a piece of what has been a consecrated item such as a broken piece of a Buddhist-monk's alms-bowl is used. See also the use of consecrated items or places such as an abandoned Christian church is used in Western witchcraft. I had no idea of occult as practiced in the West, until I came upon the works of Dennis Wheatley. See Wikipedia:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Wheatley 170217

Esoteric Buddhist-Myanmar practice is of two kinds: the Right-hand path aka the Upper-Mode {a.htak-lūm:}, and the Left-hand path aka the Lower-Mode {auk-lūm}. They generally use two kinds of substrates to write their { ķn: } aka Yantra «यन्त्र» . Upper-Mode {a.htak-lūm:} uses gold, silver, and a special kind of paper, whereas the Lower-Mode {auk-lūm} uses potsherds from monk's alms-bowl. However, I haven't come across any { ķn: } written on a piece of human skull.

A properly written { ķn: } while reciting a specific mantra, at the correct time of conjunction and combination of heavenly luminaries, becomes 'alive' or imbued with a spirit from the Kingdom of the Four Celestial Déva-kings: the Upper-Mode { ķn:} with benevolent spirit, whereas the Lower-Mode { ķn:} with a malevolent spirit. Both kinds of spirit will guard the writer of the { ķn:} and do his or her bidding. The yantras that you can buy on the market are therefore quite useless. See Wikipedia on Hindu Yantras: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yantra 140227

The { ķn:} is a Yantra or instrument very much like a firearm. You can use it for your own personal protection or as an instrument of intimidation of others with mal intent. Thus it is required that the holder of the { ķn:} must make a solemn vow not to misuse it or its guardian spirit will harm or even kill him or her, and make the spirit of the holder its slave.

Here I must note that mantras are not like the hymns you sing in a Christian church -- they are formulas to invoke a specific deity to do your bidding. A mantra has to be recited slowly and softly with full concentration of your mind -- fully concentrated on every akshara uttered. It must never be accompanied by any kind of music which would distract you. Thus every akshara must be learned - where it is produced in the mouth and what the vocal sounds are liked according to the prescribed akshara or phonemic law. I am of the opinion that this kind of akshara learning was in use in Harappan civilization, where they also use occasional short ideographic writing something like the rounded circle which is the basis of the Myanmar akshara.
See a video on the Harappan civilization:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eL7wDzBpOho#aid=P-nFFvgGkS0 140226

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Skanda - the god of war

- UKT 151104

UKT 170221: See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartikeya 170221
and also Encyclopędia Britannica - https://global.britannica.com/topic/Skanda 170221
"Skanda, (Skt: “Leaper” or “Attacker”) also called Karttikeya, Kumara, or Subrahmanya, Hindu god of war who was the first-born son of Shiva. The many legends giving the circumstances of his birth are often at variance with one another. In Kalidasa’s epic poem Kumarasambhava (“The Birth of the War God”; 5th century CE), as in most versions of the story, the gods wished for Skanda to be born in order to destroy the demon Asura Taraka, who had been granted a boon that he could be killed only by a son of Shiva. ..."

"Skanda" is derived from "Iskanda" which is, of course, "Alexander the Great". He brought death and destruction to the ancient World - swiftly as if riding a peacock - as far as east to India 327/326 BC. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_Alexander_the_Great 170221
See also: http://murugan.org/research/gopalapillai.htm 170221
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C4%81rak%C4%81sura 170221
- http://freeread.com.au/@rglibrary/JacobAbbott/MoH/Alexander.html#ch1 170221
Watch a video from History Channel, in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries, in General Section
- AlexanderWarLord<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 180418)

UKT 151104: You will notice that the word कार्त्तिक «kārttika» is related to Skanda - the god of war. The following article notes that Alexander the Great is known under the name of Iskandar. Read
SKANDA: THE ALEXANDER ROMANCE IN INDIA by N. Gopala Pillai, M. A., in Proceedings of the All-India Oriental Conference 1937 - 955 - http://murugan.org/research/gopalapillai.htm 151104

The Moon is in the star cluster known as Pleiades in October-November. Pleiades are known as Krittika and are associated with the war-god Kartikeya aka  Murugan and Skanda. This god is raised by the six Krittika sisters aka Matrikas. See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiades 151104


As a boy I used to be trilled by stories of military conquests and manly exploits, and Alexander the Great was one of my boy-hood heroes until as a grown up who have seen the ravages of war loathe all such stories. Alexander the Great has become not-so-Great as his exploits were founded on the miseries of the common people.

It is an interesting fact that the Moon is in the star cluster known as Pleiades in October-November. Pleiades are known as Krittika and are associated with the war-god Kartikeya aka  Murugan and Skanda. This god is raised by the six Krittika sisters aka Matrikas. See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiades 151104

The question now remains whether Alexander the Great - the author - of war has become Skanda - the south Indian god of war. I hold the view that the two are the same, and the Indians have worshipped him out of fear than of respect.

UKT 180418: In Myanmarpré, the full-moon day in October-November when the Moon is in the Pleiades is celebrated as the Tanzaungdaing Lighting Festival. On the night after the full-moon day, in the dead of night, the Festival of Thieves is held usually by young men bent on playing jokes on their neighbours. They would "steal" things outside houses and put them in other not-belonging-places, such as the sign-board from a lawyer's office and hanging it in front of a public privy. The owners can recover their belongings in the morning. Now, let's turn to the meaning of Thieves. Under the general term Thieves are included, those who hate you, those who would murder you and destroy your belongings. It is no wonder Alexander the Great, the author of war and destruction would be classified as a Thief, and became hated by his victims in the lands he has devastated.

From: SKANDA: THE ALEXANDER ROMANCE IN INDIA by N. Gopala Pillai, M. A., in Proceedings of the All-India Oriental Conference 1937 - 955 - http://murugan.org/research/gopalapillai.htm 151104

The marvellous exploits of Alexander the Great startled and thrilled the world. East and West vied with each other in paying him divine honours during his life and after his death. Myths and legends woven around him, embroidered with all the glowing colours of imagination spread through the Continents. The lands he conquered and those beyond them told his tales in diverse tongues.

Greek and Latin, Syriac and Arabic (fn01), Ethiopic, Hebrew, Samaritan, Armenian, Persian, English and French, German and Italian, and even Scandinavian languages of Europe, Asia, and Africa enshrined in prose and verse the immortal romance of the Macedonian Prince. [UKT ¶]

UKT 151104: Yet we in Myanmarpré knew nothing about him. Perhaps the country, especially the northern part with Tagaung at its centre had been spared the ravages of war brought about by ambitions of men like Alexander the Great.

Those were the days when religion held sway over the minds of men. His tolerance of faiths other than his own, his cosmopolitan outlook in matters religious, inspired as it was by a deep vein of mysticism helped him (fn02) “wherever he went to treat with respect the local religion.” His attitude towards the religion of the Persians, his greatest adversaries, the destruction of their sacred books at Persepolis is one of the rare exceptions to the rule of his general tolerance. The Arabs worshipped him as Iskandar (fn03) Dhu’lquarnein (two horned Alexander) and even Islam (fn04) adopted Iskandar among her prophets, and carried his forgotten fame back into India. He was the first Aryan monarch to become a God. (fn05).

When these various nations with whom he came into contact have preserved various accounts of his life and conquests, have elevated him to the position of a Superman and God, it is strange, if it be a fact, that Ancient Indian Literature alone is oblivious of him. [UKT ¶]

Great scholars and historians have noted this phenomenon of apparent silence (fn06). But they are not surprised. Indians are a peculiar race. India ignores and forgets (fn07). “It is a conspiracy of silence.” “India remained unchanged. The wounds of battle were quickly healed: the ravaged fields smile again (fn08). “No Indian author, Hindu or Jain or Buddhist makes even the faintest allusion to Alexander or his deeds,” asserted V.A. Smith, and he quotes with approval the lines by Matthew Arnold:

“The East bowed low before the blast
In patient, deep disdain,
She let the legions thunder past,
And plunged in thought again.”

UKT 151104:
• Mathew Arnold (1822-1888), an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Arnold 151104
• Edwin Arnold (1832-1904), the author of The Light of Asia, subtitled The Great Renunciation, [of Gautama Buddha] first published in London in July 1879.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Light_of_Asia 151104

... ... ...

Alexander was a prince, and Kumara, which means a prince in Sanskrit, is a synonym of ‘Skanda.’ He was a warlord and leader of an army, and Senani which means the leader of an army is again a name of Skanda. The lance was Alexander’s favourite weapon, and the weapon of Greek soldiers in general, and Skanda is called ‘Sakti-dhara’ (lance bearer). These are resemblances which may gain weight in the light of other evidences.

UKT: there are more in this lengthy article.

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