Update: 2018-01-24 03:14 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{ka.} क ka: the first consonantal akshara in BEPS
{ka.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha

----- on line downloaded for p060 on 171116.
UKT 171115: I'm noticing the PIX programme getting slower and getting confused over commands. Because of which I've moved all grouped files and ungrouped (free) files to my HD library in ~~Macdonell-cut folder,  including those which needs more copying. Also now that Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012, is in TIL library, you can always copy from the ink-on-paper book.   Caveat: Don't be impatient going over old or grouped files. The process is a necessity.
   If I'm to begin with {ka.} - the first letter of the consonants, I'll have to start from p060-3.htm - similar to p105.htm which begins with {ta.}. Note: what I get from Univ. of Chicago are still actively linked to its website.

Downloaded Roots
from W. D. Whitney, 1885

UKT notes :
Ashoka tree
Cavity of the loins
First Mix-up in BEPS
Nasadiya Sukta 'Hymn of Creation Beginning'
Panchatantra Tales : recession in Stories of Somadeva - p062.htm
Prajapati the lord of the world of living & Skt-Dev Ka क which is worshipped as a god.
Royal regalia :
  a story of {hkyr-nn:} 'sandals' - the vehicle 


Contents of this page

{ka.} क ka: the first consonantal akshara in BEPS

UKT 151025, 170124: Take care in dealing with the Velar {ka.}-row and the Palatal {sa.}/ {c}-row. They become mixed up when the different languages in BEPS are treated as a group.

The Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan speakers treat row#2 , the {sa.}/ {c}-row, as Palatal Plosive-stops. But to the Eng-Lat, Mon-Myan & Skt-Dev speakers they are Palatal Affricates. See the First Mix-up in BEPS

UKT 171115: I'm noticing the Paint (PIX) programme getting slower and getting confused over commands. After a trial, I've moved all grouped files and ungrouped (free) files to ~~Macdonell-cuts, including those which needs more copying. Now that Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 is in TIL library, you can always copy from the ink-on-paper book. Caveat: Don't be impatient going over old or grouped files. The process is a necessity.

I'm begining with {ka.} - the first letter of the consonants - starting from p060-3.htm - similar to p105.htm which begins with {ta.}. Note: what I get from Univ. of Chicago are still actively link to its website.



p060-3c1-b00 / p049-131

क [ 1. k ]
- inter. prn. st. (n. V. kd; C. km) who? what? which? with iva, u, nma, who indeed? often used in a depreciating sense= as good as none, no one or nothing: k‿esha kath? that is out of the question; kim with in. or gd.=what does -matter? what is the use of -to (g.)? with nu, who pray? with v, who possibly? with svid, who or what, I wonder?
- Indef. prn. . with neg. any, any one; . with preceding ya and following ka, whosoever, whichever; anysoever, every; with preceding ya and following v , anysoever; . with kan, none whatever (often strengthened by negatives); 4. with kana, kid, or api, some, any, a certain (a. or n.): pl. some; kaskidkaskid, the one--the other: pl. some--others.
131) (p. 49) 1. k kd;


p060-3c1-b01/ p049-130

क [ 2. k ]
Skt: . m. (Who?) ep. of Pragpati or Brahman; n. bliss; water; head. - Mac060c1
130) (p. 49) 2. k (Who?)
Pal: {ka.} - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: n. water, head

See my note on Prajapati
See also the Hymn of Creation Nasadiya Sukta
  which is linked to the Sphota Theory of Language
- lang-indx.htm > lang-thot-indx.htm > spho-cwrd-indx.htm (link chk 170124)
On p074.htm, you'll come across another epithet of Prajpati: 

केश [ 2. ka‿sa ]
- n. the lunar mansion Rohin (ruled by Ka, i.e. Pragpati).


Contents of this page



p060-3c2-b00/ p049-129 

कंस [ kams ]
Skt: कंस [ kams ] - m. goblet; m. n. brass; m. N. of a king slain by Krishna; -krish, -satru, -nishdana, -‿ari, m. ep. of  Krishna. - Mac060c2
129) कंस (p. 49) kams
Skt: कंस kaṃsa - m.n. brass, tutanag or white copper [copper-alloy containing more tin or zinc than reddish copper], metal, bell-metal, dish, goblet ... -- SpkSkt

UKT 140629: Kamsa was a king of Mathura, a city now located in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh aka UP. See in my note on Kamsa .

कंस kaṃsa [kams]
Skt: m. goblet; m.n. brass; m. N. of a king slain by Krishna - Mac060
Pal: {kn-a.}
- - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: m. copper (or brass), white brass, dinner-plate, four pieces of money.

BHS: kaṃsa-pātrī - (see prec.), brass bowl - FE-BHS163c1
Pal: {kn-a.pa-ti} -- UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: f. brass bowl

( end of old p063-3.htm )

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p060-3c2-b01/ p049-157

ककार [ ka-kra ]
- m. the sound or letter k .
157) ककार (p. 49) ka-kra


p060-3c2-b02/ not online

-- m. N. of a grandson of Ikshvku.

UKT 140629: King Ikshvku, which in Pali "Okkaka", was the ancestor of Gautama Buddha. See in my note Ikshavku .


p060-3c2-b03/ p049-156

ककुद् [ kakd ]
- f. summit, peak; tip; hump; ensign of royalty; chief of (g.).
156) ककुद् (p. 49) kakd


p060-3c2-b04/ not online

kakudaḥ ककुद

ककुद [kakuda] = क क ु द : no viram at end
Skt: -- n. (m.) id. -- Mac060-3
Skt: ककुदkakudaḥ - ककुदः दम् - Apte: SktDict
. The peak or summit of a mountain.
 . A hump (on the shoulders of an Indian bull). किं यत्तत्सास्नालाङ्गूलककुदखुरविषाण्यर्थरूपं स शब्दः Mbh.I.1.1.
 . Chief, foremost, pre-eminent; ककुदं वेदविदां तपोधनश्च Mk.1.5; इक्ष्वाकुवंश्यः ककुदं नृपाणाम् R.6.71.
 4. A sign or symbol of royalty; नृपतिककुदम् R.3.7,17,27.
 5. A species of serpent.
Pal: {ka.ku.Da.}
- - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: m. bullock's hump, cock's croft, royal regalia, names of 2 plants.

See my note on Royal regalia 

BHS: Kakuda Kātyāyana
- (= Pali Kakuda, Kadudha, or Pakudha or Kātiyāna; ...)
- FE-BHS163c1


p060-3c2-b05/ p049-155

ककुद््मत्् [ kakd-mat ]
- a. having a hump; m. mountain; buffalo with a hump.
155) ककुद्््मत्् (p. 49) kakd-mat 


p060-3c2-b06/ p049-154

ककुद््मिन् [ kakud-min ]
- a. having a hump; m. buffalo with a hump; -mi-kany, f. pat. of the Revat.
154) ककुद्््मिन् (p. 49) kakud-min


p060-3c2-b07/ not online

ककु्द्रुम kakudruma (Dev sp?)
- m. N. of a jackal

UKT 171130: See my note on fables in Panchatantra Tales & Panchamakra.


Contents of this page


p060-3c3-b00/ p049-153 

ककुन्दर [ kakundara ]
= क क ु न ् द र --> {ka.koan~da.ra.}
Skt: ककुन्दर [kakundara] - n. cavity of the loins. -- Mac060-c3
153) ककुन्दर (p. 49) kakundara cavity of the loins.
Skt: ककुन्दर kakundara - n. cavities of the loins -- SpkSkt
Bur: {hka:htic} -- MLC MED2006-055
  UKT: - nick or notch above hip.

See my note on cavity of the loins .


p060-3c3-b01/ p049-152

ककुब्जय [ kakub-gaya ]
- m. conquest of the world.
152) ककुब्जय (p. 49) kakub-gaya 


p060-3c3-b02/ p049-151

ककुभ् [ kakbh ]
- f. summit; point of the compass; a metre.
151) ककुभ् (p. 49) kakbh


p060-3c3-b03/ p049-150

ककुभ [ kakubh ]
Skt: - a. prominent; m. kind of musical mode; a tree; -surabhi, a. fragrant with Kakubha flowers. -- Mac060-3
150) ककुभ (p. 49) kakubh
Pal: {ka.ku.Ba.}  -- UHS-PMD0275
   UKT from UHS: m. name of 2 plants, Terminalia arjuna.

 UKT: ककुभ, kakubha, n. flower of Terminalia arjuna - http://www.indianetzone.com/38/kakubha_plants.htm 110819


p060-3c3-b04/ p049-149

ककुम्मुख [ kakum-mukha ]
- n. point of the compass.
149) ककुम्मुख (p. 49) kakum-mukha


p060-3c3-b05/ p049-148

कक्कोल [ kakkola ]
- m. a tree; n. an aromatic substance; -ka, n. id.
148) कक्कोल (p. 49) kakkola

( end of old p060-4.htm )

Contents of this page


p060-3c3-b06/ p049-147

कक्ष [ kksha ]
= क क ् ष  -> {kak~Sa.} -> {kak~hka.} / {ka.hka.}
- m. hiding-place, lair; thicket; m., , f. arm-pit; girth, girdle, cincture; balance (generally f.); , f. circular wall, enclosure; orbit of a planet; equality; emulation: ()-pata, m. loin-cloth.
147) कक्ष (p. 49) kksha

कक्ष kaksa [kksha] : use of Pseudo-Kha
Skt: - m. hiding-place, lair; thicket; m. -- Mac060
Pal: {kak~hka.} : use of Regular-Kha
- - UHS-PMD0276
   UKT from UHS: m. well-branched [and shady] liana (suitable for a lair - a hiding place for animals)
   See my note on rainforest liana - not the slender vine

क्षण kṣaṇa
BHS: - m. ( = Pali khaṇa birth under favourable conditions -- FE-BHS198c1
Pal: {hka.Na.} -- UHS-PMD0342
   UKT from UHS: . m. a short time-duration, instant, opportunity. . m. digging

क्षत्र kṣatra
BHS: kṣatra (nt.) = kṣetra, field. Cf. Pali DN 3.93.13 ... -- FE-BHS198c2
Pal: {hkt~ta.} -- UHS-PMD0351
   UKT from UHS: n. field, cultivated field, wife, own physical-body


क्षेत्र kṣetra  cf. Srikshetra {a.r-hkt~ta.ra}
BHS: kṣetra (field, always nt. in Skt., and so khetta in Pali acc. to PTSD, .. -- FE-BHS201c1

( end of new p060-3.htm )

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----- online 171116 : p060-3.htm search for कंस

UKT 171116: What I get as p049 is heavily mixed up with vowels:
  first entry    1) एला ( p. 49) el cardamoms; a metre.
  last entry 158) औदासीन्य ( p. 49) audsn-ya indifference, apathy.
Since, I know the vowels, I've deleted them except the first entry, and the last.


Previous Page [48] Page 49 Next Page [50]
1) एला (p. 49) el cardamoms; a metre.
... ... ...
158) औदासीन्य (p. 49) audsn-ya indifference, apathy.
Back to the Search Page   |   Back to the DDSA Page


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Ashoka tree

-- UKT 110822, 170125:

I came to know the red { n-krn:} flowers in Pauk, as child in 1940s. It is entirely different from {au-ka.}.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraca_asoca 170125
Note: There was a mix up between { n-krn:} and {au-ka.} in Wiki article dated 110822
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amherstia 170125

Saraca asoca (the Ashoka tree; lit., "sorrow-less") is a plant belonging to the Caesalpiniaceae subfamily of the legume family. It is an important tree in the cultural traditions of the Indian Subcontinent and adjacent areas.

Mythology and tradition

The ashoka tree is considered sacred throughout the Indian subcontinent, especially in India and Sri Lanka. This tree has many folklorical, religious and literary associations in the region. Highly valued as well for its handsome appearance and the color and abundance of its flowers, the ashoka tree is often found in royal palace compounds and gardens as well as close to temples throughout India.

The ashoka tree is closely associated with the Yakshi mythological beings. One of the recurring elements in Indian art, often found at gates of Buddhist and Hindu temples, is the sculpture of a Yakshi with her foot on the trunk and her hands holding the branch of a flowering ashoka tree. As an artistic element, often the tree and the Yakshi are subject to heavy stylization. Some authors hold that the young girl at the foot of this tree is based on an ancient fertility symbol. [2]

The ashoka tree has a symbolic importance in Buddhism. Queen Māyā of Sakya is said to have given birth to the Buddha under an ashoka tree in a garden in Lumbini. According to tradition, the queen walked in the garden until she came to an ashoka tree to take a rest. Then the tree magically bent down for her and she grasped a branch. At that moment the Buddha emerged from her right side. [3]

Yakshis under ashoka trees were also important in early Buddhist monuments as a decorative element and are found in many ancient Buddhist archaeological sites. With the passing of the centuries the yakshi under the ashoka tree became a standard decorative element of Hindu Indian sculpture and was integrated into Indian temple architecture as salabhanjika, because there is often a confusion between the ashoka tree and the sal tree (Shorea robusta) in the ancient literature of the Indian Subcontinent. [4]

This tree is also regarded with veneration in Jainism. In the Jain tradition Mahavira is said to have renounced the world under this kind of tree in Vaishali.

In Hinduism the ashoka is considered a sacred tree. Not counting a multitude of local traditions connected to it, the ashoka tree is worshipped in Chaitra, [5] the first month of the Hindu Calendar. [5] It is also associated with Kamadeva, the Hindu god of Love, who included an Ashoka blossom among the five flowers in his quiver. [6] Hence, the ashoka tree is often mentioned in classical Indian religious and amorous poetry, having at least 16 different names in Sanskrit referring to the tree or its flowers. [7]

In Mahākāvya, or Indian epic poetry, the ashoka tree is mentioned in the Ramayana in reference to the Ashoka Vatika (garden of Ashoka trees) where Hanuman first meets Sita.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back asoka-tree-note-b

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Cavity of the loins

-- UKT 140206:

Skt-Dev word ककुन्दर kakundara  has been translated as "the cavity or cavities of the loins".

Skt: ककुन्दर [kakundara] - n. cavity of the loins.
  -- Mac060-c3
Skt: ककुन्दर kakundara
  -- n. cavities of the loins -- SpkSkt

Because of the word "cavity or cavities" we can be easily led astray. So what is "loins" in Skt-Dev?

What are "loins" in Skt-Dev?
कटिकूप kaṭikūpa - m. loins -- SpkDev
कटिदेश kaṭideśa - m. loins -- SpkDev

The English word "loins"

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loin 140206

"The loins (or: lumbus) are the sides between the lower ribs and pelvis, and the lower part of the back. It is often used when describing the anatomy of humans and quadrupeds (such as horses, pigs or cattle)" .

An efficient way to carry a child who is fully awake is to carry it in the cavity of the hip. The women of India and SE Asia usually carry a child this way. In the pix, an Indonesian woman carried a child while on her way to a temple. She probably did not have an umbrella because she was on her way to a temple. Her shadow shows that the time was about noon, and the sun would be very hot. I had downloaded the pix from Google images a long time ago and this is all the info I could get.

Go back cavity-loins-note-b

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The First Mix-up in BEPS

- UKT 151025, 170124:

The first consonantal akshara, the {ka.}, is a Velar plosive-stop. Leaving the nasal /ŋ/ aside, there are 4 similar sounding phonemes in the first consonantal akshara group, which is designated as the row #1 in the plosive-stops.
See - MCc1pp-indx.htm (link chk 170124)

Since Mon-Myan also uses the Myanmar akshara, we need to know how row#1 & row#2 sound in Mon-Myan. Listen carefully how each row sounds, and you will notice that the inherent vowel in r1c1, r1c2, r2c1, r2c2, is /a/. But in r1c3, r1c4, r1c5, r2c3, r2c4, r2c5, the inherent vowel sounds like /e/. Mon-Myan consonants are of two kinds, one with inherent vowel /a/ and the other /e/

Mon-Myan row#1 - bk-cndl-row1<))
Mon-Myan row#2 - bk-cndl-row2<))
Now listen to the whole 35 consonants
  (2 more than in Bur-Myan) in a song - bk-cndl-aks-song<))

The row #2 palatals, with {sa.}/{c}-row, as the first member, is commonly confused with row #1 velars. English, Mon, & Hindi speakers do articulate the row #2 palatals, not as plosive-stops, but as affricates. Their phonemes sound as {kya.}, {hkya.}, & {gy} to our ears. Thus, row #2 palatals can be "plosive-stops" as well as "affricates":

--------------------------------- tenuis ------ voiceless --- voiced
row #1 velar-stops:  ------- {ka.} क ,  {hka.} ख -- {ga.} ग -  - Pal-Myan
row #2 palatal-stops:  ---- {sa.}/{c},  {hsa.},  ---- {za.}  -- - Pal-Myan
row #2 palatal-affricates:   {kya.} च, {hkya.} छ, {gya.} ज - Skt-Dev

English (Eng-Lat), French (Fre-Lat), and (as far I know) all European speakers cannot pronounce the tenuis-voiceless. They can only "hear" and pronounce the "ordinary voiceless". They "think" that tenuis {ka.} & voiceless {hka.} have the same sound. They pronounce both as /ka/. Some Western phoneticians realising the difference, remedy the error as [ka] and [kʰa] but call both as the allophones of /ka/.

Notice that two systems of brackets are used: [...] is designated the narrow transcription, and /.../ the broad transcription. Since there is almost a one-to-one correspondence between spelling and pronunciation in Asokan-derived scripts and their respective pronunciations, I have designed Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} or Bur-Latin, {...}, as a phonetic transcription.

UKT 170124: In the name Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}, the emphasis is on {ro:ma.} - the backbone - of all Myanmar languages. It is not  Romanization of Burmese. However, since it is based on Bur-Myan phonology, it is not applicable to day-to-day Mon-Myan speech. Yet for a common theme such as Pali prayers, you can comprehend what the Mon speakers are saying. Listen: Mon salutation<))

Moreover, Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} is ASCII compatible. From it, you can know how a word is spelled in Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan, and easily find its cognate ('relative' 'having a common ancestor') in Skt-Dev.

"Phonetic transcription may aim to transcribe the phonology of a language, or it maybe used to go further and specify the precise phonetic realisation. In all systems of transcription we may therefore distinguish between broad transcription and narrow transcription. Broad transcription indicates only the more noticeable phonetic features of an utterance, whereas narrow transcription encodes more information about the phonetic variations of the specific allophones in the utterance." -- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonetic_transcription 150714

Go back first-mixup-note-b

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- UKT 140629, 171125 : The following issues with the name Ikshavaku aka Okkaka.

1. I have always thought that the name "Okkaka" is spelled with the close back vowel /u/, but on actual check with the list supplied by U Zawtika, Zeyathukha monastery, Sanchaung, I find that it is to be spelled with open back vowel /ɔ/ (open-O). Close back vowel /u/ is {U.}, and open back vowel /ɔ/ (open-O) is {AU}. The {AU} in the name is checked by {ka.}-killed, the top-member of the vertical conjunct {k~ka.}, resulting in pronunciation: "auk" - not "oak".

2. The Western authors (like those writing for Wikipedia) usually omits "titles" such as "King" and "Prince". In Bur-Myan usage, these titles are regarded as part of the names. I have made the necessary corrections. 

3. According to Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973)) - http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html (link chk 171125): "Although the Sanskritised form of the Pāli name is Iksavāku, it is unlikely that Okkāka is identical with the famous Iksavāku of the Purānas, the immediate son of Manu, son of the Sun. The Pāli is evidently more primitive, as is shown by the form Okkāmukha, and the name Iksavāku looks like a deliberate attempt at accommodation to the Purānic account. For discussion see Thomas, op. cit., p.6."



From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku_dynasty 140629

Ikshavaku dynasty in Buddhist tradition

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas {a.kya.} to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. [UKT]  

This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. [9] The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows: [10] [11] 

1. King Okkaka
2. Okkamukha
3. King Sivisamjaya
4. King Sihassara
5. Prince Jayasena
6. Sihahanu
7. King Suddhodana
8. Prince Siddhartha who became Gautama Buddha
9. Prince Rahula

Go back Ikshvaku-note-b

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- UKT 140630, 170124: Many humans noted for their exploits have been deified by various religionists in ancient times, and I believe Krishna was one of them. The story of Kamsa and Krishna appears to be a power struggle for the throne of Mathura Kingdom .

Taking a cue from the meaning of Kamsa 'brass', I have come to believe that the story of Kamsa (with brass weapons belonging to Bronze Age), and Krishna (with iron weapons belonging to Iron Age) is the war between the peoples of the Bronze Age, defending their mother-land from the invaders with iron weapons of the Iron Age. Timeline of coming of Iron Age: 1300-230 BCE. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age_India 170124
It can be said that the various battles would have been well-known to Gautama Buddha (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE c. 483 BCE/400 BCE). 

Now, if you have to explain everything in terms of scientifically unacceptable gods and devils, you can go on reading the following:

We must note that Hinduism - the religion - is now made up of 3 traditions: the worship of Vishnu, the worship of Siva, and the worship of Devi. Vishnu, Siva, and Devi are all non-humans - they are dva-gods.

However in these traditions, there are deified humans of different time-periods, e.g., Krishna, and Rama. Krishna is popularly portrayed with his childhood love - Radha राधा {ra-Da}, and Rama with Sita सीता {i-ta} (meaning "furrow"). The Hindu religionists even tried to include Gautama Buddha - a human being - into the Vishnu-tradition by calling him a reincarnation of Vishnu.

It is not only in Hinduism that we find the Gautama Buddha. We find him in both Christianity and Islam. I quote Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barlaam_and_Josaphat 140629"

Balauhar and Budasaf or Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf is a legendary Islamic telling of the story of Siddhartha Gautama originating in the Sogdian language (Middle Iranian). [1] The tale came into Christianity as the story of Sts. Barlaam and Josaphat, who were venerated in both the Eastern and Western churches.

Now back to Kamsa and Krishna:

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamsa 140629

In Hinduism (tradition: worship of Vishnu), Kaṁsa'  कंस (Skt-Dev) aka Kans (Hindi-Dev), {kn-a.} (Skt-Myan) was a king of Mathura. He was the brother of Devaki, and ruler of the Vrishni kingdom with its capital at Mathura. His father was King Ugrasena and mother was Queen Padmavati. However, out of ambition and upon the advice of his personal confidante, Banasura, Kamsa decided to overthrow his father and install himself as the King of Mathura. Therefore, upon the guidance of another advisor, Chanur, Kamsa decided to marry the two daughters of Jarasandha, King of Magadha, who was, in turn, a friend of Banasura. Their names were Asti and Prapti.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Kamsa-note-b

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-- UKT 140206, 170126

Lianas are not slender vines which you can use as rope. Of course they started out as slender vines, but eventually their girth can be as large as a foot in diameter. In the Wikipedia article, you see how they form bridges between the forest canopy. These tree top bridges become regular highways for the monkeys. In the novel Jungle Book (1894) Rudyard Kipling tells about Bandar-log (Hindi: बन्दर-लोग) the monkeys, who abducted Mowgli  the human feral child. They carried their captive along their well known highways among the trees while Mowgli's friends had to follow them down below on the ground.

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liana 120725

A liana is any of various long-stemmed, woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. [1] Lianas are especially characteristic of tropical moist deciduous forests and rainforests, including temperate rainforests. These climbers often form bridges between the forest canopy, connect the entire forest and provide arboreal animals with paths across the forest. These bridges also protect weaker trees from strong winds.

The term "liana" is not a taxonomic grouping, but rather a description of the way the plant grows, and lianas may be found in many different plant families. One way of distinguishing lianas from trees and shrubs is based on the stiffness, specifically, the Young's modulus of various parts of the stem.

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Nasadiya Sukta 'Hymn of Creation Beginning'

- UKT 151025 

Indian philosophies such as Buddhism and Hinduism are often cloaked in mysterious statements, which to the sceptical mind seems to be self contradictory. However, to be charitable, it could be a matter of presenting an additional dimension, such as Time, t , to those of us who are only used to the three dimensions of Space, x, y, z. See Space-Time continuum in
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacetime 151025

Such is the Hindu Nasadiya Sukta the "Hymn of Creation". We should be aware that the word "Creation" presupposes the existence of an intelligent "Creator" or a God. However the event could be something brought about by random chance. If it were so, we should use an alternate word such as "Beginning" or common concept of "Big Bang", and get rid of an Axiomatic entity.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasadiya_Sukta 151025

The Nasadiya Sukta (after the incipit n sat "not the non-existent") also known as the Hymn of Creation is the 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129). It is concerned with cosmology and the origin of the universe. [4]


The hymn has attracted a large body of literature of commentaries both in Indian theology and in Western philology. [5]

Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics. [1] It is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning.
-- Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philology 151026

It begins by paradoxically stating "not the non-existent existed, nor did the existent exist then"

n sat āsīt n u st āsīt tadnīm,

UKT 151026: ना = {na} as the first syllable brought to mind similar statements in Theravada Buddhist Abhi'dharma, which I will study eventually.

paralleled in verse 2 by "then not death existed, nor the immortal"

n mṛtyḥ āsīt amŕtam n trhi . [UKT ]

But already in verse 2 mention is made that there was "breathing without breath, of its own nature, that one" nīt avātm svadhyā tt kam). In verse 3, being unfolds, "from heat (tapas) was born that one" (tpasaḥ tt mahin ajāyata kam). Verse 4 mentions desire (kāma) as the primal seed, and the first poet-seers (kavayas) who "found the bond of being within non-being with their heart's thought".

Brereton (1999) argues that the reference to the sages searching for being in their spirit is central, and that the hymn's gradual procession from non-being to being in fact re-enacts creation within the listener (see sphoṭa), equating poetic utterance and creation (see śabda).

Sphoṭa  ( स्फोट, 'bursting, opening', 'spurt') is an important concept in the Indian grammatical tradition of Vyakarana, relating to the problem of speech production, how the mind orders linguistic units into coherent discourse and meaning." - Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spho%E1%B9%ADa 151025

See vyākaraṇa व्याकरण (=  व ् य ा क र ण ) is one of the six Vedanga disciplines.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vy%C4%81kara%E1%B9%87a 151025
Pal: {bya-ka.ra.Na.} - UHS-PMD0714
  UKT from UHS: n. statement, speech, prophesy. a treatise on grammar 

- lang-indx.htm > lang-thot-indx.htm > spho-cwrd-indx.htm

The hymn is undoubtedly late within the Rigveda, and expresses thought more typical of later Indian philosophy. [6]

The hymn has been interpreted as one of the earliest accounts of skeptical inquiry and agnosticism. [7] Astronomer Carl Sagan quoted it in discussing India's "tradition of skeptical questioning and unselfconscious humility before the great cosmic mysteries." [8]


Nasadiya Sukta with English translation

नासदासीन्नो सदासीत्तदानीं नासीद्रजो नो व्योमा परो यत् ।
किमावरीवः कुह कस्य शर्मन्नम्भः किमासीद्गहनं गभीरम् ॥ १॥

Then even nothingness was not, nor existence,
There was no air then, nor the heavens beyond it.
What covered it? Where was it? In whose keeping?
Was there then cosmic water, in depths unfathomed? - 1

न मृत्युरासीदमृतं न तर्हि न रात्र्या अह्न आसीत्प्रकेतः ।
आनीदवातं स्वधया तदेकं तस्माद्धान्यन्न परः किञ्चनास ॥२॥

Then there was neither death nor immortality
nor was there then the torch of night and day.
The One breathed windlessly and self-sustaining.
There was that One then, and there was no other. - 2

तम आसीत्तमसा गूहळमग्रे प्रकेतं सलिलं सर्वाऽइदम् ।
तुच्छ्येनाभ्वपिहितं यदासीत्तपसस्तन्महिनाजायतैकम् ॥३॥

At first there was only darkness wrapped in darkness.
All this was only unillumined water.
That One which came to be, enclosed in nothing,
arose at last, born of the power of heat. - 3

कामस्तदग्रे समवर्तताधि मनसो रेतः प्रथमं यदासीत् ।
सतो बन्धुमसति निरविन्दन्हृदि प्रतीष्या कवयो मनीषा ॥४॥

In the beginning desire descended on it -
that was the primal seed, born of the mind.
The sages who have searched their hearts with wisdom
know that which is kin to that which is not. - 4

तिरश्चीनो विततो रश्मिरेषामधः स्विदासीदुपरि स्विदासीत् ।
रेतोधा आसन्महिमान आसन्त्स्वधा अवस्तात्प्रयतिः परस्तात् ॥५॥

And they have stretched their cord across the void,
and know what was above, and what below.
Seminal powers made fertile mighty forces.
Below was strength, and over it was impulse. - 5

को अद्धा वेद क इह प्र वोचत्कुत आजाता कुत इयं विसृष्टिः ।
अर्वाग्देवा अस्य विसर्जनेनाथा को वेद यत आबभूव ॥६॥

But, after all, who knows, and who can say
Whence it all came, and how creation happened?
the gods themselves are later than creation,
so who knows truly whence it has arisen? - 6

इयं विसृष्टिर्यत आबभूव यदि वा दधे यदि वा न ।
यो अस्याध्यक्षः परमे व्योमन्त्सो अङ्ग वेद यदि वा न वेद ॥७॥

Whence all creation had its origin,
he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not,
he, who surveys it all from highest heaven,
he knows - or maybe even he does not know. - 7 [9]

RV 10.130 :

The hymn that immediately follows (10.130) deals with the origin of sacrifice and refers to puṃs "a Man", identified with Prajāpati by Sāyana. [10] [UKT ]

Sāyaṇa (Kannada; with honorific Sāyaṇācārya; died 1387) was an important commentator on the Vedas.
See Wikipedia -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayana 151026

The hymn contemplates that the first sacrifice was performed by humans who by that act were elevated to rishis, alluding to the mythical first sacrifice performed by the gods described in the Purusha Sukta (RV 10.90) verse 6 (trans. Griffith):

UKT 151026: From http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe/origins-universe-article/ 151026

"The most popular theory of our universe's origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history -- the big bang. This theory was born of the observation that other galaxies are moving away from our own at great speed, in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force.

"Before the big bang, scientists believe, the entire vastness of the observable universe, including all of its matter and radiation, was compressed into a hot, dense mass just a few millimeters across. This nearly incomprehensible state is theorized to have existed for just a fraction of the first second of time."

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Panchatantra Tales

-- UKT 140629: We always think of Tantric Buddhism whenever we hear the word "Tantra". In the following account, it simply means "techniques".

My note based on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchamakara 171130

Don't get confused with Panchamakara, aks the Five Ms: a Tantric term for 5 substances used:
1. madya 'wine'; 2. māṃsa 'meat'; 3. matsya 'fish'; 4. mudrā 'parched grain'*; 5. maithuna 'sexual intercourse'.

Taboo-breaking elements are only practiced literally by "left-hand path" tantrics (vāmācārin, whereas "right-hand path" tantrics dakṣiṇācārin oppose these. (Rawson, 1978).- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchamakara 171130

*According to Theravada Buddhist tradition, mudrā is what we now understand by "Yoga" - severe hand and body postures taken for long periods of time. In modern Yoga, these were taken for only a few minutes.
Sculptures of couples in maithuna can be seen in some Hindu temples in India - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maithuna 171130

According to Bur-Myan indigenous histories, some Arigyi (Pali-Myan speaking) monks took up the Tantric practice. They were suppressed by King Anawrahta of northern kingdom of Pagan: their places were taken by Mon-Myan speaking monks from rival southern kingdom of Thaton. However, not all Arigyi were suppressed. Some do remain such as Anawrahta' own father, King Kn'hsau who had been forced to become a monk by his foster sons. He is celebrated as Hti-hpru Hsan Nat in the pantheon of Thirty-Seven Nats. See: Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch07-0922.htm (link chk 171130)

I opine that Pali-Myan was Old Magadhi imported from Magadha Mahajanapada since the days of King Abhiraza of northern kingdom of Tagan long before the time of Gautama Buddha. Magadhi-Myan, became tainted with Pali of the Mons which was imported from Sri Lanka some 250 years after the death of the Buddha. Since the Mons and Lankans are Aus-Asi linguistic group, Magadhi-Myan lost words beginning with velar plosive-stop Nga, and approximant Nya'gyi.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchatantra 140629

The Panchatantra पञ्चतन्त्र   'Five Principles or Techniques'  = प ञ ् च त न ् त ् र   is an ancient Indian inter-related collection of animal fables in verse and prose, in a frame story format. The original Sanskrit work, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BCE, [1] is attributed to Vishnu Sharma. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine". [2] It is "certainly the most frequently translated literary product of India", [3] and these stories are among the most widely known in the world. [4] To quote Edgerton (1924): [5]  

...there are recorded over two hundred different versions known to exist in more than fifty languages, and three-fourths of these languages are extra-Indian. As early as the eleventh century this work reached Europe, and before 1600 it existed in Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, German, English, Old Slavonic, Czech, and perhaps other Slavonic languages. Its range has extended from Java to Iceland... [In India,] it has been worked over and over again, expanded, abstracted, turned into verse, retold in prose, translated into medieval and modern vernaculars, and retranslated into Sanskrit. And most of the stories contained in it have "gone down" into the folklore of the story-loving Hindus, whence they reappear in the collections of oral tales gathered by modern students of folk-stories.

Thus it goes by many names in many cultures. In India, it had at least 25 recensions, including the Sanskrit Tantrākhyāyikā [6] (तन्त्राख्यायिका) and inspired the Hitopadesha. It was translated into Middle Persian in 570 CE by Borzūya. This became the basis for a Syriac translation as Kalilag and Damnag [7] and a translation into Arabic in 750 CE by Persian scholar Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa as Kalīlah wa Dimnah [8]. A New Persian version from the 12th century became known as Kalīleh o Demneh [9]  and this was the basis of Kashefi's 15th century Anvār-e Soheylī  [10] ('The Lights of Canopus'). The book in different form is also known as The Fables of Bidpai [11] [12] (or Pilpai, in various European languages) or The Morall Philosophie of Doni (English, 1570).

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- UKT 140205, 140629, 151025, 151111, 170124:

"Pragpati" or "Prajpati" प्रजापति prajā-pati is made up of two words, {pa.ra.za} & {pa.ti.}. It simply means "the lord of all living things". Axiomatic religionists identify it (sex is not mentioned and can be He, She, or It) to suit their religion: Christians with God, Hindus of Vaishnavism sect with Brahman, Jews with YHVH, Muslims with Allah, etc.

UKT 170124, 171130: Hindus of Shaivism sect hold that Siva is the Supreme Creator surpassing Brahman. Moreover, he was a very licentious male deflowering marrying the Mother-goddesses of the conquered peoples of the Indian subcontinent such as Parvati, Umma, Durga, and Kali. It reminds me of stories of occupying soldiers raping the women of the conquered peoples.

Shaivites considered these to be just names, however I opine that they were formerly Mother-goddesses in the Bronze Age.

Axiomatic religion artist would portray It any way they like. For example, Michelangelo drew his likeness in the form of an old  man on a part of the Sistine Chapel of the Roman Catholics in Rome, Italy, circa 1511-1512.

Non-axiomatic religions like the various kinds of Buddhism, Mahayana and Theravada have no such notion and Prajpati simply means "the lord or king of all living things" who is still trapped in the "Cycle of Death and Rebirth" involving old age and disease.


To come up with an inter-language transcription between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, we must not forget that Pali (at least the Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr which I would like to term Magadhi-Myanmar) is a Tib-Bur language which is only slightly rhotic, whereas Skt-Dev is highly rhotic. Thus the <r> of Skt-Dev may be ignored in some cases. An example:

Skt: Prajapati प्रजापति prajā-pati "lord of people"
Pal: {pa.za} - UHS PMD0568
  UKT from UHS: f. creatures, humanity, peoples of a country, progeny, the world of living

On p074.htm , you'll come across:

केश [ 2. ka‿sa ]
- n. the lunar mansion Rohin (ruled by Ka, i.e. Pragpati).

UKT 151111: Skt-Dev Ka क, same as {ka.} of Bur-Myan. It is a velar plosive-stop and occupies the cell r1c1 in the Bur-Myan matrix. In the oldest inscriptions found in the Indian subcontinent, the inscription of King Asoka, the Buddhist king, this cell is occupied by the akshara {ka.} of Asokan Brahmi .

For comparison read Wikipedia on the Hindu god Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture'
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitragupta 171130
"Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त = च ि त ् र ग ु प ् त , 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture') is a Hindu god assigned with the task of keeping complete records of actions of human beings on the earth."

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prajapati 150726

In Hinduism, Prajapati प्रजापति prajā-pati "lord of people" is a group Hindu deity presiding over procreation, and protection of life, thereby a King of Kings. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the [1]
[UKT: See also in Wikipedia on Nasadiya Sukta 'Hymn of Creation', 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129).
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasadiya_Sukta 150727 }

Wiki Ref. [1] - Vishvakarma Architect of the Gods | Mamandram Magazine". Mamandram.org. 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2012-07-12. Wiki Ref01b

According to later beliefs in the post-Vedic Era, the Prajapaties were elected democratically. Lord Vishnu was first elected democratically/unanimously as Prajapati (in the North of Aryavarta or Bharta) by all the Rishis and subjects of that era and sat on the throne of Prajapati. Thereafter, Lord Brhma was elected as Prajapati (in the west of Aryavrat or Bharta), after which Lord Shankar (in the South of Aryavrat or Bharta) or Rudras were elected as Prajapaties. The throne of Prajapati succeeded further and there were about 26 Prajapaties, as mentioned in the Vedas.

Prajapati is a Vedic deity presiding over procreation, and the protection of life. He appears as a creator deity or supreme god vishvakarman above the other Vedic deities in RV 10 and in Brahmana literature. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the Nasadiya Sukta..

UKT: more in Wikipedia article

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Royal regalia

- UKT 140206

Each kingdom has its own royal regalia - a sign of sovereignty. But the items and the number of items vary from kingdom to kingdom.

Pal: {ka.ku.Da. BN~a.} -- UHS-PMD0275 
Bur: {ming:mrauk-tn-hsa} - n. coronation regalia (of Bur-Myan kings), namely (clockwise from 'crown' to 'sandals'):

1. {ma.keiT} 'crown'
2. {hti:hpru} 'white umbrella'
3. {n-lyak} 'double edged dagger'
4. {a:mri:yup} 'yak-tail swish'
5. {hkr-ning:} 'sandals'

I have an interesting story to tell about {hkr-ning:} 'sandals'. I have many friends, some of them highly educated, and some working as teaching staff of the universities, who sincerely believe in the esoteric practices of Myanmarpr. Unless you do not make fun of them they would not let you into their secret beliefs. That particular friend was working as an assistant lecturer in Mathematics in the Rangoon Arts & Sc. Univ. in 1980's.

When I got the news that one of my favourite ex-students from Bassein College (now university) had died in a bus accident, I went to his funeral. Before that I had a strange "mental disturbance" when that student "appeared" before me during my day-time nap. I make enquiries and came to know that my ex-student had died in a bus accident. His funeral had been over by a week when I went to see his family. His father told me that my ex-student had a grudge against his professor who had not given him good grades because of which had to work as an inspector on a long-distance bus line. He had died falling from a moving bus. The family did not know that I was that very professor. I asked the time of his death, and was shocked to find that it coincided with the very instant I had that "mental disturbance".

I related the incident to my mathematical friend, and he said in order to help the soul, (or "bardo" in the Tibetan belief - see Tibetan Book of the Dead: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardo_Thodol 140630), I should make an offering of a "vehicle" to the Buddhist Sangha. By "vehicle" I had understood it to be a motor car - a very expensive item, but my friend told me that I can substitute "the vehicle" with a pair of sandals. Is it possible that his bardo had come to me for help for his mistake of having a grudge against me! I may be a down-to-earth physical scientist, but I admit there are elements of the traditional Bur-Myan Buddhist beliefs still lurking in me. As a duty, as a teacher of Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, I must look after the interests of my students. Clearly, my mathematical friend expected me to fulfill the help-request of my dead student. Following his instructions, we went up the Shwdagon pagoda, and offered a pair of sandals to the first Buddhist monk who happened to be a stranger. I hope my student is now in a higher-plane of existence, and is helping me with my work.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_Jewels_of_the_United_Kingdom 140206

The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at other state functions. The term refers to the following objects: the crowns, sceptres (with either the cross or the dove), orbs, swords, rings, spurs, colobium sindonis, dalmatic, armills, and the royal robe or pall, as well as several other objects connected with the ceremony itself. [1]

Many of these descend directly from the pre-Reformation period and have a religious and sacral connotation. The vestures donned by the sovereign following the unction, for instance, closely resemble the alb and dalmatic worn by bishops, although the contention that they are meant to confer upon the sovereign an ecclesiastical character is in dispute among Christian scholars.

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