Update: 2014-10-12 03:35 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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प्रामोदिक pramodika [ prmod-ika ] a. charming.

प्रात्यन्तिक pratyantika [ prtyant-ika ] m. neighbouring chief.

प्रामाण्य pramanya [ prmn-ya ] n. authoritativeness; authenticity; evidence.

प्रामादिक pramadika [ prmd-ika ] a. due to careless ness, erroneous, faulty, wrong (reading etc.).

प्राभाकर prabhakara [ prbhkara ] m. follower of Pra bhkara (founder of one of the sects of the Prva Mmms school of philosophy); n. the work of Prabhkara.

प्राभातिक prabhatika [ prbht-ika ] a. matutinal, morn ing.

प्राभृत prabhrta [ prbhrit-a ] n. [relating to an offer ing: prabhriti], present, gift: -ka, n. id.; -kri, make a present of.

प्रामाणिक pramanika [ prmn-ika ] a. constituting or passing as a measure; based on evidence or authority, authoritative; considering demon strable: -tva, n. authoritativeness, cogency.

प्रायश्््चित्त prayascitta [ pr&asharp;yas-kitta ] n. [thought of death], atonement, expiation, penance; amends, satis faction; -kitti, f. id.; a. expiating (Agni); -kittin, a. making atonement; -kittya, 1. den. . be bound to perform penance; 2. a. serving as an atonement; bound to perform penance: -t, f. liability to perform a pe nance; -ketana, n. expiation, atonement.

प्रायस् prayas [ pra½ay-as ] ad. [precedingly: &root;i] for the most part, mostly, generally, as a rule; in all probability.

प्रायाणिक prayanika [ pr-yn-ika ] a. suitable or requi site for a march or journey; -ytr-ika, a. id.

प्रायास prayasa [ prys ] m. great exertion.

प्रायिक prayika [ pry-ika ] a. common, usual; con taining the greater part (but not everything): -tva, n. abst. n.

प्राबल्य prabalya [ prbal-ya ] n. predominance, ascend ancy; validity, force (of a rule or argument).

प्राभञ्जनि prabhanjani [ prbhagan-i ] m. son of Wind, pat. of Hanumat.

प्राभवत्य prabhavatya [ prbhavat-ya ] n. power, authority.

प्राय praya [ pra½ay ] m. going forth (to battle); departure from life, seeking death by fast ing; (what is prominent=) chief part, ma jority; --ree; a. 1. after a n., having -for the chief part, chiefly consisting of, in which predominates, abounding in; primarily meant for; frequently applying or inflicting (pun ishment); near, on the verge of (e. g. accom plishment); like, resembling; 2. after an a. or pp., mostly; 3. after a pp., almost, so to speak: -m s, upa½s, upa-vis, upa½i, sth, sam--sth, or kri, renounce life, seek death, esp. by means of fasting in order to extort something; -m kraya, force any one (ac.) to resolve to die of starvation.

प्रायण prayana [ pra½ayana ] n. entrance, commence ment; course of life, career; departure from life, death; refuge: -m kri, seek death; -tas, ad. in the beginning; -½anta, m. end of life: -m, till death; lc. at the end of life.

प्रायणीय prayaniya [ pryan-&isharp;ya ] a. introductory, ini tial; m. initiatory libation or first day of the Soma sacrifice: , f. initiatory sacrifice.

प्रायत्य prayatya [ pryat-ya ] n. ritual purity.

प्रायदर्शन prayadarsana [ prya-darsana ] n. frequent phe nomenon; -vidhyin, a. resolved on dying of starvation.

प्रायशस् prayasas [ prya-sas ] ad. for the most part, mostly, generally, as a rule; in all proba bility.

प्रापणीय prapaniya [ pra½p-anya ] fp. to be caused to reach, -brought or conveyed, to (ac.); at tainable; -aya, cs. of pra½p; -ayi-tri, m. (tr, f.) one who causes to obtain, bestower; -ita-tva, n. occurrence, obtainment; -in, a. reaching, arriving at (--ree;).

प्राप्त prapta [ pra½pta ] pp. (&root;p) gotten, gained, obtained; reached, attained; met with, found; incurred, suffered; arrived, come; following from a rule (gr.): -karman, a. being the direct object (of an action) deduced from a rule (gr.); -karma-tva, n. abst. n.; -krin, a. doing what is right or suitable; -kla, m. arrived time, fitting season, proper time, favourable moment; a. whose hour has come; suitable to the occasion, opportune, season able; marriageable (f.): -m, ad. at the right time; -kla-tva, n. opportuneness, season ableness; -gvana, a. having one's life re stored, rescued from death; -tva, n. result ance from a grammatical rule; -dosha, a. having incurred guilt; -bga, a. sown; -yau vana, a. having the bloom of youth arrived, adolescent, marriageable; -rpa, a. suitable, proper; learned, wise; -vat, pp. act. (-) obtained, incurred; -vikalpa, m. alternative to what follows from a grammatical rule: -tva, n. justifiableness of an alternative.

प्राप्तव्य praptavya [ prp-tavya ] fp. to be met with or found; -obtained or acquired: -m-artha, m. nickname of a man who always answered inquiries as to his name with the words &open;prptavyam artham labhate manushyah:&close; n. when used with nman, n. name.

प्राप्तश्री praptasri [ prpta-sr ] a. possessed of fortune; -srya, a. with dis, f. quarter possessing the sun, i. e. in which the sun is at the time.

प्राप्तापराध praptaparadha [ prpta½apardha ] a. having com mitted a fault; -½artha, m. attained object; a. having acquired wealth: -½agrahana, n. not securing of advantages gained; -½avasara, m. suitable occasion or opportunity.

प्राप्ति prapti [ pra&halfacute;pti ] f. advent, occurrence (of time); reach, range; arrival at (--ree;); power of obtaining anything one wants (one of the eight supernatural powers or siddhis); res cue from (ab.); attainment, acquisition, gain; occurrence; discovery, determination; ob tainment, validity (of a rule); lot, fortune, luck; joyful event (dr.); conjecture based on the observation of a particular thing (dr.).

प्राप्तोदक praptodaka [ prpta½udaka ] a. having obtained water.

प्राप्त्याशा praptyasa [ prpti½s ] f. hope of obtaining one's object (dr.).

प्राप्य prapya [ prp-ya ] fp. to be reached or obtained; attainable; suitable.

प्रादेश pradesa [ prdes ] m. span of the thumb and forefinger (also as a measure=12 a&ndot;gulas): (a)-mtr, n. measure of a span; a. () a span long; -sama, -½yma, a. id.

प्रादेशिक pradesika [ prdes-ika ] a. having precedents; local, limited, of limited scope; m. small land owner, chief of a district: -½svara, m. id.

प्रादेशिन् pradesin [ prdes-in ] a. a span long; -, f. forefinger.

प्रादोष pradosa [ prdosha ] a. relating to or appearing in the evening: i-ka, a. id.

प्राधनिक pradhanika [ prdhan-ika ] n. war-implement, weapon.

प्राधानिक pradhanika [ prdhn-ika ] a. pre-eminent, most excellent; relating to or proceeding from primordial matter or nature (pradh na); -ya, n. preponderance, predominance, prevalence, prominence; ascendancy, supre macy: ree;--, in., ab., -tas, chiefly, mainly, with regard to the main or essential points, summarily; m. chief or most distinguished person.

प्राधीत pradhita [ pra½adhi½ita ] pp. well-read in Vedic studies, proficient in Vedic knowledge; -½adhyayana, n. commencement of recitation, reading, or study.

प्राध्व pradhva [ pra½adhva [fore-journey] ] m. start, precedence (e kri, place one at the head of: g.): -m, ad. far away (with kri, put aside); after the precedent of (g.); favourably, kind ly; humbly.

प्रान्त pranta [ pra½anta ] m. n. [extreme end], edge, border, margin, verge, skirt; end, extremity, tip; corner (of lips, eyes, etc.): ree;--, in the end, eventually: -virasa, a. tasteless in the end.

प्रान्तर prantara [ pra½antara ] n. [long distance], long desolate road.

प्रापक prapaka [ pra½paka ] (cs.) a. leading or con veying to (--ree;); procuring; making valid, establishing; -½p-ana, a. () leading to (--ree;); n. occurrence, appearance; reach, extension (of the arms); attainment, acquisition; arri val at (lc.); conveying; extension or refer ence to (lc.); making valid, establishment; presentation, elucidation.

प्रातस्तन pratastana [ prtas-tna ] a. matutinal; n. early morning (one of the five parts of the day; the other four being forenoon, midday, after noon, and evening); -tya, a. matutinal, morn ing.

प्रातःसंध्या prathsandhya [ prtah-samdhy ] f. morning twi light, dawn; -sava, m., -savan, n. early Soma libation (the ritual of which consists of ten parts); -sv, m. morning Soma liba tion; -snna, n. morning ablution; -snyin, a. bathing in the early morning.

प्रातिकामिन् pratikamin [ prti-km-in ] m. (acting ac cording to one's desire: prati-kmam), ser vant; messenger; -klika, a. () resisting, hostile, contrary: -t, f. opposition, hostility; -klya, n. unfriendliness, opposition; repug nant practice; disagreeableness; disagree ment with (--ree;); -ga, n. subject under dis cussion; -daivas-ika, a. occurring daily (prati-divasam); -nidhi-ka, m. representa tive; -paksha, a. belonging to the enemy or adversary; -pakshya, n. hostility, enmity, towards (g.); -pada, a. forming the com mencement; m. N.; -pad-ika, a. express, ex plicit; n. crude base of a noun (before it re ceives the case terminations or other suffixes); -paurush-ika, a. relating to manliness or valour; -bha, a. intuitive; n. intuition; pre sence of mind; -bhat-ya, n. rivalry; -bhv ya, n. surety, for (--ree;); certainty, trustworthy news of (g.); -bhs-ika, a. existing only in appearance, apparent only; -rp-ika, a. coun terfeit, spurious; using false measure or coun terfeit coin; -lom-ya, n. inversion, inverse order; opposition, hostility; -ves-ika, m. neighbour; -vesm-ika, m. neighbour: , f. female neighbour; -ves-ya, a. neighbouring; m. opposite neighbour; neighbour;--ree;=neigh bouring: -ka, m. neighbour; -skhya, n. a grammatical treatise on the phonetic changes of words in the text of the Vedas according to the respective recension (prati-skham; there are four such treatises, one for the RV., two for the YV., and one for the AV.); -satvanam, ad. in the direction of the Sat van; -sv-ika, a. own, peculiar, not common to others; -hata, m. kind of svarita ac cent; -hartra, n. office of the Pratihartri; -hrika, m. door-keeper; -hr-ya, n. jug glery, performance of miracles; miracle.

प्रातीतिक pratitika [ prtt-ika ] a. existing in the idea only, subjective.

प्रातीप्य pratipya [ prtp-ya ] n. hostility.

प्रात्यक्षिक pratyaksika [ prtyaksh-ika ] a. capable of direct perception.

प्रात्ययिक pratyayika [ prtyay-ika ] a. confidential; going bail for the trustworthiness of a debtor (surety); possessing the confidence of (in.).

प्रात्यहिक pratyahika [ prtyah-ika ] a. daily.

प्राथमकल्पिक prathamakalpika [ prthama-kalpika ] a. being something in the strictest sense of the term; m. beginner, tyro in study.

प्राथमिक prathamika [ prtham-ika ] a. primary, initial, first; happening for the first time; -ya, n. priority.

प्रादक्षिण्य pradaksinya [ prdakshin-ya ] n. circumambu lation while following one's (extended) right hand, keeping the right hand towards a per son or object; respectful behaviour.

प्रादुर्भाव pradurbhava [ prdur-bhva ] m. manifestation, appearance (also of a deity on earth).

प्रादुष्करण praduskarana [ prdush-karana ] n. manifesta tion; production, kindling (of fire).

प्रादुर् pradur [ pr-dr [out of doors] ] ad. (only ree;-- with the following three verbs or derivatives of the last two), forth, to view, manifest, visible: with as and bh, become manifest, appear, reveal oneself; arise; resound; with kri, manifest, reveal; cause to appear, make to blaze (fire).

प्राणेश pranesa  [ prna½sa ] m. lord of life, lover, hus band; Lord of breath, N. of a Marut: , f. mistress of one's life, wife; -½svara, m. lord of life, lover, husband: , f. mistress, wife; -½utkrnti, f. departure of the vital breath, death; -½utsarga, m. giving up of life; -½upasparsana, n. touching of the organs of sense (i.e. mouth, nose, ears, and eyes); -½upahra, m. (offering to life), food.

प्राण्यङ्ग pranyanga  [ prni½a&ndot;ga ] n. limb of an animal or of a human being.

प्रातःकल्प prathkalpa  [ prtah-kalpa ] a. almost morning (night); -krya, n. morning business or ceremony; -kla, m. morning time, early morning; -kritya, n. morning ceremony; -kshana, m. morning time; -prahara, m. morning watch (six to nine o'clock a. m.).

प्रातर् pratar [ pr-tr [p(a)r-tar(a) ] cpv. very ear ly], ad. at dawn, early, in the morning; next or to-morrow morning, on the morrow: prtah prtah, every morning.

प्रातरध्येय prataradhyeya [ prtar-adhyeya ] fp. to be recited early in the morning; -anuvk, m. early recitation (the litany with which the Prtah savana begins); -anta, a. ending in the morning; -apavarga, a. id.; -abhivda, m. morning greeting; -avaneg, m. morning ablution; -ahna, m. early part of the day, forenoon; -sa, m. morning meal, breakfast; -sita, pp. having taken one's morning meal, having breakfasted; -hut, f. morning sacri fice (the second half of the daily Agnihotra sacrifice).

प्रातरित्वन् prataritvan  [ prtar--tvan ] a. (vc. -tvas) go ing out or coming early; m. morning guest.

प्रातर्जप pratarjapa [ prtar-gapa ] m. morning prayer; -ndin, m. (crowing early), cock; -dugdh, (pp.) n. morning milk; -doha, m. id.; morn ing milking; -yaga, m. morning sacrifice; -y&asharp;van, a. going out early; -yukt, a. yoked early (car); -yg, a. yoking early; yoked early; -vastri, a. shining early; -huta, n., -homa, m. early sacrifice.

प्राणथ pranatha [ prn-tha ] m. respiration; -da, a. life-giving; saving the life of (g., --ree;); -dak shin, f. gift of life; -dayita, (pp.) m. hus band loved as dearly as life; -dna, n. gift or saving of life; abandonment of life; -dy ta, n. play or contest for life; -droha, m. attempt on the life of any one; -drohin, a. seeking the life of (--ree;); -dhara, m. N.; -dhrana, n. maintenance or preservation of life; means of supporting life: -m kri, P. sup port any one's life; . support one's life, take food; -dhrin, a. preserving the life of (g.).

प्राणन pranana [ pra&halfacute;anana ] a. [&root;an] animating, quick ening; n. respiration; animating.

प्राणनाथ prananatha [ prna-ntha ] m. lord of life, lover, husband; -nsa, m. loss of life, death; -ni graha, m. restraint of breath; -pati, m. lord of life, soul; -parikraya, m. staking one's life; -parikshna, pp. whose life is on the decline; -parigraha, m. possession of life, existence; -parityga, m. abandonment of life; -prada, a. having restored or saved any one's life; -pradyaka, -pradyin, a. id.; -prayna, n. departure of the vital spirit, death; -priya, a. as dear as life; m. lover, husband; -prepsu, des. a. wishing to preserve one's life, in mortal terror; -bdha, m. danger to life, mortal peril; -bhaksha, m. feeding on breath only (i. e. on the mere smell of food or drink); -bhaya, n. mortal fear; -bhg, a. possessing life; m. living being; -bhta, pp. being the vital breath; -bhrt, a. life-preserving; possessing life, living; m. living being; man; -mya, a. consisting of vital air or breath; -mokshana, n. abandonment of breath, suicide; -ytr, f. support of life, subsistence; -ytrika, a. requisite for subsistence: -mtrah syt, he should possess only as much as will support life; -yuta, pp. endowed with life, living, alive; -yoni, f. source of life; -raksh½ar tham, ad. for the preservation of life; -rg ya-da, a. having saved any one's life and throne; -rodha, m. suppression of the breath; -lbha, m. saving of life; -vat, a. endowed with life, living; vigorous, strong; -vallabh, f. mistress or wife who is as dear to one as life; -vinsa, m. loss of life, death; -vipra yoga, m. id.; -vritti, f. vital activity or function; -vyaya, m. renunciation or sacri fice of life; -vi½yakkhana, n. imperilment of life; -samyama, m. suspension of breath; -samsaya, m. risk or danger to life (sts. pl.); -samkata, n. id.; -samtyga, m. renunciation of life; -samdeha, m. risk or peril to life; -samdhrana, n. preservation of life; -sam nysa, m. giving up the spirit; -sama, a. dear as one's own life: , f. mistress, wife; -sam mita, pp. dear as one's own life; reaching to the nose; -sra, n. vital energy; a. full of strength, vigorous, muscular; -hara, a. taking away life, fatal to (--ree;); capital (pun ishment); -hni, f. loss of life; -hraka, a. life-depriving, fatal; -hrin, a. id.; -hna, pp. bereft of life, lifeless.

प्राणाघात pranaghata [ prna½ghta ] m. destruction of life or of a living being; -½krya, m. body physician; -½atipta, m. attempt on life; taking away life, killing a living being; -½atilobha, m. excessive attachment to life; -½tman, m. breath-soul (the lowest of the three souls of man; the other two being gvtman and paramtman); -½atyaya, m. danger to life; -½adhika, a. dearer than life; superior in energy, more vigorous; -½adhipa, m. lord of vital breath, soul; -½anta, m. end of life, death; a. (ending life), capital (pun ishment); -½antika, a. () destructive to life, fatal; capital (punishment); life-long; des perate, vehement (love, desire): -m, ad. till death; n. danger to life; -½bdha, m. in jury to life; -½abhisara, m. saver of life; -½ayana, n. organ of sensation; -½yma, m. suspension of breath (sts. pl.): -sas, ad. with frequent suspension of the breath; -½ymin, a. suspending the breath.

प्राणाय्य pranayya [ prny-ya ] a. suitable, proper.

प्राणार्थवत् pranarthavat [ prna½artha-vat ] a. living and rich; -½arthin, a. eager for life; -½albha, m. loss of life; -½avarodha, m. suspension of the breath.

प्राणिघातिन् pranighatin [ prni-ghtin ] a. killing living beings; -dyta, n. game with fighting ani mals (such as ram-fighting etc.).

प्राणिन् pranin [ prn-n ] a. breathing, living; m. living creature; animal; human being.

प्रणिमत् pranimat [ prni-mat ] a. supplied with living beings (country); -vadha, m. killing of a living being.

प्राजिक prajika [ pra½ag-ika ] m. [driving forward, pur suer], hawk.

प्राज्ञ prajna [ prg ] a. (relating to intellect, pra g), intellectual; intelligent, wise, clever; m. wise or sensible man; intelligence asso ciated with individuality (phil.): -tva, n. wisdom, intelligence, cleverness, -mnin or -m-mnin, a. considering oneself wise.

प्राज्य prajya [ pra½gya ] a. [having much ghee], copious, abundant; much; great, large, im portant; long: -bhuga, a. long-armed.

प्राञ्जल pranjala [ pra½agala ] a. [having the hands outstretched]; straightforward, candid, open; level (road), straight: -t, f. straightness plainness (of meaning etc.); -½agali, a. hav ing the folded hands outstretched (in token of respect or humility); -bh, hold out the folded hands.

प्राड्विवाक pradvivaka [ prd-vivka ] m. [interrogating (prkh) and deciding], judge.

प्राण prana [ pra½an ] m. breath; vital spirit (pl. life); vital air (five are generally assumed; but three, six, seven, nine, and even ten are also spoken of); sp. inhaled air; breath of air, wind; breath as a measure of time (requisite for pronouncing ten long sylla bles); vigour, energy, power; soul (in the Smkhya phil.); intelligence associated with totality (Vednta); sign of vitality (pl.); organ of sense (mouth, nose, eyes, and ears: pl.); N.; --ree;, a. = loving -as dearly as life, or having one's life dependent on --: -kara, a. invigorating; -karman, n. vital function; -krikkhra, n. danger to life; -ghna, a. life destroying, deadly; -khid, a. cutting life short, fatal; -kkheda, m. destruction of life, murder; -tyga, m. abandonment of life, suicide; death.

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