Update: 2014-10-09 03:53 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{paar} - repha
  p161c3 Column-3

UKT notes :
Erythrina variegata  syn. E. indica Lam. {ping-lčý-ka.thic}
Grihyasűtra and DharmasâtraParasara

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• पारदेश्य paradesya [ pâra-des-ya ]
-- a. belonging to or coming from another country (para-desa), foreign.


• पारध्वज paradhvaja [ pâra-dhvaga ]
-- m. pl. standards from over the sea (i. e. from Ceylon) borne in royal processions.


• पारमार्थिक paramarthika [ pârama‿arth-ika ]
= प ा र म ा र ् थ ि क [UKT: note थ = {hta.} ]
-- a. (î) relating to the real (paramârtha), real, true; loving truth; -ya, n. absolute truth.


• पारमिता paramita [ pâram-i-tâ ]
-- f. reaching the further shore, complete attainment (of a virtue); (--°) perfection in (B.).


• पारमेश्वर paramesvara [ pârama‿îsvara ]
-- a. (î) relating to or coming from the supreme lord (Siva).


• पारमेष्ठ्य paramesthya [ pârameshth-ya ]
-- a. relating to the supreme god (Brahman); n. highest position.


• पारंपर parampara [ pâram-par-a ] a. relating to the other side: with loka, m. the other world: î-ya, a. traditional, handed down; -ya, n. uninterrupted succession, oral tradition: -krama‿â gata, pp. or -‿âgata, pp. handed down in regular succession.


• [pâr=ay-i-trí]
-- m. (fr. cs. of √2. pri) one who puts across; used as future in párayiấ‿asmi

• पारयिष्णु parayisnu [ pâray-ishnú ]
-- a. successful; victorious: -tama, spv. best in accomplishing.


• पारलौकिक paralaukika [ pâra-laukika ]
-- a. (î) relating to the next world.


• पारशव parasava [ pârasava ]
-- m. a mixed caste (offspring of Brâhmana and Sűdrâ).


• पारस parasa [ pârasa ]
-- a. (î) Persian; î, f. the Persian language; i-ka, a. Persian; m. pl. the Persians; î-ka, m. pl. the Persians.


• [pâraskara]
-- m. N. of the author of a Grihyasűtra and of a Dharmasâtra.

See my note on Grihyasűtra and Dharmasâtra

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• पारायण parayana [ pâra‿ayana ]
-- n. reading through, study; totality; complete text.


• पारार्थ्य pararthya [ pârârth-ya ]
-- n. sympathy with an other's cause, disinterestedness.


• पारावत paravata [ pârâvata ]
-- a. distant, coming from a distance (parâvat); m. turtle-dove, pigeon; a kind of snake: -mâlâ-ya, den. Â. resemble a flock of turtles; -‿aksha, m. N. of a snake demon (having eyes like a turtle-dove).


• पारावार paravara [ pâra‿avâra ]
-- n. (?) further and nearer bank; m. sea (having a further and a nearer shore): -tarana‿artham, ad. in order to cross from one bank to the other.


• पाराशर parasara [ pârâsar-a ]
-- a. belonging to Parâsara; -in, m. monk of the order of Pârâsarya: pl. a certain philosophical school; -ya, m. pat. son of Parâsara, i. e. Vyâsa.

See my note on Rishi Parasara - the life and death (eaten by wolves) of the Rishi.

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It is always a good policy to see how a lengthening of onset vowel changes the meaning of the syllable. The syllable with the short-vowel is {pa.ri.} - p154.htm. UHS-PMD0618 gives: "prefix showing what has happened from the above, completeness, absoluteness, perfection" (UKT from UHS).


• पारिकुट parikuta [ pârikuta ]
-- m. attendant.

• पारिक्षित pariksita [ pârikshitá ]
-- m. pat. descendant of Parikshit, Ganamegaya.


• पारिजात parijata [ pârigâta ]
-- m. coral tree (bearing crimson blossoms: Erythrina indica); also its wood; a mythical tree of paradise, produced at the churning of the ocean and taken from Indra by Krishna; -maya, a. made of the flowers of the tree of paradise.

See my note on Erythrina variegata  syn. E. indica Lam.


• पारिणामिक parinamika [ pâri-nâm-ika ]
-- a. digestible; subject to development: with bhâva, m. natural disposition; -nâyya, n. household utensils; -nâhya, n. id.; -tosh-ika, n. reward, gratuity (token of satisfaction); -panth-ika, m. highwayman, robber; -pâtra, incorrect for -yâtra; -pârsva-ka, a. attendant: ikâ, f. chambermaid; -pârsvika, a. ( end p161c1 )
( p161c2-top )
standing at one's side; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -pâlya, n. governorship; -plava, a. swimming; moving to and fro, unsteady; wavering, irresolute; m. ship: -tâ, f., -tva, n. unsteadiness, caprice; -bhadra, m. coral tree (Erythrina indica); -bhâsh-ika, a. (î) technical; -mândal-ya, n. spherical shape; -mân-ya, n. circumference; -yâtra, m. N. of the western Vindhya range; -vitt-ya, n. bachelorhood while a younger brother is mar ried; -vettr-ya, n. marriage of a younger before an elder brother; -sesh-ya, n. result: ab. therefore; -shada, m. member of an assembly or council, auditor, spectator: pl. retinue of a god; -shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator; -hâr-ika, a. privileged; -hâr-ya, m. bracelet; -hâs-ya, n. jest.


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• पारी pari [ pârî ]
-- f. (of pâra) milk-pail, vessel, cup.

• पारीणह्य parinahya [ pấrî-nahya ]
-- n. household utensils.


• पारीन्द्र parindra [ pârîndra ]
-- m. lion.

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• पारुषेय paruseya [ pârush-eyá ]
-- a. spotted, dappled.


• पारुष्य parusya [ pârush-ya ]
-- n. roughness, violence; dishevelled state; rudeness, insulting speech.

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• पारेविशोकम् parevisokam [ pâre-visokam ]
-- ad. beyond mount Visoka; -smasânam, ad. beyond the cemetery.

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• पारोक्ष्य paroksya [ pâroksh-ya ] a. invisible; unintelligible, enigmatical; n. infallibility; mystery.

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{paar} - repha


• पार्थ partha [ pârtha ]
-- m. met. descendant of Prithâ, Yudhishthira, Bhîmasena, and esp. Arguna; N.: -ga, m. son of Pârtha.


• पार्थिव parthiva [ pârthiv-a ]
-- a. (î) terrestrial, earthly: with vrata, n. manner of the earth; m. in habitant or son of earth; prince, king, warrior; a. royal: î, f. daughter of earth, Sîtâ; -tâ, f., -tva, n. royal dignity, kingship; -nandinî, f. king's daughter, princess; -ri shabha, m. illustrious king; -sreshtha, spv. best of kings; -sutâ, f. king's daughter; -‿ât magâ, f. king's daughter; -‿indra, m. most excellent of kings.


• पार्य parya [ pấr-ya ]
a. being on the further shore; last; decisive; effective; n. end.


• पार्वण parvana [ pârvan-a ]
-- a. relating to a phase of the moon (new or full); increasing or full (moon); being at the time of opposition or full moon; m. fortnight; new and full moon sacrifice.


• पार्वत parvata [ pârvata ] }
-- a. (î) produced or growing on, being, dwelling or consisting in mountains, mountainous: î, f. pat. daughter of the mountain (i. e. of the Himâlaya), Durgâ (consort of Siva); a‿ayana, m. pat. fr. parvata, N. of a chamberlain; î-ya, a. dwelling in the mountains; m. mountaineer.


पार्वायनान्तीय parvayanantiya [ pârva‿ayanânt-îya ] a. belong ing to the days of conjunction and opposition (new and full moon) and to the solstices.

पार्श्व parsva [ pârsv-á ] (m.) n. [connected with the ribs, parsu], region of the ribs, side (also fig.); flank (of an army); proximity: -m, aside (look); to the side of, near (g., --°); ab. away from; on the part of, by, through; lc. near; beside, at (g., --°); lc. du. on both sides; °--, standing beside or near --.

पार्श्वक parsvaka [ pârsva-ka ] m. rib; -ga, a. going at one's side, accompanying; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -gata, pp. going at one's side, at tendant; sheltering (shade); -gamana, n. accompanying (--°); -kara, m. attendant: pl. retinue; -tás, ad. from, by or at the side or flank of, beside, aside (g. or --°); near at hand; -druma, m. tree at one's side; -parivartin, a. being at the side of (--°); -vartin, a. stand ing beside; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -vi vartin, a. being beside, living with (g.); -stha, a. standing beside, staying near; -sthita, pp. id.

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पालित  palita  [ pâlita ] pp. of pâlaya.

पिक  pika  [ pika ] m., î, f. Indian cuckoo.

पिडका  pidaka  [ pidakâ ] f. boil, pimple, pustule.

पालिभङ्ग  palibhanga  [ pâli-bha&ndot;ga ] m. bursting of a dyke.

पिच्छल  picchala  [ pikkha-la ] a. slimy, lubricous, slip pery.

पिठर  pithara  [ pithara ] n., î, f. pot; pan; a-ka, m. id.

पिङ्गलित  pingalita  [ pi&ndot;gal-ita ] pp. grown tawny-colour ed; -i-man, m. tawny colour.

पिङ्ग  pinga  [ pi&ndot;g-a ] a. [&root;pińg] reddish brown, tawny: -danta, m. N.

पालिन््  palin  [ pâl-in ] a. protecting, guarding; --°, m. ruler.

पिञ्जरय  pinjaraya  [ pińgara-ya ] den. P. colour reddish yellow (Pr.): pp. ita, coloured tawny.

पिचु  picu  [ piku ] m. cotton: -manda or -marda, m. a tree (Azadirachta indica); -la, m. a tree (Tamarix indica).

पिच्छ  piccha  [ pikkha ] n. tail-feather, esp. of a pea cock: -ka, m. id.; i-kâ, f. bunch of peacock's tail-feathers (used by jugglers).

पिञ्जर  pinjara  [ pińga-ra ] a. reddish yellow, tawny; bleached (of hair in old age): -tva, n. golden colour; bleached colour (of hair in old age).

पिङ्गाक्ष  pingaksa  [ pi&ndot;ga‿akshá ] a. (î) tawny-eyed or red-eyed; m. monkey; ep. of Agni; N. of a Daitya; -‿îsvara, m. N. of an attendant of Pârvatî.

पिञ्जरिक  pinjarika  [ pińgar-ika ] n. a kind of musical instrument; -i-man, m. tawny colour; î kri, make tawny.

पिञ्जली  pinjali  [ pińg-al-î ] f. bunch or tuft of stalks or grass; -űla, n. id.

पिट  pita  [ pita ] n. (?) basket: -ka, m. n. id.; boil.

पिधित्सु  pidhitsu  [ pi-dhit-su ] des. a. wishing to con ceal.

पिनाक  pinaka  [ pínâka ] n. staff; club or bow of Siva (C.): -pâni, -bhrit, m. ep. of Siva.

पिपतिषु  pipatisu  [ pi-pat-i-shu ] des. a. about to fall.

पाश्््चात्त्य  pascattya  [ pâskât-tya (or -ya) ] a. posterior; western; last: -bhâga, m. eye (of a needle).

पिपासत््  pipasat  [ pi-pâ-s-at ] pr. pt. des. (&root;1. pâ) thirsty; -sâ, f. desire to drink, thirst: -vat, a. thirsty; -s-i-ta, des. pp. thirsty; -su, des. a. wishing to drink (ac. or --°); thirsty.

पिङ्गल  pingala  [ pi&ndot;ga-lá ] a. tawny; tawny-eyed or red-eyed; m. ep. of Siva and of a Dânava; N., esp. of a writer on metre: â, f. kind of leech; a-ka, m. Tawny, N. of a lion; i-kâ, f. N.; (a)-gândhâra, m. N. of a fairy.

पितृतर्पण  pitrtarpana  [ pitri-tarpana ] n. oblation to the Manes; -tas, ad. on the father's side; -tva, n. paternity; -deva, m. pl. the Manes and gods; certain divine beings; -devata, a. hav ing the Manes as gods, sacred to the Manes; -devatyă, a. id.; -devatâ, f. pl. the Manes and the gods; -daivata, a. (î) relating to the worship of the Manes; -drohin, a. plotting against one's father.

पितृपक्ष  pitrpaksa  [ pitri-paksha ] a. being on the father's side, paternal; -pűgana, n. worship of the Manes; -paitâmaha, a. (î) inherited from or peculiar to father and grandfather: with nâman, n. father's and grandfather's name; m. pl. or °-(metrical for -pitâmaha), fathers and grandfathers; -paitâmah-ika, a. id.; -mát, a. having a father; connected with the Manes; -mandira, n. father's house, pater nal mansion; -mâtri-maya, a. thinking of father and mother only; -mâtriartha, a. begging for father and mother; -mitra, n. father's friend; -medha, m. sacrifice to the Manes.

पितृयज्ञ  pitryajna  [ pitri-yaá ] m. sacrifice to the Manes; -yấna, a. trodden by or leading to the Manes; -yâna, m. path trodden by or leading to the Manes; -râga, m. king of the Manes, Yama; -loká, m. father's house; world or abode of the Manes; -vamsa, m. father's family; -vams-ya, a. belonging to the father's family; -vát, ad. like a father; like the Fathers; as at the funeral sacrifice; -vadha, m. parricide; -vana, n. ancestors' grove, cemetery; -ves man, n. father's house.

पितृव्य  pitrvya   [ pitri-vya ] m. paternal uncle; elderly relative or friend.

पितृशर्मन््  pitrsarman  [ pitri-sarman ] m. N. of a Dânava; -shád, a. remaining with one's parents, unmarried; dwelling with the Manes; -shva sri, f. father's sister; -sadman, n. ceme tery.

पितृहन््  pitrhan  [ pitri-han ] m. parricide.

पित्त  pitta  [ pittá ] n. bile: -‿upasrishta, pp. suffer ing from bile.

पित्र्य  pitrya  [ pítr-ya ] a. paternal; ancestral; relating or sacred to the Manes; with tîrtha, n. part of the hand between thumb and forefinger sacred to the Manes; with dis, f. south.

पित्स  pitsa  [ pit-sa ] des. base of &root;pat.

पिण्ड  pinda  [ pínda ] m. (n. rare) lump, knob, ball; flake (of wall-plaster); morsel, mouthful= daily bread, food, livelihood; flour-ball (of fered to the Manes), funeral cake; body; person, individual; material object: -ka, m. lump, ball; -khargűra, m. kind of date tree: -tas, ad. from a ball or lump; -tâ, f. condi tion of a body; -tva, n. density, condensation, state of a material mass: -m âgata, (darkness) become palpable; -da, a. offering or entitled to offer the funeral cakes to the Manes; m. bread-giver, lord, master; -dâtri, a. id.; -dâna, n. offering of a flour-ball (esp. at the sacrifice to the Manes); sacrifice of funeral cakes (on the evening of new moon); alms-giving; -nirvapana, n. offering of funeral cakes; -pâtra, n. alms-bowl; alms; -pitri yaa, m. offering of funeral cakes (on the evening of new moon); -prada, a. offering funeral cakes; -bhâg, a. partaking of the funeral cakes; m. pl. the Manes; -maya, a. consisting of a clod; -mâtra‿upagîvin, a. living solely on morsels offered.

पिण्डय  pindaya  [ pinda-ya ] den. P. accumulate, unite; add together: pp. ita, made into a lump, densified; massy, solid, close; taken together, united, all together. ava, pp. fallen as globules. pari, pp. clenched. sam, heap together: pp. clenched; drawn together, contracted; united.

पिण्डयज्ञ  pindayajna  [ pinda-yaa ] m. sacrifice with funeral cakes; -lepa, m. what adheres to the hands from the funeral cakes (constituting an offering to the three ancestors preceding the great-grandfather); -sambandha, m. rela tionship entitling a man to offer the funeral oblations to the deceased; -‿agra, n. bit of a flour-ball; -‿anvâhârya-ka, a. with srâd dha, n. feast after the funeral oblation.

पिण्डिका  pindika  [ pind-ikâ ] f. lump of flesh (on the shoulders, arms, or legs); pedestal of a statue.

पिण्डीकरण  pindikarana  [ pindî-karana ] n. clenching; -kri, make into a lump, clench; compress, densify; concentrate; identify with (saha); -bhâva, m. being compressed or clenched; -bhű, become agglomerated, be closely united; -lepa, m. kind of ointment.

पिण्डोपजीविन््  pindopajivin  [ pinda‿upagîvin ] a. eating the bread of, i. e. supported by, another.

पितापुत्र  pitaputra  [ pitâ-putrá ] m. du. and °--, father and son; -mahá, m. paternal grandfather; ep. of Brahma: pl. ancestors, Manes (esp. remote ones); -mahî, f. maternal grand mother.

पितु  pitu  [ pi-tu ] m. (n.1) juice, drink, food: -bht, a. bringing nourishment; -mát, a. accom panied by meat and drink; nourishing.

पाषाण  pasana  [ pâshâna ] m. stone: -maya, a. (î) made of stone.

पि  pi  [ pi ] vbl. prefix sts. for api.

पिधातव्य  pidhatavya  [ pi-dhâtavya ] fp. to be covered or stopped (ears); -dhâna, n. covering; shut ting; cover; lid: -vat, a. covered with a lid; -dhâyaka, a. covering, concealing (--°): -tâ, f. abst. n.

पावक  pavaka  [ pâv-aká ] a. (&root;pű) pure, clear; bright; purifying; m. a certain Agni; fire; Agni: -vat, a. ep. of an Agni; (á)-varna, a. bright coloured; (a)-sokis, a. brightly shining.

पावकि  pavaki  [ pâvak-i ] m. son of Fire, Skanda.

पावन  pavana  [ pâv-ana ] a. (î) purifying, sanctifying; pure, holy; m. a kind of fire; n. purification, sanctification; means of purifying.

पावमान  pavamana  [ pâvamâná ] a. relating to Agni Pavamâna or the Soma which is being puri fied by a strainer: &isharp;, f. gnly. pl. Soma hymns (esp. in RV., mandala IX).

पावर  pavara  [ pâvara ] a die (corrupt form of dvâ para).

पावीरव  pavirava  [ pấvîrav-a ] a. (î) coming from or relating to the thunderbolt (pavîru); f. daughter of lightning, thunder.

पाश  pasa  [ pấs-a ] m. [&root;pas, bind], string, tether; snare, gin, trap, noose; bond, fetter (also fig.); --°, smatterer, bungler; beauty of=beautiful, handsome; shock or quantity of, abundant (with words meaning hair): -ka, m. noose; snare; -kantha, a. having a noose round the neck; -dyumna, m. N.; -baddha, pp. caught in a net, entrapped, snared, noosed; -bandha, m. snare, noose, halter; net: -bandhaka, m. bird-catcher; -bandhana, n. snare; a. caught in a snare; -bhrit, a. holding a noose; m. ep. of Varuna; -raggu, f. fetter, bond.

पाशव  pasava  [ pâsav-a ] a. coming from or peculiar to animals.

पाशहस्त  pasahasta  [ pâsa-hasta ] a. holding a snare or noose in his hand; m. ep. of Yama.

पाशिक  pasika  [ pâs-ika ] m. trapper, bird-catcher; N.; -ín, a. having a noose; m. bird-catcher; ep. of Varuna.

पाशुपत  pasupata  [ pâsupata ] a. (î) belonging or referring to Siva Pasupati; m. worshipper of Siva Pasupati.

पाशुपाल्य  pasupalya  [ pâsupâl-ya ] n. binding or breed ing of cattle.

पाषण्ड  pasanda  [ pâshand-a ] a. (î) heretical; m. here tic; m. n. heresy; -in, m. heretic; -ya, n. heresy.

पार्श्वानुचर  parsvanucara  [ pârsva‿anukara ] m. attendant; -‿âyâta, pp. come near, approached; -‿âsan na, pp. standing beside, present; -‿âsîna, pr. pt. sitting beside; -‿asthi, n. rib; -‿upapâr- sva, m. du. flank and shoulder-blade; -‿upapîd am, abs. holding one's sides (with laughter).

पार्षत  parsata  [ pârshata ] a. of or belonging to the spotted deer (prishata).

पार्षद  parsada  [ pârshada ] m. (= pârishada) attend ant (esp. of a god); member of an assembly, spectator: pl. (sts. sg.) retinue; n. manual recognised by a grammatical school.

पार्ष्णि  parsni  [ pấrsh-ni ] f. heel; rear of an army, back: -m grah, attack any one (g.) in the rear; -grâha, a. attacking in the rear; m. enemy in the rear.

पार्ष्णी  parsni  [ pârshnî ] f. = pârshni.

पाल  pala  [ pâ-la ] m. watchman, guardian; herds man; protector of the earth, lord, king: -ka, m. guardian, protector (ikâ, f.); adopted father; ruler, prince; guardian of the earth; N. of various princes; -na, a. (î) guarding, fostering; n. guarding, protecting, cherishing; preserving, observing, keeping, maintaining.

पालय  palaya  [ pâlá-ya ] den. P. (E. also Â.): regarded by the grammarians as the causal of &root;pâ; guard, protect; rule; be the guardian of; preserve, maintain, keep (a promise etc.): pp. pâlita. ati, pass, spend (time). anu, guard, protect; take care of; be the guardian of; maintain, observe, keep (a promise etc.); adhere to. pari, guard, protect, from (ab.); govern; cherish, honour; support; maintain, keep; expect; wait. prati, protect, guard; maintain, observe, keep to; wait; wait for, expect. sam, protect; keep (a promise); get over, overcome.

पालाश  palasa  [ pấlâsa ] a. (î) belonging to or made of the wood of the palâsa tree.

पालि  pali  [ pâli (or î) ] f. lobe of the ear; outer ear; margin, edge; dam, dyke; line, row.

पालिका  palika  [ pâl-ikâ ] f. of pâlaka.



पाली  pali  [ pâlî ] f. 1. female guardian; 2. = pâli; -vata, m. a tree.

पाल्य  palya  [ pâl-ya ] fp. to be protected or guarded; under the guardianship of (g.); to be observed, kept, or maintained.


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UKT notes

Erythrina variegata  syn. E. indica Lam.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythrina_variegata 120816

Erythrina variegata (syn. E. indica Lam., E. variegata var. orientalis (L.) Merr.; Tiger's Claw, Indian Coral Tree and Sunshine Tree; Pāli: pāricchattaka; Sanskrit: pārijāta, पारिजात) is a species of Erythrina native to the tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent, northern Australia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean east to Fiji.[1]

{ping-lčý-ka.thic} "Indian coral tree", Erythrina variegata -Papilionaceae
-- Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept. (Planning), Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000, entry number 37-0982. http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/Agri-Dept-2000/r5c1pa/r5c1.htm 120816


It is known as the Roluos Tree in Cambodia, deigo on Okinawa, drala on Fiji, madar in Bangladesh, Modar in Assam, dapdap in the Philippines[2], man da ra ba in Tibet, as thong lang in Thailand and as vông nem in Vietnam.

It is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 27 m (89 ft) tall. The leaves are pinnate with a 20 cm petiole and three leaflets, each leaflet up to 20 cm long and broad. It has dense clusters of scarlet or crimson flowers and black seeds.[3]

It is valued as an ornamental tree. Several cultivars have been selected, including 'Alba' with white flowers.[3]

It was designated the official flower of Okinawa Prefecture in 1967. The deigo flower features in the popular song "Shima Uta" by The Boom, one of the most well-known songs associated with Okinawa. In addition, the use of the wood of the deigo tree is one of the unique characteristics of Ryukyuan lacquerware.

In Vietnam, the leaves are used to wrap fermented meat (Vietnamese: nem).

The Tamils call it as "8llu murukkan" (Tamil: முள்ளுமுருக்கன்). In Siddha medicine it is used especially for menstrual disorders and fissures at penis tip (Tamil: ஆண்குறிப்புண்).

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Grihyasűtra and Dharmasâtra

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalpa-Vedanga 120815

Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual.

Tradition does not single out any special work in this branch of the Vedanga; but sacrificial practice gave rise to a large number of systematic sutras for the several classes of priests. A number of these works have come down to us, and they occupy by far the most prominent place among the literary productions of the sūtra-period. [UKT ¶]

The Kalpa-sūtras, or rules of ceremonial, are of two kinds: (1) the Śrautasūtras, which are based on the shruti, and teach the performance of the great sacrifices, requiring three or five sacrificial fires; and (2) the Smartasūtras, or rules based on the smrti or tradition. [UKT ¶]

The latter class again includes two kinds of treatises: (1) the Grhyasutras, or domestic rules, treating the rites of passage, such as marriage, birth, namegiving, etc., connected with simple offerings into the domestic fire; and (2) the Dharmasutras, which treat customs and social duties, and have formed the chief sources of the later law-books. Further, the Śrauta-sūtras of the Yajurveda have usually include a set of so-called Shulva-sutras, i.e. rules of the cord, which treat of the measurement by means of cords, and the construction, of different kinds of altars required for sacrifices. These treatises are of special interest as supplying important information regarding the earliest geometrical operations in India. Along with the Sutras may be classed a large number of supplementary treatises, usually called Pariśiṣṭa (परिशिष्ट), on various subjects connected with the sacred texts and Vedic religion generally

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parashara 120815

Parāśara is a Rigvedic Maharishi and author of many ancient Indian texts. Parāśara (or Parashar) was the grandson of Vashista, the son of Śakti Maharṣi, and the father of Vyasa. [UKT ¶]

There are several texts which give reference to Parāśara as an author/speaker. Modern scholars believe that there were many individuals who used this name throughout time whereas others assert that the same Parāśara taught these various texts and the time of writing them varied. [UKT ¶]

The actual sage himself never wrote the texts, he was known as a traveling teacher, and the various texts attributed to him are given in reference to Parāśara being the speaker to his student. He is the third member of the Rishi Parampara of the Advaita Guru Paramparā.

... ... ...


One of the greatest Cleric of the Puranic times. Parāśara Muni was raised by his grandfather, Vashista, because he lost his father at an early age. His father, Shakti-muni, was on a journey and came across an angry Rakshasa (demon) who had once been a king but was turned into a demon feeding on human flesh as a curse from Vishwamitra. The demon devoured Parāśara’s father. In the Visnu Purana, Parāśara speaks about his anger from this:[2]

"I had heard that my father had been devoured by a Rakshasa employed by Vishwamitra: violent anger seized me, and I commenced a sacrifice for the destruction of the Rakshasas: hundreds of them were reduced to ashes by the rite, when, as they were about to be entirely exterminated, my grandfather Vashista said to me: Enough, my child; let thy wrath be appeased: the Rakshasas are not culpable: thy father's death was the work of destiny. Anger is the passion of fools; it becometh not a wise man. By whom, it may be asked, is any one killed? Every man reaps the consequences of his own acts. Anger, my son, is the destruction of all that man obtains by arduous exertions, of fame, and of devout austerities; and prevents the attainment of heaven or of emancipation. The chief sages always shun wrath: be not subject to its influence, my child. Let no more of these unoffending spirits of darkness be consumed. Mercy is the might of the righteous.”

Sage Parashara, on one of his travels across the country, halted for the night in a little hamlet on the banks of the river Ganges. He was put up in the house of the village chief. When dawn broke, the chief asked his daughter, Satyavati, to ferry the sage to his next destination. When in the ferry, Parashara was offended by the stench of raw fish. According to legend, the Ganges has no fish within her waters. He asked Satyavati as to from where the foul stench was emanating. Satyavati was a fisherman's daughter, and pursued the same occupation. It was from her the stench emanated. Realising this, Parashara gave her the epithet "Matsyagandha", meaning "one with the smell of fish". Satyavati was thoroughly ashamed. Parashara felt sorry for his cruelty, and instantly granted her the boon, that the finest fragrance may emit from her person.

Parashara grew attached to Satyavati, and desired to perform coitus with her. But Satyavati was terrified of him and gave an excuse that there were many people present on either sides of the Ganges. So Parasara Muni, with his mystic power, created a dense sheet of mist around the boat. He then took her to an island on the Ganges and in due course, they had a son, by name Vyasa. But Parashara's wandering ascetic life did not suit Satyavati, and the couple separated. While parting, Parashara granted Satyavati another boon; that she may have her lost virginity back. Satyavati returned to her father after this, and in due course, married Shantanu.

UKT: Rishi Parashara had sex with Satyavati. They even had a son. They then separated -- as a passing gift Rishi Parashara made her a "virgin" again. How convenient! Or, "Sex" and "Virginity" to the Hindus were completely different from the modern views.

Parāśara was known as the "limping sage". He had his leg wounded during the attack of his ashram. When a rishi dies he merges back into an element or an archetype, Sage Jaimini was trampled by wild elephants, Sage Gautama was eaten by Cannibals, etc. When Sage Parāśara was walking through a dense forest he and his students were attacked by wolves. He was unable to get away in his old age with a lame leg he left this world merging into the wolves.[3]

UKT: So the Rishi was 'eaten' by wolves. Of course, his flesh would be digested in the stomachs of the wolves, and new body-cells would be formed. Does "merging into wolves" means ingested by the wolves? What a flowery way to describe a death!

The birth place of Parashar Muni is believed to be at Panhala fort in Kolhapur district of Maharashtra. A cave supposed to be of Parashar Muni is present at the fort.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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