Update: 2017-10-30 12:17 AM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p157.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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MC-c51-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{pa.ru.}
  p157-c1
{pa.r} : {pa.} + front mid-vowel
{pa.rau:} : {pa.} + back mid-vowel - {pa.ro}?
{par}
  p157-c2
  p157-c3
{pa.la.}

UKT notes :
Atiratra Agnicayana : building the fire-alter
Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS

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{pa.ru.}

p157-c1

p157c1-top

परुषेतर parusetara [ parusha‿itara ]
-- a. reverse of severe, gentle, benign; -‿ukti, f. rough speech.

p157c1-b01

परुष्णी parusni [ prush-n- ]
-- f. (of parusha) cloud (motley); N. of a river in the Panjb (knotty, winding), now Ravi.

p157c1-b02

परुष्य parusya [ parush-ya ]
-- a. variegated, manifold.

परुस् parus [ pr-us ]
-- n. knot; joint; limb; section.

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{pa.r}

The two syllables, {pa.} प & {ra.} र, could easily form a medial in Bur-Myan as: {pr} .
Its equivalent in Bur-Dev is : प्रे <-- प ् र े . Here because of rhoticity of {ra.} र, we have a serious problem in BEPS. See my note on the Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS.

 

p157c1-b03

परे pare [ par ]
= प र े
-- lc. ad. at a later time, subsequently.

p157c1-b04

परेङ्गितज्ञानफल parengitajnanaphala [ para‿iṅgita-gna-phala ]
-- a. fruitful in the discovery of another's hints.

p157c1-b05

परेण parena [ prena ]
-- (in.) ad. prp. beyond, over, past (ac.); after (ab., g.); subsequently, later, afterwards.

p157c1-b06

परेत pareta [ par‿ita ]
-- pp. (gone away), deceased: -bhartri, m. lord of the dead, ep. of Yama; -bhmi, f. cemetery; -rga, m. king of the dead, ep. of Yama; -‿vsa, m. cemetery.

p157c1-b07

परेतर paretara [ paretara ]
-- a. trustworthy or attracting adversaries.

p157c1-b08

परेद्यवि paredyavi [ pare-dyavi ]
-- ad. on the following day, to-morrow.

परेप्राण pareprana [ pare-prna ]
-- a. dearer than life.

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{pa.rau:} : {pa.ro} ?

Continuation from Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS.
   The two syllables, {pa.} प & {ra.} र, could easily form a medial in Bur-Myan as: {pr} .
Its equivalent in Bur-Dev is : प्रे <-- प ् र े . Here because of rhoticity of {ra.} र, we have a serious problem in BEPS.

 

p157c1-b09

परोऽक्ष paro'ksa [ par-[a]ksha ]
Skt: -- a. [beyond the eye], being out of sight, invisible, imperceptible; unknown, unintelligible; cognizable by mind only; --, imperceptibly: -- Mac157c1
Pal: {pa.rauk~hka.}
- - UHS-PMD-0641

UKT from UHS: out of sight.
Here 'sight' refers to the physical eye-sight. It can also mean what is beyond the physical perception of sight, or what can only be "seen" mentally.

UKT: Note the avagraha ऽ in Skt-Dev. I suspect its presence is to prevent the breakup of ksa as has happened in Pal-Myan. In this case, परोऽक would have to be changed to परोख . I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT120705

-m, ad. behind the back of, without the knowledge of (in. V.; g. or --, C.); in. imperceptibly, mysteriously; ab. without the knowledge of (in.); behind the back of (g.); when one has not been present (gr.); -kma, a. fond of mystery; -krita, pp. not addressing but merely referring to a deity indirectly, i. e. in the third person (verse); -t, f., -tva, n. being out of sight, imperceptibility; obscurity; -vritti, a. living or acting out of sight; -‿artha, a. invisible; secret, recondite.

p157c1-b10

परोक्षा paroksa [ paroksh ]
-- f. past completed action; personal ending of the perfect (gr.).

परोक्षार्थ paroksartha [ paroksha‿artha ] m. invisible object, the invisible.

p157c1-b11

परोपकरण paropakarana [ para‿upakarana ]
-- n. rendering of services to others; -kri, make the instrument of others; -‿upakra, m. services rendered to others; -‿upakr-in, a. benefiting others (-i-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a prince; -‿upakriti, f. rendering of services to others.

p157c1-b12

परोपग paropaga [ para‿upaga ]
-- a. dependent on something else, adjectival; -‿upadesa, m. instruction of others.

परोरजस् parorajas [ paro-ragas ]
-- a. free from passions.

p157c1-b13

परोऽवरम् paro'varam [ paro-(a)varm ]
-- ad. from above downwards, in succession; -varyas, cpv. broader above.

p157c1-b14

परोष्णिह् parosnih [ para[h]‿ushnih ]
-- f. a metre (8+ 8+12 syllables).

परोष्णी parosni [ paroshn ]
-- f. N. of a river (probably corrupted from Parushn: cp. Payoshn).

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{par}

We have already found in p153.htm , {pa.} & {ra.} do not form the medial {pra.}. Here we are finding that in Skt-Dev the repha {par} is formed. From this we can conclude that whereas Bur-Myan {ra.} is an approximant /ɹ/ (and therefore a medial former), Skt-Dev is not. Skt-Dev र ra is more rhotic and is a trill /r/. Bur-Myan {ra.} is more akin to British-English and is quite different from the more rhotic American-English. -- UKT120706

p157c1-b15

पर्क parka [ park-a ]
-- m. [√prik] mixture or libation (--).

p157c1-b16

पर्कटी parkati [ parkat ]
-- f. wavy-leaved fig-tree (Ficus infectoria).

p157c1-b17

पच् [PARK]
-- v. पृच् [PRIK]

p157c1-b18

पर्जन्य parjanya [ parg-nya ]
-- m. rain-cloud; rain; god of rain: -ginvita, pp. animated by Parganya.

p157c1-b19

पर्ण parna [ par-n ]
-- n. [taking across, wafting: √2. pri ] pinion, wing; feather (also of an arrow); leaf (--, a. , ); betel-leaf; m. a tree with large leaves (Butea frondosa), in C. generally called palsa; -krikkhra, m. a kind  ( p157c1 end ) ( p157c2-top )
of penance; -puta, m. n. leaf rolled into a funnel shape; -vat, a. abounding in leaves; -vtik, f. areca nut wrapped with spices in a betel-leaf; -sabda, m. rustling of leaves; -sara, m. stalk of the Parna-leaf; -sl, f. arbour.

 

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p157-c2

p157c2-b01

पर्णाद parnada [ parna‿ada ]
-- m. N. of a Brhman: -vak ana, n. speech of Parnda; -‿hra, a. feeding on leaves.

p157c2-b02

पर्णोटज parnotaja  [ parna‿utaga ]
-- n. (?) hut of leaves; -‿utsa, m. N. of a village.

[parmdi] (or -ndi )
-- m. N. of a prince

p157c2-b03

पर्यक् paryak [ pari‿ak ]
-- ad. (n. of pari‿ak) round about.

p157c2-b04

पर्यग्नि paryagni [ pari‿agni ]
-- m. encircling fire, firebrand carried round the victim; the ceremony of carrying round the firebrand: i (ad.) or -m kri, perform this ceremony; -karana, n. performance of the Paryagni ceremony; -krita, pp. having been encircled by the firebrand.

p157c2-b05

पर्यङ्क paryanka [ pari‿aṅka ] m. couch, bed; squatting posture: -bandha, m., -granthi-bandha, m. doubling of the legs in squatting; -stha, a. sitting on a sofa.

p157c2-b06

पर्यङ्किका paryankika [ paryaṅk-ik ]
-- f. couch.

[paryaṅk-kri]
-- turn into a couch

p157c2-b07

पर्यटक paryataka [ pari‿ataka ]
-- m. vagabond; -‿atana, n. roaming about, strolling (with g. or --); -‿anu yoktavya, fp. to be asked; to be called upon to answer; -‿anuyoga, m. enquiry; reproach; -‿ant, m. (limit around), boundary, border, skirt, limit, edge, end; --=adjacent, neighbouring; --, a. surrounded or limited by, reaching to, ending with; -or -m, to the end of, up to, as far as (--); -m, ad. completely, exhaustively; kim paryantam, how far?

p157c2-b08

पर्यय paryaya [ pari‿aya ] m. revolution, expiration (of a period); change, alteration.

p157c2-b09

पर्यवधारण paryavadharana [ pari‿avadhrana ]
-- n. mature reflexion; -‿avasna, n. conclusion, end; resulting in (lc.); -‿avasyin, a. ending with, resulting in (--).

p157c2-b10

पर्यश्रु paryasru [ pari‿asru ]
-- a. bathed in tears, tearful.

p157c2-b11

पर्याकुल paryakula [ pari‿kula ]
-- a. filled with, full of (--); disordered, disarranged; confused; agitated: -tva, n. confusion; -ya, den. P. confuse; agitate; -kri, id.; -bh, become confused.

p157c2-b12

पर्याण paryana [ pari-[y]na ]
-- a. circuitous; n. saddle: i-ta, pp. saddled.

[pari‿dhtri]
-- m. man who has set up the sacred fire before his elder brother

p157c2-b13

पर्याप्त paryapta [ pari‿pta ]
-- pp. sufficient: -t, f. abundance; (pri)-‿pti, f. conclusion; sufficiency; being a match for any one; competency, capacity for (--).

p157c2-b14

पर्याय paryaya [ pari‿ya ]
-- m. revolution; expiration of a period; change of seasons; periodic return; repetition; regular succession; turn; ritual turn with the Soma cups in the Atirtra feast; period, sentence; stanza; alternative word, synonym: -or in. in order; alternately, -m, abs. going about; -krama, m. order of succession, regular rotation; -tva, n. condition of being a ritual turn; -‿anna, n. food meant for another.

See my note on Atiratra Agnicayana

p157c2-b15

पर्यालोचन paryalocana [ pari‿lokana ]
-- n. deliberation; , f. id.; plan, scheme.

पर्यावर्त paryavarta [ pari‿varta ]
-- m. return; exchange; -‿vila, a. extremely turbid.
( p157c2 end )

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p157-c3

p157c3-top

पर्यास paryasa [ pari‿s ]
-- m. rotation; border; conclusion; concluding stanza in recitation: -na, n. revolution.

p157c3-b01

पर्याहाव paryahava [ pari‿hva ]
-- m. a certain formula preceding and following a verse; -‿hita, (pp. √dh) m. man whose younger brother has set up the sacred fire before him.

p157c3-b02

पर्युक paryuka [ pari‿uka ]
m. N.; -‿ukshana, n. sprinkling; -‿utsuka, a. very restless or agitated; very melancholy; vehemently longing for (d.): -tva, n. longing desire, -bh, become very melancholy; -‿ud-asta, pp. excepting; -‿udsa, m. exclusion, negation; -‿upsaka, a. honouring, respecting; -‿upsana, n. sitting round (Pr.); courtesy, affability; -‿ushita, pp. (√vas, dwell) stale; not punctually kept (word); -‿ushta, pp. id.

p157c3-b03

पर्येष्टव्य paryestavya [ pari‿eshtavya ]
-- fp. to be sought; -‿eshan a, n. search.

p157c3-b04

[parva]
-- --, a.=parvan; -gupta , m. N.

p157c3-b05

पर्वत parvata [ pr-vat-a ]
-- a. consisting of knots or ragged masses (with dri or gir); m. mountain, hill; rock, boulder; cloud; N. of a Rishi and of a minister of Purravas: -ka, m. N.; -kandara, n. mountain-cave; -dur ga, n. impenetrable mountain; -rg: -a, m. king of mountains, ep. of the Himlaya; -si khara, m. n. hill-top, mountain-peak; -sre shtha, spv. best of mountains; -‿agra, n. id.; -kri, turn into a mountain; &isharp;-ya, a. belonging to mountains; -‿svara, m. N.; -‿upa-tyak, f. mountain-lowland, land at the foot of a mountain-range.

p157c3-b06

पर्वन् parvan [ pr-van ]
-- n. [fulness: √1. pri] knot of a cane or plant; joint; limb; section, division in a book; natural break in a narrative or conversation; juncture, period; node, day of periodic change of the moon (of which there are two or four); sacrifice performed on one of these days; time when the moon passes through the node at conjunction or opposition; end of an eclipse; (-va)-sarkaraka, m. N.; (-va)-samdhi, m. change of moon, esp. time of new or full-moon.

p157c3-b07

पर्वात्यय parvatyaya [ parva‿atyaya ]
-- m. end of an eclipse; -‿sphota, m. cracking of the fingers.

पर्विणी parvini  [ parvin- ]
-- f. feast-day.

p157c3-b08

पर्शान parsana [ prs-na ]
-- m. cavity, gulf, abyss.

पर्शु parsu [ prs-u ]
-- f. rib; curved knife, sickle.

p157c3-b09

[par-shad]
-- = pari-shad, assembly

[prshi]
-- 2. sg. subj. aor. √2. pri

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{pa.la.}

p157c3-b10

पल pala [ pala ]
-- n. a weight=four karshas; flesh.

पलल palala [ palala ]
-- n. pounded sesamum; mire; -‿odana, m. n. pap of pounded sesamum.

p157c3-b11

पलाण्डु palandu [ palndu ]
-- m. (n.) onion.

पलाय palaya [ pal‿aya ]
-- v. √i with pal.

पलायन palayana [ pal‿ayana ]
-- n. running away, flight, escape: -para, a. intent on flight.

p157c3-b12

पलाल palala [ palla ]
-- n. (also &isharp;, f.) straw; -bhra, m. load of straw; -‿ukkaya, m. heap of straw.

p157c3-b13

पलाव palava [ palva ]
-- m. fish-hook.

p157c3-b14

पलाश palasa [ pals- ]
-- n. (a. -- f. ), leaf; foliage (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); petal; flower of the Palsa; m. a tree with large leaves, bearing red blossoms (Butea frondosa ); -in, a. leafy; m. tree; N. of a town or village, Plassey.

p157c3-b15

पलिक palika [ pal-ika ]
-- a. weighing a pala; esp. -- after a numeral, weighing so many palas.

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UKT notes

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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

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Atiratra Agnicayana

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnicayana 120707

The Atiratra Agnicayana (ati-rātr agn-cayana "the building up of the fireplace performed overnight") or Athirathram (Malayalam: അതിരാത്രം); the piling of the altar of Agni is a Śrauta ritual of the Vedic religion, the predecessor of modern day Hinduism which is considered to be the greatest ritual as per the Vedic ritual hierarchy.[1] It is also the world's oldest surviving ritual.[2] Its mantras and theological explanations in the Brahmana texts are first attested in the Yajurveda Samhitas (Taittiriya, Kathaka; Vajasaneyi). The practice of this ritual was generally discontinued among Brahmins by the late Vedic period, during the rise of Jainism and Buddhism in India. Nevertheless, a continuous, unbroken 3,000 year tradition has been found to exist among a few Nambudiri Brahmin families in Kerala, South India.

Overview

The entire ritual takes twelve days to perform, in the course of which a great bird-shaped altar, the uttaravedi "northern altar" is built out of 10,800 bricks. The liturgical text is in chapters 11 to 18 of the White Yajurveda; the corresponding exposition of the ritual is in Books 6 to 9 of the Shatapatha Brahmana.A total of 29 sastra's and stuti's from Rigveda and Samaveda are also recited in entire Agnicayana rite.[3]. The original essence and purpose of the ritual is not correctly known. But, the immediate practical purpose of the Agnicayana is to build up for the sacrificer an immortal body that is permanently beyond the reach of the transitoriness, suffering, and death that, according to this rite, characterize man's mortal existence.[4]

The ritual emerged from predecessor rituals, which were incorporated as building blocks, around the 10th century BC, and was likely continuously practiced until the late Vedic period, or the 6th century BC. In post-Vedic times, there were various revivals of the practice, under the Gupta Empire in the north (ca. 4th to 6th century), and under the Chola Empire in the south (ca. 9th century), but by the 11th century, the practice was held to have been discontinued; except for the Nambudiris of Kerala.

To observe the ritual, goat sacrifice is essential.[5] Since animal sacrifice is frowned upon by the Hindu society since the end of Vedic age and is a punishable offense in modern India, all documented Agnicayanas have been performed without this and may be deemed incomplete.

In 1975 Indologist Frits Staal documented in great detail the performance of an Agnicayana conducted performed by Nambudiri Brahmins according to Samaveda tradition[6] at Panjal, Kerala.[7][8] The last performance before that had been in 1956, and the Nambudiris were concerned that the ritual was threatened by extinction. It had never before been observed by outsiders. In exchange for a financial participation of the scholars towards the cost of the ritual, the Nambudiris agreed that it should be filmed and recorded. The ritual was performed from 12 to 24 April 1975. An effigy was used to symbolize the goat sacrifice, due to overwhelming opposition by animal protetction groups.[5] Staal (1989) bases a general analysis of the similarities of grammar and ritual on this performance.

After the 1975 Agnicayana, there have been several more Nambudiri performances: in 1990 Agnicayana at Kundoor, and in 2006 at Sukapuram.[8] Belief holds Sukapuram to be one among the 64 villages originally established by Parashurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu after creating Kerala by throwing his axe into the ocean. The Somayagam (Agnistoma) was performed for the first time in 222 years at Aluva from 25 April till 1 May 2009.[9]

An Athirathram Yagna was conducted at Panjal ( Trichur district, Kerala), home to most of the yagnas in Kerala including the 1975 one and where most of Samavedic Namboodiris reside from April 414, 2011.[10]

Since then two more Athiratrams were conducted at kodakara (trichur distrcit,kerala) from March 23rd to April 3rd, 2012 featuring rare Aaswalaayana (Pakazhiya) Boudhaayana combination. The last Athirathram of this type was performed 112 years ago. [11]

The ritual was also performed for the first time outside kerala by Nambudiris from 21 April 2012 to 2 May 2012 at at Bhadrachalam (Khammam district, Andhra pradesh).[12] 

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

Go back Atiratra-note-b

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Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS

-- UKT 120705

The two syllables, {pa.} प & {ra.} र, could easily form a medial in Bur-Myan as: {pr} .
Its equivalent in Bur-Dev is : प्रे <-- प ् र े .

Now what are the mid-vowels? They are defined by the diagram below.

Mid vowels form what are known as Dissimilar pairs {a.a.wN} . There are two pairs: the front and the back.

Front mid vowels: े (short), ै (long)
The front vowels are usually accompanied by lip-spreading. They have to correspond to Bur-Myan registers: the creak, the modal, and the emphatic

{.}, {},  {:}, and
{.},   {}, {:}

Back mid vowels: ो (short), ौ (long)
The back vowels are usually accompanied by lip-rounding. However, lip-spreading is also very easily done, and there can be many possible pronunciations corresponding to the degree of lip-rounding. They have to correspond to Bur-Myan registers

{o.}, {o}, {o:}, and
{au.}, {au}, {au:}

Firstly, I will concentrate only on close mid-vowel {} which is present in Eng-Lat and the pronunciations of words formed from the two phonemes /p/ and /ɹ/ . It is a major problem in BEPS, stemming from the non-rhotic accent of the Irrawaddy valley and somewhat rhotic accent of British English (RP aka Received Pronunciation). This problem is accentuated in the more rhotic accent of the American English (GA aka General American).

In Bur-Myan accent of the Irrawaddy valley {pr} is mis-pronounced without any rhoticity as / {py} /. However, this is not the case with Bur-Myan accent of the Western coastal area - the Rakhine State.

The problem becomes almost non-solvable when we look into the Bur-Myan nasal r2c5 {a.}. This you would remember is the horizontal conjunct of two {a.} in Pal-Myan. The {a.} as a killed consonant can check the peak vowel of {pra.} to give: {pr} which is also pronounced as / {py}/. {pr} has another sound variation as / pyi/ 'pus' or a 'volume measure of rice grains'. The reader should note the importance of brackets: /.../ which is meant to show that it is the pronunciation and not necessary the right spelling.

Secondly, we will deal with the back mid-vowels. The problem is more complex because {pa.rau:} can be a modified sound of {pa.ro}. The reader is reminded that the back vowel {o} can only be found in Bur-Myan, and probably not in Eng-Lat, and definitely not in Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev.

{pa.ro} as a medial sound is very common in Bur-Myan as {pro} 'falling down of a structure', which again is mis-pronounced in the Irrawaddy valley as / {pyo}/. This last sound is realized in Bur-Myan as {pyo} 'virgin'.

There is yet another problem stemming from confusion between /ɹ/ and /l/ phonemes, and we should note that Skt-Myan {pa.rau:} can be derived from Pal-Myan {pa.lau:}

{pa.rau:}
- - UHS-PMD0641
   UKT from UHS: out of presence, beyond
{pa.lau:}
- - UHS-PMD0644
   UKT from UHS: covering with paste, plastering

On the surface {pa.rau:} and {pa.lau:} seem to mean differently until we remember that both words seem to convey the meaning of "concealment from the physical visual observation". Just as rhoticity is a problem for Bur-Myan speakers, I expect to find a parallel problem, the lateral, for the Skt-Dev speakers when I resume my work on U Pe Maung Tin The Student's Pali English dictionary , 1920. 

Go back Rhoticity-problem-note-b / Rhoticity-problem-note-b0

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End of TIL file