Update: 2014-10-09 11:21 AM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{pa.ra-sa.} : palatal
{pa.raar} : instead of {pa.ra-ra.}, a repha is formed


UKT notes :
petitio principii - begging the question
Visarga : {wic~sa.pauk}

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परशु parasu [ para-s ]
-- m. axe, hatchet: (u)-mt, a. provided with an axe; -rma, m. Rma with the axe, ep. of Rma, son of Gamadagni.


परश्वध parasvadha [ parasvadha ]
-- m. axe, hatchet.

परश्वस् parasvas [ para-svas ]
-- ad. day after to-morrow.


परःशत parhsata [ parah-sat ]
-- a. more than 100; containing more than 100 verses.

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परस् paras [ par-s ]
-- (V.) ad. [√2. pri: cp. tir-as] further, beyond, away, afar; in future, later; prp. with ac. beyond, more than; with in., id.; without; with ab. beyond, except.


-- makeover to another man, marry a girl to


परसेवा paraseva [ para-sev ]
-- f. service of others.

परस्तराम् parastaram [ paras-tarm ]
-- ad. further.


परस्तात् parastat [ pars-tt ]
-- ad. prp. with g. afar, further, beyond; above, higher than; from above, before, or behind; afterwards, later: (d) ava gamyata eva, what follows can be guessed.


परस्थान parasthana [ para-sthna ]
-- n. foreign country; strange place.


परस्पर paraspara [ para-s-para ]
-- a.: ac. each other; in. by or with each other; g. of each other; --, -tas, -m, ad. each other, mutually; -ga, a. knowing one another, intimate; -vyvritti, f. mutual exclusion; -sthita, pp. standing op posite each other; -‿din, a. devouring one another; -‿amisha-t, f. condition of being one another's prey; -‿sraya, m. mutual dependence, petitio principii ; a. mutual; -‿upa-kra, m. mutual benefit.

See my note on petitio principii  - begging the question


परस्मैपद parasmaipada [ parasmai-pada ]
-- n. (word for an other), transitive form, personal endings of the active (gr.).


परस्व parasva [ para-sva ]
-- n. sg. & pl. property of others: -‿dyin, a. appropriating the property of others.


परःसहस्र parhsahasra [ prah-sahasra (or r) ]
-- a. pl. more than a thousand.


परहित parahita [ para-hita ]
-- n. welfare of others.

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Skt-Dev (showing vowel lengths):   
   {pa.ra.} (short),  {pa.ra} (long),  {pa.raH} (vowel length ?)
Skt-Myan (showing pitch-registers):
   {pa.ra.} (creak),  {pa.ra} (modal),  {pa.ra:} (emphatic)

Romabama has to differentiate {pa.raH} and {pa.rah} because {wic~sa.} and {ha.t} seems to be quite different as phones. I am waiting for input from Mon-Myan pronunciation and orthography. -- UKT120630
See my note on Visarga


परा para [ pr ]
-- ad. backward, away, forth, off (verbal prp. and nominal prefix).

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पराक् parak [ park (or ) ]
-- n. of park.

-- distance: lc. at a distance; ab. from a distance, far; m. kind of penance


पराक्रम parakrama [ par-krama ]
-- m. sg. & pl. bold ad vance, valour; power, strength, might; prowess; forcible means; N. of a fairy prince; -kramin, a. valorous, mighty.


पराग paraga [ par-ga ]
-- m. sg. & pl. [going forth, dispersing], pollen; dust; -gamana, n. departure; -g-in, a. having pollen.


पराङ्ग paranga [ para‿aṅga ]
-- m. hinder part of the body.


पराङ्मुख paranmukha [ parṅ-mukha ]
-- a. () having one's face averted; turning one's back upon (g.), fleeing from (ab.); averted (gaze); averse from, not caring for, avoiding, indifferent to (prati, g., lc., --); adverse: -t, f. aversion of the face; -tva, n. aversion, to (--); -bh, avert the face, flee; not care for (g.); become adverse (fate).

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पराची paraci [ prk- ]
-- f. of park.

पराचीन paracina [ park-na ]
-- a. averted; being beyond; indifferent to (ab.); unsuitable: -m, ad. beyond, away from (ab.); after (ab.); more.


पराचैस् paracais [ parkas ]
-- ad. (in. pl. of par‿ak-a) aside, away: dre --, far away.
( p154c1 end )

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पराजय parajaya [ par-gaya ]
-- m. deprivation, loss, of (ab., --); defeat; loss of a lawsuit; subjugation, conquest of (g., --); -gi-shnu, a. victorious.


[pr‿ak ]
-- a. turned away, turning the back, averted; standing behind one another; following after (ab.); passed away, irrevocable; n. park ( ) ad.


पराञ्चिन् parancin [ park-in ]
-- a. not returning.

परात्मन् paratman [ para‿tman ]
-- m. supreme soul.


पराधिकार paradhikara [ para‿adhikra ]
-- m. another's office or post: -kark, f. interference with another's concerns, officiousness; -‿adhna, a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; dependent on (--); engaged or absorbed in, engrossed by (--); -t, f. dependence, subjection.


परान्न paranna [ para‿anna ]
-- n. food of another: -bhog in, a. eating the food of another, living at another's cost.


परापर parapara [ para‿apara ]
-- n. the further and the nearer; the earlier and the later (cause and effect); the higher and the lower, the better and the worse: -t, f. condition of being both genus and species; absoluteness and relativity; -tva, n. id.; priority and posteriority; absoluteness and relativity.


पराभव parabhava [ par-bhav ]
-- m. departure; disappearance; defeat, overthrow; humiliation, frustration, mortification (by, in., ab.); -bh va, m. defeat; (pr)-bhti, f. defeat, humiliation, mortification (by, ab., --).


परामर्श paramarsa [ par-marsa ]
-- m. injury; assault, attack, on (g., lc., --); relation to; recollection; reflexion, consideration.

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परायण parayana [ parấ‿ayana ] {pa.ra-ya.Na.}
-- n. 1. departure; 2. (a‿ayana), highest aim, last resort, refuge; chief thing, essence; determining agent (of, g.); a certain work; a. --, wholly occupied with, intent on, devoted to, engrossed by, exclusively referring to; a. being the last refuge for (g.).

परायती parayati [ par-yat-&isharp; ]
-- f. pr. pt. (√i) gone by, departed (dawn: RV.).


परायत्त parayatta [ para‿yatta ]
= प र ा य त ् त
-- pp. dependent on another; dependent on, overcome by (--).

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Instead of {pa.ra-ra.}, a repha is formed. -- UKT120701


परार्थ parartha [ para‿artha ]
-- m. great importance; another's affair or interests, advantage of others; (chief thing=) copulation: -m, lc., --, for another's sake, for the good of others; a. having another purpose; existing for others; -ka, a. id.: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -vd in, a. speaking for another, proxy.


परार्थिन् pararthin [ para‿arthin ]
-- a. striving for what is highest.


परार्ध parardha [ para‿ardh ]
-- m. ulterior side, other half; m. n. the highest number: 100,000,000,000,000,000 [UKT: 1x1017 ] ; -‿ardh-ya, a. being on the other side; most excellent, noblest, highest, best; more excellent than (ab.).

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परावत् paravat [ par-vt ]
-- f. distance.


परावर paravara  [ para‿avara ]
-- a. farther and nearer, preceding and following, superior and inferior; all-comprising; n. cause and effect; totality.


परावर्तन paravartana [ par-vartana ]
-- n. turning round; -vritti, f. return; failure; exchange.


परावसथशायिन् paravasathasayin [ para‿avasatha-syin ]
-- a. sleeping in another's house.

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पराशर parasara [ par-sar ]
-- m. destroyer; N.


-- m. dependence on others; a. dependent on others; -‿srita , pp. id.; m. dependent, servant

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परासु parasu  [ par‿asu ]
-- a. whose breath is departing, dying; expired, lifeless, dead; -t, f., -tva, n. apathy; nearness of death.


परासेध parasedha [ par-sedha ]
-- m. custody, prison.

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पराह्ल parahla [ para‿ahna ]
= प र ा ह ् ल
-- m. afternoon.

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परि pari [ pri ]
Skt: -- ad. around; --, fully, quite, entirely, excessively; prp. with ac. about (of time and place); against, towards; over, more than; with ab. from; on account of; according to. -- Mac153
Pal: {pa.ri.}
- -- UHS-PMD0618

UKT from UHS - prefix showing what has happened from the above, completeness, absoluteness, perfection

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परिकम्पिन् parikampin [ pari-kampin ]
-- a. trembling violently; -kara, m. sg. & pl. retinue, dependents; assistance, expedient; addition; abundance, multitude; girdle for looping up a garment: -m bandh or kri, gird oneself for, prepare to (lc. or inf.); -karita, pp. accompanied by (in.); -karman, n. adoration; decoration of the person, anointing the body; purification, means of purifying; preparation for (--); -karma-ya, den. P. adorn; -karmin, m. attendant, servant; -kalayitri, a. enclosing; -kalpana, n. cheating; -krtana, n. proclaiming aloud, promulgation; naming; -kopa, m. violent anger; -krama, m. succession, order; -kraya, m. hire; redemption, peace purchased with money; -kriy, f. attention to (--); -kleda, m. wetness; -klesa, m. hard ship; trouble, suffering; -kshaya, m. disappearance, cessation, failure; decline; ruin; -kshna, n. pl. coal-dust; -kshma, a. emaciated; -kshit, a. dwelling around (Agni), extending around (du., heaven and earth); m. N. of various princes; -kshiti, f. wounding; -kshna, pp. emaciated, wasted away; -kshepa, m. moving to and fro; surrounding, encompassing; that which encircles; compass.


परिखण्डन parikhandana [ pari-khandana ]
-- n. diminution, derogation; -kh, f. trench, moat, fosse; -kh-kri, turn into a moat; -kheda, m. exhaustion, fatigue.


परिगणन pariganana [ pari-ganana ]
-- n., , f. complete enumeration, exact statement; counting; -gananya, fp. to be completely enumerated, -exactly stated; *-ganit-in, a. having fully considered everything; -gata, pp. encom passed, surrounded; overwhelmed: -‿artha, a. familiar with a thing; -gantavya, fp. attain able; -gama, m. acquaintance; occupation with (--); -garvita, pp. very haughty; -garhana, n. censure; -grihti, f. inclusion; -grah, m. embracing; inclusion; putting on, assumption (of a body); taking; laying hold of; acceptance, receipt; deriving from (ab.); obtainment, acquisition, possession; admission, reception; marrying, marriage; selection; taking to mean; undertaking, prac tice of, addiction to (--); grace, favour, as sistance; claim, to (lc.); amount, sum, total number; property; wife (also coll.); depend ents, household, family, concubines of a king; abode; root, foundation; -grahana, n. put ting on; -graha-tva, n. woman's marriage with (--); -grahtri, m. husband; adopted father; -grhaka, a. doing a favour; -grh ya, fp. to be kindly treated; -glna, pp. (√glai) exhausted.




परिघ parigha [ pari-gha ]
-- m. iron gate-bar (with which powerful arms are often compared); bar, obstacle (fig.); iron club, mace encased with iron; streak of cloud across the rising or setting sun; palace-gate, gate; -ghattana, n. friction; -ghta, m. removal; -ghtin, a. transgressing (--); -gha‿upama, a. like iron bars.

UKT: p154c3-b08 moved to next file


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UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

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petitio principii - begging the question

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Begging_the_question 120629

Begging the question (Latin petitio principii, "assuming the initial point") is a type of logical fallacy in which a proposition is made that uses its own premise as proof of the proposition. In other words, it is a statement that refers to its own assertion to prove the assertion. Such arguments are essentially of the form "a is true because a is true" though rarely is such an argument stated as such. Often the premise 'a' is only one of many premises that go into proving that 'a' is true as a conclusion.

The first known definition in the West is by Aristotle around 350 BC, in his book Prior Analytics, where he classified it as a material fallacy. Begging the question is related to the circular argument, circulus in probando (Latin, "circle in proving") or circular reasoning, though these are considered absolutely different by Aristotle.[1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visarga 120630

Visarga (visarga) (विसर्ग) is a Sanskrit word meaning "sending forth, discharge". [UKT ]

In Sanskrit phonology (śikṣā), visarga (also called, equivalently, visarjanīya by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, [h], written as IAST 〈〉, Harvard-Kyoto 〈H〉, Devanagari 〈〉. The circle stands in for a consonant and is not an actual letter; the two dots on the right form the Visarga.

Wikipedia's brackets〈 〉are non-ASCII. In Romabama, we use as their equivalents the ASCII-compatible . -- UKT120630

Visarga is an allophone of /r/ and /s/ in pausa (at the end of an utterance). [UKT ]

UKT: 120630
The statement that "visarga is an allophone of /r/ and /s/" shows that the natures of Skt-Dev and its look-alike Bur-Myan {wic~sa.pauk} [which I usually shorten to {wic~sa.}] are quite different. The Bur-Myan {wic~sa.pauk} is:

{wic~sa.pauk} - n. [ortho] post-scripted double dot; the symbol ( -: ) placed after vowels, or de-vowelized consonant [killed nasals] to produce the long, heavy tone -- MED2006-480.

I have abbreviated the original dictionary entry for ease of reading. The reader should note that MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) the publisher of MED2006  is still not aware that their own language is quite unique in being one of the few pitch-register languages. They still continue to describe it as a "tonal-language" similar to the Thai. I have indicated that what they mean by "de-vowelized consonant" is a consonant whose inherent vowel has been killed by a virama aka {a.t}. Their definition only applies to the killed consonants of column #5 of the Myanmar akshara matrix: {nga.} /ŋ/, {a.} /ɲ/, {Na.} /ɳ/, {na.} /n/ and {ma.} /m/. The following is an application of {wic~sa.} to 
   {pa.ra.} (creak), {pa.ra} (modal), {pa.ra:} (emphatic)

Coming back to the statement that "visarga is an allophone of /r/ and /s/" is disturbing to me from the point of view of POA (Point of Articulation). Though /r/ and /s/ are both dental or alveolar, /r/ is rhotic without a hissing sound, but /s/ is non-rhotic with a highly hissing sound. [The reader should not get confused with palatal /c/ and dental /s/ though both are written with the same glyph in Bur-Myan which makes it necessary to differentiate them in Romabama as {sa.}/{c} for /c/, and {Sa.}/{s} for /s/.]. The definition of allophone is:

allophone  n. Linguistics 1. A predictable phonetic variant of a phoneme. For example, the aspirated t of top [Bur-Myan {hta.} ], the unaspirated t of stop [Bur-Myan {ta.}], and the tt (pronounced d ) of batter are allophones of the English phoneme t. -- AHTD

Thus, /r/ and /s/ cannot be looked on together. Whatever the case maybe it highlights my assertion that Bur-Myan {wic~sa.} and Skt-Dev visarga are not the same.

Since /-s/ is a common inflectional suffix (of nominative singular, second person singular, etc.), visarga appears frequently in Sanskrit texts. In the traditional order of Sanskrit sounds, visarga together with anusvāra appears between vowels and stop consonants.

The precise pronunciation of visarga in Vedic texts may vary between shakhas. Some pronounce a slight echo of the preceding vowel after the fricative, for example aḥ will be pronounced [ɐhᵄ], and iḥ will be pronounced [ihⁱ].

In Tamil, the visarga is called āytam, written ஃ. Apart from a modern use as a diacritic to write foreign sounds, it is archaic and employed only in idiomatic and fossilized words such as அஃது, இஃது etc. It is mentioned in the earliest available Tamil grammatical treatise, Tolkāppiyam (1:1:2), where it is categorized as an allophone (cārpezuttu "dependent sound"). As stated by Krishnamurti (Krishnamurti:2003 p154 [1] ) "The properties of āytam, as described by Tolkāppiyam, were: (1) it occurred after a short vowel and before a stop (voiceless), and its place of articulation is like that of the stop. In other words, ... assimilates to the following voiceless stop".

In the Burmese script, the visarga (variously called ရှေ့ကပေါက် shay ga pauk, wizza {wic~sa.pauk}, or ရှေ့ဆီး shay zi and represented with two dots to the right of the letter as ◌း), when used with joined to a letter, creates the high tone.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

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