Update: 2017-08-26 05:36 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{n:r} : repha
{nya.} : slight difference in sound from {a.} ञ
{nya} : slight difference in sound from {a} ञा

UKT note to Romabama editor: In this file you will see the need to use three graphemes, {a.}, {a.}, & {nya.} together. Though there is no problem in Romabama itself, you will run into trouble giving bookmarks: use,  NNYYa1 ,  nya1 , &  n-ya1 , respectively.

न्यायारोपितविक्रम nyayaropitavikrama [ nyya‿ropita-vikrama ]
-- a. from whom powerful assistance might justly be expected.

UKT notes :

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-- n. id


नैबिड्य naibidya [ naibid-ya ]
-- n. denseness; immediate contiguity.


नैमित्तिक naimittika  [ naimitt-ika ]
-- a. () produced by a cause; occasional, incidental; n. effect; m. fortune-teller.


नैमिष naimisa  [ naimisha ]
-- n. N. of a sacred forest: -ya, a. relating to the Naimisha forest; m. pl. inhabitants of the Naimisha forest.

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नैयग्रोध naiyagrodha  [ nayagrodha ]
-- a. relating to the sacred fig-tree ( Ficus indica ).

नैयत्य naiyatya [ naiyat-ya ]
-- n. fixity, necessity; exigency.


नैयायिक naiyayika  [ naiyy-ika ]
-- a. relating to the Nyya philosophy; m. logician.


नैरन्तर्य nairantarya  [ nair-antar-ya ]
-- n. [v. nir-] uninterruptedness; immediate succession: in. constantly; -apeksh-ya, n. regardlessness, indifference; complete independence; -arth-ya, n. senselessness; -kṅksh-ya, n. non-requirement of supplying anything; -s-ya, n. hopelessness, despair (of, prati or --); -ukta, a. etymologically explained; m. etymologist.


नैरुज्य nairujya  [ nai-rug-ya ] n. health (v. nrug).


नैर्ऋत nairrta [ nair-rit ]
-- a. (&isharp;) relating to nirriti; south-western; pointed southward; m. son of Nirriti, demon, Rkshasa: , f. south-west; ep. of Durg; -ritya, a. relating or sacred to Nirriti; south-western.

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{n:r} : repha


नैर्गन्ध्य nairgandhya  [ nair-gandh-ya ]
-- n. scentlessness; absence of smell; -gun-ya, n. exemption from qualities; lack of virtues; -ghrin-ya, n. hard-heartedness, cruelty; -ghara, a. belonging to waterfalls.


नैर्धन्य nairdhanya  [ nair-dhan-ya ]
-- n. poverty; -mal-ya, n. spotlessness, purity; -lagg-ya, n. shamelessness, impudence.

नैल्य nailya  [ nail-ya ]
-- n. dark-blue colour.


नैवाभिगमन naivabhigamana [ na‿eva‿abhigamana ]
-- n. no sexual intercourse whatever.

नैवार naivara  [ naivr ]
-- a. consisting of wild rice.


नैवेशिक naivesika [ naives-ika ]
-- n. household furniture.


नैश naisa [ naisa ]
-- a. () nocturnal; contracted during the night (guilt).

नैशाकर naisakara  [ naiskara ]
-- a. caused by the moon.


नैशिक naisika  [ nais-ika ]
-- a. () obtained in one night.

नैशित्य naisitya  [ naisit-ya ]
-- n. sharpness.

नैश्््चिन्त्य naiscintya  [ nais-kint-ya ]
-- n. freedom from care.


नैःश्रेयस naihsreyasa  [ naih-sreyas-a ]
-- a. () leading to future beatitude: i-ka, a. id.


नैषध naisadha  [ naishadha ]
-- m. prince of the Nishadhas, esp. Nala: pl. the Nishadhas: -‿anveshana, n. searching for Nala.

नैषाद naisada  [ naishda ]
-- a. () belonging to the Nishdas. ( end p148-1c1 )

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नैष्कर्म्य naiskarmya  [ naish-karm-ya ]
--n. abandonment of action, inactivity.


नैष्किंचन्य naiskincanya  [ naish-kimkan-ya ]
-- n. indigence, poverty.

नैष्कृतिक naiskrtika  [ naish-kritika ]
-- a. incorrect for naikritika.


नैष्ठिक naisthika  [ naishth-ika ]
-- a. () final, last; definitive, decided, settled; highest, supreme, perfect; thoroughly versed in (--); having taken the vow of eternal chastity: -sundara, a. supremely beautiful.


नैष्ठुर्य naisthurya [ naishthur-ya ]
-- n. roughness, coarseness, hardness, severity.

नैष्फल्य naisphalya  [ naish-phal-ya ]
-- n. fruitlessness, ineffectualness.


नैसर्ग naisarga  [ naisarga ]
-- a. natural: i-ka, a. id.; original, inherent, innate, constitutional.

नैस्त्रिंशिक naistriṃsika  [ naistrims-ika ]
-- a. armed with a sword.


नैःस्नेह्य naihsnehya [ naih-sneh-ya ]
-- n. want of affection; -sprih-ya, n. lack of desire for; -sv-ya, n. indigence, poverty.

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नो no [ na&halfacute;u ]
-- pcl. and not, nor (this meaning very rare in C.); not (C.).


-- m. N. of a merchant

नोदन nodana [ nod-ana ] -- a. removing; n. striking; dispelling; impulse.


नोदिन् nodin [ nod-in ]
-- a. dispelling (--).

नोधस् nodhas [ nodhs ]
-- m. N. of a Rishi.


[nona], m. N.:
-- , f. N.: -ka , m. N.; -ratha , m. N.

-- a. not appearing in court.

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नौ nau [ 1. nau ]
-- ac., d., g. du. of aham.

नौ nau [ 2. na ]
-- f. ship; boat, skiff.


-- - = 2. nau : , f. skiff; -kar-sadhra , m. helmsman (also fig.); -karman , n. occupation with boats, work of a boatman; -kakr-vat , m. owner of boats and wagons; ...


-- n. N. of Sman

नौयान nauyana [ nau-yna ]
-- n. navigation; -yyin, a. faring in boats; m. passenger; -vyasana, n. shipwreck.

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{nya.} : slight difference in sound from {a.} ञ 

See my note on the happy confusion of nasals in BEPS : a personal story


न्यक्कार nyakkara  [ nyak-kra ]
-- m. humiliation; disregard; -kriti, f. id.

न्यक्त nyakta  [ ni‿kta ]
-- pp. √ak; -‿kna, pp. √ak.


न्यग्भाव nyagbhava  [ nyag-bhva ]
-- m. going downwards; absorption in (lc.); disregard, contempt; -bhvayitri, m. humiliator.


न्यग्रोध nyagrodha  [ nyag-rdha ]
-- m. [growing downwards], Indian fig-tree, banyan ( Ficus indica ).

UKT: Notice the onset pronunciation of न्यग्रोध = (न ् य) (ग ् र ो) (ध)   'banyan' tree and Bur-Myan {aung} are both nasal and quite similar .


न्यङ्कु nyanku  [ ni‿aṅk-u ]
-- m. [√ak] kind of antelope: ( end p148-1c2 ) ( p148-1c3-top )
 -siras, a. (sc. kakubh) a metre; -srin, a. f. (sc. brihat) a metre.


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-- m. N.

न्यङ्ग nyanga  [ ni‿aṅg- ]
-- m. [√ag] adhering matter; taunt; -- a. making incidental mention of.


-- a. (weak base nk ; f. nk-i ) downward; lowered (tone); n. ad. nyak , downwards; -kri , humble; disregard (words); throw into the shade, surpass; ( g )-bh , behave humbly.


न्यञ्चन nyancana  [ ni‿ak-ana ]
-- n. depression; lurking-place; , f. lap.

न्यन्तेन nyantena  [ ni‿antna ]
-- in. ad. in the neighbourhood, of (g. or --).

न्ययन nyayana  [ ni‿yana ]
-- n. entry, gathering-place.


न्यर्थ nyartha [ ni‿arth ]
-- n. failure; destruction.

न्यर्बुद nyarbuda  [ ni‿rbuda ]
-- n. a hundred millions.


न्यसन nyasana  [ ni‿asana ]
-- n. arranging, putting or writing down; adduction.


न्यस्त nyasta  [ ni‿asta ]
-- pp. (√2. as) set down, deposited: -danda, a. having laid down the rod, unaggressive, peaceable; -sastra, a. having laid down one's arms; averse from strife, inoffensive (Manes).


न्यस्य nyasya  [ ni‿asya ]
-- fp. to be laid down; to be appointed to (lc.).

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{nya} / {a}

Look for {a} in Pal-Myan. In careful speech {nya} has a schwa inserted to differentiate from {a} and/or {a} 'trick' or 'cheat' in Bur-Myan. The official MLC form is {a.}: it can easily be mistaken for {a} 'night' in Bur-Myan especially in handwritten text. I am speaking from my own experience. -- UKT120614


न्याय nyāya  [ ni‿y ] m. [going back, reference, precedent], rule, standard, axiom, principle, method; manner; propriety, correct way; logical proof or conclusion, syllogism; logic, the Nyya system of philosophy; lawsuit; decision, judgment: in., ab., --, after the manner of (--); in. -tas, --, suitably, properly; -vartin, a. behaving with propriety; -vdin, a. speaking suitably; -vid, m. connoisseur; -vidy, f. logic; -vritta, pp. behaving with propriety; -sstra, n. treatise on logic; -siksh, f. logic.

UKT: You will notice that the header of this section न्याय nyāya , and the others have something to do with the intellect. In Pal-Myan, it is / {a-ya.}. See my note on the Language of the Buddha


न्याय्य nyayya  [ nyy-ya ]
-- a. regular, customary, usual, normal; right, just; suitable, fit, proper (an inf. dependent on this word has a ps. sense).


न्यास nyasa  [ ni‿sa ] m. setting down, planting (the foot); putting on; insertion, impact; applying, drawing, commitment; writing down, inscribing; written text; renunciation; laying aside; deposit; bringing forward, adduction: -dhraka, m. depositary.


-- entrust to the safe keeping of

न्युब्ज nyubja [ ni‿ubga ]
-- a. turned over, upside down, lying on one's face.


न्यून nyuna  [ ni‿na ]
-- pp. defective, wanting; smaller, less; too little; inferior (the deficiency is expressed by the in. or --): -t, f. inferiority; -‿adhika-vibhakta, pp. having received too little or too much on the division of an inheritance; -‿adhika‿aṅga, a. having a limb too few or too many.


न्वै nvai [ n[]va ]
-- ad. indeed.


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UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.


The Language of the Buddha

-- UKT 120614

How did the Buddha's speak? Did it sounded like Indo-European (IE) or Tibeto-Burman? Since there were no electronic recording machines in those days no one knows. But the following might throw some light on it. IE speakers, exemplified by English-speakers, simply cannot pronounce the nasals such as {nga.} and {a.} or {a.}, however, for the Tib-Bur such sounds are very common. It is common knowledge in Myanmar-country that the Indians pronounce the Bur-Myan {nga} - a crude form of first person pronoun <I> as {na}.

Cultural note: I was quite surprised to know that in the Inl-dialect {nga} the first-pronoun is used by the children even on their parents. I was shocked to hear my former student Daw (Ma) Than Nw -- at present a retired Chemistry Professor -- used it on her own mother in her home. Of course Ma Than Nw would never use it on me: she would use {kya.ma.} -- the colloquial form of {kyn-ma.}. -- UKT

We will cite here the sound of न्याय nyāya , and the others of the same compound. This sound has something to do with the 'intellect'. In Pal-Myan, it is / {a-ya.} [Note: the MLC form is . However, I prefer because it is more legible in handwritten scripts.]

Pal: / {a-ya.}
-- -- UHS-PMD0423
*Bur: {a} - . v. lie; bluff; tell an untruth -- MED2006-157
Note: {a-ya.} is a wrong, but commonly used spelling for "mental" in 'mental worker'.

UKT from UHS: m. law, logic, appropriateness. Ariya-path. Vipassana-path-intellect. Cause of attainment of Nirvana.

From the above you'll see that Skt-Dev speakers -- the Indo-Europeans (IE) -- use the variation of the sound spelled with {na.} made into the {ya.ping.}-medial, and Bur-Myan speakers -- the Tibeto-Burmans -- use {a.}. Since Pal-Myan uses the {a.}, I conjecture that Pali used in Myanmar is Tibeto-Burman and NOT Indo-European. It is NOT the so-called International Pali which was derived from SriLanka and not from the north the original home of the Gautama Buddha's speech.

Go back Buddha-speech-note-b

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The happy confusion of nasals in BEPS :
a personal story

-- UKT 120614

{na.} न made into the {ya.ping.}-medial sounds very much like Bur-Myan {a.} 'night'. I remember at one time we have transcribed the English <nucleus> with both {nya.} and {a.}.
   I am saying this in my official position as a staff of the Rangoon University Chemistry Dept. which was responsible (in the second half of 1950s) for transcription of chemical terms in English to Burmese. U Khin Maung Myint was the Asst. Lecturer in charge of the translation, and his wife Daw Than Than was the Demonstrator responsible for translation. I , U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (aka Joe Kyaw Tun after becoming a Canadian citizen in late 1999), was also an Asst. Lect. in the same department, and my wife was also named Daw Than Than. My wife was also a demonstrator in the same department. To add to the confusion between the names of the wives Mrs. Khin Maung Myint was Rosie, and my wife's name was also Rosie. Officially the Rangoon University kept track of the persons dubbing Mrs. Khin Maung Myint as Daw Than Than (I), and my wife as Daw Than Than (II) since my wife was junior in university service to Mrs. Khin Maung Myint. With this note I pay my loving respect to U Khin Maung Myint and Daw Than Than, at present residing in the US, They are both very close to us -- they are like elder brother and elder sister to us. They had played a significant part in the lives of my family: during the days when I was courting my future wife.
   The Bur-Myan {a.} ञ्ञ is the horizontal conjunct {~a.} ञ्ञ = ञ ् ञ (note the hidden viram) in Pal-Myan. The Bur-Myan word for 'education' {pi~a.} प्ञ्ञ = प ् ञ ् ञ is wrongly pronounced by non-natives as {pa.a}. To explain this note I am using Devanagari - the sister script to Myanmar: however do not use the IAST nor IPA transliterations.

Go back confusion-BEPS-nasals-note-b

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