Update: 2012-06-22 08:49 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

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{nir~bya.} <- {nir~w~ya.} ?

UKT notes :
Allophones in Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan
   Skt-Dev: निः (?) ,  नि (short) , नी (long) 
   Bur-Myan: {ni.} (creak) , {ni} (modal) , {ni:} (emphatic)
Compare 'night' in Bur to Skt  {.} to निश् /nɪʃ/

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{nir~bya.} <- {nir~w~ya.} ?

I am incapable of answering the above question. It will remain an open question until I have learned enough Pal-Myan to answer it. -- UKT120606


निर्व्यञ्जक nirvyanjaka [ nir-vyagaka ]
= (न ि र ्) (व ् य) (ञ ् ज) (क)
-- a. testifying; -vyag ana, a. spiceless: lc. without more ado, straight out; -vyatha, a. free from pain, well; -vyapeksha, a. unconcerned about, indifferent as to (lc. or --); -vyalka, a. not hurting; heartfelt, ungrudging (gift); glad, willing; not false;
uncovered, ( end p143c3 ) ( p144c1-top )
bare (ground); -vyavastha, a. not remaining in its place, moving about; -vyasana, a. free from vice.


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निर्व्याकुल nirvyakula [ nir-vykula ]
-- a. unagitated, calm: -t, f. tranquillity: in. quietly; -vyga, a. sincere, honest (towards, lc.); unambiguous, undisputed: -m, ad. honestly; certainly, -t, f. honesty, candour; -vyg-kri, purify; -vy pra, a. unoccupied; -vydha, pp. √h; n. accomplishment, completion; -vydhi, f. conclusion, end; summit, acme; -vrana, a. un wounded; unfractured; -vrda, a. shameless.


निर्हरण nirharana [ nir-harana ]
-- n. removal; carrying out a corpse to the funeral pyre; -haranya, fp. to be removed; -hra, m. appropriation, personal expenditure from (ab.); -hraka, a. carrying out a corpse to the funeral pyre; -hrana, n. causing a corpse to be carried out to the funeral pyre; -hriti, f. removal; -heti, a. unarmed; -hetu, a. causeless; -hrda, m. sound; -hrdin, a. resounding, echoing, pealing.

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निलय nilaya [ 1. nilaya ]
-- v. ni+√l or nir+√i

निलय nilaya [ 2. ni-laya ]
-- m. lurking-place, dwelling, abode; a. dwelling in, being the dwelling of, inhabited by (--); -lyin, a. sitting down on or in (--): -lyi-t, f. abiding in (--).

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निवत् nivat [ ni-vt ]
-- f. depth, valley: in. downwards.


निवपन nivapana [ ni-vapana ]
-- n. strewing; offering to the Manes; -varta, a. causing to turn back; -vartaka, a. (ik) causing to cease, removing; -vrtana, a. causing to turn back; n. return; coming down to the earth; cessation; abstention from (ab.); inactivity; bringing back; means of return; restraining from (ab.); a certain square measure; -vart anya, fp. to be led back; -rescinded or made void; -vartin, a. returning; refraining from (ab.); -vasana, n. putting on (clothes); n. garment; -vaha, m. crowd, swarm, multitude (sg. & pl.).


-- 1. a. sheltered from the wind; m. spot sheltered from the wind; calm. 2. pp. (√van) unmolested; n. security; -kavaka , n. a. whose mail is impenetrable; m. pl. N. of a class of ...







निविडnivida [ ni-vida ]
-- v. ���ۿ ni-bida.


निविद् nivid [ ni-vd ]
-- f. direction, precept; invocation of the gods inserted in certain parts of the liturgy: -dhna, a. containing the Nivids; n. insertion of the Nivids.


निवीत nivita [ n-vta ]
-- pp. √vy; n. wearing of the sacred cord; sacred cord worn round the neck; -vtin, a. wearing the sacred cord round the neck.


निवृत्त nivrtta [ ni-vritta ]
-- pp. turned away: -rga, a. whose passions are subdued, -hridaya, a. with relenting heart; -vritti, f. return; dis appearance; cessation; abstention from (ab., --); abstinence; escape from (ab.); absten- ( end p144c1 ) ( p144c2-top )
tion from action, inaction; discontinuance of a grammatical rule.


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निवेदन nivedana [ ni-vedana ]
-- a. announcing, making known; n. communication, announcement; offering; -vedin, a. announcing, making known; offering (--); -vedya, fp. to be reported; n. offering of food to an idol; -ves, m. entering into; settling; encampment, camp; habitation, residence; settling down, marriage, matrimony; foundation (of a city); building, edifice; impression, mark; -vsana, a. () entering into (--); laying to rest; sheltering; n. entrance; setting down; introduction, application; causing to encamp; settling down, marrying; resting-place, bed, lair, nest; home, abode, dwelling; -vesanya, fp. to be put down; -vesayitavya, fp. to be placed; -vesa vat, a. lying on (--); -vesin, a. lying near, being in, resting or based on (--).

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Comparison of Bur-Myan {.} 'night' to
Skt-Dev निश् [nis] /nɪʃ/

The following 3 entries maybe (emphasis: maybe) related to the Bur-Myan {.} 'night' (MED2006-158). My own pronunciation is approx. {i.} /ɲi/ (creak). Both the syllable's onset and codas are nasals. The nuclear vowel is /i/ (creak). It is probably the most close front-vowel sound. The syllable can be changed slightly differently to {a.} without a change in meaning. The sound becomes very open. The reader should ask other native Bur-Myan to pronounce both {.} (close front-vowel sound) and {a.} (open front vowel-sound). -- UKT120607



निश् [nis]  [UKT: I have rendered the Dev orthography from [nis]]
-- f. night (only sg. ab. & lc. & du. -nisau and -nisoh )

निश nisa [ nis-a ]
-- n. id. (only --).

निशब्द nisabda [ ni-sabda ]
-- a. silent.


निशा nisa [ nis- ]
-- f. night: -kara, m. (night maker), moon: -kal-mauli, m. bearing a crescent on his head, ep. of Siva; -knta, m. lover of night, moon; -kla, m. time of night; -kshaya, m. end of night; -‿gama, m. nightfall; -kara, a. wandering at night; m. goblin, Rkshasa: , f. female goblin; dissolute woman; -‿atyaya, m. end of night, day-break; -ntha, m. lord of night, moon; -‿anta, 1. end of night, day-break.


-- 2. pp. √sam; n. (?) house, dwelling; -‿udyna , n. garden belonging to the house.


निशापति nisapati [ nis-pati ]
-- m. lord of night, moon; -prnesvara, m. (husband of night), moon; -mukha, n. face of night; nightfall; -‿ava sna, n. latter half of the night.


निशीथ nisitha [ ni-s-tha ]
-- m. (n.) [time of lying down], midnight; night.

निशीथिनी nisithini [ nisth-in- ]
-- f. night.


निशुम्भ nisumbha [ ni-sumbh-a ]
-- m. killing; murder; -ana, n. id.


निश्््चय niscaya [ nis-kaya ]
-- m. ascertainment; conviction; exact knowledge, certainty; actual state of the case; decision, decided opinion; settled purpose, fixed intention, determination, resolve: -m kri, firmly resolve on (d., lc., inf.); in., ab. certainly.


निश्््चल niscala [ nis-kala ]
-- a. immovable; steady; unalterable, immutable: -mati, a. steady-minded.

निश्््चित niscita [ nis-kita ]
-- pp. determined, decided: -m, ad. decidedly, surely; -kinta, a. free from thought or care.


निश्््चेतन niscetana [ nis-ketana ]
-- a. unconscious; inanimate; irrational, senseless; -ketas, a. irrational, senseless, foolish; -keshta, a. motionless.

निश्््चौर niscaura [ nis-kaura ]
-- a. free from robbers.


निश्््छन्दस् nischandas [ nis-khandas ]
-- a. not studying the scriptures; -khidra, a. free from holes, cracks; -fractures; -imperfections, -defects, -weak points; continuous.


निश्रेणी nisreni [ ni-sren ]
-- f. ladder, stair.

निश्वासित nisvasita [ n-svsita ]
-- n. expiration of breath; -svsa, m. inspiration, inhalation; expiration, breath; sigh.

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In the following entries we see the use of visarga ः , the look-alike of {wic~sa.} in the series:
   निः (?) नि (short) नी (long)
   {ni.} (creak) {ni} (modal) {ni:} (emphatic)
It should be noted that {wic~sa.} is attached to the "long" vowel, whereas in Skt-Dev it is attached to the "short" vowel. See my note on the Allophones in Skt-Dev .


निःशङ्क nihsanka [ nih-saṅka ]
-- a. free from anxiety, fearless, unhesitating; having nothing to fear ( end p144c2 ) ( p144c3-top )
from (--); that need cause no anxiety: -m or --, calmly, without hesitation, without more ado; -saṅk, f. absence of timidity: in. without hesitation; -saṅkita, pp. free from anxiety; causing no anxiety; fearless, unhesitating; -satru, a. free from foes; -sabda, a. silent; noiseless, mute: --, silently: -stimita, pp. noiseless and still; -sarana, a. unprotected; -salka, a. free from tall grass; -salya, a. free from an arrow: -m, ad. pain lessly, without a struggle, willingly; -sastra, a. unarmed; -skha, a. branchless: -t, f. branchlessness.


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-- deprive of branches


निःशुक्र nihsukra [ nih-sukra ]
-- a. deprived of majesty.

निःशूक nihsuka [ nih-ska ]
-- a. lacking awns (rice); pitiless; -snya, a. empty.



निःशेष nihsesa [ nih-sesha ]
-- a. lacking a remainder, one and all, all, whole, complete: -m kri, destroy utterly, exterminate; --, -tas, in. utterly, completely; -t, f. extermination.


निःशेषय nihsesaya [ nih-sesha-ya ]
-- den. P. destroy completely: pp. ita, utterly consumed or destroyed.


निःशोक nihsoka [ nih-soka ]
-- a. free from sorrow.


निःश्रीक nihsrika [ nih-sr-ka ]
= न ि ः श ् र ी क
-- a. destitute of beauty, ugly; luckless, unhappy; -sren=ni-sren; -sreyas-a, a. () having nothing better, best of all; n. final beatitude, bliss, salvation; -svasita, n. expiration, breath; sigh; -sv pada, a. lacking wild animals; -svsa, m. breath; sigh: -parama, a. constantly sighing.

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निषङ्ग nisanga [ ni-shaṅg-a ]
-- m. [appendage], quiver; sword; -n, a. furnished with a quiver; - bh, become a quiver.


निषद् nisad [ ni-shd ]
-- f. sitting, esp. at the altar; -shdana, n. sitting down; seat, abode; -shady, f. market.

निषद्वर nisadvara [ nishad-var ]
-- a. seated at the altar; sitting idle.


निषध nisadha [ nishadha ] m. N. of a mountain: pl. N. of a people; sg. N.: -vamsa, m. race of Nishadha; -‿adhipa, m. lord of Nishadha; -‿adhipati, m. id.; -‿svara, m. id.


निषाद nisada [ nishd ]
-- m. N. of aboriginal Indian tribes described as fishermen, hunters, and robbers; considered a degraded caste, off- spring of Brhmans and Sdra women; a note in the musical scale; , f. Nishda woman.


निषादिन् nisadin [ nishd-in ]
-- a. sitting, lying, on or in (lc., --); m. elephant driver.

निषिद्धि nisiddhi [ ni-shiddhi ]
-- f. prohibition.


निषूदक nisudaka [ ni-shdaka ]
-- m. destroyer; -shd ana, a. removing; m. destroyer.


निषेक niseka [ ni-sheka ]
-- m. sprinkling, distilling; injection; impregnation; seed; ceremony performed on impregnation; slops; dripping fluid; -shektavya, fp. to be poured upon (lc.); -shektri, m. begetter; -shkana, n. pouring out; sprinkling, with (--).

UKT: p144c3-b14 moved to next file.

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UKT notes

Allophones in Skt-Dev : Visarga {wic~sa.}

-- UKT 120608, 120609
I expect to rewrite this note again as I gain new insight to the Sanskrit language.

How is निः pronounced? It is obviously an allophone of /ni/.

  निः (?) नि (short) नी (long)

Is this series common for all the vowels? Or is it only for those with nasal consonants, such as /n/? I will have to go over the entire Macdonell SED again?

The corresponding grapheme in Bur-Myan to Skt-Dev ः visarga is the look alike {wic~sa.pauk} which I usually shortened to {wic~sa.}. See MED2006-480. In Bur-Myan, the corresponding series to the above is:

{ni.} (creak) {ni} (modal) {ni:} (emphatic)
It should be noted that {wic~sa.} is attached to the "long" vowel, whereas in Skt-Dev it is attached to the "short" vowel.

It is a common mistake to say that visarga comes after a stop-consonant. I would say it comes after the intrinsic vowel of the consonantal akshara. This mistake is obviously due to the authors in not distinguishing the alphabetic system from the abugida. Let's see what Wikipedia has to say:

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visarga 120609

Visarga visarga (विसर्ग) [UKT: {wir~a.ga.} / {wir~~ga.}] is a Sanskrit word meaning "sending forth, discharge". In Sanskrit phonology (śikṣā), visarga (also called, equivalently, visarjanīya by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, [h], written as Devanagari . The circle stands in for a consonant and is not an actual letter; the two dots on the right form the Visarga.

Visarga is an allophone of /r/ and /s/ in pausa (at the end of an utterance). Since /-s/ is a common inflectional suffix (of nominative singular, second person singular, etc.), visarga appears frequently in Sanskrit texts. In the traditional order of Sanskrit sounds, visarga together with anusvāra appears between vowels and stop consonants.

The precise pronunciation of visarga in Vedic texts may vary between shakhas. Some pronounce a slight echo of the preceding vowel after the fricative.

In Tamil, the visarga is called āytam, written ஃ. Apart from a modern use as a diacritic to write foreign sounds, it is archaic and employed only in idiomatic and fossilized words such as அஃது, இஃது etc. It is mentioned in the earliest available Tamil grammatical treatise, Tolkāppiyam (1:1:2), where it is categorized as an allophone (cārpezuttu "dependent sound"). As stated by Krishnamurti (Krishnamurti:2003 p154 [1] ) "The properties of āytam, as described by Tolkāppiyam, were: (1) it occurred after a short vowel and before a stop (voiceless), and its place of articulation is like that of the stop. In other words, ... assimilates to the following voiceless stop".

In the Burmese script, the visarga ... [is] represented with two dots to the right of the letter ), when used with joined to a letter, creates the high tone. [UKT: Wiki is considering Bur-Myan to be a tonal language. It is not "high tone" but emphatic pitch-register.]

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