Update: 2012-07-31 02:26 AM +0630

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p139.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top
 MC-v05-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{na-Da.}
  p139-c1 
{na-na.}
{na-pa.}
{na-Ba.} : notice {na-ba.} is skipped
{na-ma.}
  p139-c2 
{na-ya.}
{na-ra.}
  p139-c3 
{na-la.}
{na-wa.}
{na-sha.}
{na-Sa.}
{na-a.}

UKT notes :
Hindu ceremonies : {mn~ga.la} occasions
Nouns in BEPS - UKT 120519
This is introduction to Nouns in Burmese (an uninflected language), in English (some inflection), in Pali (highly inflected), and in Sanskrit (probably not as inflected as Pali)
Shramana

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{na-Da.}

Unlike {na-hta.}, the sound of {na-Da.} is totally absent in Eng-Latin.

p139-c1

p139c1-top

[NDH] I.. (V.)
-- only pr. pt. nấdhamna , suppliant, and pp. ndhit , distressed. 

p139c1-b01

नाधीत nadhita [ na‿adhta ]
-- pp. unlearned, ignorant.

[nnada]
-- n. N. of a Sman

See my note on Shramana
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shramana 120517

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{na-na.}

p139c1-b02

नाना nana [ nấn ] {na-na}
-- ad. variously, in different places, separately; often, esp. --, used like an adjective, different, various, manifold; -‿kra, a. various, sundry; -gati, m. wind; -tva, n. difference; manifoldness; -digdesa, m.: ab. sg. from various quarters, from all parts of the world; -devatya, a. addressed to various gods; -desa, m. sg. various regions; -desya, -desya, a. pl. belonging to various lands; -dhtu-sata, n. pl. hundreds of various minerals; -dhtu-samkrna, pp. filled with various minerals; -pakshi-gana‿krna, pp. filled with flocks of various birds; -pakshi nishevita, pp. frequented by various birds; -mantra‿ogha-siddhi-mat, a. possessed of a number of efficacious spells; -mriga-gana, m. pl. flocks of various animals; -rasa, a. having various sentiments (drama); -rpa, a. heterogeneous; -‿argha-mahratna-maya, a. consisting of various priceless precious stones; -‿artha, a. having different meanings; containing something different; N. word with several meanings; new sentence; -varna‿ kriti, a. of various colours and shapes; -vi dha, a. various, manifold; -str, f. pl. women of different castes.

p139c1-b03

नान्दी nandi [ nnd&isharp; ]
-- f. joy; prayer at the opening of a play.

नान्दीनाद nandinada [ nnd-nda ] m. cry of joy; -mukha, m. pl. N. of a class of Manes.

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p139c1-b04

[nnduka]
-- m. N.

{na-pa.}

नापित napita [ npit ]
-- m. barber; , f. barber's wife.

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{na-Ba.}

p139c1-b05

नाभ् nabh [ nấbh ]
-- f. aperture, spring.

[nb-a]
-- -- a. navel; nave of a wheel; centre

नाभस nabhasa [ nbhas-a ]
-- a. () appearing in the sky; coming from the sky (voice).

p139c1-b06

नाभाक nabhaka [ nbhk ]
-- a. derived from nabhka; m. pat. of Nabhka (a Rishi).

p139c1-b07

नाभि nabhi [ nấbhi ]
-- f., (C.) m. navel, navel-cord (also ); nave of a wheel (also ); hub, centre; home; relationship; relative; m. musk animal; chief (esp. among kings); -krintana, n. cutting the navel-cord; -gandha, m. scent of musk; -tva, n. condition of a navel.

p139c1-b08

नाभिजात nabhijata [ nbhi-gta ]
--pp. 1. produced from a navel; 2. (na‿abhi-), not nobly born.

नाभिधावत् nabhidhavat [ na‿abhi-dhv-at ]
-- pr. pt. not coming to the rescue.

p139c1-b09

नाभिनाल nabhinala [ nbhi-nla ]
-- n., , f. navel-cord (-- a.); -mla, n. region just below the navel.

नाभिलक्षित nabhilaksita [ na‿abhilakshita ]
-- pp. unobserved.

नाभिवर्धन nabhivardhana [ nbhi-vardhana ]
-- n. cutting of the navel-cord.

p139c1-b10

नाभी nabhi [ nbh ]
-- f. navel, navel-cord; nave of a wheel.

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{na-ma.}

p139c1-b11

नामक namaka [ nma-ka ]
-- a. (ik) 1. bearing the name of, named (--); 2. (√nam) bending (--).

p139c1-b12

नामकरण namakarana [ nma-karana ]
-- n. ceremony of giving a name; -karman, n. id.; -krtana, n. mentioning the name of (g.); -gotra, n. du. personal and family name; -graha, m., -grahana, n. mention of a name; -grh, m. id.: (-grấha)-m, abs. mentioning the name; -gti-graha, m.: -na, n. mention of the name and rank (of the caste).

p139c1-b13

नामतस् namatas [ nma-tas ]
-- ad. by name: -kri, give ( end p139c1 ) (p139c2-top )
the name of (ac.) to (ac.); -prakh, ask the name of (ac.); in nma nmatas one of the two words is redundant.

 

Contents of this page

p139-c2

p139c2-b01

नामधारक namadharaka [ nma-dhraka ]
-- a. merely bearing the name, being (nm.) only in name; -dhrin, a. bearing the name of, named (--); -dhya, n. name-giving, appellation, name; ceremony of naming: -tas, ad. nominally.

Most Bur-Myan would know the "Twelve Mingalas " '12 Auspicious Ceremonies' which are in reality Hindu rites and have no place in Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhism.
See my note on Hindu ceremonies - samskara

p139c2-b02

नामन् naman [ nấ-man ]
-- n. (f. -- a. -mn or less commonly -man) mark, token; form, manner; name, appellation; mere name (opp. reality), trace; personal name (opp. family name or gotra); nature; kind, race; good name, fame (only -- a.); noun (gr.): nma kri, . take a name; -grah, mention the name; -bhri, bear a name; -kri, -d, or -dh, give a name; nmn kri or vi-dh, name (2 ac.); nấma, ad. by name (sts. nmn or nmatas is redundantly added); indeed, certainly, of course; perhaps; with inter. then, pray; with impv. ever so much, no matter if; api nma, with pot. at the beginning of a sentence, perhaps; emphasizes a preceding word more strongly than api; m nma, pot. would that not, if only not; nanu nma, surely.

p139c2-b03

नाममात्र namamatra [ nma-mtra ]
-- n. the mere name; a. being something (um.) merely in name; -ml, f. dictionary of nouns; T. of a dictionary; -mudr, f. signet ring with a name; -yaga, m. sacrifice only in name; -rp, n. du. name and form; -liṅga, n. gender of nouns; -vismriti, f. forgetting of the name; -sesha, a. of whom the name only survives, dead.

p139c2-b04

नामाङ्क namanka [ nma‿aṅka ]
-- a. marked with a name; -aṅkita, pp. id.

नामिक namika [ nm-ika ]
-- a. () referring to a personal name; nominal (gr.).

नामिन् namin [ nm-in ]
-- a. having a name.

p139c2-b05

नाम्य namya [ nm-ya ]
= न ा म ् य
-- fp. flexible.

Contents of this page

{na-ya.}

नाय naya [ ny- ]
-- m. leader; prudence, policy.

p139c2-b06

नायक nayaka [ nya-ka ]
-- m. guide, leader, chief; hero, lover (in a play); lord, husband; central pearl in a necklace; N.: -tva, n. leadership.

नायकाय nayakaya [ nyak-ya ]
-- den. . represent the central gem in a pearl necklace.

p139c2-b07

नायिका nayika [ ny-ik ]
-- f. high-born lady; mistress; heroine.

Contents of this page

na-ra.}

p139c2-b08

नार nāra [ nr ]
-- a. belonging to a man, human; m. man: pl. water.

See my note on Nouns in BEPS
citing नार nāra as an example

नारक naraka [ nấraka ]
-- a. () infernal, hellish; m. inhabitant of hell; , m. hell, infernal regions.

[nrak-in]
-- a., m. id.

नारङ्ग naranga [ nraṅga ]
-- m., , f. orange-tree.

p139c2-b09

[nấrada] (or )
-- N., esp. of a Devarshi, who often comes down to earth to report what is going on in heaven, and return to recount what is happening on earth.

p139c2-b10

नारदीय naradiya [ nrad-ya ]
-- a. relating to Nrada; n. T. of various works.

नाराच naraca [ nrka ]
-- m. (kind of) arrow: -durdina, n. shower of arrows.

p139c2-b11

नारायण narayana [ nryan ]
-- m. Son of the primal Man, pat. of the personified Purusha; identified with Vishnu and Krishna; N.; a, a. relating to Nryana: , f. ep. of Durg.

नारायणाय narayanaya [ nryan-ya ]
-- den. . become or resemble the god Nryana.

p139c2-b12

नाराशंस narasaṃsa [ nrsamsa ]
-- a. () relating to the praise of men; sacred to Agni Narsamsa; m. N. of certain Soma cups over which a prayer containing the word Narsamsa is ( end p139c2 ) ( p139c3-top )
uttered: -paṅkti, a. performed with five Nrsamsa cups.

 

Contents of this page

p139-c3

p139c3-b01

नारि nari [ nấri ]
-- f. woman, wife.

p139c3-b02

नारिकेर narikera [ nrikera ]
-- m. cocoa-nut, -tree.

नारिकेल narikela [ nrikela ]
-- m. id.: -kuhara, hollow of a --; N. of an island; -dvpa, m. id.

p139c3-b03

नारी nari [ nấr ]
-- f. woman, wife: -maya, a. consisting of women only; -yna, n. carriage for women.

p139c3-b04

नार्मद narmada [ nrmada ]
-- a. belonging to the Narmad.

Contents of this page

{na-la.}

p139c3-b05

नाल nala [ nla ]
-- a. consisting of reeds; n. hollow stalk; lotus stalk; tube, pipe; navel-cord: -ka, -- a. (lotus) stalk.

p139c3-b06

[nl-ika]
-- period of 24 minutes (- a.); , f. id.; allusion, hint

नालिकेर nalikera [ nlikera ]
-- m. cocoa-nut, -tree.

[nlikela]
-- m. id.

p139c3-b07

नालीक nalika [ nlka ]
-- m. kind of arrow; , f. id.

[nl-gaṅgha]
-- m. N.

Contents of this page

{na-wa.}

p139c3-b08

[nva] = nau,
-- ship (-- or --)

p139c3-b09

नावनीत navanita [ nvanta ]
-- a. () coming from butter; soft as butter.

p139c3-b10

नाविक navika [ nv-ika ]
-- m. boatman: -nyaka, m. skipper; -pati, m. id.

p139c3-b11

नाव्य navya [ nv-y ]
= न ा व ् य
-- a. navigable; n., , f. navigable river.

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{na-sha.}

p139c3-b12

नाश nasa [ ns-a ]
-- m. loss, disappearance; destruction, ruin; death; -aka, a. (ik) destroying (g. or --); -ana, a. () destroying, dispelling, removing (g. or --); n. destruction, ruin, removal; forgetting (g.): -kara, a. () destructive of (--); -in, a. perishing; --, destroy ing; -ya, fp. to be banished; -destroyed.

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{na-Sa.}

p139c3-b13

नाष्टिक nastika [ nsht-ika ]
-- m. [v. nashta] owner of lost property.

p139c3-b14

नाष्ट्रा nastra [ nsh-tr ]
-- f. [√nas] danger, ruin; fiend.

Contents of this page

{na-a.}

p139c3-b15

नास् nas [ nấs ]
-- f. du. nostrils, nose.

नासत्य nasatya [ nấsatya ]
-- m. du. ep. of the Asvins; later sg. N. of one of the Asvins.

नासदासीय nasadasiya [ nsad-sya ]
-- a. relating to RV. X, 129 (which begins nấsad st).

p139c3-b16

नासा nasa [ nấs- ]
-- f. du. & sg. nostrils, nose.

नासाग्र nasagra [ ns‿agra ]
-- n. tip of the nose; -‿anti ka, a. reaching to the nose.

नासापुट nasaputa [ ns-puta ]
-- m. nostril; -randhra, n. id.; -vamsa, m. bridge of the nose; -vi roka, n. nostril; -vivara, n. id.

p139c3-b17

नासिका nasika [ nấs-ik ]
-- f. sg. nostril; C. nose: du. nostrils, nose: -‿agra, n. tip of the nose.

नासिक्य nasikya [ nsik-ya ]
-- a. nasal.

नासिर nasira [ nsira ]
-- n. van (of an army).

p139c3-b18

[na‿asti-ka]
-- a. unbelieving; m. unbeliever, atheist (one who says 'there is not' a God): -t f. atheism

नास्तिक्य nastikya [ nstik-ya ]
-- n. unbelief; -karma- nm, disbelief in the effect of works.

नास्तिमूर्ति nastimurti [ na‿asti-mrti ]
-- f. bodiless; -vda, m. atheism, unbelief.

p139c3-b19

नास्य nasya [ ns-ya ]
-- n. nose-cord.

p139c3-b20

नाहुष nahusa [ 1. nấhusha ]
-- a. () akin; m. kinsman.

नाहुष nahusa [ 2. nhusha ]
-- m. descendant of Nahusha, pat. of Yayti.

UKT: p139c3-b21 moved to next file.

 

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

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Hindu ceremonies - samskara संस्कार

-- UKT: 120518
Most Bur-Myan know what are the {mn~ga.la} occasions, such as those of naming, initiation into novice-hood, marriage, and their opposite -- death. And most would have listened to the song {mn~ga.la} {hs.nhic-pa:} without realizing that they are Hindu religious 'Auspicious Ceremonies' and have no place in Theravada Bur-Myan Buddhism. Yet many Theravadims in Myanmar try to follow some, at least one - in marriage ceremony. They would have a learned person to stand in the place of a Hindu-Pundit and readout what he has written as an 'advice and laudation'. There would passages in Pali making the hearers think the rite of marriage to be a Buddhist ceremony. It is noteworthy to remember that Theravada is a renunciation of life as a layperson and has nothing to do with marriage and procreation.

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sa%E1%B9%83sk%C4%81ra#The_16_Samskaras 120518

The Samskaras (Skt: संस्कार, Saṃskāra; Hindi:Sanskar), are rites of passage finding varied acceptance among religious adherents of Hinduism (Vedic), Jainism and some schools of thought in Buddhism. The term samskara means accomplishment, embellishment, or consecration.

Sanskar is a commonly used variant of the Sanskrit word samskara and signifies cultural heritage and upbringing in modern Hindi. Apart from the practices, samskāra is used to denote the upbringing criteria of a Hindu. For example, it is said that a boy with good samskāra does right and it is supposed that he will not fall in sin, i.e. lust, anger and wine.

Since ancient times there has remained a dispute between experts on the total number of samskara that exist. As written in Gautamsmriti 8.8 there are 40 of them, Maharshi Agnirane directed of 25 of them, but according to the Puranas, 12 or 16 of them are main and necessary. These ceremonies are enjoined on the first three (twice-born) castes in Manusmrti and Grhya Sutras (Grihya Sutras) (esp. Pāraskar). Some list 42 samskaras, i.e. the 16 listed above plus the 21 compulsory Yajnas, plus the 5 panchamahayajnas .

Vidyārambha, Vedārambha and Antyeṣti are not enumerated as separate samskāras in ancient texts like Manusmriti or Grihya Sutra (Pāraskar). To this list may be added Karṇavedham too, which reduces the list of most essential sanskāras to 12 only.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From Hindu Website: http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/concepts/samskara.asp 120517
with my insertions from the Wikipedia article above.

01. Garbhadana - before birth [ garbhādhāna 'gifting the womb -- Wiki ]
The rite of conception, a prenatal ceremony, performed at the time of conception.

02. Pumsavana - before birth [ puṃsavana 'engendering a male issue -- Wiki ]
Ceremony performed seeking a male child or to increase the chances of the birth of a male child.

03. Simantam or Simatonnayana - before birth [ sīmantonnayana 'parting the hair' -- Wiki ]
The parting of hair ceremony seeking safe delivery. This is usually performed at the time of conception.

04. Jartakarman - at birth [ jātakarman 'natal rites' -- Wiki ]
At the time of birth and before severing the cord.

05. Namakaranam - childhood [ āmakaraṇa 'naming' -- Wiki ]
Naming ceremony performed usually on the 10th or 12th day after birth.

06. Niskramana - childhood [ niṣkrāmaṇa 'first outing' -- Wiki ]
Performed on the first outing of the baby and usually involves the first viewing of the Sun.

07. Annaprasana - childhood [ annaprāśana 'feeding food' -- Wiki ]
Performed on the occasion of the first feeding of the child with solid food such as rice, ghee and lentils. Nowadays this ceremony is performed for both boys and girls.

08. Chudakarana - childhood [ cūḍākaraṇa 'arrangement of the hair tuft' -- Wiki ],
The tonsure ceremony performed usually in the first or third year of the child's birth.

09. Karnavedha - childhood [ karṇavedha 'ear-piercing' -- Wiki ]
The ear piercing ceremony performed during the third or fifth year. Nowadays this ceremony is performed mostly for girls as boys are reluctant to get their ears pierced for fear of ridicule or looking feminine or orthodox.

10. Vidyarambha - student [ vidyāraṃbha aka  akshararambha 'commencement of studies' -- Wiki ]
Performed on the occasion of a child's initiation into education. Nowadays this is performed on the first day a child goes to school and starts practicing the alphabet beginning with the letter AUM.

11. Upanayana - student [ upanayana 'wearing the sacred thread called yajopaveetam' -- Wiki ]
The ceremony involving the wearing of the sacred thread, which is confined to the upper three castes only and performed between the ages of 8 and 24.

12. Vedarambha - student [ aka praishartha 'learning of Vedas and Upanishads inGurukulam or Pāṭhaśāla -- Wiki ]
The ceremony marking the beginning of the study of the Vedas. Nowadays not all children show interest in the study of the Vedas. The priestly profession is not very fetching. So this ceremony is performed in select cases only.

13. Kesantha - student, adolescence [ keśānta 'getting rid of hairs' for boys, and ritusuddhi 'menstruation' for girls. -- Wiki ]
The ceremony marking the first shaving of the beard or the approach of manhood. In case of girls, in some regions, there is a corresponding ceremony to mark the beginning of menstruation or change in dress from a gown to a sari.

14. Samvartana - student [ samāvartana 'graduation' -- Wiki ]
Performed when a student completes his education and returns home from school. In olden days the schools existed in remote places. Once a student left home for education, he would return only after several years of study in the house of his teacher. So his return was a matter of joy and celebration for the family because the child not only survived the tough conditions of life in gurukulas but also acquired knowledge of the scriptures. Nowadays the schools are located mostly in the same village or town where the child lives and the child is hardly separated from his or her parents during studies. So the ceremony is truly ceremonial.

15. Vivaha - householder [ vivāha 'marriage' -- Wiki ]
Marriage ceremony. Child marriages were the order of the day in ancient times. Nowadays they are legally banned and also out of favor. Marriage usually marks the beginning of life as a householder.

16. Antyeshti - death [ antyeṣṭi 'last rites' -- Wiki ],
Funeral rites performed after death and up to 15 days. Usually involves cremation rites, making offerings to gods and ancestors seeking the soul's comfortable journey to the worlds of light, scattering of the ashes in select places, and serving of food to the relatives and among the poor.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Hindu-ceremonies-note-b

 

Nouns in BEPS

- UKT (because of my limited knowledge of Sanskrit and Pali, I will have to write it piecemeal as I come across suitable examples) -- 120519

A Bur-Myan child, usually just above 6 years in age, starting to learn English {n~ga.laip sa} (as a written language) becomes confused on word endings or inflexion. For instance we have no singular-plural, no tense, and no gender. However, those who have studied Pali as novice in a Buddhist monastery, usually about 12, is quite familiar with gender, and find no difficulty with English. This is because, Burmese has no inflexions whereas Pali is highly so. English falls in between. And Sanskrit is probably less inflected than Pali. When I as a child complained to my father U Tun Pe, about English grammar, he said it was because I have not studied Burmese grammar which is based on Pali grammar.

We usually forget that grammar is about sounds in a spoken language. Indic languages and Burmese are standardized because our grammars are prescriptive based on phonemics, specifying how each consonant is pronounced giving its POA (Place of Articulation), and its manner. This is what may be called the scientific language. Now a quote about the Burmese language. A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma, wrote in 1899 on Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis . In the Preface:

"The Burmese language is constructed on scientific principles, and there is no reason why its grammar should not be dealt with also from a scientific standpoint. But it may be safely said that Burmese grammar as a science has not received that attention it deserves.

"With regard to the grammatical treatises by native writers, it is no exaggeration to say that there is not one which can be properly called a Burmese grammar. These writers, not content with merely borrowing the grammatical nomenclature of the Pali language, also attempted to assimilate the grammatical principles of the uninflected Burmese to those of the inflected Pali; so that they produced, not Burmese grammars, but modified Pali grammars in Burmese dress. The servile veneration in which they held Pali, the language they had adopted as the classic, is, no doubt, directly responsible for the composition of such works. In their endeavour to conform strictly to Pali methods, they often introduced unnecessary terms and misapplied them, ignoring those grammatical points in Burmese for which they could find no parallel in Pali. How futile their attempts were may be judged by the numerous difficulties and anomalies they created, from some of which even now teachers of the language have not quite extricated themselves - take, for instance, the case-inflexions."

I am sure my father had not studied Pali, but he had been taught Burmese grammar in high school and that alone was sufficient to make him write grammatical correct English.

Now lets start with the word endings in Sanskrit:

Front-vowel change from open /a/ to close /i/.

देव deva -- god
देवी devi -- f. of deva 

नार nāra -- m. man 
नारि nāri -- f. woman, wife

 

Go back nouns-note-b

Contents of this page

Shramana

-- UKT120517

Most of us have heard of the word pair {a-ma.Na.}-{Brah~ma.Na.} in Pal-Myan. But what are {a-ma.Na.} and its derivative, {a-ma.N}? The other religions - Hinduism and Jainism have their own counterparts of {a-ma.Na.}. See People of the Pali Canon in the inset box from Wikipedia.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shramana 120517

The Shramana (also spelled Sramana) movement was a non-Vedic movement parallel to Vedic Hinduism in ancient India. The Shramana tradition gave rise to Jainism,[1] Buddhism,[2] Yoga,[3] and was responsible for the related concepts of the cycle of birth and death, samsara, and liberation.[4]

Etymology and origin

The Pāli samaṇa and the Sanskrit Śramaṇa' refer to renunciate ascetic traditions from the middle of the first millenium before the common era.[5] They were individual, experiential and free-form traditions, independent of society; and in religious competition with brahmin priests, who as opposed to Shramanas, stressed on mastery of texts and performing rituals.[5]

The Pāli samaṇa and the Sanskrit Śramaṇa' are postulated to be derived from the verbal root śram, meaning "to exert effort, labor or to perform austerity". "Śramaṇa" thus means "one who strives" or "laborer" in Sanskrit and Pali.[6] The term was applied to those who wholeheartedly practiced toward enlightenment, and was used for monks.[6] The Shramana traditions are best captured in the term parivrajaka meaning, a homeless wanderer.[7] The history of wandering monks in ancient India is partly untraceable. The term 'parivrajaka' was perhaps applicable to all the peripatetic monks of India.[8]

A Sanskrit definition of Shramana is śramati tapasyatīti śramaṇaḥ ("a śramaṇa is he who exerts himself and performs religious austerities"). However, Indian grammarians use the terms 'Sharamana' and 'Brahmin' to illustrate bitter opponents whose differences came from varying religious models.[5] Part of the Shramana tradition remained outside the Hindu fold by rejecting the authority of the Vedas; with the Jains, Buddhists, Ajivikas, and other religious groups developing as a result of this rejection.[5] Part of the Shramana tradition was absorbed into Hindu dharma literature with a place for a renunciate sanyasi in it, in the four stages (ashramas) of life.[5]

One of the earliest uses of the word is in the Hindu text Taittiriya Aranyaka (2-7-1) with the meaning of 'performer of austerities'. Buddhist commentaries associate the word's etymology with the quieting (samita) of evil (pāpa) as in the following phrase from the Dhammapada, verse 265: samitattā pāpānaŋ ʻsamaṇoʼ ti pavuccati ("someone who has pacified evil is called samaṇa").[3]

UKT: More in the extensive Wikipedia article such as the following account:

Nicolaus of Damascus (c. 10 CE)
Nicolaus of Damascus wrote an account of an embassy sent by an Indian king "named Pandion (Pandyan kingdom?) or, according to others, Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE. He met with the embassy at Antioch. The embassy was bearing a diplomatic letter in Greek, and one of its members was a "Sarmano" (Σαρμανο) who burnt himself alive in Athens to demonstrate his faith. The event made a sensation and was quoted by Strabo[10] and Dio Cassius[11]. A tomb was made to the "Sarmano", still visible in the time of Plutarch, which bore the mention "ΖΑΡΜΑΝΟΧΗΓΑΣ ΙΝΔΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΒΑΡΓΟΣΗΣ" (Zarmanochēgas indos apo Bargosēs The sramana master from Barygaza in India).

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