Update: 2012-06-22 08:42 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top

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See my note on tenuis onsets and allophones :
the failure of the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet)

{na.Sa.} : use of Skt-Myan grapheme in {king:si:}-form, {naS~Ta.} नष्ट
{na.a.} : second syllable is thibilant in Pal-Myan, but sibilant in Skt-Dev
{na.ha.} : {ha.} is what I have termed "deep-h" to differentiate from the "aspirate"

नस्तिक nastika [ na‿asti-ka ]
=   न स ् त ि क
-- a. unbelieving; m. unbeliever, atheist (one who says "there is not" a God): -t, f. atheism.

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UKT notes :
Bhogarati - the city of Nagas or elephants Indian gray mongoose
Mesua ferrea - {kn.kau} Nagavalli - the betel vine Tenuis onsets and allophones

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[1. NAS] I. P.
-- nsa (V.E.) ; IV. P. ()  nsya , be lost, perish, disappear, vanish, depart; flee, escape; be useless, be in vain; pp.  ... ( end p137c3 )


( p138c1-top )






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[2. NAS] I. nsa , (V.) reach, attain; befall. abhi , id.


नश्वर nasvara [ nas-vara ]
= न श ् व र 
-- a. () perishable: -tva, n. -ness.

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नष्ट nasta [ nash-ta ] {naS~Ta.}
= न ष ् ट
-- pp. of √1. nas: -vat, act. pt.

नष्टचेतन nastacetana [ nashta-ketana ]
-- a. having lost consciousness; -keshta, a. motionless; -dh, a. having lost the remembrance of an injury; -nidra, a. deprived of one's sleep; -rpa, a. invisible, unrecognised; -samga, a. whose consciousness is impaired.


नष्टातङ्कम् nastatankam [ nashta‿taṅkam ]
-- ad. fearlessly; -‿tman, a. having one's understanding impaired; -‿artha, a. having lost one's property; -‿saṅka, a. fearless: -m, ad. fearlessly; -‿asva-dagdha-ratha-vat, ad. like the man who had lost his horse and the one who had his cart burnt (sc. who helped each other).


नष्टि nasti [ nash-ti ]
-- f. ruin, destruction.

नष्टेन्द्रिय nastendriya [ nashta‿indriya ]
= न ष ् ट े न ् द ् र ि य
-- a. become impotent.


नष्टैष nastaisa [ nashta‿esh ]
-- a. seeking what is lost.

नष्टैष्य nastaisya  [ nashtaishya ]
-- n. search for the lost.


नष्टोभयलोक nastobhayaloka [ nashta‿ubhaya-loka ]
-- a. to whom both (this and the next) worlds are lost.

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नस् nas [ 1. NAS ] I. A.
-- nsa , (V.) associate oneself with, join, embrace, sam , unite (int.) with.

नस् nas [ 2. ns ]
-- f. nose (only in., lc. sg., g., lc. du. and -- a.).

नस् nas [ 3. nas ]
-- ac., d., g. pl. of aham


-- nose (only - a.).

नसंविद् nasaṃvid [ na-samvid ]
-- f. forgetfulness.


नस्तस् nastas [ nas-ts ]
-- ad. out of or into the nose.

नस्पर्शन nasparsana [ na-sparsana ]
-- n. non-contact.


नस्य nasya [ ns-ya ]
-- a. being in the nose, nasal; n. substance provocative of sneezing, sternutatory: -karman, n. employment of a sternutatory.

sternutatory - adj. 1. Causing or tending to cause sneezing. n. pl. sternutatories 1. A sternutatory substance, such as pepper. -- AHTD

नस्या nasya [ nas-y ]
-- f. nose-bridle.

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Note that {na.} /n/ is the first of two English nasals, the other being {ma.} /m/. Spanish has another nasal that is not present in English. Romabama has adopted both the upper case and the lower case of this Spanish nasal /ɲ/, & ,  -- <> to represent the palatal nasal of Pal-Myan {a.}, and <> for representing Bur-Myan palatal nasal {a.}.

What I must emphasize here is the ability of {ha.} -- the "deep-h", to act as a medial former. It can form a medial only with those aksharas that has no element of /h/. Of the basic aksharas it is only the nasals that can form the medial with {ha.} producing what is known as the {ha.hto:}-sound. These are usually mistaken by Western phoneticians to be voiceless nasals of Burmese when in fact they are only medials -- not the basic sounds. Prominent among them is Peter Ladefoged  (http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/.../burmese.html  120512 ). The nasals of European languages (except Welsh) are usually voiced. For voiceless Welsh nasal, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_phonology 120512. The examples cited by Ladefoged are:

These were the very sound-clips that had confused us when my wife, Daw Thanthan and I, were learning phonetics online in the closing years of 1990s. They were more confusing when Ladefoged had failed to take into account the pitch-registers of the Burmese language which were easily dismissed as allophones or tones.
-- UKT120512


[NAH] IV. P.
-- nhya , bind, tie; tie or put on; ... ( end p138c1 )







(p138c2-top )
to discharge (cloud); ready to blossom (bud); cs. cause to equip.


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-- not to be sure, certainly not: nahi-yatas , because not - therefore


नहुष nahusa [ nh-ush-a ]
-- m. [connexion], descent, race; N., esp. of a king who displaced Indra, but was afterwards transformed into a serpent.

नहुस् nahus [ nh-us ]
-- m. [connexion], descent, race; kinsman; neighbour.

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नाक naka [ nấka ]
-- m. firmament, vault of heaven: -nad, f. celestial Ganges; -nyaka, m. ep. of Indra; -pati, -pl, m. god; -puramdhri, f. Apsaras; -prishtha, n. vault of heaven; -sd, m. denizen of heaven, celestial, god; -str, f. celestial female, Apsaras.


नाकिन् nakin [ nk-in ]
-- m. (possessing heaven), god.

नाकुल nakula [ nkula ]
-- a. ichneumon-like.

ichneumon - n. 1. A large mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) of Africa and southern Europe, having a gray coat and black tail tufts. Also Called Egyptian mongoose . 2. The ichneumon fly. [Latin ichneumōn weasel, ichneumon fly from Greek ikhneumōn from ikhneuein to track from ikhnos track] -- AHTD
See my note on Indian gray mongoose


नाकेश्वर nakesvara [ nka‿svara ]
= न ा क े श ् व र
-- m. god.

-- m. id.


नाक्षत्र naksatra [ nkshatra ]
=  न ा क ् ष त ् र
-- a. relating to the stars, sidereal.

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नाग naga [ ng ]
-- m. serpent, esp. as name of fabulous serpents with human faces inhabiting the city of Bhogarat in the infernal regions; elephant; a vital air (causing vomiting); N. of several plants; N.

See my note on Bhogarati - the city of Nagas or elephants


[ nga-ka ]
-- -kesara , m. N. of a small tree ( Mesua roxburghii ) ; n. its flower.

See my note on Mesua ferrea
Meusa ferrea , fam. Guttiferae is {kn.kau} Iron wood; Cobra's saffron


नागदन्त nagadanta [ nga-danta ]
-- m. elephant's tooth, ivory; peg or bracket on the wall: -ka, m. id., -maya, a. made of ivory.


नागनाथ naganatha [ nga-ntha ]
-- m. chief of serpents; -nyaka, m. id.; -pati, m. id.; -pla, m. N.; -pura, n. Elephant-city (=Hstina-pura); -bandha, m. a serpent as a fetter; -maya, a. consisting of elephants.


नागर nagara [ ngara ]
-- a. belonging to the town, town-bred, urban; polished; adroit; m. citizen.

नागरक nagaraka [ ngara-ka ]
-- a., m. id.; m. chief of a town, head of police; ik, f. N.


-- m. serpent king; -rga , -rgan , m. id.

नागरिक nagarika [ ngar-ika ]
-- a. urban, town-bred; polite; m. (well-bred) citizen; superintendent of police.

-- f. = deva-ngar


नागलता nagalata [ nga-lat ]
-- f. a tree; N.; -lekh, f. N.; -loka, m. world or abode of the Ngas; coll. the serpents; -vatta, m. N.; -vall&ibrevcirc;, f. the betel plant, piper betel; -vas, f. female elephant; -sra, m. N.; -sthala, n. N. of a village; -svmin, m. N.

See my note on nagavalli - the betel vine
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagavalli 120513


नागाधिराज nagadhiraja [ nga‿adhirga ]
-- m. king of the elephants; -‿nana, m. Elephant-face, ep. of Ganesa; -‿ari, m. foe of the serpents, ep. of Garuda; -‿arguna, m. N. of an ancient Buddhist teacher; -‿asana, m. (snake-eating), peacock.

-- turn into a Nga.


नागेन्द्र nagendra [ nga‿indra ]
-- m. chief of serpents; lordly elephant; -‿svara, m. N.

नाग्निदूषित nagnidusita [ na‿agni-dshita ] p
-- p. uninjured by fire.

-- m. N.

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-- m. pl. N. of a people

नाटक nataka [ ntaka ]
-- m. [√nat] actor; n. play: -vidhi, m. art of acting.

नाटकीय natakiya [ ntak-ya ]
-- a. dramatic; , f. actress.
( end p138c2 )

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नाटयितव्य natayitavya [ nt-ayi-tavya ]
-- fp. to be acted (play).


नाटिका natika [ nt-ik ]
-- f. play; kind of drama.

नाटित natita [ nt-ita ]
-- (pp.) n. mimic representation (of an emotion or action): -ka, n. id. (--).


नाट्य natya [ nt-ya ]
-- n. dance; dramatic representation, scenic art; actor's attire: in. (represent) mimetically=on the stage; -ved, f. stage; -sl, f. dancing-hall; -sstra, n. principles of dramatic art; -‿krya, m. teacher of dancing or of the scenic art: -ka, n. office of a dancing-master; -‿ukti, f. theatrical term.

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नाडि nadi [ ndi ]
-- f. vein: -k, f. tube; a measure of time=1/2 muhrta or 24 minutes; a measure of length=1/2 danda; v. l. for nlik.

नाडिंधम nadindhama [ ndim-dhama ]
-- a. swelling the veins, quickening the pulse.


नाडी nadi [ nd&isharp; ]
-- f. (V. nm. -s), tube (also of the rays of the sun, regarded as hollow and sucking up water); slit, crack; tubular vessel in the body, vein; pulse.


नाणक nanaka [ nnaka ]
-- n. coin: -parkshin, m. tester of coin.

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नातिकल्याण natikalyana [ na‿ati-kalyna ]
-- c. not very beautiful or noble; -gdha, a. tolerably deep; -kira, a. not very long (time); -tvra, a. moderate; -tripti, f. non-surfeit.


नातिदूर natidura [ na‿ati-dra ]
-- a. not too distant: -m, ad. not very far; ab., lc. not very far from (ab., g.), -ga, a. not too distant; -sthita, pp. standing at not too great a distance.


नातिनिर्वृति natinirvrti [ na‿ati-nirvriti ]
-- f. not too great satisfaction; -nka, a. not too low; -pari- kara, a. having a limited retinue; -pari sphuta, a. somewhat concealed; -parypta, pp. not too abundant; -pushta, pp. not too well furnished with (in.); -prakupita, pp. not excessively angry; -pramanas, a. not too good-humoured; -prasiddha, pp. not noto rious; -bhrika, a. not too weighty; -bhin na, pp. not very different from (ab.); -m tram, ad. not excessively; -mn-in, a. not esteeming oneself too highly: (-i)-t, f. absence of vanity; -ramanya, fp. not too charming: -t, f. abst. n.; -rpa, a. not very pretty; -visadam, ad. (kiss) not very audibly; -vis tra-samkata, a. neither too wide nor too narrow; -sta‿ushna, a. neither too hot nor too cold; -slishta, pp. not very firm; -sva stha, a. not very well, poorly.


नात्यन्तदूर natyantadura [ na‿atyanta-dra ]
-- a. not very far distant.


नात्यादृत natyadrta [ na‿ati‿drita ]
-- pp. much neglected; -‿ukkhrita, pp. not too high; -‿utpanna, pp. not quite natural or usual.


[NTH] I. . (P. rare)
-- nấtha , implore (lc.), beg for (g.) beseech (ac.) for (ac.) : pp. -it , suppliant. upa , P. beseech any one (ac.) 


नाथ natha [ nth- ] {na-hta.}
-- n. refuge, help; m. protector, guardian, ruler, lord, possessor (of, g. or --); husband (esp. in voc.); -- a. also in the possession of, occupied by: -kma, a. seeking aid; -vat, a. (-) having a protector or husband: -t, f. abst. ɴ.

UKT: I was told a long time ago -- when or by who, I cannot remember - that the Bur-Myan word Nat {nt} 'spirit' is derived from the Pali {na-hta.} and is different from {d-wa.}. I am beginning to doubt this assertion because the Bur-Myan has been worshipping their ancestors, dead or alive, for a long time and there must have been a Bur-Myan word. I maintain that it is {nt} 'spirit'. Most of the ancient peoples did worship their ancestors, dead or alive. For instance the Ancient Romans worship their dead ancestors, the Manes -- some being good and some being bad. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manes 120514 -- UKT120514

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नाद nada [ nd- ]
-- m. din, roar; cry; sound; nasal sound represented by a semicircle; -i, a. roaring; -ita, cs. pp. (√nad); n. noise, cry; -in, a. sounding aloud; --, sounding or roaring like, resounding with.




नादेय nadeya [ nd-ey ]
-- a. coming from a river (nad); aquatic. ( end p138c3 )

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UKT notes

Bhogarati - the city of Nagas or elephants

Excerpt from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom#Bhogavati_and_Kuru_cities 120512

Indraprastha, the new city of Kurus, which was also the capital of Pandava's kingdom, is compared with Bhogavati at (1,209). It is interesting to note that Indrprastha was built by clearing out the Nagas inhabited in that region, especially in the forest of Khandava. The older name of Indraprastha was Khandavaprastha, since it was built by clearing out the Khandava forest. Khandava forest and later the city Indraprastha alias Khadavaprastha, falls in modern-day Delhi.

Hastinapura, the other city of Kuru Kingdom, the capital of Kauravas, was also mentioned as Naga-pura, meaning the city of the Nagas (4,25) (5,147) (8,2) (14,52). Naga also means elephant and the word Hastina-pura means the city of elephants. But Naga-pura still can be translated as the city of Nagas. The multiple meanings of the word Naga (as snake and elephant) could be the reason behind interpretation of Airavata as the king of elephants (that was used by Indra as a mount). The earlier interpretation could be the Naga king who rules the regions around river Iravati (Jhelum).

The capital of northern Panchala kingdom was named Ahichatra or Ahi-khsetra which in Sanskrit translates to the region (Kshetra) of the Nagas.

There is also a passing reference in Mahabharata like this:- in the region of the Nagas, elephants are found in plenty, which make the whole of Indo-Gangatic plain the territory of the Nagas, in some remote antiquity.

20 km from city of Kolhapur in southern Maharashtra was Pannagalya, abode of the Nagas,later Panhala where Shilahars and recently Marathas ruled from fort build by King Bhoja II .The nagas were defeated by Shilahars.The remnants of fort stand to day at panhala which is also a hill station .

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhogavati 120512

Bhogavati (Hindi: भोगवती), that is, the voluptuous one, was the subterranean capital of the Nagas in the Nagaloka region of Patala. The place is also called Putkari. It is mentioned as Naga capital at (3-57). The foremost of cities which resembles the Amaravati of Deva king Indra, is known by the name of Bhogavati. It is ruled over by Vasuki, the king of the Nāgas. Shesha, the foremost of Nagas who is a great ascetic also dwells here (5,103). In the region south-west to Deva territories is the city called Bhogavati that is ruled by Vasuki, by the Naga Takshaka and also by Airavata (5,109).

The Ramayana, Kishkindha Kand Sarg 41, mentions about the directions given to southward search party for Sita, prepared by Sugriva under the leadership of Angad, in which several important Vanaras were included - Neel, Hanuman, Jamvanta, Suhotra, Shararita, Shargulma, Gaja, Gavaksha etc. Sugriva told them about the impassable countries and difficult path and said ....

"Next you will see Kunjar Parvat. Here Vishwakarmaa built a place for Agastya Muni. This place is one Yojan wide and 10 Yojan high. Here there is Bhogvati city where snakes live, that is why it is impossible for human beings to go there. Here lives the king of snakes - Vasuki Naga. Many terrific snakes guard him. This place is studded in numerous gem stones. Go in this place very carefully and search for Sita. "

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patala 120512

Vishnu Purana tells of a visit by the divine wandering sage Narada to Patala. Narada describes Patala as more beautiful than Svarga (heaven). Patala is described as filled with splendid jewels, beautiful groves and lakes and lovely demon maidens. Sweet fragrance is in the air and is fused with sweet music. The soil here is white, black, purple, sandy, yellow, stony and also of gold.[2][5]

The Bhagavata Purana calls the seven lower regions bila-svargas ("subterranean heavens") and they are regarded as planets or planetary systems below the earth. These regions are described as being more opulent than the upper regions of the universe, which include heaven. The life here is of pleasure, wealth and luxury, with no distress. The demon architect Maya has constructed palaces, temples, houses, yards and hotels for foreigners, with jewels. The natural beauty of Patala is said to surpass that of the upper realms. There is no sunlight in the lower realms, but the darkness is dissipated by the shining of the jewels that the residents of Patala wear. There is no old age, no sweat, no disease in Patala.[6]

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Indian gray mongoose

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Gray_Mongoose 120513

The Indian gray mongoose or common grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) is a species of mongoose mainly found in southern Asia mainly India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and some other parts of Asia. The gray mongoose is commonly found in open forests, scrublands and cultivated fields, often close to human habitation. It lives in burrows, hedgerows and thickets, among groves of trees, taking shelter under rocks or bushes and even in drains. It is very bold and inquisitive but wary, seldom venturing far from cover. It climbs well. Usually found singly or in pairs. It preys on rodents, snakes, birds eggs and hatchlings, lizards and variety of invertebrates. Along the Chambal River it occasionally feeds on gharial eggs. It breeds throughout the year.


The Indian grey mongoose, or common grey mongoose, is a medium sized tawny or yellowish grey with a lighter underside, darker feet (this separates it from the syntopic Small Asian Mongoose), and dark red tail tip. They have a reddish tint to their heads. Their tail length equals their body length. Body length: 14-17 inches (36-45cm) Tail length: 17 inches (45 cm), weight: 2-4 lb. (0.89-1.7kg). Males are significantly larger than the females. Mongooses can see colors, unlike most mammals, which have only partial color vision.

A mongoose cracks eggs open by standing with its back to a wall and throwing the eggs under its body and between its back legs so that the eggs break against the wall. Indian gray mongooses are often kept as pets to keep houses free from rats and other pests. The mongoose closes its outer ear when hunting in soil to keep out dirt and water.[2]


Being carnivorous it feeds on many species ranging from rat to snake. The mongoose is a skillful hunter that actively searches for prey by using its strong senses of smell and sight. It eats anything it can catch. The Indian gray mongoose commonly eats small mammals such as rats, as well as eggs and a variety of insects, including the scorpion. The mongoose sniffs the ground and turns over rocks and stones in its search for prey. If the animal tries to flee, the mongoose chases it. It kills its prey while they are both running by delivering a bite to the neck or head. Although the mongoose eats snakes, including the poisonous cobra, the main part of its diet consists of small animals that live on or under the ground. The mongoose is a fast and agile hunter. It is always watchful for prey.[3]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

A wild mongoose used to visit 31 Thantada St., Sanchaung, where I was living with my wife Daw Thanthan and her family soon after our marriage in the mid-1950s. We had many snakes including what we called the king of the snakes {ngn:tau-kra:} 'krait' whose bite is very poisonous but seldom bites, and {ling:mrw} which is non-poisonous, and other smaller kinds of snakes. We occasionally find the smaller ones inside the house, but never the krait nor the {ling:}: they usually stayed out in the compound. My mother-in-law, Daw Thth {dau-::} first spotted a mongoose under a cultivated bush which she showed me. It was shorter than a cubit (18 inches) and so it must have been the Small Asian Mongoose. -- UKT120513

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_Asian_Mongoose 120513

The small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) is a species of mongoose found in the wild in South and Southeast Asia. It has also been introduced to various parts of the world. The western subspecies group is sometimes treated as a separate species, the Indian mongoose or small Indian mongoose (Herpestes palustris).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Mesua ferrea

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesua_ferrea 120512

Mesua ferrea (Ceylon ironwood, Indian rose chestnut, Cobra's saffron or locally, Penaga Lilin,Na (Sinhalese) or Nahar/Nahor, Skt: Nāga नाग, नागर, नागकेशर) is a species in the family Calophyllaceae. The plant is named after the heaviness of its timber and cultivated in tropical climates for its form, foliage, and fragrant flowers. It is native to tropical Sri Lanka but also cultivated in Assam, southern Nepal, Indochina, and the Malay Peninsula.

UKT: Meusa ferrea , fam. Guttiferae is given as:
05-0128 {kn.kau} Iron wood; Cobra's saffron
-- Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri.Dept. (Planning), Govt. of Union of
Myanmar, 2000, pp65. cited in
http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/Agri-Dept-2000/r1c1ka/r1c1.htm 120512

It is a tall tree reaching up to 100 feet tall, often buttressed at the base with a trunk up to 2 meters in diameter. It is common in wet zone at Sri Lanka up to 1500 meters. It has simple, narrow, oblong, dark green leaves 715 cm long, with a whitish underside; the emerging young leaves are red to yellowish pink and drooping. The flowers are 47.5 cm diameter, with four white petals and a center of numerous yellow stamens.

The National Ironwood Forest is a 96 ha (238 acre) forest in Sri Lanka where Mesua ferrea trees dominate the vegetation. It is said that during King Dappula IV's period (8th century AD) this forest was created and the remaining trees are the shoots of it. Hence it is considered the oldest man-made forest in Sri Lanka. According to botanists this is the only ironwood forest in the dry zone with wet zone vegetation.

Mesua ferrea has different names in various Indian languages.[1]
Skt: Champeryah; Nagkesara; Nagapushpa
Hindi: Gajapushpam; Nagakesara (नाग केसर)
Bengali: Nagesar
Kannada: Nagasampige (ನಾಗಸಂಪಿಗೆ)
Malayalam: Nagachampakam; Veila
Marathi: Nagchampe
Tamil: Cheru-nagapu; Sirunagappoo; Veilutta-champakam
Telugu: Nagakesara

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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Nagavalli - the betel vine 

UKT note: I was born in a small town now incorporated into the Greater Rangoon (or Yangon) known as {kwm:hkn-koan:} literally meaning the 'high ground where betel-vine are grown'. -- UKT120513

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betel 120513

The Betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and Kava. It is valued both as a mild stimulant[1] and for its medicinal properties. Betel leaf is mostly consumed in Asia, and elsewhere in the world by some Asian emigrants, as betel quid or paan, with or without tobacco, in an addictive psycho-stimulating and euphoria-inducing formulation with adverse health effects.[2]

The betel plant is an evergreen and perennial creeper, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkin. The betel plant originated from South and South East Asia (India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka).

... ... ...

There is archaeological evidence that the betel leaves have been chewed along with the areca nut since very ancient times. It is not known when these two different stimulant substances were first put together. In most countries, the mixture of both has a ceremonial and highly symbolic value.

... ... ...

Betel leaves are used as a stimulant, an antiseptic and a breath-freshener. Betel quid is also strongly carcinogenic.[4][5][6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article. I must disagree with the contents of that article on carcinogenic effects of betel chewing. We always do many things in moderation - of course excessive use can be harmful especially on the teeth. We certainly don't see a lot of cancer in Myanmar.

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Tenuis onsets and allophones:
the failure of IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet)

- UKT 120514

It came as a surprise to others and me to realize that English does not have tenuis-consonant sounds. Thus you will not find syllables beginning with {ka.}, {ta.}, & {pa.}, instead of which you will find {hka.}, {hta.} & {hpa.}. We will take the case of the so-called KTP-sounds where the consonants are plosive-stops, and the CS-sounds where the C consonant is palatal-plosive-stop and S consonant the dental-fricative-sibilant, separately.

The failure of the Western phoneticians to notice the difference between a tenuis-voiceless and ordinary voiceless has resulted in the failure of the IPA (International Phonetic Association) to set aside symbols for the tenuis consonants. They lumped the two sounds as the allophones:

KTP allophones:
  allophones of /k/ : [k]  [kʰ]
  allophones of /t/ : [t]  [tʰ]
  allophones of /p/ : [p]  [pʰ]

CS allophones: where only the C matters
   allophones of /c/ : [c]  [cʰ]

This failure of the IPA to distinguish the sounds of the Eastern languages has been carried over to transcriptions and transliteration of sounds for Indic languages in the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration). In this discussion I am ignoring the IAST and have used Romabama to avoid confusion. The original failure of the IPA, and the subsequent failure of the IAST, had been brought into Burmese by the British administrators and educators since the 19th century. There is a note of caution here: Sanskrit is a sibilant-fricative language, whereas Burmese is a thibilant-non-fricative language.

The difference in the members of these pairs are very recognizable in the Burmese and Indic languages (exemplified by Sanskrit), and there are separate graphemes set for them:

velar-allophones of /k/    :  [k] {ka.} क,  [kʰ] {hka.} ख
palatal-allophones of /c/ :  [c] {sa.} च,   [cʰ] {hsa.} छ
dental-allophones of /t/   :  [t] {ta.} त,    [tʰ] {hta.} थ
labial-allophones of /p/    : [p] {pa.} प,   [pʰ] {hpa.} फ

I am curious the way the ancient Myanmar phonetician (most probably a rhisi working alone) had set aside graphemes based on the sound system. Why had he or she chosen single-circles (such as , , , ) for certain sounds, and double-circles (, , , ) for others.?

To incorporate English <sk> <st> & <sp> onsets, Romabama has to devise a new set of graphemes: {Ska.}, {Sta.} & {Spa.} . The hissing sound is provided by the {Sa.} ष -- not {sa.} च . Bur-Myan syllables have no hissing sounds at the end, and the regular {sa.} च is a palatal-stop and not a dental-sibilant ष . And when I have to transcribe English words such as <stock> and <twister>, I was faced with a dilemma, whether to invent a new grapheme for dental-sibilant or not. Finally, I decided to use the same grapheme for both च and ष , but differentiate them only in the coda:

{sa.} च --> {c} : syllable ends with a stop
{Sa.} ष --> {S} : syllable ends gradually with a hissing sound

In order to keep within the akshara system of writing I have to use a conjunct. The form I have chosen is to use the {king:si:}-form which is present only in Bur-Myan. Thus the generic name for this form is: {sa.lon:si:} aka {Sa.t-si:} -- the {Sa.} on-top being a killed-{Sa.}. The entry Skt-Dev {naS~Ta.} नष्ट is an example of {Sa.t-si:} . See {na.Sa.} below. -- UKT120511

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