Update: 2012-07-31 02:20 AM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top

Contents of this page

In the entries below there is the possibility of medial formation:
  {na.ya.} --> {nya.} - nasal sounds common in Bur-Myan
  {na.ra.} --> {nra.}   - rhotic sounds common in Skt-Dev

We must further note that the derivative of {nRa.} , the {nRi} in Sanskrit, formed from:
  न + ृ -> नृ , is not a medial, but is a short vowel sound present in Skt-Dev. It is not present in Bur-Myan, and possibly absent in Pal-Myan. However, Romabama, in order to incorporate the highly rhotic Sanskrit sounds has to coin a new set of graphemes. You should keep in mind the difference between, {nra.} and {nRa.}. -- UKT120510

{nar} : repha

UKT notes :
Nine gates of the Body
Primordial man
Spikenard - {zau-gyi-moat-hsait} (Medicinal plant)

Contents of this page


Since {ya.} is a medial-former, there is always the possibility that {na.} and {ya.} when articulated in rapid succession forming the medial {nya.} which to all practical purposes sounds {a.} in Pal-Myan and {a.} in Bur-Myan.
   The generic names for {nya.} is {na.ng ya.ping.}; {a.} is {a.l:}, and {a.} is {a.kri:}. If Romabama had confined itself to English spellings alone, it would have been very confusing in transcription, because of which Romabama has to use extended Latin script. The graphemes <> and <> are borrowed from Spanish. There are other borrowings: from French and from OldEnglish.
   When Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan are used together, the grapheme is the horizontal conjunct of two . Its generic name is then {~a.}.

{a.} + viram {a.t} + {a.} --> {~a.} aka {a.}

The reader must remember that Romabama is very formal and follows the Bur-Myan spellings. It is far more formal than the so-called Burglish which has confined itself to English spellings alone.

Moreover Romabama is different from MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) transliterations because it has taken into account both the Burmese and English phonologies and because of its emphasis on the IPA (International Phonetic Association) vowel diagram. To incorporate Skt-Dev, it has to introduce new graphemes which are derived from the Bur-Myan graphemes. --  UKT120509


( p136c3-b07 )

नय naya [ nay-a ]
m. leading; behaviour, conduct; discreetness, prudence, towards (lc.); worldly ( end p136c3 ) ( p137c1-top )
wisdom, policy; design, plan; principle, system, doctrine; -kovida, a. worldly wise, versed in policy; -kakshus, n. eye of wisdom; a. en dowed with the eye of wisdom; -ga, a. worldly wise; knowing the system of (--).

Contents of this page



नयन nayana [ nay-ana ]
-- n. bringing, conducting, leading to (--); eye (guiding organ): -tva, n. abst. N.


नयनगोचर nayanagocara [ nayana-gokara ]
-- a. being within range of the eye; -gokar-kri, behold; -kandrik, f. moonlight to the eyes; -kar ita, n. play of the eyes; -gala, n. tears; -patha, m. range of the eye; -padav, f. id.; -payas, n. tears; -vat, a. having eyes; -v ri, n. tears; -vishaya, m. range of the eye; -salila, n. tears; -subhaga, a. pleasing to the eye.


नयनानन्द nayanananda [ nayana‿nanda ]
-- m. delight of the eyes; -‿anta, m. corner of the eye; -‿ambu, n. tears; -‿udaka, n. flood of tears; -‿uda bindu, m. tear.


नयवत् nayavat [ nya-vat ] a. versed in policy, prudent; -vid, a. id.; -vartman, n. policy; -sl in, a. possessed of worldly wisdom or of policy; -sstra, n. doctrines of policy; -sdh ana, n. politic procedure; -shasa‿unnati mat, a. requiring a high degree of discretion and resolution; -hna, pp. destitute of discretion.


नयार्थित nayarthita [ naya‿arthita ]
-- pp. courteously requested.

Contents of this page


As before with {na.ya.}, {na.ra.} can become a medial: {nra.} . -- UKT120509


नर nara [ nr-a ]
-- m. man; husband; hero; the primordial Man, -Spirit; N.

See my note on Primordial Man :
the story of Arjuna and Urvashi ऊर्वशी - the most beautiful Apsara


नरक naraka [ nara-ka ]
-- m. (n. rare) infernal regions, hell; N. of a demon slain by Krishna: -pta, m. going to hell.

नरकपाल narakapala [ nara-kapla ]
-- m. human skull.

नरकरिपु narakaripu [ naraka-ripu ]
-- m. ep. of Krishna; -vsa, m. sojourn in hell; -stha, a. being in hell.


नरकाक narakaka [ nara-kka ]
-- m. crow of a man; -gṅgala, n. human flesh; -danta, m. human tooth; -deva, m. god among men, king; -ntha, m. prince, king: -mrga, m. high road, -‿sana, n. royal throne, royalty.


नरप narapa [ nara-pa ]
-- m. prince, king; -pati, m. id.: -patha, m. king's high-way, royal high-road; -pla, m. prince, king; -medha, m. human sacrifice.


नरयान narayana [ nara-yna ]
-- n. palanquin; -rpa, n. human form; -loka, m. world of men: -pla, m. prince, king; -vara, m. excellent man: -‿uttama, spv. best of excellent men; -var man, m. N. of a prince; -vhana, a. drawn by men; m. ep. of Kubera; N.: -datta, m. N. of a prince: -karita, n. adventures of Naravhanadatta; -vhana-datt-ya, a. be longing to Naravhanadatta; -vhin, a. borne by men: w. yna, n. palanquin; -vishna, n. human horn=chimera; -vra, m. heroic man: -loka, m.=children of men; -vyghra, -sr dla, m. tiger-like man=most illustrious of men; -sreshtha, spv. best of men; -sakha, m. friend of Nara, ep. of Nryana; -simha, m. lion among men=great warrior; man-lion (the fourth Avatr of Vishnu); -hari, m. man lion, Vishnu's fourth Avatr.


नराधिप naradhipa [ nara‿adhipa ]
-- m. lord of men, king, prince; -‿adhipati, m. id.

नराशंस narasaṃsa [ nr-smsa ]
-- m. Praise of Men (i. e. praised by men), m. ep. of Agni, esp. in the second verse of pra-hymns and in the third of pr-hymns; ep. of Pshan.


नरेन्द्र narendra [ nara‿indra ]
-- m. chief of men, king, prince: -kany, f. princess; -t, f., -tva, n. ( end p137c1 ) ( p137c2-top )
kingship; -putra, m. prince; -mrga, m. high road; -svmin, m. N. of a temple; -‿ditya, m. N. of a prince.


Contents of this page



नरेश naresa [ nara‿sa ]
-- m. king; -‿svara, m. id.

नरेष्ठा narestha [ nare-shthấ ]
-- a. serving for a man to stand on.


नरोत्तम narottama [ nara‿uttama ]
-- spv. best of men.

Contents of this page

{nar} : repha


नर्तक nartaka [ narta-ka ] a. causing to dance; m. dancer; , f. female dancer.

नर्तन nartana [ nart-ana ]
-- m. dancer; n. dance: -sl, f. dancing-room.

-- m. who causes to dance (ac.): dancing-master; -i-ta , pp. cs. of √nrit; -i-tavya , fp. n. necessity to dance; dancing


[NARD] I. P.
-- narda , roar, yell, cry (with ac. of sound); intv. ...

नर्दित nardita [ nard-ita ]
-- pp. n. roar, bellow; a certain throw at dice.


नर्मगर्भ narmagarbha [ narma-garbha ]
-- a. containing a jest, meant in joke; -da, a. giving amusement, granting gladness: , f. N. of a river (also called Rev) now Nerbudda (which rises in the Vindhya range).


नर्मन् narman [ narman ]
-- n. jest, sport, fun: in. n-, in jest or fun.

नर्मय narmaya [ narma-ya ]
-- den. P. exhilarate by jesting, amuse.


नर्मसचिव narmasaciva [ narma-sakiva ]
-- m. court jester (jesting companion of a king); -skivya, n. condition of a court jester; -suhrid, m. jesting friend of a king, court jester.

नर्मोक्ति narmokti [ narma‿ukti ]
-- f. jesting speech.


नर्य narya [ nar-ya ]
-- a. manly; human; m. man; n. manly deed.

Contents of this page



नल nala [ nala ]
-- m. kind of reed ( Amphidonax karka ); N. of a king, husband of Damayant.

See my note on Amphidonax karka mentioned in
The Useful Plants of India by Colonel Herber Drury, 1873

-- m. N. of an elephant


नलद nalada [ nlada ]
-- n. Indian spikenard (Nardostachys Jatamansi); the root of the Andrapogon muricatus.

See my note on Spikenard - {zau-gyi-moat-hsait}


नलनामन् nalanaman [ nala-nman ]
-- a. named Nala; -mrgana, n. search for Nala; -vgin, m. horse of Nala; -saṅk, f. suspicion of its being Nala; -ssana, n. command of Nala; -sam nidhi, f. presence of Nala; -srathi, m. charioteer of Nala; -siddha, pp. prepared by Nala; -‿amtya, m. minister of Nala; -‿asva, m. Nala's horse.


नलिका nalika [ nalik ]
-- f. tube.

नलिन nalina [ nalina ]
-- n. day lotus flower ( Nelumbium speciosum ); -dala, n. petal of --; -nbha, m. ep. of Krishna; -‿sana, ep. of Brahman.

See my note on Lotus


नलिनी nalini [ nalin ]
-- f.=nalina; group of or lake overgrown with lotuses: -dala, n. petal of the day lotus: -maya, a. consisting of petals of the day lotus; -pattra, n. petal of the day lotus.


नलोदय nalodaya [ nala‿udaya ]
-- m. Nala's success, T. of a poem; -‿upkhyna, n. episode of Nala.

नल्व nalva [ nalva ]
-- m. a measure of distance, either =52 or 200 yards.

Contents of this page


As before we must note the tendency of {na.wa.} to form medials depending on the way you articulate the two phonemes /n/ and /w/:
  {nwa.} , {nwa} , {nwa:}
I have noticed that this sound is difficult for very young children (I started noticing in case of my own daughter: she learned to produce the correct pronunciation only a couple of years later). The child tends to drop the 'w' sound and produce: {na.} , {na} , {na:} . I have also noticed this tendency in some foreigners especially in Americans. Nasal sounds are the most intriguing sounds in Bur-Myan. -- UKT120510


नव nava [ nv-a ]
-- a. new, fresh, young, recent: -- (preceding pp.), ad. just, lately.

नवकृत्वस् navakrtvas [ nava-kritvas ]
-- ad. nine times.


नवग्रह navagraha [ nava-graha ]
= न व ग ् र ह
-- a. recently caught.

नवम्व navamva [ nva-gva ]
-- a. ninefold; m. pl. the Nine, N. of a mythical race. ( end p137c2 )

Contents of this page



नवज navaja [ nava-ga ]
-- a. lately arisen, just visible (moon); new, young; -gvr, m. fresh sorrow.


नवत navata [ nava-ta ]
-- a. ninetieth.

नवता navata [ nava-t ]
-- f., -tva, n. newness, freshness.

नवति navati [ nava-t ] f. ninety.


नवदशन् navadasan [ nva-dasan (or n) ]
-- a. pl. 19.

नवद्वार navadvara [ nava-dvra ]
-- n. pl. the nine gates (of the body); a. (nva-), nine-gated; n. body.

Read my note on Nine Gates of the Body

नवधा navadha [ nava-dhấ ]
-- ad. ninefold, nine times.


नवन् navan [ nvan (or n) ]
-- num. nine.

नवन navana [ nav-ana ]
-- n. laudation, praise.


नवनव navanava [ nava-nava ]
-- a. (pl. or -- with a pl.) ever new, constantly being renewed, very manifold.

नवनीत navanita [ nva-nta ]
-- n. fresh butter.


नवपञ्चाशत् navapancasat [ nava-paksat ]
-- f. fifty-nine.

नवप्राशन navaprasana [ nava-prsana ]
-- n. eating of the new grain.


नवम navama [ nava-m ]
-- a. ninth; , f. ninth day in a fortnight.

नवमल्लिका navamallika [ nava-mallik ]
-- f. double jasmine ( Jasminum sambac ); -mall, -mlik, f . id.

UKT: The Double Jasmine is known as {nhic-htp sn-p} literally the 'double Jasmine' in Bur-Myan. (need to check sp and facts). Also see Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_sambac
-- UKT120511




नवमुख navamukha [ nava-mukha ]
-- a. () having nine openings.


नवयज्ञ navayajna [ nava-yaga ]
-- m. offering of first fruits; -yauvana, n. first bloom of youth; a. being in the --: -vat, a. blooming with the freshness of youth.


नवरात्र navaratra [ nava-rtra ]
-- m. period (esp. Soma sacrifice) of nine days.


नववधू navavadhu [ nava-vadh ]
-- f. newly-married woman.

नवविध navavidha [ nava-vidha ]
-- a. ninefold.


नवशशिभृत् navasasibhrt [ nava-sasi-bhrit ]
-- m. bearer of the new moon, ep. of Siva.

नवषष्टि navasasti [ nava-shashti ]
-- f. sixty-nine; -saptati, f. seventy-nine.


नवसस्य navasasya [ nava-sasya ]
-- n. new grain: -‿ishti, f. offering of first-fruits.

Contents of this page



नवान्न navanna [ nava‿anna ]
-- n. new grain: -‿ishti, f. offering of first-fruits.

नवाशीति navasiti [ nava‿asti ]
-- f. eighty-nine.

Contents of this page



-- renew, renovate; refresh, revive 


नवीन navina [ nav-na ]
-- a. new, fresh, young; sts. =another.


नवीभाव navibhava [ nav-bhva ]
-- m. renovation.

-- be renewed.

नवीयस् naviyas [ nv-yas ]
-- cpv. new, fresh, young, recent.

Contents of this page


Note: Medial formation from {na.w} is very easy in Bur-Myan:
   {nw.} , {nw} 'summer' , {nw:} 'warm'
-- UKT120511


नवेतर navetara [ nava‿itara ]
-- a. old.

नवेदस् navedas [ n-vedas ]
-- a. (or -veda ) observing; knowing (g.).

Contents of this page



नवोढा navodha [ nava‿dh ]
-- (pp.) a. f. newly-wedded; f. -woman; -‿udaya, a. just risen (moon).


नव्य navya [ 1. nv-ya ]
-- a. new, fresh, young; str, f. newly-wedded woman.

नव्य navya [ 2. nv-ya ]
-- fp. to be lauded, praiseworthy.

नव्यस् navyas [ nv-yas ]
-- cpv. (-) new, fresh.

UKT: p137c3-b20 moved to next file

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Amphidonax karka

From:  The Useful Plants of India by Colonel Herber Drury,
2nd ed, William H. Allen & Co., London, 1873
-- Google book preview http://books.google.ca/books  120515

Entry: 46. Amphidonax karka (Lind.), N. O. Graminace

Description. -- Culms erect, 8-12 feet, round, smooth covered with the sheaths of the leaves; leaves approximate, ensiform, smooth; mouths of the sheaths bearded; panicles erect, oblong, composed of many filiform, sub-verticelled ramifications, bowing to the wind; rachis of the branches angular and hispid; florets alternate; calyx 3-5 flowered; glumes unequal. Fl. Sept.-Feb. -- Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 347. -- A. Roxburghii, Kth. ---Peninsula. Bengal.

Economic Uses. -- The common Durma mats at Calcutta are made of the stalks of this reed split open. Pipes are made of the culms, especially those used by people carry about dancing-snakes. This grass is more luxuriant in Bengal than on the coast. In Scinde the culms are made into chairs, and the flower-stalks are beaten to form fibers which are there called Moonyah. These are used for string and ropes. --- BoyleRoxb.

Go back A-karka-note-b

Contents of this page


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelumbo_nucifera 120510

Nelumbo nucifera, known by a number of names including Indian Lotus, Sacred Lotus, Bean of India, or simply Lotus, is a plant in the monotypic family Nelumbonaceae. The Linnaean binomial Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) is the currently recognized name for this species, which has been classified under the former names, Nelumbium speciosum (Willd.) and Nymphaea nelumbo, among others. Names other than Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) are obsolete synonyms and should not be used in current works. This plant is an aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances its seeds may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China.[1]

A common misconception is referring to the lotus as a waterlily (Nymphaea), an entirely different plant as can be seen from the center of the flower, which clearly lacks the structure that goes on to form the distinctive circular seed pod in the Nelumbo nucifera.[citation needed]

Native to Tropical Asian nations and Queensland, Australia,[2][3] it is commonly cultivated in water gardens. The lotus is national flower of India and Vietnam.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

Go back Lotus-note-b

Contents of this page

Nine Gates of the Body

From: What are the nine gates in your body and where these are located?
-- http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070807011850AAx2RIi 120510

UKT note 120510: The following view is from Hinduism. The Theravada Buddhist view in Myanmar is also similar. The main difference is in Soul or Atta. Hinduism conjectures it is permanent and non-changing. Buddhism asks what and where it is located. Unable to answer the questions of what-where satisfactorily, Buddhism rejects the idea of Atta. Therefore Anatta.
   I interpret further that the introduction of soul or Soul is not necessary which is consistent with the modern scientific view: an unnecessary assumption must not be made in a scientific theory.

Best Answer - Chosen by Asker
Source : http://www.kriyajoga.net/cityofninegates

Sarvakarmani manasa Samnyasyaste sukham vashi
Navadvare pure dehi naiva kurvan no karayan.
- Holy Bhagvad Gita.

Translation -
The embodied (Soul) who has controlled his nature having renounced all actions by the mind dwells at ease in the City of Nine Gates, neither working nor causing work to be done.
- Bhagvad Gita 5: 13

The process of living

The City of Nine Gates is a description of the human body with its nine opening or gates. They are the two eyes, the two ears, the two nostrils, the mouth, the urinary opening and the anus. [UKT ]

These are the functional basis and functional descriptions of the human body. Mind, intellect and ego live here and carry out their activities. [UKT ]

Also many anatomical and physiological systems perform their tasks of survival and the very process of actions and reactions. But the soul is the King or Ruler of this City of Nine Gates. [UKT ]

The Soul perceives this infinite aspect of creation through these above-mentioned instruments or agents. It controls this complex system through the brain and spinal cord. The Soul, by the process of breathing holds these complex structures together, the natures play, acts and reacts. This is known as the process of living. [UKT ]

The Soul sets in motion these complex mechanisms and sits back, invisible formless, watching as a witness- natures play (maya) in the City of Nine Gates. So it is nature (Mother Nature) who is the Real Doer. But we wrongly identify ourselves with body, mind, intellect and ego, and get delusion, illusion, error and sins. This produces stress, strain, anxiety, worry and fear to the egoistic individual. This is the cause of our suffering.

Instead of identifying ourselves with our Higher Self or Soul (Witness) we wrongly identify ourselves with ego and forget our Soul, and hence undergo many sufferings. We cannot enjoy life and Gods play that is constantly going on within and around us.-

Go back Nine-gates-note-b

Contents of this page

Primordial Man

From: http://www.apamnapat.com/entities/Nara.html 120509

Nara नरा is the primordial man. He is also said to be one of the divine twins Nara and Naryana, who represent Man and God respectively. They are shown as great sages, who once performed a great penance. Indra sent his Apsaras to disract them. However, the sages created Urvashi ऊर्वशी from their thighs. Urvashi was more beautiful than all the Apsaras put together. When they beheld her flawless beauty, they ran away. Indra realized the power of the sages and begged their forgiveness.

Arjuna is said to be an incarnation of Nara.

UKT: Below is an excerpt from http://www.apamnapat.com/entities/Urvashi.html 120509

In the Mahabharata, Arjuna visits his father Indra in heaven. [UKT ]

UKT: Those who have studied Mahabharata only casually, would have difficulty in understanding the above statement.
   Arjuna was the third Pandava, the five sons of Pandu, and you would be wondering why was his father supposed the be the Indra deva in heaven. Pandu, because of a curse would not father any genetic sons, and so his queen had used a boon granted to her by a sage, to pray to various devas to make her pregnant on various occasions. Before she was married she had prayed to the Sun deva [I hesitate to use the usual title 'god'] as a test to the efficacy of the boon. She had a son - Karna. Because she had kept it a secret, Pandu did not know. After she had married Pandu, and after coming to know of his curse, she prayed to devas again. The third time she prayed to Indra, and she was made pregnant by Indra deva. -- UKT120616

There Urvashi is attracted to him and declares her love for him. He is horrified, because he is a descendant of Puroorava and a relationship with Urvashi would be incest. She argues that since the Apsaras are timeless, immortal, the laws of mortal men do not apply to them. However, she fails to persuade Arjuna. In anger, she curses him to turn into an eunuch. Indra consoles his son and assures him that he would be an eunuch for just one year, that too of his own chosing. (See 'Urvashi's Curse'). Arjuna makes good use of this curse when he has to go into a yearlong exile.

Go back Pri-Man-note-b

Contents of this page


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spikenard 120510

Spikenard (Nardostachys grandiflora or Nardostachys jatamansi; also called nard, nardin, and muskroot ) is a flowering plant of the Valerian family that grows in the Himalayas of China, also found growing in the northern region of India and Nepal. [UKT ]

UKT: Nardostachys jatamansi  is given in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of ImportanceScientific Names of Plants, by Agri.Dept. (Planning), Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp65 as:

Nardostachys jatamansi -- Valeroamaceae -- {zau-gyi-moat-hseit} {za.Ta-mn-i.} 23-0588

23-0588  {zau-gyi-moat-hsait} {za.Ta-mn-i.}  Musk root; Indian spikenard  Nardostachys jatamansi  Valeroamaceae

Retrieved from: http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/Agri-Dept-2000/txt/name-sci-fam-myan.htm#Entry-N 120510
   Search note: For plants of unknown names, the search method is to use Index of Scientific Names. Only then go to the Main Index. -- UKT

The plant grows to about 1 m in height and has pink, bell-shaped flowers. It is found in the altitude of about 30005000 meters. Spikenard rhizomes (underground stems) can be crushed and distilled into an intensely aromatic amber-colored essential oil, which is very thick in consistency. Nard oil is used as a perfume, an incense, a sedative, and an herbal medicine said to fight insomnia, birth difficulties, and other minor ailments.[1]

Lavender (genus Lavandula) was also known by the ancient Greeks as naardus, nard, after the Syrian city Naarda.

The scent of spikenard attracts cats, a strange phenomenon in itself.

Historical use

The oil was known in ancient times and was part of the Ayurvedic herbal tradition of India. It was obtained as a luxury in ancient Egypt, the Near East. In Rome, it was the main ingredient of the perfume nardinum (O.L. nladam) derived from the Hebrew שבלת נרד (shebolet nard, head of nard bunch)[2] which was part of the Ketoret used when referring to the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It is also referred to as the HaKetoret (the incense). It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem Temples. The ketoret was an important component of the Temple service in Jerusalem. Nard is mentioned a number of times in the Tanakh, and as part of incense in reference to hilchot shabbat in Tractate Shabbat 78b as well as Maimonides Hilchot Shabbat 18:16. It is mentioned twice in the Song of Solomon (1:12 and 4:13).

Nard was used to perfume the body of Patroklos by Achilles in Book 18 of Homer's Iliad. Pliny's Natural History lists twelve species of "nard", identifiable with varying assurance, in a range from lavender stoechas and tuberous valerian to true nard (in modern terms Nardostachys jatamansi).

It was a common flavouring in Ancient Roman foods and occurs frequently in the recipes of Apicius, though it tends to be used sparingly.[3]

Spikenard was used to season foods in Medieval European cuisine, especially as a part of the spice blend used to flavor Hypocras, a sweetened and spiced wine drink. From the 17th century it was one of the ingredients for a strong beer called Stingo.

Biblical reference

In the New Testament John 12:110, six days before the passover Jesus arrives in Bethany. In Bethany, Mary, sister of Lazarus uses a pound of pure nard to anoint Jesus's feet. Judas Iscariot, the keeper of the money-bag, asked why the ointment was not sold for three hundred denarii instead (about a year's wages, as the average agricultural worker received one denarius for 12 hours work: Matthew 20:2) and the money given to the poor. Two passages in parallel (Matthew 26:613, and Mark 14:39) speak of an occasion two days before the passover, in which an unnamed woman anoints Jesus's head. The costly perfume she used came from an alabaster jar, and contained nard according to the passage in Mark.

UKT: "Mary" is a common name, and you should differentiate the persons in referring to the name. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Three_Marys 120510 . Mary, sister of Lazarus was not one of the three in the following:
The Three Marys at Crucifixion :
   1. Mary - mother of Jesus. 2. Mary Magdalene. 3. Mary - wife of Cleopas
The Three Marys at the Tomb :
   1. Mary - wife of Cleopas. 2. Mary Magdalene. 3. Mary Salome - mother of James
I am inserting this note to caution those who would like to identify {ma-ya} - the mother of the Buddha with Mary - the mother of Jesus. -- UKT120510

In Song of Songs, the female lover uses spikenard.

Modern use

Today, oil of spikenard is not used as widely as that of its many valerian relatives. Spikenard is still used in many Tibetan healing incenses. It is used in the herbal medicine of India, Tibet and the rest of China as a nerve tonic and sedative for sleep disordersa property it shares with the closely related valerian or Valeriana officinalis. Spikenard is known as a healing oil and is grown in India and China. The essential oil is obtained through steam distillation and it is a base note with an earthy/musty scent. Physically, spikenard essential oil is used as a diuretic; it is allegedly useful for rashes and skin allergies. It is claimed to be anti-fungal and is said to have a balancing effect on the menstrual cycle. Emotionally, this oil is reserved for deep-seated grief or old pain. It is used in palliative care to help ease the transition from life to death. Its oil is also used for preparing medicines for cholera, epilepsy, heart diseases, etc.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

Go back Spikenard-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file