Update: 2017-08-25 06:56 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top

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{dRi.sa.} : sibilant 

UKT notes :
Deva {d-wa.} for comparison to Nat {nt} : How much did the Ancient Romans know?
Harappan culture
Savitri - a name of Gāyatrī Mantra

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(p124c1-top )


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दृक्छत्‍त्र drkchattra [ drik-khattra ]
-- n. eye-lid; -patha, m. range of the eye: -m i, become visible; -pta, m. glance.


दृक्ष drksa [ drik-sha (--) ]
-- a. -looking, -like.

दृक्संगम drksangama [ drik-samgama ]
-- n. sg. sight of and meeting with (g.).

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दृगन्त drganta [ drig-anta ] m. outer corner of the eye; -gokara, m. range of vision, horizon; -bhak ti, f. amatory glance; -rudh, a. obstructing the gaze.

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दृढ drdha [ dridha ]
-- pp. √drimh; n. firm or immovable object; fastness; -krin, a. persevering.

-- confirm

दृढता drdhata [ dridha-t ]
-- f. firmness (-vapushi, robust health); firm adherence to (lc.); perseverance; -tva, n. id.: -m gam, prove firm.


दृढदस्यु drdhadasyu [ dridha-dasyu ]
-- m. N. of an ancient sage; -dhanvan, a. having a stiff bow; -dhriti, a. strong-willed; -prahri-t, f. hardness of hitting; -bhakti, a. firm in devotion to (lc.); -mati, a. firmly resolved; -mushti, m. tight fist; a. close-fisted.

UKT Search: Drdhadasyu - an ancient sage
   dṛḍha-dasyu [ dRDhadasyu ] -- m. N. of an old sage,
also named Idhmavāha ( son of Dṛḍha-cyuta, above ) cf. Kād. cf. BhP. ( cf. dṛhasyu )
-- http://sanskrita.org/wiki/index.php/dRDha?setlang=es 120412


दृढय drdhaya [ dridha-ya ]
-- den. P. establish; confirm.

दृढवपुस् drdhavapus [ dridha-vapus ]
-- a. of robust health; -vrata, a. constant to one's vow; of unswerving purpose; firmly insisting on (lc.), faithfully devoted to (--).


दृढायुध drdhayudha [ dridha‿yudha ]
-- a. having a hard missile.

दृढीकरण drdhikarana [ dridh-karana ]
-- n. confirmation; -kra, m. id.

-- fortify; bind firmly; confirm; -bh , become firm

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दृति drti [ dr-ti ]
-- m. (f.) water-carrier's skin; bellows; hose.

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-- dripya , become mad ; be crazy, extravagant, or arrogant : pp. dripta ,  extravagant, wild, arrogant ; -tara , ...  




-- dribh , make into tufts, string together. sam , pp. ...


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p124c1-b11 & p124c2-top

-- pr. base pasya , I. see, behold, observe; visit, wait upon; look at; look on (int.); recognize (by, in.); ...

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दृश्drs  [ drs (nm. drik) ]
-- a. seeing, beholding; f. N. id. (d. dris, for beholding); eye; view, theory; -- a. look, appearance.

दृश drsa [ dris-a ]
-- m. (, f.) sight, look, appearance (--).

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दृशि drsi [ dris-i ]
-- f. seeing, beholding; faculty of seeing, intuition, vision: d. drisye=inf. for beholding.

दृशिमत् drsimat [ drisi-mat ]
-- a. seeing.

दृशीका drsika [ dris-k ]
-- f. appearance.


दृश्य drsya [ dris-ya ]
-- fp. visible, to (in., g., --); to be looked at; worthy to be seen, splendid: -t, f., -tva, n. visibility.

दृश्वन् drsvan [ dris-van ]
-- a. having seen, conversant with (--).

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{dRi.Sa.} : sibilant


दृषत्कण drsatkana [ drishat-kana ] m. pebble.

दृषद् drsad [ drishd ]
-- f. rock, large stone; (nether) millstone.

दृषदश्मन् drsadasman [ drishad-asman ]
m. upper (smaller) millstone; -upala, n. sg. & du., , f. du. the two millstones, -a‿ulkhala, n. millstone and mortar.


दृषद्वती drsadvati [ drishad-vat- ]
-- f. (Rocky), N. of a river.

दृषन्नौ drsannau [ drishan-nau ]
-- f. boat of stone.


दृष्ट drsta [ drish-ta ]
-- pp. √dris; n. perception: -kar man, a. whose deeds have been seen, tried practically; -tva, n. having been seen, occurrence; -dosha, a. whose sins have been exposed; formerly convicted; recognised as sinful (action); -nashta, pp. having appeared and disappeared immediately after: -t, f. abst. n.; -prva, a. seen before; -pratya ya, a. convinced by ocular evidence (lit. having seen-conviction); -sruta, pp. seen and (or) heard; -sra, a. of tried strength.


दृष्टादृष्ट drstadrsta [ drishta‿adrishta ]
-- pp. visible and invisible; relating to this life and the next; -‿anta, m. (non plus ultra of experience), model, pattern; precedent; illustration; example; a. serving as a pattern; -‿artha, a. whose object or aim is clear; serving as a model; having ascertained the true state of (g.).

UKT note: "non plus ultra" is a Latin phrase meaning "nothing further beyond" or the 'ultimate' -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Latin_phrases_N 120412 


दृष्टि drsti [ drsh-ti ]
-- f. seeing, looking at (g.), be holding; vision, eyesight; intelligence; eye; pupil of the eye; glance, look; regard; opinion: -m d, direct the gaze towards (lc.).


दृष्टिक्षेप drstiksepa [ drishti-kshepa ] m. rolling the eyes, looking about; -gokara, m. range of vision; -dna, n. bestowal of a look, showing oneself; -nipta, m. cast of a look, glance; -patha, m. range of vision; -pta, m. cast of a
( end of p124c2 ) (p124c3-top )
look, glance: na tasya drishtipte=do not show yourself to him; -pradna, n.=-dna; -prasda, m. favour of a glance: -m kri, deign to look at one; -mandala, n. pupil of the eye; -mat, a. having eyes; intelligent, wise; -mrga, m. range of vision, horizon; -vikshepa, m. moving the eyes about, looking around.


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दृष्टोत्साह drstotsaha [ drishta‿utsha ]
-- a. whose steady advance is seen.

दृष्ट्यगोचर drstyagocara [ drishti‿agokara ]
-- a. being beyond the range of vision.


दृह् drh [ DRIH ]
-- v. �ߢ�� RIMH.

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UKT note: The following is formed from the long vowel of the pair, दृ & दॄ  .


दॄ [DRI] P, (.) IX.
-- drin , burst, rend, tear ; ...


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UKT: The similarity between Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev is the differentiation of {d} & {d:}. However, the online Skt-Dev speakers seem to be pronouncing these two sounds the same or almost the same.
   It must be emphasized that Pal-Myan has only {d} and no {d:}. This has prompted me to suggest that Bur-Myan might be older than the Pali of SriLanka. In fact I am beginning to suspect that Bur-Myan might be directly linked to the ancient Vedic before the incursion of the Dravidian speakers from the south or the Indo-Iranian (or Indo-European) speakers from the north-west.
   If so we can speculate [pure speculation] that the ancient Pyus {pyu} or some other ancient peoples of Myanmar might be related to Naga-worshippers who were present in the upper reaches of the ancient Saraswati river -- the Harappan culture : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cemetery_H_culture 120414.
   It has been suggested that the mythical Nagas were humans worshipping the {na.ga:}.
-- UKT 120414

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देय deya [ d-ya ]
-- fp. to be given; -bestowed in marriage; -granted; -delivered; -restored, -paid: -h panthh, way must be made for (g.); atithitvena sakty deyam, n. impl. one should give according to one's ability in regard to hospitality; n. gift; impost; wages.

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देव deva [ dev- ]
-- a. () heavenly, divine (also fig.); celestial, deity, god, divinity (sts. of malevolent beings); (god among men=) priest, Brhman; king, prince; --, chief among; voc. Sire, please your Majesty; , f. goddess; Svitr; Durg; queen, princess.

Who are the देव deva? The English translation is "god", however the Bur-Myan translation is {nt} a term applied to personages you worship out of fear such as the king, or for protection. It is stated that in days before the 11th century the northern people of Myanmarpr at Pagan were worshipping {na.ga:}. See on my notes on Deva and Savitri (Savitr - mentioned 11 times as counted by Ralph T.H. Griffith (1888)) [pdf pages, 2.59MB, by Griffith has been downloaded and is in ~~Lib-Skt.

They also worshiped {nt}, the chief being the Lord of the Great Mountain (referring to Mount Popa) who was a physically powerful blacksmith who was unjustly put to death by the king. Now let's look at the oldest literature of Veda, the RigVedic. Who were the देव deva (and the female counterparts) worshipped? See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 120826. The following are some of them:
See my notes on: Indra (mentioned 289 times), Agni (mentioned 218 times), Durga (not mentioned),  (Savitr - mentioned 11 times). (Counted by Ralph T.H. Griffith (1888)).


-- rishi among the gods, divine saint

-- -- a.= deva ; i. f. N. of Krishna's mother


देवकन्यका devakanyaka [ deva-kanyak ]
-- f. celestial maiden; -kany, f. id.; -karma-krit, a. perform ing a divine rite; -karman, n. divine rite; -kalasa, m. N.; -krya, n. divine rite; concern or errand of the gods.


देवकीनन्दन devakinandana [ devak-nandana ]
-- m. met. of Krishna; -snu, m. id.


देवकुल devakula [ deva-kula ]
-- n. temple; ()-krita, pp. made by the gods; -kritya, n.=deva-krya; -kshetra, n. divine territory; -khta, pp. dug by the gods=hollowed out by nature; -gan, m. host of gods; -ganik, f. courtesan of the gods, Apsaras; -giri, m. mountain of the gods, N. of a mountain-range; -gupta, pp. protected by the gods; m. N.; -gurn, m. preceptor of the gods; ep. of Kasyapa and of Brihaspati; -grih, m. n. house of the gods, temple; royal palace.


देवच्छन्द devatagara [ deva-kkhanda ] m. pearl necklace of 81 strings; -ga, a. god-begotten; -gan, m. (gnly. pl.) divine host; host of demons or (esp.) serpents; -g, a. god-begotten, -born; -gt, n. race or class of gods.


-- f. divinity, divine power; deity; sacred image. . in. ad. in the capacity of a god or gods; among or to the gods.

देवतागार devatat [ devat‿brev;gra ]
-- n. temple, chapel; -griha, n. id.


देवतात् devatat [ dev-tt ]
-- f. divine worship; -host.

देवतामय devatamaya [ devat-maya ]
-- a. () containing all the gods; -‿yatana, n. temple; -‿arkana, n. worship of the gods.
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UKT notes


-- UKT120826, 120917

How are Deva and Nat related to the Celtic gods? I am interested in this relationship because there seem to be some parallels between the Bur-Myan Nat-worship & casting of {in:}, and that of the Celts and their "magic" embedded in Wicca religion. Of course, there are parallels between the Deva and the Nat. My study will be confined to the Iron Age of the three cultures, and is still fragmentary at this stage. It will be a long time before I can come to conclusion.
   Since the Ancient Romans worshipping the old Roman gods and/or Judeo-Christian god were responsible for the destruction and reconstruction of the previous cultures in Europe and else-where, it might be helpful to know the state of their world's knowledge. An ancient source is

The Natural History (Latin: Naturalis Histori) is an encyclopedia published circa AD 7779 by Pliny the Elder. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day and purports to cover the entire field of ancient knowledge, based on the best authorities available to Pliny. He claims to be the only Roman ever to have undertaken such a work and prays for the blessing of the universal mother:[1]

Hail to thee, Nature, thou parent of all things! and do thou deign to show thy favour unto me, who, alone of all the citizens of Rome, have, in thy every department, thus made known thy praise.

The work became a model for all later encyclopedias in terms of the breadth of subject matter examined, the need to reference original authors, and a comprehensive index list of the contents. The work is dedicated to the emperor Titus, son of Pliny's close friend, the emperor Vespasian, in the first year of Titus's reign. It is the only work by Pliny to have survived and the last that he published, lacking a final revision at his sudden and unexpected death in the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 120826

There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

Indra, a heroic god, slayer of Vrtra and destroyer of the Vala, liberator of the cows and the rivers; Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods; and Soma the ritual drink dedicated to Indra are the most prominent deities.

Invoked in groups are the Vishvedevas (the "all-gods"), the Maruts, violent storm gods in Indra's train and the Ashvins, the twin horsemen.

There are two major groups of gods, the Devas and the Asuras. Unlike in later Vedic texts and in Hinduism, the Asuras are not yet demonized, Mitra and Varuna being their most prominent members. Aditi is the mother both of Agni and of the Adityas or Asuras, led by Mitra and Varuna, with Aryaman, Bhaga, Ansa and Daksha.

Surya is the personification of the Sun, but Savitr, Vivasvant, the Ashvins and the Rbhus, semi-divine craftsmen, also have aspects of solar deities. Other natural phenomena deified include Vayu, (the wind), Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth), Dyaus continuing Dyeus, the chief god of the Proto-Indo-European religion, and Ushas (the dawn), the most prominent goddess of the Rigveda, and Apas (the waters).

Rivers play an important role, deified as goddesses, most prominently the Sapta Sindhu and the Sarasvati River.

Yama is the first ancestor, also worshipped as a deity, and the god of the underworld and death.

Vishnu and Rudra, the prominent deities of later Hinduism (Rudra being an early form of Shiva) are present as marginal gods.

The names of Indra, Mitra, Varuna and the Nasatyas are also attested in a Mitanni treaty, suggesting that the some of the religion of the Mitannis was very close to that of the Rigveda.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Deva-note-b

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Harappan culture

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cemetery_H_culture 120414
   UKT: Though I have taken the excerpt below from Wiki 'Cemetery-H-culture', I have titled my note as the Harappan culture to suit the taste of the Bur-Myan readers. -- 120414
Read also: Indus Valley Tradition Painted Grey Ware Copper Hoard Culture

The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BCE, in and around western Punjab region located in present-day India and Pakistan. It was named after a cemetery found in "area H" at Harappa.

The ancient city of Harappa was greatly destroyed under the British Raj, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the making of the Lahore-Multan Railroad. ... The Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan culture) has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.[4]  -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harappa 120414

The Cemetery H culture is part of the Punjab Phase, one of three cultural phases that developed in the Localization Era of the Indus Valley Tradition.[1] It is considered to be part of the Late Harappan phase.

The distinguishing features of this culture include[2]:

The Cemetery H culture also "shows clear biological affinities" with the earlier population of Harappa.[4]

The archaeologist Kenoyer noted that this culture "may only reflect a change in the focus of settlement organization from that which was the pattern of the earlier Harappan phase and not cultural discontinuity, urban decay, invading aliens, or site abandonment, all of which have been suggested in the past."[5]

Remains of the culture have been dated from about 1900 BCE until about 1300 BCE. Together with the Gandhara grave culture and the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, it is considered by some scholars a nucleus of Vedic civilization.

UKT cotinues:
The contemporary culture in Mediterranean is the Cycladic civilization (also known as Cycladic culture or The Cycladic period) is an Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades, Greece, in the Aegean Sea, spanning the period from approximately 3000 BC-2000 BC. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycladic_civilization 120918

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From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savitri 120413
returns many links, three of which are:
#1. Sāvitrī, a name of the Gayatri Mantra dedicated to Savitr
#2. Savitri, a Hindu character from the story of Savitri and Satyavan in the epic Mahabharata
#3. Savitri is Brahma's consort. Gayatri is another consort of Brahma.

#1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayatri_Mantra 120413

The Gāyatrī Mantra is a highly revered mantra, based on a Vedic Sanskrit verse from a hymn of the Rigveda (3.62.10), attributed to the rishi Viśvāmitra. The mantra is named for its vedic gāyatrī metre.[1] As the verse can be interpreted to invoke the deva Savitr, it is often called Sāvitrī.[2] Its recitation is traditionally preceded by oṃ and the formula bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ, known as the mahāvyāhṛti ("great utterance").

The Gayatri Mantra is repeated and cited very widely in vedic literature,[3] and praised in several well-known classical Hindu texts such as Manusmṛti,[4] Harivamsa,[5] and the Bhagavad Gita.[6][7] The mantra is an important part of the upanayanam ceremony for young males in Hinduism, and has long been recited by Brahmin males as part of their daily rituals. Modern Hindu reform movements spread the practice of the mantra to include women and all castes and its use is now very widespread.[8][9]


#2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savitri_and_Satyavan 120413

The oldest known version of the story of Savitri and Satyavan is found in "The Book of the Forest" of the Mahabharata.

The story occurs as a multiple embedded narratives in the Mahabharata as told by Markandeya. When Yudhisthira asks Markandeya whether there has ever been a woman whose devotion matched Draupadis, Markandeya replies by relating this story:

The childless king of Madra, Asvapati [UKT: Did Wiki make a spelling mistake? See below for two other spellings: Ashwapati or Aśwapati (अश्‍वपति) ], lives ascetically for many years and offers oblations to Sun God Savitr. His consort is Malavi. He wishes to have a son for his lineage. Finally, pleased by the prayers, God Savitr appears to him and grants him a boon: he will soon have a daughter. The king is joyful at the prospect of a child. She is born and named Savitri in honor of the [Sun] god. Savitri is born out of devotion and asceticism, traits she will herself practice.

Savitri is so beautiful and pure, she intimidates all the men in the vicinity. When she reaches the age of marriage, no man asks for her hand, so her father tells her to find a husband on her own. She sets out on a pilgrimage for this purpose and finds Satyavan, the son of a blind king named Dyumatsena, who after he had lost everything including his sight, lives in exile as a forest-dweller.

Savitri returns to find her father speaking with Sage Narada who announces that Savitri has made a bad choice: although perfect in every way, Satyavan is destined to die one year from that day. In response to her fathers pleas to choose a more suitable husband, Savitri insists that she will choose her husband but once. After Narada announces his agreement with Savitri, Ashwapati acquiesces.

UKT: Who is Ashwapati?
   "Ashwapati or Aśwapati (अश्‍वपति) is the appellation of many kings in Hindu mythology. It means 'Lord of horses.' It was an appelation comparable to that of the knight or Ritter in Europe.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashwapati 120413

Savitri and Satyavan are married, and she goes to live in the forest. Immediately after the marriage, Savitri wears the clothing of a hermit and lives in perfect obedience and respect to her new parents-in-law and husband.

Three days before the foreseen death of Satyavan, Savitri takes a vow of fasting and vigil. Her father-in-law tells her she has taken on too harsh of a regimen, but Savitri replies that she has taken an oath to perform these austerities, at which Dyumatsena offers his support.

The morning of Satyavans predicted death, Savitri asks for her father-in-laws permission to accompany her husband into the forest. Since she has never asked for anything during the entire year she has spent at the hermitage, Dyumatsena grants her wish.

They go and while Satyavan is splitting wood, he suddenly becomes weak and lays his head in Savitris lap. Yama himself, the god of Death, comes to claim the soul of Satyavan. Savitri follows Yama as he carries the soul away. When he tries to convince her to turn back, she offers successive formulas of wisdom. First she praises obedience to Dharma, then friendship with the strict, then Yama himself for his just rule, then Yama as King of Dharma, and finally noble conduct with no expectation of return. Impressed at each speech, Yama praises both the content and style of her words and offers any boon, except the life of Satyavan. She first asks for eyesight and restoration of the kingdom for her father-in-law, then a hundred sons for her father, and then a hundred sons for herself and Satyavan. The last wish creates a dilemma for Yama, as it would indirectly grant the life of Satyavan. However, impressed by Savitri's dedication and purity, he offers one more time for her to choose any boon, but this time omitting "except for the life of Satyavan". Savitri instantly asks for Satyavan to return to life. Yama grants life to Satyavan and blesses Savitri's life with eternal happiness.

Satyavan awakens as though he has been in a deep sleep and returns to his parents along with his wife. Meanwhile at their home, Dyumatsena regains his eyesight before Savitri and Satyavan return. Since Satyavan still does not know what happened, Savitri relays the story to her parents-in-law, husband, and the gathered ascetics. As they praise her, Dyumatsenas ministers arrive with news of the death of his usurper. Joyfully, the king and his entourage return to his kingdom.[1]


#3. Savitri is Brahma's consort. Gayatri is another consort of Brahma.
UKT: My problem is to find the relationship of Savitri and Saraswati who is also supposed to be the wife of Brahma. The following is from: http://www.hindu-blog.com/2011/05/goddess-savitri.html 120413

Goddess Savitri is a manifestation of Goddess Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of learning and arts. As Savitri, She is the consort of Hindu God Brahma. A story in the Puranas suggests why Goddess Saraswati appeared as Goddess Savitri. Brahma once wanted to conduct a yajna. But he had no wife as per Vedic rule a man without a wife could not conduct a yajna. So Brahma requested Goddess Saraswati to be his spouse and sit by the side of him in the yajna.

Saraswati agreed to be the consort of Brahma and said that she will appear in the form of Savitri to be the consort.

Thus Saraswati appeared as Goddess Savitri to be the divine consort of Brahma.

UKT: More in the article.

Go back Savitri-note-b

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