Update: 2017-08-25 06:37 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p116.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top
 MC-v05-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{dN}
  p116-c1
{dt}
{da.da.}
{da.Da.}
  p116-c2
{da.na.}
{da.Ba.}
{da.ma.}
  p116-c3
{da.ya.} : {d} - the problematic front open-mid sound
{da.ra.}
{dar}

UKT note: You will see an example of confusion because of the misuse of {::ting} in Skt-Dev and the subsequent transliteration. UHS indicated that the Skt spelling has an /m/ sound. We must remember that {::ting} sound is free from both /n/ or /m/ colouring.

दंपति dampati [ dm-pati ]
Skt: -- m. master of the house: du. master and mistress, man and wife, pair, couple. -- Mac116c3
Pal: {dm~pa.ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0461
UKT from UHS: m. master of the house, husband and wife

UKT notes :
Damayanti - the beauty Front-mid vow problem

Contents of this page

{dN}

p115-2c3-b07

दण्डयात्रा dandayatra [ danda-ytr ]
-- f. military expedition: -kihna, n. signal for marching to war, -patha, m. military road, -lagna, n. astrologically auspicious moment for marching out to war; -yoga, m. infliction of punishment; -lesa, m. small fine; -vat, a. bearing a staff; having a handle; possessing a great army; -vadh, m. capital punishment; -vkika, ( end p115c3 ) (p116c1-top )
a. corporal or verbal (injury); -vhin, m. policeman, watchman; -vikalpa, m. choice of punishment (with g. of object); -vyha, m. array in columns; -hasta, a. holding a staff in the hand.

 

Contents of this page

p116-c1

p116c1-b01

दण्डाघात dandaghata [ danda‿ghta ]
-- m. pl. blows with a staff.

p116c1-b02

दण्डाधिप dandadhipa [ danda‿adhipa ]
-- m. chief justice; -‿adhipati, m. id.; -‿anka, n. detachment of an army; -‿ppa-nyya, m. manner of the stick and the cake (if the mouse has eaten the stick she must have eaten the cake also): ab.= as a matter of course from what precedes.

p116c1-b03

[dandra-ka]
-- (--) well-pole

दण्डावयव dandavayava [ danda‿avayava ]
-- m. detachment of an army.

p116c1-b04

दण्डिक dandika [ dand-ika ]
-- a. punishing; m. policeman; -ik, f. stick, staff; -n, a. bearing a staff; m. Brhman mendicant; janitor, warder; official who clears the way; ep. of Yama; N. of the author of the Dasakumrakarita and of the Kvydarsa (sixth century A. D.).

p116c1-b05

दण्डोद्यम dandodyama [ danda‿udyama ]
-- m. raising of the staff, threatening any one (--) with a stick: pl. employment of forcible means.

दण्ड्य dandya [ dand-ya ]
-- fp. to be punished; worthy of punishment; to be made to pay or fined (with ac. of amount); liable to forfeit (--).

Contents of this page

{dt}

p116c1-b06

दत् dat [ dt ]
= द त ् --> {dt}
-- m. [(a)d-at, pr. pt. eater] tooth (nm. dan): -- a. f. -.

दत्त datta [ dat-t ] {dt~ta.}
= द त ् त
Skt: -- pp. of √d; m. N. (often --); n. giving: -ka, a. given to be adopted (son). - Mac116c1
Pal: {dt~ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0458

UKT from UHS: - . mfn. giving. . mfn. stupidity. m. a stupid person

p116c1-b07

दत्तकर्ण dattakarna [ datta-karna ]
-- a. giving ear or listening to (--); -drishti, a. directing one's gaze to, looking at (abs. or with lc.); -prva‿uk ta-spa-bh, a. threatening with the curse already mentioned; -sulk, a. f. for whom the nuptial fee has been paid.

दत्तातङ्क dattatanka [ datta‿taṅka ]
-- a. giving a fright to (g.); -‿tman, a. who has offered himself for adoption (son); -‿a-pradn-ika, a. relating to the non-delivery of a present.

p116c1-b08

दत्ति datti [ dat-ti ]
-- f. gift, present.

दत्तोत्तर dattottara [ datta‿uttara ]
-- a. to which an answer has been given.

p116c1-b09

दत्‍ित्रम datitrama [ dat-trima ] a. received by donation, adopted (son or slave).

दत्त्वा dattva [ dat-tv ]
-- gd. of √d.

दत्र datra [ d-tra ]
-- n. property: pl. goods: -vat, a. wealthy.

Contents of this page

{da.da.}

p116c1-b10

ददाति dadati [ dad-ti ]
-- m. gift.

ददृशानपवि dadrsanapavi [ da-dris-n-pavi ]
-- a. whose wheel-tracks have appeared.

दद्रु [da-dr-u], दद्रू dadru [da-dr-],
-- f. [√dr, crack] kind of cutaneous eruption.

Contents of this page

{da.Da.}

p116c1-b11

दध् dadh [ da-dh ]
-- weak pr. base of √dh.

दधन् dadhan [ da-dh-n ]
-- weak base of ddhi.

p116c1-b12

दधि dadhi [ d-dh-i ]
-- n. [√dhe] sour milk, curds.

दधिकर्ण dadhikarna [ dadhi-karna ]
-- m. Curd-ear, N. of a cat (i. e. having milk-white ears).

दधित्थ dadhittha [ dadhi-t-tha ]
-- m. a tree (so called from the taste of the fruit); -draps, m. sg. pl. whey made of sour milk.

p116c1-b13

दधिपुच्छ dadhipuccha [ dadhi-pukkha ]
-- m. Curd-tail (i. e. having a milk-white tail), N. of a jackal; -prishtaka, a kind of mixture with curds; -bhnda, n. pot of sour milk; -manda, m. sour cream; -saktu, m. pl. meal mixed with curds; -sambhava, a. produced from curdled milk.

Contents of this page

p116-c2

p116c2-top

दधृष् dadhrs [ da-dhrish ]
-- a. (nm. m. f. n. k) bold; n. -dhrk, ad. firmly, closely.

दधृष्वान् dadhrsvan [ da-dhrish-vn ]
-- pf. pt. having dared or undertaken.

p116c2-b01 

दध्यन्न dadhyanna [ dadhi‿anna ]
n. rice cooked with curdled milk; -‿dana, n. pap prepared with curdled milk.

Contents of this page

{da.na.}

p116c2-b02

[dnu]
-- f. N. of a daughter of Daksha and the mother of the Dnavas.

दनुकबन्ध danukabandha [ danu-kabandha ]
-- m. N. of a demon; -ga, m. a Dnava.

p116c2-b03

दन्त् dant [ dnt ]
-- m. (strong base of dt, only nm. dan) tooth.

दन्त danta [ dnt-a ]
-- m. (n.) tooth; tusk, ivory (f. -- a. , ): -ka, (-- a.) tooth; -ghta: -ka, m. worker in ivory; -ghta, m. bite.

p116c2-b04

दन्तच्छद dantacchada [ danta-kkhada ]
-- m. (tooth-covering), lip; -ganman, n. growth of the teeth; -gta, pp. having teethed; -dyut, f. glitter of the teeth; -dhva, m. cleansing the teeth; -dhv ana, n. id.; splint of wood chewed for cleaning the teeth; -pattra, n. kind of ear ornament: i-k, f. id.; -pklik, f. doll of ivory; -pli, f. ivory sword hilt; -prakshl ana, n. cleansing of the teeth; means for cleansing the teeth; -praveshta, m. (?) ring round an elephant's tusk; -bhaṅga, m. breaking or splitting of the teeth; -maya, a. made of ivory; -mmsa, n. gum; -ml, n. root of a tooth; -mlya, a. dental (letter); -rak an, f. cleansing of the teeth; -vakra, m. N. of a prince; -vsas, n. (cover of the teeth), lip; -vn, f. chattering of the teeth (lit. teeth-lute): -m vdaya, play the teeth lute=have chattering of the teeth (from cold); -veshta, m. gum: du. gums; -vypra, m. working in ivory; -suddhi, f. cleansing the teeth; -sodhana, n. id.; -samgharsha, m. grinding of the teeth.

p116c2-b05

दन्ताग्र dantagra [ danta‿agra ]
-- n. point of a tooth.

दन्तादन्ति dantadanti [ dant-danti ]
-- ad. tooth against tooth=tooth and nail (of combatants).

p116c2-b06

दन्तान्तर dantantara [ danta‿antara ]
-- n. space between the teeth: -‿adhishthita, pp. stuck between the teeth; -‿li, f. row of teeth; -‿lika, f. bridle; -‿val, f. row of teeth.

दन्तावल dantavala [ dant-vala ]
-- m. elephant.

p116c2-b07

दन्तिन् dantin [ dant-n ]
-- a. tusked; m. elephant; -ila, m. N.; -ura, a. having prominent teeth; uneven; thickly studded with, full of (--); ugly: -t, f. ugliness.

दन्तुरय danturaya [ dantura-ya ]
-- den. P. stud or fill with: pp. danturita, studded with, full of (--).

p116c2-b08

दन्तोलूखलिक dantolukhalika [ danta‿ulkhal-ika ]
-- a. using his teeth as a pestle; -‿ulkhalin, a. id.

दन्त्य dantya [ dant-ya ]
-- a. dental (letter); good for the teeth.

दन्दशूक dandasuka s [ dan-das-&usharp;ka ]
-- a. mordacious; m. kind of snake.

Contents of this page

{da.Ba.}

p116c2-b09

[DABH], [DAMBH], (V.) P. I.
-- dbha , V. dabhno , injure, hurt; deceive; cs. dambhya , P. . avert ; des. dipsa , P. wish to hurt or destroy.

दभीति dabhiti [ dabh-&isharp;ti ]
-- m. injurer, foe; N.

p116c2-b10

दभ्य dabhya s [ dbh-ya ]
-- fp. who can be deceived; meant to deceive.

दभ्र dabhra [ dabh-r ]
-- a. little, insignificant: -m, ad. dimly; n. distress.

Contents of this page

{da.ma.}

p116c2-b11

[DAM], IV. P.
-- damya , be tame; tame, subdue; pp. dnt , tame, gentle; calm, tranquil, having one's passions subdued; ca. damya , P. tame, break in; control, subdue; pp. damita , tamed, subdued.

[dm] , house (only - and g. pl. damam )

Contents of this page

p116-c3

p116c3-top

दम dama [ 1. dm-a ]
-- m. n. house, abode, home.

दम dama [ 2. dam- ]
-- a. taming, subduing (--); m. self-control; punishment, fine; Victor, N. of one of Damayant's brothers and of other men.

See my note on Damayanti (दमयन्ती) - the beauty which even the gods wish to marry 

p116c3-b01

दमक damaka [ dama-ka ]
-- a. taming, breaking in, training (--).

[dama-ghosha]
-- n. N. of a king ; -ga , -suta , m. pat. of Sisupla.

p116c3-b02

दमन damana [ dam-ana ]
-- a. () taming, subduing (--); m. horse-tamer, charioteer; Vincent, N. of one of Damayant's brothers; n. subduing; chastising.

p116c3-b03

[damana-ka]
-- m. N. of a man and of a jackal

दमयन्ती damayanti [ dam-ay-ant- ]
-- f. (cs. pr. pt.) Victoria, N. of Nala's wife.

[dam-ay-i-tri]
-- m. tamer, chastiser

p116c3-b04

दमिन् damin [ dam-in ]
-- a. self-controlled; subduing (--).

p116c3-b05

दंपति dampati [ dm-pati ]
Skt: -- m. master of the house: du. master and mistress, man and wife, pair, couple. -- Mac116c3
Pal: {dm~pa.ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0461

UKT from UHS: m. master of the house, husband and wife
  Note: Here is an example of confusion because of the misuse of {::ting} in Skt-Dev and the subsequent transliteration. UHS indicated that the Skt spelling has an /m/ sound. {::ting} sound is free from both /n/ or /m/ colouring.

p116c3-b06

दम्भ dambha [ dambh-a ]
-- m. fraud, dissimulation, hypocrisy, deceit; -aka, a. deceiving, deluding (--); -ana, a. injuring (--); n. deceiving, deceit.

दम्भमुनि dambhamuni [ dambha-muni ]
-- m. hypocritical ascetic.

p116c3-b07

दम्भिन् dambhin [ dambh-in ]
-- a. deceitful; m. deceiver, cheat, hypocrite, dishonest man.

p116c3-b08

[dumbha‿udbhava]
-- m. N. of a king

दम्भोलि dambholi [ dambholi ]
-- m. Indra's thunderbolt: -pta, m. descent of Indra's thunderbolt.

दम्भोलिपाताय dambholipataya [ dambholi-pt-ya ]
-- den. . descend like Indra's thunderbolt.

p116c3-b09

दम्य damya [ dam-ya ]
-- fp. to be broken in; m. young bull yet to be tamed or trained.

Contents of this page

{da.ya.}

The problem of front mid vowels

by UKT 120402

I am curious about the sound of दय् = {d} . It is {da.} द followed by killed-{ya.} य् (note the viram).

The vowel sound following the consonant {da.} द is a front open mid-vowel absent in English and Pali, but very prominent in Burmese. See Comparison of Devanagari, IPA, and Myanmar vowels /ɛ/ MC-indx.htm . IPA /ɛ/ is represented in Romabama as {}. The phoneme {d} is the modal tone {d} of Bur-Myan .

Bur-Myan front open-mid: creak {d.}; modal {d}; emphatic {d:}
Bur-Myan front closed-mid: creak {d.}; modal {d}; emphatic {d:}

Skt-Dev: There are two mid vowel sounds.
We get {d} दे from close-vowel ए , and
            {d} दै from open-vowel ऐ .

I hesitate to use IPA to show these sounds because IPA was originally designed for French and English, and I feel it has failed to convey the Bur-Myan sounds reliably. This problem is very important in reciting the Pali texts in Myanmar.

Go back front-mid-vow-note-b

Contents of this page

p116c3-b10

दय् [ DAY] I. .
-- dya , divide; allot; possess; have compassion on, sympathise with (ac., g.) : pp. dayita , q. v. nir-ava , satisfy any one (ac.) with (in.), from (ab.).

p116c3-b11

दया daya [ day- ]
-- f. sympathy, compassion, with (g., lc., --): -m kri, have compassion on (g. or lc.); -‿rdra-bhva, m. compassionate tenderness.

दयालु dayalu [ day-l ]
-- a. compassionate, towards (lc.): -t, f., -tva, n. compassion for (lc.).

दयावत् dayavat [ day-vat ]
-- a. compassionate towards (g., lc.).

p116c3-b12

दयित dayita [ day-ita ]
-- pp. (√day) beloved, dear; m. lover, husband; , f. mistress, wife: -maya, a. devoted to his beloved.

Contents of this page

{da.ra.}

p116c3-b13

दर dara [ dar-a ] a. --, cleaving, shattering; --, a little (also -m); m., , f. cleft, hole, cave; m. fear.

दरण darana [ dar-ana ]
-- n. bursting, breaking.

p116c3-b14

[dard], [darada]
-- m. pl. N. of a people

See my note on Darada - the people

p116c3-b15

दरिद्र daridra [ dr-i-dra (also--dra) ]
-- a. [intv. √dr] strolling; mendicant, poor; lacking (in. or --); m. beggar.

दरिद्रता daridrata [ daridra-t ]
-- f. poverty; -tva, n. id.

दरिद्रा daridra [ DAR-I-DR ] v.  [DR], run.

p116c3-b16

दरीमुख darimukha [ dar-mukha ]
-- n. cave of a mouth; mouth of a cave; mouth-like cave.

Contents of this page

{dar} - repha

p116c3-b17

दर्दुर dardura [ dar-dur-a ] {dar~du.ra.}
-- m. [intv. √dr] frog; flute; N. of a mountain-range in the South; N.: -ka, m. N. of a gambler.

UKT: p116c3-b18 has been moved to the next file.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Damayanti दमयन्ती 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damayanti 120331

Damayanti (दमयन्ती), a character in Hindu mythology, was the princess of Vidarbha Kingdom, who married king Nala, of Nishadha Kingdom, and their story is told in the Mahabharata.

The story

Damayanti was a princess of Vidarbha Kingdom. She was of such beauty and grace that even the gods could not stop from admiring her. She fell in love with Nala simply from hearing of his virtues and accomplishments from a golden swan. [UKT ]

When it came time for Damayanti to choose her husband at a swayamvara, gods, princes and kings came to seek her hand. The Gods Indra, Agni, Varuna and Yama were on their way for attendance when they meet Nala. They order him to be their messenger and to go inform Damayanti that she must choose one of them as husband. [UKT ]

Nala first refuses, saying he is himself interested in her, but he finally accepts the mission. On seeing him, Damayanti agrees to pay her respects to the gods, but she insists on choosing only Nala for her husband. The Gods then each disguise themselves as Nala, and ask Damayanti to choose amongst them. Damayanti sees through them each time, as she is aware that her true beloved one is a human being and cannot be perfect, which sets him apart from the gods. [UKT ]

The demon Kali [the Asura ruler of Kali Yuga], the personification of Kali yuga, also wants to marry Damayanti. On his arrival, he is unaware that he is too late for the swayamvara. He runs into the gods and they tell him how she has chosen Nala in their place. Kali then angrily vows to cause the fall of Nalas kingdom through his propensity for gambling.

Damayanti and Nala are happily married and have two children. Kali enters the palace as a servant, and for twelve long years keeps watch for any little imperfection by which he can strike against Nala. [UKT ]

One day, Nala, in a rush to make his prayer defiles himself by not washing his feet, thereby allowing Kali to bewitch his soul. In games of dice with his brother Pushkara, he loses his kingdom, forcing Nala and Damayanti to live in poverty in the forest. Birds fly away with the only garment Nala possessed. After all these misadventure, Nala starts worrying for Damayanti and, obscured by Kali, resolves to abandon her in order to protect her from his bad luck. Damayanti finds herself alone in the forest and invokes a curse on those who have caused the downfall of her husband. Nala, meanwhile, rescues the Snake King Nāga Karkotaka from a fire. As a result, Nāga Karkotaka bites him in rewards. As Nala seeks an explanation, Nāga Karkotaka says that the poison will only take effect when it is perfect. Nala survives the bite, but the venom turns him into an unrecognizable dwarf named Bahuka, who serves as a charioteer to the Ayodhya King Rituparna.

Damayanti takes refuge in the palace of the Princess of Chedi, offering to serve her, only not as a servant; to which the Princess of Chedi replies that she can be her host. Damayanti is finally discovered and taken back to her father's house where she is reunited with her children. They search for Nala, but cannot find him. Damayanti starts thinking that the only way Nala will come back would be for fear that she would not be his wife anymore. Thus she requests a fake second swayamvara. She is still of such irresistible beauty that many kings attend. Nala's master also wants to go to the swayamvara, and Nala accompanies him. On their journey to the swayamvara, the king instructs the dwarf in the techniques of gambling. When King Rituparna reveals to him the supreme skill of controlling the dice, finally the poison take effect and Bahuka vomits Kali from his body and imprisons him temporarily in a tree. Damayanti is persuaded that the dwarf is Nala because of the flavor of a dish that he cooked for her. The pair are reunited and Nala is transformed from a dwarf into his familiar form. He uses the knowledge of gambling he has learned to regain everything he had lost.

She forgives him for having abandoned her in the forest, and he forgives her for having organised another swayamvara.

They live happily ever after.

Nalacharitham attakatha, written by Unnayivaryar, is played through Kathakali.The story is divided into four parts as to be played in four days.The veshas of this are Nalan-pacha Damayanthi-minukk Sage Narada-Minukk

Comments

It is described as a tale of luck, The hero gets through good luck, bad luck, and good luck again, and at all times remains true to the Dharma. She on the other part represents bliss. She chooses the human amongst the gods, and does she have to do it again, she chooses the same again.

Go back Damayanti-note-b

Contents of this page

Darada

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daradas 120401

Darada [UKT believes Wiki has used the Anglicised plural form with <s>, because of which <s> has been omitted] were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. This kingdom is identified to be the Gilgit region in Kashmir along the river Sindhu or Indus. They are often spoken along with the Kambojas. The Pandava hero Arjuna had visited this country of Daradas during his northern military campaign to collect triubute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice.

Darada in present times

Daradas in present times are found as Daral (दराल) Dharal (धराल) Darad (दराड़) Darar (दराड़) as gotra of Jats originated from country named Darada (दरद). These people when came to Haryana were known as Daral. These people were inhabitant of country Darada. Mahabharata mentions about Darad kshatriyas in Dron Parva.[24] They are Chandravanshi Jats, descendants of Yayati's son Druhyu.[25] Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia.[26]

UKT: I have omitted many portions of the original article.

Go back Darada-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file