Update: 2017-11-22 10:27 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx | Top

Contents of this page

Caveat: Don't be impatient going over old or grouped files. The process is a necessity.


{ti.ka.} / {taik}
{ti.sa.} / {taic}
{ti.Ta.} / {taiT}
{ti.ta.} / {tait}
{ti.pa.} / {taip}


----- on line 171107
UKT 171115: I'm noticing the PIX programme getting slower and getting confused over commands. After a trial, I've moved all grouped files and ungrouped (free) files to ~~Macdonell-cuts, including those which needs more copying. Now that Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 is in TIL , you can always copy from the ink-on-paper book. Caveat: Don't be impatient going over old or grouped files. The process is a necessity.

I've begun with {ka.} - the first letter of the consonants, and have start from p060-3.htm - similar to p105.htm which begins with {ta.}. Note: what I get from Univ. of Chicago are still actively link to its website.


UKT notes :
Palatal consonants : Nya'gyi & Nya'l
Sesamum - aka sesame
Tarkshya - the horse which becomes a bird
Taittiriya Upanishad : {U.pa.ni.a}
Tilaka - the mark on the forehead
Toddy palm

Contents of this page



UKT 171117: Files with grouped entries or free entries in a separate folder and are not under TIL Bk-cndl-index :
  p060-3.htm p061.htm
  p105.htm p106.htm p107.htm
Files with grouped entries intact, and still under Bk-cndl-index :
  p108.htm , p109.htm , etc.


grc1-b00 (group of 1)

p109c1-b01/ p076-001
तारायण [ tryana ]
-- m. sacred fig-tree (tree of deliverance).
1) तारायण (p. 76) tryana


grc1-b01 (group of 1) 

p109c1-b02/ p076-020
तारारमण [ tr-rmana ]
-- m. moon (lover of the stars); -‿val, f. host of stars, galaxy; N. of various celestial and human women; -‿avaloka, m. N. of a prince.
20) तारारमण (p. 76) tr-rmana


grc1-b02 (group of 1)

p109c1-b03/ p076-019
तारिक [ tr-ika ]
-- n. (?) fare, toll at a ferry; -in, a. delivering: (n)-, f. Durg.
19) तारिक (p. 76) tr-ika (?)


grc1-b03 (group of 1)

p109c1-b04/ p076-018
तारुण्य [ trun-ya ]
-- n. youth.
18) तारुण्य (p. 76) trun-ya


grc1-b04(group of 3)

p109c1-b05/ p076-017
तार्किक [ trk-ika ]
-- m. sceptic, dialectician, philosopher.
17) तार्किक (p. 76) trk-ika


p109c1-b06/ not online
तार्क्ष्य [tarksh-ya] = त ा र ् क ् ष ् य
-- m. a mythical being, horse or bird (V.); = Garuda (C.)

See my note on Tarkshya


p109c1-b07/ p076-016
तार्क्ष्यरत्न [ trkshya-ratna ]
-- n. kind of dark-coloured gem.
16) तार्क्ष्यरत्न (p. 76) trkshya-ratna


grc1-b05 (group of 1)

p109c1-b08/ p076-015
तार्ण [ trna ]
-- a. made of grass (trina).
15) तार्ण (p. 76) trna .


grc1-b06 (group of 1)

p109c1-b09/ p076-014
तार्तीय [ trtya ] = तार्तीय 
Skt: -- a. belonging to the third; the third; n. a third: -ka, a. belonging to the third; -ka, a. third.
14) तार्तीय (p. 76) trtya

तार्तीय [ trtya ]
Skt: तार्तीय [ trtya ] -- a. belonging to the third; the third; n. a third: - Mac109c1
Pal: {ta.ti.ya.}
- - UHS-PMD0429
  UKT from UHS: mfn. the third


grc1-b07 (group of 1)

p109c1-b10/ p076-013
तार्य [ tr-ya ]
-- fp. to be crossed; to be overcome; n. fare.
13) तार्य (p. 76) tr-ya

UKT 171117: Compare the ancient Greek and the Bur-Myan customs of placing a coin worth 1/4 kyat {mt s.} in the mouth of the corpse as the ferry-fare {ku:to.hka.}. A packet of cooked rice is also placed on the coffin for the deceased to eat while on its way to the village of the dead {-rwa} .

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charon_(mythology) 171117
"In Greek mythology, Charon or Kharon (/ˈk ɛərɒn/ or /ˈkɛərən/; Greek Χάρων) is the ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased across the rivers Styx and Acheron that divided the world of the living from the world of the dead. A coin to pay Charon for passage, usually an obolus or danake, was sometimes placed in or on the mouth of a dead person. [1]"


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grc1-b08 (group of 1)

p109c1-b10/ p076-012
ताल [ tla ]
Skt: -- m. palmyra or fan palm (from the sap of which sugar and an intoxicating liquor are prepared); flapping (esp. of elephants' ears); clapping of hands; (musical) measure; dance; cymbal(?); n. palmyra nut; a. made from the palmyra: -ka, m. kind of poisonous insect. -- Mac109c1
12) ताल (p. 76) tla

ताल [ tla ]
Skt: ताल [ tla ] -- m. palmyra {p pn} or fan palm [Bur: fan from leaf of palmyra-palm {ta.ra.pt} - MED2006-164a]; flapping; clapping of hands (musical) measure; dance; cymbal [Bur: {s:}. Myanmar Nataraj times his dance with his feet, whilst he dances with his hands]; n. palmyra nut; a. made from the palmyra: -- Mac109c1
Pal: {ta-la.} - UHS-PMD0438

  UKT from UHS: m. toddy palm , shaft of an arrow, iron hook, a hand span (= 9 inches)

See my note on Toddy palm 

grc1-b09(group of 2)

p109c1-b11/ not online
-- turn into an ear-ring


p109c1-b12/ p076-011
तालजङ्घ talajangha [ tla-gaṅgha ]
-- a. having legs like palmyras, long-legged; m. pl. N. of a warrior tribe; N. of a Rakshas; -druma, m. palmyra tree; -dhvaga, a. fan-palm-bannered; ep. of Balarma.
11) तालजङ्घ (p. 76) tla-gaṅgha


grc1-b10 (group of 2)

p109c1-b13/ p076-010
तालन talana [ tl-ana ]
-- n. clapping of hands.
10) तालन (p. 76) tl-ana


p109c1-b14/ p076-009
तालपत्‍त्र [ tla-pattra ]
- n. palmyra leaf; kind of ear-ring; -phala, n. palmyra nut; -vdya, n. clapping of hands; -vrinta, n. palm leaf used as a fan; fan.
9) तालपत्‍त्र (p. 76) tla-pattra


grc1-b11 (group of 1)

p109c1-b15/ p076-008
तालव्य [ tlav-ya ]
Skt: तालव्य [ tlav-ya ] - a. palatal (sound). -- Mac109c1
8) तालव्य (p. 76) tlav-ya
Pal: {ta-lu.za.} - UHS-PMD0438
  UKT from UHS: mfn. sounds formed in the area of the hard palate. These sounds are:
  {sa.} {hsa.} {za.} {Za.} {a.} {ya.} :
  but pronounced as affricates in Skt-Dev and Mon-Myan.

See my note on Palatal consonants :
Bur-Myan: Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}
Pal-Myan: Nya'gyi is unstable and under the viram {a.t} breaks up into two Nya'l - {~a.}
In order to settle the confusion between Burmese and Pali which both uses the Myanmar akshara, BEPS assigns the Palatal plosive-stop to Nya'le {a.}/ {}, and Palatal fricative to Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}.


grc1-b12 (group of 3)

p109c1-b16/ p076-007
तालावचर [ tla‿avakara ]
-- m. dancer, actor: -na, m. id.
7) तालावचर (p. 76) tla̮avakara


p109c1-b17/ p076-006
तालिका [ tl-ik ]
-- f. palm (of the hand); clapping of hands.
6) तालिका (p. 76) tl-ik palm (of the hand); clapping of hands.


p109c1-b17/ p076-005
तालिन् [ tl-in ]
-- a. . provided with cymbals; . sitting upon (--).
5) तालिन् (p. 76) tl-in


grc1-b13 (group of 2) 

p109c1-b17/ p076-004
ताली [ tl ]
-- f. a tree; palm wine; clapping of the hands; a metre: -patta, -puta, m.(?) kind of ear-ring.
4) ताली (p. 76) tl


p109c1-b17/ not online
-- cymbal


grc1-b14 (group of 2)

p109c1-b18/ p076-003
तालु [ tlu ]
-- n. palate: -ka, n. id.
3) तालु (p. 76) tlu


p109c1-b18/ not online
-- palate


grc1-b15 (group of 1)

p109c1-b19/ p076-002
ताल्प [ tlpa ]
-- a. born in the nuptial bed; legitimate.
2) ताल्प (p. 76) tlpa

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grc1-b16 (group of 3)

p109c1-b20/ p076-035
तावक [ tva-ka ]
-- a. () thine: -na, a. id.
35) तावक (p. 76) tva-ka


p109c1-b21/ p076-034
तावच्छत tavacchata [ tvak-khata ]
-- a. () consisting of as many hundreds.
34) तावच्छत (p. 76) tvak-khata


p109c1-b22/ p076-033
तावज्ज्योक् [ tvag-gyok ]
-- ad. so long (V.).
33) तावज्ज्योक् (p. 76) tvag-gyok


grc1-b17 (group of 1)

p109c1-b22/ p076-032
तावत् [ t-vat ] --> {ta-wt}
-- a. so great, so extensive; so long; so much; so manifold, so numerous, just so many (with corr. yvat): n. ad. (with corr. yvat) so much, so far; so long, during that time, then; (without corr.) meanwhile; for a while; in the first place, first; just, at once (very often with the impv. to express what is to be done immediately=pray just or at once --; or with 1st pers. pr. = I will first of all); only, merely; indeed, certainly, it is true (concessively, followed by but); already, even (opp. how much more or less); well! enough! emphasizes a notion (eva), only, just, quite, why (sts. to be rendered by stress only); tvat -ka, scarcely -when; tvan na -api na, not only not -but also not; na tvat, not yet: na tvat--yvat, not yet while; m tvat, (interjectionally) not for heaven's sake, God forbid; yvad yvat tvat tvat, in proportion--as; yvan na tvat, while not--so long = till: in. tvat, during that time, meanwhile; to the same extent, just as far; lc. tvati, so far; so long, in that time.
32) तावत् (p. 76) taN-vat


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grc2-b01 (group of 1) 

p108c2-b01/ p076-031
तावत्कालम् [ tvat-klam ]
- ad. so long; -kri tvas, ad. so many times; -phala, a. producing just so much reward; -stra, n. so many threads; (d)-guna, a. having so many qualities.
31) तावत्कालम् (p. 76) tvat-klam


grc2-b02 (group of 1)

p108c2-b02/ p076-030
तावद्धा [ tvad-dh ]
- ad. so many times.
30) तावद्धा (p. 76) tvad-dh


p108c2-b03/ p076-029
तावन्मात्र [ tvan-mtr ]
- a. (&isharp;) (having such a measure), so much.
29) तावन्मात्र (p. 76) tvan-mtr ()


grc2-b03 (group of 2)

p108c2-b04/ p076-028
तासून [ tsna ]
-- m. kind of hemp; a. () hempen.
28) तासून (p. 76) tsna


p108c2-b05/ p076-027
तास्कर्य [ tskar-ya ]
-- n. robbery, theft.
27) तास्कर्य (p. 76) tskar-ya

Contents of this page


Pal: {ti.} UHS-PMD0439c2
  - m. numeral three.


Contents of this page

{ti.ka.} / {taik}

grc2-b04 (group of 2)

p108c2-b06/ p076-026
तिक्त [ tik-ta ] = त ि क ् त
- pp. bitter; fragrant: -ska, n. bitter or fragrant vegetable.
26) तिक्त (p. 76) tik-ta


p108c2-b07/ p076-025
तिगित [ tig-it ]
--> {ti.gi.ta.}
-- a. sharp. pointed.
25) तिगित (p. 76) tig-it


grc2-b05 (group of 3)

p108c2-b08/ not online
-- a. id. ; hot; passionate


p108c2-b09/ p076-024
तिग्मकर [ tigma-kara ]
-- m. sun (hot-rayed); ()-tegas, a. keen-edged, sharp-pointed; impetuous, energetic; m. sun; -ddhiti, m. sun; -dyuti, m. id.; -bhs, -rasmi, -ruki, m. id.; -vrya, a. powerful; -sriṅga, a. sharp horned; ()-heti, a. bearing sharp missiles.
24) तिग्मकर (p. 76) tigma-kara


p108c2-b10/ p076-023
तिग्मांशु [ tigma‿amsu ]
- m. (hot-rayed), sun; fire; a◡́yudha, a. bearing sharp weapons.
23) तिग्मांशु (p. 76) tigma̮amsu


grc2-b06 (group of 1)

p108c2-b11/ not online
-- personal termination (gr.).

Contents of this page

{ti.sa.} / {taic}

grc2-b07 (group of 1)

p108c2-b12/ not online
[ tig ] I. .
-- tiga , be sharp; pp. tikta ; cs. tegaya , P. sharpen; urge, stir up : pp. tegita , sharpened, pointed; des. titiksha , P. () endure, bear patiently, ud , cs. ...


Contents of this page

{ti.Ta.} / {taiT}

Pal: {taiT~HTa.ti} - UHS-PMD0440c2
  UKT from UHS: stood still, situated, stop


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{ti.ta.} / {tait}

grc2-b08 (group of 2)

p108c2-b13/ p076-022
तितिक्षा [ ti-tik-sh ] (des.)
-- f. endurance (of, --); patience; -sh, des. a. enduring (ac.); patient.
22) ê 0;ितिक्षा (p. 76) ti-tik-sh


p108c2-b14/ p076-021
तितीर्षा [ ti-tr-sh ]
-- (des.) f. desire to cross over (--); -shu, des. a. desirous to cross (ac., --).
21) तितीर्षा (p. 76) ti-tr-sh


grc2-b09 (group of 2)

p108c2-b15/ p076-046
तित्तिर [ tittir ]
-- m. francolin partridge: pl. N. of a people.
46) तित्तिर (p. 76) tittir


p108c2-b15/ p076-045
तित्तिरि [ tittri (or ) ]
- m. francolin partridge; N. of an ancient teacher, a pupil of Yska and founder of the Taittirya school; N. of a Nga.
45) तित्तिरि (p. 76) tittri (or )

See my note on Taittiriya Upanishad


grc2-b10 (group of 1 )

p108c2-b16/ p076-044
तिथि [ tithi ]
-- m. f. (also ) lunar day (of which there are fifteen in the half-month, the auspicious ones being Nand, Bhadr Vigaya, and Prn).
44) तिथि (p. 76) tithi )


grc2-b11 (group of 3)

p108c2-b17/ p076-043
तिन्तिड [ tintida ] = त ि न ् त ि ड
-- m. (?) Indian tamarind; , f. id.; i-k, f. id.; -ka, m. id.; n. the fruit. -- Mac109c2
43) तिन्तिड (p. 76) tintida


तिन्तिड [ tintida ]
Skt: तिन्तिड [ tintida ] - m. (?) Indian tamarind; , f. id.; -- Mac109c2
Pal: {tain~ti.i.ka}
- - UHS-PMD0442
  UKT from UHS: f. tamarind tree


p108c2-b18/ not online
तिन्तिक [tinduka]
Skt: तिन्तिक [tinduka] -- m., , f. a tree
Skt: तिन्दुक tinduka - m. black-and-white ebony Diospyros malabarica , fruit of. n. kind of weight - SpkSkt

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{ti.pa.} / {taip}

p108c2-b19/ not on line
तिप्य [tipya] = त ि प ् य
Skt: तिप्य [tipya] - m. N. of a man - Mac108c2
Skt: तिप्य tipya - N. of a man - SktDict


grc2-b12 (group of 1)

p108c2-b20/ not online
तिम् [ tim ] IV. P.
Skt: तिम् [ tim ] IV. P. -- timya , become still; pp. timita , motionless; wet - Mac108c2
Skt: √तिम् tim - becoming wet / ārdī-bhāva - SktDict


gr2-b13 (group of 2)

p108c2-b20/ p076-042
तिमि [ tim-i ]
-- m. large sea fish; whale; fish: -ghtin, m. fisherman.
42) तिमि (p. 76) tim-i


p108c2-b20/ p076-041
तिमिंगिल [ timim-gila ]
-- m. fabulous sea monster (swallowing even the timi).
41) तिमिंगिल (p. 76) timim-gila


grc2-b14 (group of 1)

p108c2-b20/ p076-040
तिमिर [ tim-ira ]
-- a. dark, murky; n. darkness; clouded eyesight (a class of diseases of the eye): , f. N. of a town; -t, f. dimness of the eyesight; -dosha, m. cataract (of the eye); -patala, n. veil of darkness: pl. cataract (of the eye); -maya, a. consisting altogether of darkness.
40) तिमिर (p. 76) tim-ira

तिमिर [ tim-ira ] 
Skt: तिमिर [ tim-ira ] -- a. dark, murky; n. darkness; clouded eyesight (a class of diseases of the eye): - Mac108c2
Pal: {ti.mi.ra.} - UHS-PMD0443
  UKT from UHS: mfn. dark. n. murky-headed, darkness, {ky: pn:} sculpted door-frame?


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grc3-b01 (group of 3)

p108c3-b01/ p076-039
तिमिरय [ timira-ya ]
-- den. P. darken.
39) तिमिरय (p. 76) timira-ya P. darken.


p108c3-b02/ p076-038
तिमिराकुल [ timira‿kula ]
-- a. filled with darkness, affected with cataract; -‿ari, m. (foe of darkness), sun: -ripu, m. owl.
38) तिमिराकुल (p. 76) timira̮kula


p108c3-b03/ p076-056
तिमिरौघ [ timira‿ogha ]
-- m. dense darkness.
56) तिमिरौघ (p. 76) timira̮ogha

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p109c3-b02/ p076-055

तिर [ tira ]
-- pr. base of √tr.
55) तिर (p. 76) tira


p109c3-b03/ p076-054
तिरय [ tiraya ]
-- den. P. conceal; stop, restrain, conquer; penetrate.
54) तिरय (p. 76) tiraya


grc3-b03 (group of 2)

p109c3-b04/ not online
-- weak base of  tiryak


p109c3-b05/ p076-053
तिरश्चीन [ tirask-&isharp;na ]
-- a. oblique, horizontal; sidelong.
53) तिरश्््चीन (p. 76) tirask-na


grc3-b04 (group of 1)

p109c3-b06/ not online
तिरस् [tir-s] √tr prpn. (V.)
-- with ac. across, through; over, past; without, against; with ab. without the knowledge of; ad. across, crossways; aside; out of sight; ...


Skt: तिरस् - through (accusative), across, beyond, over (accusative), so as to pass by, apart from, without, against (accusative), apart or secretly from (ablative), ... - SktDict


grc3-b05 (group of 2)

p109c3-b07/ p076-037
तिरस्कर [ tiras-kara ]
-- a. () surpassing (g.); -karanya, fp. to be overcome; -karin, m. curtain: (n)-, f. id.; curtain concealing some one (g.); magic veil of darkness (making in visible); -kra, m. abuse, scolding; disrespect; -krin, a. surpassing (--); -kriy, f. abuse; disrespect.
37) तिरस्कर (p. 76) tiras-kara


p109c3-b08/ p076-036
तिरोधातव्य [ tiro-dhtavya ]
-- fp. to be closed (ears); -dhna, n. disappearance; -bhva, m. id.; -bhta, pp. concealed; vanished; -hita, pp., v. tiras: -t, f. disappearance: -m gam, vanish.
36) तिरोधातव्य (p. 76) tiro-dhtavya


grc3-b06 (group of 2)

p109c3-b09/ p076-052
तिर्यक्ता [ tiryak-t ] = ((त ि) र ्) (य क ्) (त ा)
-- f. nature or condition of beasts; -tva, n. id.; -ptin, a. falling obliquely on (lc.); -pratimukha‿gata, n. obstruction from the side or in front; -prekshana, a. looking at sideways.
52) तिर्यक्ता (p. 76) tiryak-t

तिर्यक्ता [ tiryak-t ]
= ((त ि) र ्) (य क ्) (त ा)
Skt: तिर्यक्ता [ tiryak-t ] - f. nature or condition of beasts; - Mac109c3
Pal: {ti.ric~hsa.} - UHS PMD0444c1
  UKT from UHS: - contrary [I take it to be "contrary to human nature" - animals]


p109c3-b10/ p076-051
तिर्यगायत [ tiryag-yata ]
-- pp. extended across; -ga, a. moving horizontally; -ga, a. born of animals; -gana, m. animal, beast; -gti, m. id.; -yona, m. animal; -yoni, f. womb of an animal; condition of animals; animal creation; -vta, m. side-wind; -visamsarpin, a. spreading sideways.
51) तिर्यगायत (p. 76) tiryag-yata


grc3-b07 (group of 1)

p109c3-b11/ not online
-- a. (nm. m. -ṅ , n. -k ; f. tirsk-) transverse, horizontal; crossing; m. n. (moving horizontally, opp. to man who walks erect), beast, animal (sis. including birds and plants); ...

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grc3-b08 (group of 1)

p109c3-b12/ p076-050
तिल [ til ]
-- m. sesamum (plant and seed: the latter is used as food, and good oil is extracted from it); grain, atom; mole (on the body).
50) तिल (p. 76) til

See my note on Sesamum {nhm:} aka sesame Sesamum indicum fam. Pedaliaceae

grc3-b09 (group of 2)

p109c3-b13/ p076-049
तिलक [ tla-ka ]
-- m. a tree; freckle, mole; coloured mark on the forehead (always here in the case of women) or elsewhere, as an ornament or sectarian distinction; m. ornament of (--); N.; n. alliteration; a metre: -ka, m. N.
49) तिलक (p. 76) tla-ka

See my note on Tilaka - the mark on the forehead

p109c3-b14/ p076-048
तिलकण [ tila-kana ]
-- m. grain of sesamum seed.
48) तिलकण (p. 76) tila-kana


grc3-b10 (group of 2) 

p109c3-b15/ p076-047
तिलकय [ tilaka-ya ]
-- den. P. mark; adorn: pp. tilakita.
47) तिलकय (p. 76) tilaka-ya


p109c3-b16/ not line
-- m. N.; -lat , f. N. ; -simha , m. N. ( end p109c3 )

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----- online 171107: p109

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UKT notes

Palatal consonants : Nya'gyi & Nya'l

by UKT 120316, 170823 

The palatal consonants are the most intruding sounds in the BEPS languages. So far I can trace their problem to the way the four ethnic (or linguistic) speakers articulate their sounds in their vocal apparatus or the articulators.

These articulators are controlled by a large and complex set of muscles that can produce changes in the shape of the vocal tract. The vocal tract is not rigid and its shape can change because of the muscles connected to it. In order to learn how the sounds of speech are produced it is necessary to become familiar with the different parts of the vocal tract. These different parts are called articulators, and the study of them is called articulatory phonetics.

Because of them I have to delve into phonetics, phonemics, and phonological systems of the Burmese speakers, the English speakers and the Hindi speakers. These three groups of speakers belong to the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman), the IE (Indo-European & Indo-Iranian) linguistic groups who articulate their sounds differently depending on whether they are rhotic-sibilant (hissers) speakers or non-rhotic thibilant (non-hissers) speakers, and whether they have 2 tones (short and long) or 3 tones (creak, modal, emphatic) in their vowels. The English word "tone" pre-supposes, that there are only two, whereas in actuality there are 3 or 4. I now describe them by their vowel-duration measured by the time-duration to blink your eyes. The unit eye-blinks is subjective, but is more meaningful to the speakers than time-duration measured in seconds. Thus "short" is 1 eye-blink, and "long" is 2 blnk. Throw in the 3-tone languages, we have "creak" 1/2 blnk, "modal" 2 blnk, "emphatic" 2 blnk + emphasis. As an example, take Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan together, both written in Myanmar script: 

{a:.} (1/2 blnk), {a.} (1 blnk), {a} (2 blnk), {a:} (2 blnk + emphasis)

Bur-Myan: {a.} (1 blnk), {a} (2 blnk), {a:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
Mon-Myan: {a:.} (1/2 blnk), {a.} (1 blnk), {a} (2 blnk)
Mon {a:.} (1/2 blnk) and Burmese {a:.} are equivalents.

I refrain from giving the IPA equivalents of the first three members of row r2 (given below), because of its mis-representation as 'affricates'. We now have three series in BEPS:

Bur-Myan: {sa.} {hsa.} {za.} {Za.} {a.} {ya.}
-- {a.}/ {} is a basic consonant. It is stable under virama.
Pal-Myan: {sa.} {hsa.} {za.} {Za.} {a.} {ya.}
 -- {a.} is a horizontal conjunct. It breaks up under virama:  -->
Hindi-Myan: {kya.} {hkya.} {gya.} ... ... 
-- my greatest drawback [as of today] is my ignorance of Hindi though both my parents could speak it.

The approximant consonant {ya.} must never be considered as a vowel or semivowel. It is a basic consonant. At the most you can consider it to be a semi-consonant. Similarly, in BEPS, {a.} is a basic consonant.

UKT 170823: In a nutshell, in Pal-Myan Nya'gyi {a.} is the horizontal conjunct breaking up under virama:
   --> . As the nuclear vowel-coda pair, we find it {} pronounced as in {} /ɪn/ a nasal.

On the other hand, Bur-Myan {a.}/ {} is stable and it is found as the coda-consonant preceded by . The nuclear vowel-coda pair is pronounced as {} approximated in IPA as /i/. In the BEPS consonant table, it is the palatal approximant, by the side of {ya.}/ {} as the velar approximant.

Thus, it is not {a.} which occupies r2c5 in BEPS, it is Nya'l, / {}. Nya'l is the nasal. Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}.

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Sesamum - aka sesame
- Sesamum indicum fam. Pedaliaceae)

-- UKT 120317

The oil is pressed out from the seeds. The oilcake as food for humans and animals is a good source of protein. Since a lot of oil remains in the cake, the oil can be extracted by solvents. Before World War II, the main edible oil consumed in Burma (now spelled Myanmar) is the sesamum oil. Very little peanut (aka groundnut) oil was  consumed. Sesamum oil is an important ingredient in traditional Bur-Myan medicine. -- UKT120317

-- TravPo-M-Dict 177

UKT from Traveling Pocket Myanmar Dictionary (in Bur-Myan) : 3 kinds of plants are mentioned known by Bur-Myan names: [ordinary] {nhm:}, {nhm:kri:}, {nhm:krt}
See A Checklist of Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance in Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:}:
- MP-Para-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm > {na.}
entry number 34-0892 {nhm:}
Sesame; sesamum Sesamum indicum  Padaliaceae
online: Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL  http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/TIL/famP/Pedaliaceae.htm#Sesamum-indicum 170825

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Tarkshya - the horse which becomes a bird

- UKT 120316: There is a high possibility of mistaken translations when RigVeda of Vedic language - which I take to be Tib-Bur - by {poaN~Na:} speakers of IE, and of Aus-Asi language groups. The cultural background of Tib-Bur who were mostly agriculturalists are different from nomadic  IE and Aus-Asi. For example, Tib-Bur would be interested in just the rains to raise crops and harvest them, whilst the nomadic peoples would have to be familiar with movements of the celestial bodies, and their positions against the background of the fixed stars, to guide them to their destinations. With this background knowledge, there is nothing mysterious about a "horse" being changed into a "bird".

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarkshya 120316

Tārkṣya is the name of a mythical being in the Rigveda, described as a "horse" with the epithet riṣṭa-nemi "with intact wheel-rims" (RV 1.89.6, RV 10.178.1), but alternatively taken to be a bird (RV 5.51) and later identified with Garuda (Mahabharata, Harivamsha) or Garuda's father (Bhagavata Purana 6.6.2, 21), counted among the offspring of Kashyapa in Mahabharata 1.2548, 4830 and 12468.

It is also the name of the hymn RV 10.178 ascribed to Tārkṣya Ariṣṭanemi.

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Taittiriya Upanishad

- UKT 110317, 171122

After realizing that Vdic and Sanskrit are different, and that Vdic is very much older, it dawned on me that Vdic is Tib-Bur - the language of the indigenous peoples of India. Sanskrit, on the other hand is IE - the language of the intruders coming in through the north-western border of India. Since Sanskrit is written in Devanagari script, what was the script of Vdic? I presume it was Asokan the sister-script Myanmar. Since Upanishad {U.pa.ni.a}, is one of the older Upanishads, it was probably written in Asokan. If so we have to know what Upanishads are. See:
- MCv2pp-indx.htm p053.htm in entry p053c1-b15 (link chk 171122)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taittiriya_Upanishad 110317

The Taittiriya Upanishad [ one of the {U.pa.ni.a} UHS-PMD0226c2 ] is one of the older, " primary" Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. It is associated with the Taittiriya school of the Yajurveda. It figures as number 7 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. It belongs to the Taittiriya recension of the Yajurveda and is constituted by the seventh, eighth and ninth chapters of Taittiriya Aranyaka. The tenth chapter of the same Aranyaka is the Mahanarayana Upanishad.

The Taittiriya Upanishad describes the various degrees of happiness enjoyed by the different beings in creation. [1]

The text of the Taittriya Upanishad is a compilation of the late Vedic, pre-Buddhist genre. The date of composition is not known but is considered to be circa VI or V century BCE [2]. Shankara's commentary dates from some twelve to thirteen centuries later. Shankara's commentary has influenced much of the subsequent interpretation of the meaning of the Taittiriya Upanishad. It is considered likely that texts such as the Upanishads were composed by groups of pandits and then amended over time. This, however, was not the view of Shankara. For him, as for certain contemporary brahmins and Hindus, the Taittiriya Upanishad and the Veda as a whole are not human compositions.

UKT 170824: Adi Shankara and others like him, were too sure of themselves that they seem to have forgotten that there had been worthy human rishis like Rishi Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, and Rishi Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra..}, who were revered by Gautama Buddha himself. According to Hindu sources, they had been to Dva Loka - the Heaven of the Hindus. Rishi Bhagu even chastised the Trimuti - MahaBrahma (cursed to not receive worship), Vishnu (a kick in the chest), Siva (to be worshiped only as Lingam stuck in Yoni) for failing in their duties to protect the Human world. I hold that the Vedas are the works of ancient human rishis.

The Taittiriya Upanishad and Shankara's commentary are classics of Sanskrit literature. Along with other ancient Upanishad, they have been important sources of religion in India for more than two thousand years. The two texts have been instrumental in the spread of Vedanta. Parts of the Taittiriya Upanishad were translated into European languages as early as the XVII century. Since the end of the XIX century, the Taittirya Upanishad has been translated many times into European and other Indian languages [3].

The Taittiriya Upanishad is divided into three sections or vallis, the Siksha Valli, the Brahmananda Valli and the Bhrigu Valli. Each Valli further subdivided into anuvakas or verses.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Tilaka - the mark on the forehead

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilaka 120412

In Hinduism, the tilaka, tilak or tika (Skt: तिलक tilaka) [1] is a mark worn on the forehead and other parts of the body. Tilaka may be worn on a daily basis or for special religious occasions only, depending on different customs.

UKT Inset: A Manipuri baby with mark on the forehead from
Manipuri Vaishnavism in
http://www.indiadivine.org/audarya/spiritual-discussions/31964-vaisnava-india-poll.html 120412

Relationship to bindi

The terms tilaka and bindi overlap somewhat, but are definitely not synonymous. Among the differences:

A tilaka is always applied with paste or powder, whereas a bindi may be paste, a sticker, or even jewelry.

A tilaka is usually applied for religious or spiritual reasons, or to honor a personage, event, or victory. A bindi can signify marriage, or be simply for decorative purposes.

A bindi is worn only between the eyes, whereas a tilaka can also cover the face or other parts of the body. Tilak can be applied to twelve parts of the body: head, forehead, neck, both upper-arms, both forearms, chest, both sides of the torso, stomach and shoulder.

Bindi is a Hindi term, whereas tilaka applies to the entire Indian subcontinent.

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Toddy palm

by UKT 120316, 170825

There are two related palms, the toddy palm {htn:}Borassus flabellifer and the corypha palm {p} Corypha elata / Corypha umbraculifera . See Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by Agri.Dept. (Planning), in Para-Medicine: - MP-Para-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm (link chk 170824)
click on {hta.} for item no:  30-0797 {htn:},
click on {pa.} for items 36-0937, and 36-0938 {p}

The sap of the toddy palm {htn:} is sweet in the morning but ferments during the day and Myanmar Theravada Buddhist monks are not allowed to drink even the sweet sap collected in the morning.

It is said that the Ari monks of ancient Pagan drank large quantities of the sap as {} or Soma fermented from toddy. [Do not confuse {} 'alcoholic drink' with {:} 'urine'.]. What the old monks liked is described in the words {ra.hn:kri: kreik} (pronounced as YaHunGyiGyaik) that which has just fermented which is rich in sugars and other nutrients. It is more digestible than the fresh sap of the morning, and not as intoxicating as the fully fermented kind in the evening.

The broader leaf of the corypha palm {p} [different from toddy palm] is the used for writing with an iron stylus {ka.ic}. It is the custom of every Bur-Myan to have a palm-leaf horoscope, {za-ta}, made out by an Astrologer-Astronomer showing the time of his birth and the planets and natal-nakshatra which serves as a birth certificate. My name Kyaw-Tun, though not the {za-ta}-name, is in accordance with Burmese-Astrology (entirely different from Hindu kind) shows that I am Monday born. Myanmar akshara system of writing is related to Astrology which in turn is related to the system of Babylonian system of mathematics and trigonometry (in which the unit is divided into 60 divisions instead of 10).

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End of TIL file