Update: 2014-10-19 02:55 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

I am turning this dictionary into a learning tool, primarily for myself by comparing with entries from Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary by F. Edgerton, vol.2, 1885-1963 (FE-BHS), and from Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Burmese), by U Hoke Sein, Ministry of Religious Affairs, 1954, pp1180.

My approach has made Macdonell's Sanskrit English Dictionary very large, because of which I am splitting it into 1+3 parts:
Preface, Scanned pages, Glossary - MC-indx.htm (link chk 141008)
  Vowel-onsets - MCv-indx.htm (link chk 141008)
  Consonant-onsets - MCc-indx.htm (link chk 141008)
  Approximant-onsets - MCa-indx.htm (link chk 141008)
  The TOC is based on Akshara (Abugida) order
   where the syllable (onset-nucleus-coda) is the fundamental unit.

UKT note to TIL editor 141008:
Note that the above MCv-indx.htm, MCc-indx.htm, & MCa-indx.htm, are sub-index.
Under each is another class of sub-index -- let's call this class as
"sub-sub-index" --  such as
- MC-v00-indx.htm, MC-v01-indx.htm, MC-v02-indx.htm, ...
I need them for my own navigation. If the navigation under this note fails,
use the Windows navigation.

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page


Approximants aka Approximant-Consonants

UKT 140828: Entries of words beginning with Consonants including Approximants are in a mess, primarily due to defects in Univ. of Chicago website, in which:
1. many pages were found lumped together, and
2. many entries have become italicized  probably due to a defect in their software.
   Moreover, it has been some time that my connection to Univ. Chicago website has been lost, until 140823. I can download from the new link starting from p269.htm
   The reader is advised to go along with the scanned pages from
-- http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg;
When there are defects in scanned pages, I have to correct them based on Nataraj edition. However, the last two pages on Additions & Errata are found to be different in Univ. Koeln scanned pages and in Nataraj edition. Eventually, I will give the two pages from Nataraj edition, however for the present I have given only the two from Univ. Koeln.
   In my present edition, the scanned pages have been cut into columns. Eventually each column will be cut into individual entries.

Vol 61 - {ya.} य, {ra.} र, {la.} ल, {wa.} व, p238.htm to p305.htm - MC-c61-indx.htm

Vol 65 - {sha.} श, {Sa.} ष, {a.} स, p306.htm to p374 - MC-c65-indx.htm

UKT 140828: Keep a look out for stutters similar to those in English beginning with <sk>, <st>, <sp>. The problem arises when {a.} स is pronounced as a hisser sibilant /s/, and not as non-hissing thibilant /θ/. However, there is no problem when it is pronounced as a husher /ʃ/. I need to observe more. See my note on Prothesis

Vol 71 - {ha.} ह, {La.} ळ, {a.} अ, p375 to p382 - MC-c72-indx.htm
consonant row #7 of Bur-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Skt-Dev are different.

UKT 140828: There is a difference between
  #1. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929, and .
  #2. Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
In this update I will give only from #1.

UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Prothesis : Stutter-words

The instrument for comparison of BEPS languages is Romabama (Burmese-Myanmar transcribed into extended-Latin script). The following is the table of base consonants.


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UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Contents of this page

Prothesis : Stutter-words

-- UKT 140828

English words such as <skin>, <state>, and <spit> with onsets /sk/, /st/ & /sp/ are difficult for Bur-Myan speakers to pronounce. They usually pronounce by adding a schwa after /s/. I have traced it to our Eastern way of pronouncing the consonants beginning with velar, through palatal, to bilabial, whereas the English speakers begin with the bilabial to velar. My method of teaching such pronunciation is to train the Burmese-speaker to pronounce the <sp> words, and proceed to <st> and finally to <sk>. I have found it to be successful every time.

I have been looking for a word to describe the class of <sp>, <st>, <sk> words. The only word I can think of at present is to class them as "stutters". In Romabama consonants, they are found in the tenuis, nasals, and approximants. An added problem is when the Indo-European speakers pronounce the {a.} as /s/ instead of /θ/.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prothesis_linguistics 140828

In linguistics, prothesis (from post-classical Latin based on Ancient Greek πρόθεσις prthesis 'placing before'), or less commonly prosthesis (from Ancient Greek πρόσθεσις prsthesis 'addition') is the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word without changing the word's meaning or the rest of its structure. A vowel or consonant added by prosthesis is called prothetic or prosthetic.

Prothesis is different from the adding of a prefix, which changes the meaning of a word.

Prothesis is a metaplasm, a change in spelling or pronunciation. The opposite process, the loss of a sound from the beginning of a word, is called apheresis or aphesis.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

Go back prothesis-note-b

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End of TIL file