Update: 2007-02-10 11:08 PM -0500



Burmese Written Language in Roman Script


U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Deep River, Ontario, Canada. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR .

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indx-rbm | Top | Contents of this page

Group {i. i i:} , {I. I} and {I}
With base consonants
  {wag} r1-aksharas
  {wag} r2-aksharas
  {wag} r3-aksharas
  {wag} r4-aksharas
  {wag} r5-akksharas
With medials: next file

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Group {i. i i:}

The names for the vowel-signs are:
{loan:kri:ting} -- MEDict 458,
{loan:kri:ting hsan-hkat} -- MEDict 458,
{loan:kri:ting hsan-hkat wus~sa.pauk}

With Base-aksharas

01. With the base-consonants
The following are some of the members of this subgroup:

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{wag.} r1-aksharas

{ki. ki ki:}
{ki.ri.ya} /|kari. ja|/ - n. tool; implement; instrument. (Pali: {ki.ri.ya}) -- MEDict 009
{ki-lo} /|ki lou|/ - n. kilo. (Engl: <kilo>} -- MEDict 009

{hki. hki hki:}
no entry in MEDict

{gi. gi gi:}
{gi.mhaan} - n. summer (Pali: {gi.mha-na.}) -- MEDict 085
 gi.la-na.} - n. 1. a person who is ill. 2. chronic invalid (Pali:{gi.la-na.}) -- MEDict 085
{gi-ta.} - n. music (Pali: {gi-ta.}) -- MEDict 085

UKT: The Pali-derived word {gi.mhaan} is not used in regular Burmese-Myanmar. It is only used by the literati (literature-centric writers). MLC transcription for {gi.mhaan} is [gein hman]. This reminds us of a well-known Pali derived word {pi~a} for <education>, where {a.} stands for the horizontal conjunct of two {a.}. My question now is, is  similar to ? If so, was there another glyph similar to {a.}: something like a "{ma.kri:}"? This I will have to consult my peers. In the mean-time, Romabama for will be written as {gi.mhaan}.
   We note that the Pali for is , where there is no "flag" over the {na.}. We note that Pali, a Prakrit, is older than Sanskrit, and is simpler. If had been derived from Pali, there should be no flag. So, my question is, was derived not from Pali but from Sanskrit? Was there sanskritization of Burmese words similar to the process of sanskritization that had occurred in India centuries ago?
   Here, we make another observation in connection with another Pali-derived word, {gi.la-na.}. The MLC transcription is [gi la na.], showing that there is no nasalization. And we do not find the problem of .

{ngi. ngi ngi:}
no entry in MEDict

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{wag.} r2-aksharas

{si. si si:}
{si.si. ak-ak} - adv. (smash) into smithereens or bits and pieces; (crush) to powder.
  Also {thi.thi. ak-ak} -- MEDict 109
{si} - v. 1. line up. -- MEDict 109
{si:} - v. 1. ride -- MEDict 109

{hsi. hsi hsi:}
{hsi.} - n. oil -- MEDict 130
{hsi:} - v. 1. bar; obstruct; block. -- MEDict 131

{zi. zi zi:}
{zi.} - n. Adam's apple. -- MEDict 150
{zi-za.wa} - n. gardenia -- MEDict 150
{zi:} - n. foetus of animals; pregnancy of animals. -- MEDict 150

{i. i i:}
{i.} - v. catch (fire); become alight. -- MEDict 156
{i} - n. younger brother (of a boy or a man). -- MEDict 156
{i:} - v. blaze. -- MEDict 157

UKT: {ngri. ngri ngri:} and {i. i i:} are pronounced almost the same. -- point to be checked on individual cases.

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{wag.} r3-aksharas

{Ti. Ti Ti:}
{Ti-ka} - n. enlarged, detailed and explanatory work (book, etc.). (Pali: {Ti-ka} -- MEDict 160

{Hti. Hti Hti:}
{Hti} - n. Buddhism  period between one state of existence and the next;
  moment of transition. -- MEDict 160

{i. i i:}
no entry in MEDict

{i. i i:}
no entry in MEDict

{ma.Ni.} - n. 1. gem; precious stone; jewel. --  MEDict 334
{koam~pa.Ni} - n. company (commercial). (English: <company>)

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{wag} r4-aksharas

{ti.} - v. trim; pare. -- be exact. -- MEDict 167
{ti} - n. 1. earthworm. 2. great-great-grandchild;
  the fourth generation in direct line of consent. -- MEDict 167
{ti:} - v. 1. play (musical instrument). -- MEDict 167

{hti.} - v. 1. touch. -- MEDict 194
{hti} - v. care; heed; defer to (usually used in the negative) -- MEDict 195
{hti:} - n. 1. umbrella. --MEDict 195

{di. di di:}
{di.tha-pa-mauk~hka.} - n. teacher of ancient Taxila renowned in the four corners of the world. (Pali: {di.tha-pa-mauk~hka.}) -- MED 209
{di} - pron. colloquial word indicating this place -- MEDict 209
{di:di:} - adv. profusedly. -- MEDict 209

{Di. Di Di:}
{Di.mein:} - n. arch. auguat personage -- MEDict 218

{ni. ni ni:}
{ni.ka} - n. Nikaya: the five parts of Sutta Pitaka (Pali: ni.ka-ya.) -- MEDict 225
{ni} - adj. red -- MEDict 226
{ni:} - v. be near; be close; be imminent. -- MEDict 225

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{wag} r5-aksharas

{pi. pi pi:}
{pi.} - v. be pressed down; be pressed under; be snowed under; be burdened with. -- MEDict 256
{pi} - v. 1. be up to the mark. -- MEDict 256

{hpi. hpi hpi:
{hpi.} - v. press; flatten. -- MEDict 298
{hpi} - v. obtrude; thrust. -- MEDict 298
{hpi:} - v. be fat; be plump; be fleshy -- MEDict 298

{bi. bi bi:}
{bi.sup} - n. see {pi.sup} - kind of medicinal shrub, Eupatorium odoratum. -- MEDict 313, 256
{bi-za.} - n. 1. seed. 2. lineage; ancestry; genealogy. (Pali: {bi-za.})

{Bi. Bi Bi:}
{Bi.} - n. thing to hold down something such as a paperweight -- MEDict 321
{Bi} - n. great great grandfather. -- MEDict 321
{Bi:} - n. comb. -- MEDict 321

{mi. mi mi:}
{mi.} - v. 1. catch; manage to catch; get caught; be caught. -- MEDict 338
{mi} - v. be within (reach, time, limit). -- MEDict 339
{mi:} - n. 1. fire. -- MEDict 339

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{yi. yi yi:}
{ya-yi} - adj. temporary. -- MEDict 382
{yi:ti:ya:ta:} - adv. (act) ambiguously; evasively. -- MEDict 382

{ri.} - adj. 1. (of vegetables, flowers ) rotten. -- MEDict 392
{ri} - adj. 1. indistinct; faint; dusky; dim. -- MEDict 392
{ri:ti:ya:ta:} - adv. see {yi:ti:ya:ta:} -- MEDict 392

{li.li.} - part. particle conveying the sense 'highly', etc. -- MEDict 425
{li} - adv. in installments; in parts. -- MEDict 425
{li:} - n. vulgar penis -- UKT

{wi. wi wi:}
{wi.aa} - n. 1. consciousness. 2. spirit (Pali: {wi.a.Na.}) -- MEDict 475
{wi-hkau} - v. colloquial be excessive; be extreme. -- MEDict 476

{thi. thi thi:}
{thi.kra:} - n. 1. Hindu god Indra.
  2. Sakka, the king of the devas of Buddhist cosmoslogy. -- ed. MEDict 495
{thi} - v. 1. (a) string (as in to string a necklace of pearls) -- MEDict 495
{thi:} - v. 1. fruit -- MEDict 496

{hi. hi hi:}
{hi.} - v. archaic Same as {ri.} /ʃi/-- MEDict 528
{hi} - v. (of horses) neigh; whinny; (of donkeys) bray. -- MEDict 528
{hi:} - v. be huge; be imposing. -- MEDict 528

{Li. Li Li:}
{pa-Li} - n. Pali, the Prakrit language of the Buddhist scriptures. (Pali: {pa-Li.}) -- MEDict 255

{i. i i:} , {I. I} , {I}
{i.} - adj. soft; tender. -- MEDict 607
{I.ri.ya-poat} - n. the four aspects of deportment:
  reclining, sitting, standing, walking. (Pali: {I.ri.ya-pa.hta.})-- MEDict 607
{I} - ppm. word indicating possessive case. -- MEDict 607
{i} - v. (of food) be rich. -- MEDict 607
{I-rw.I-mya.} - n. this much -- MEDict 607
{i:} - n. wind (from anus) -- MEDict 608

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UKT notes

pl. n.
1. The literary intelligentsia. [Latin litterātī, līterātī, pl. of litterātusliterate; See literate ]
Go back literati-b

n. 1. Any of the vernacular and literary Indic languages recorded from the third century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. , as opposed to Sanskrit. 2. Any of the modern Indic languages. [Sanskrit prākṛtamprākṛta- natural, vulgar, vernacular pra- before, forward; See per 1 in Indo-European Roots. karoti  it makes; See Sanskrit ] Prakrit . -- AHTD
   UKT: Note that the period of Prakrit was the period of Gottama Buddha and Asoka. It could it be possible that the "discovery" by Gottama Buddha, of the Principle of Anatta (non-existence of a permanent soul), and the peaceful period under Emperor Asoka (who had been converted to Buddhism) had given rise to a vast body of Pali literature in India. Please also note that, the first extensive writing was found on the Asoka pillars, and text was written in a script (now known as the Brahmi). It was from the Asoka script that Myanmar was supposed to be descended.
Go back Prakrit-b

The Gandhāran city of Taxila (3346′45″N, 7253′15″E: about thirty kilometres west-northwest of Islamabad, Paskistan) was an important Vedic and Buddhist centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. UNESCO has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites. -- ed. Wikipedia.
See full text Taxila in TIL library.
Go back Taxila-b

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End of TIL file