Update: 2007-02-10 11:24 PM -0500



Burmese Written Language in Roman Script


U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Deep River, Ontario, Canada. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR .

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indx-rbm | Top | Contents of this page

Group {na.thut}
With base consonants |
  {wag} r1-aksharas
  {wag} r2-aksharas
  {wag} r3-aksharas
  {wag} r4-aksharas
  {wag} r5-akksharas
With medials: next file

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{n} in coda

Rime : {an} {n} {ain} {oan} {n} {aun} {ein}

Generically {n} in the coda, belongs to classification of rime (rhyme), however, it is more convenient to classify it with the vowels.

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Group {na.thut}

With Base-aksharas

01. With the base-consonants

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{wag.} r1-aksharas

{kan.} /|kan.|/ - n. sulphur -- MEDict019
{kan} /|kan|/ - v. designate -- MEDict019
{kan:} /|kan:|/ - v. 1. be blind -- MEDict020
{kain~na.ra} - n. Kinnara: mythical (male) bird with human head and torso
  (Pali: {kain~na.ra.}. -- MEDict 020
{kain~na.ri} - n.  Kinnari: female -- MEDict020
{kain:} - n. 1. maths. number. 2. predestined event; probability (Sanskrit: {kin~dra.})
  -- MEDict 020
{koan} /|koun|/ - n. goods; commodity; merchandise. -- MEDict021
{koan:} /|koun:|/ - v. bend. -- MEDict021

{hkan.} /|khan.|/ - v. 1. assign; charge; appoint (someone to a post). -- MEDict065
{hkan~Da} /khanda/  - n. 2. the body (Pali: {hkan~Da.} -- MEDict064
{hkan:} /|khan:|/ - n. 1. room -- MEDict065
{hkoan} /|khoun|/ - v. jump up/over. -- MEDict065

{gan} /|gan hta.|/  - n. composition; literary work; tome. -- MEDict087
{goan} /|goun|/ - n. jute. (Hindi: {gau-ni}) -- MEDict087

{ngan} /|ngan|/ - adj. salty. -- MEDict095
{ngan:} /|ngan:|/ - n. general name given to certain species of poisonous snakes. -- MEDict095

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{wag.} r2-aksharas

{san.} /|san.|/ - v. 1. straighten; stretch out; smooth out; lie flat. -- MEDict125
{san~da} /|san~da|/  - n. moon. (Pali: {san~da.} -- MEDict124
{san:} /|san:|/ - n. 1. moon.-- MEDict125
{sain.teing:} /|sein.tain:|/ - n. archaic China. -- MEDict125
{sain} /|sein|/ - n. 1. diamond (gem) -- MEDict125
{sain:-saiin:kr.} - /|seiin: zein: kji.|/ - v. glare at (someone). -- MEDict125
{soan} /|soun|/ - v. go down stream. -- MEDict125
{soan:} /|soun:/| - n. witch. -- MEDict125

{hsan.} /|hsan.|/ - v. 1. stretch out; straighten out; extend -- MEDict144
{hsan} /|hsan|/ - n. 1. husked paddy; uncooked rice. -- MEDict143
{hsan:} /|hsan:|/ - v. 1. be new, novel, unusual. -- ed MEDict144
{pu.hsain} /|pahsein|/ - n. axe. -- MEDict258
{kahsoan} /|kahsoun|/ - n. Kahson : second lunar month with 30 days of Myanmar lunar year. -- MEDict022
{hsoan:} /|hsoun:|/ - n. minium or red lead. -- MEDict144

{zan-nawa-ri} /|zan na wa ri|/  - n. January. -- MEDict153
{zoan} /|zoun|/ - n. zone; demarcated area for some purpose
   such as cultivation, sports, building. etc. (English <zone>) -- MEDict153

{Zn} /|zan|/  - n. jhana: intense concentration of mind. (Pali: {Za-na.}) -- MEDict155

{an} /|njan|/ - n. kind of tree. -- MEDict158

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{wag.} r3-aksharas

{Htn} /|htan|/ - n. phonetics place of articulation. (Pali: {Hta-na.}). MEDict161

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{wag} r4-aksharas

{tan.} /|tan.|/ - v. stop short; halt suddenly. -- MEDict187
{tan} /|tan|/ - n. ton (unit of weight). (Eng: <ton>) -- MEDict186
{tan:} /|tan:|/ - v. 1. stretch something out or lay out in a straight line -- MEDict187
{tain-ing:} /|tein njin|/ - n. bird or fowl used as a decoy. -- MEDict187
{tain:-ak} /|tein; nje'|/ - n. sappan wood. Caesalpinia sappan. -- MEDict187
{toan} /|toun|/ - v. tremble; shake; quake; quiver; shudder. -- MEDict187
{toan:} /|toun:|/ - conj. while  -- MEDict187

{htan.} /|htan.|/ - adj. Same as {htat} : of medium consistence and moistness. -- MEDict203, 202
{htan} /|htan.|/ - v. 1. be stormy; be violent. -- MEDict203
{htan:} /|htan:|/ - n. toddy-palm; palmyra palm. -- MEDict203
{htain.} /|htein.|/ - v. resound. -- MEDict204
{htain} /|htein|/ - adj. shining; glowing -- MEDict204
{htain:} /|htein:|/ - v. 1. look after or mind (a baby). -- MEDict204
  1. /|mei htoun|/ - n. astrology Gemini : the third sign of the Zodiac. (Sanskrit: {mi.htu.na.}) -- MEDict344
  2. /|mei htoun|/ - n. sexual relations. (Pali: {m-htu.na.} -- MEDict344

{dan.tha-lun} /|dan. dalun|/  - n. horseradish tree. -- MEDict215
{dan} /|dan|/  - n. alchemy 1. copper; 2. aluminum. (Sanskrit: {ta-mra.})  -- MEDict215
   [UKT: Since the metal aluminum was discovered only in the 18th century, {dan} must have
   meant metallic copper. However, it now commonly means metallic aluminum.]
{dan:} /|dan:|/ - n. swing -- MEDict215
{dain-hk:} /|dein|/ - n. same as {dain-hkyi} : milk curd; yogart. -- MEDict215, 215
{dain:thn} /|dein dhan|/ - n. musical tune or song originating in Dawei Division. -- MEDict215
{doan:si:} /|doun. si:|/ - v. ride (horse) at a gallop. -- MEDict215

{nan. nan nan:}
{nan.} /|nan.|/ v. 1. wag (as in "waging tail"); jiggle (as in "jigging knee"). -- MEDict237
{nan~dawun} /|nan dawun|/ - n. Buddhism one of the celestial gardens of devas.
  (Pali: {nan-da.wa.na.} -- MEDict237
{nan:} /|nan:|/ n. palace. -- MEDict237
{noan.} /|noun.|/ - v. be weak, feeble, dull or inferior. -- MEDict238
{noan:} /|noun:|/ - n. silt. -- MEDict238

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{wag} r5-aksharas

{pan} /|pan|/ - v. 1. wear (on the head or in the ear) -- MEDict275
{pan:} /|pan:|/ - n. 1. flower -- MEDict275
{pain} /|pein|/ - ajd. 1. thin; lean; spare -- MEDict277
{pain:} /|pein:|/ - adj. 1. compact in one mass. -- MEDict277
{poan-kan} /|poun kan|/ - v. rebel against established authority or government. -- MEDict278
{poan:} /|poun:|/ - v. hide. -- MEDict278

{hpan.} /|hpan.|/ - adj. 1. somewhat astringent -- MEDict304
{hpan} /|hpan|/ - adj acrid or astringent (taste) -- MEDict303
{tha.hpan:} /|thahpan:|/ - n. fig tree, Ficus glomarata  -- MEDict487
{hpain:} /|hpein:|/ - v. feel feverish or heavy. -- MEDict304
{hpoan} /|hpoun|/ - n. dust. -- MEDict304
{hpoan:} /|hpoun:|/ - n. phone. [Eng-phone] -- MEDict304

{ban.bw:} /|ban. bwei:|/  - n. See {Ban.pw:} -- MEDict315,
{ban-to} /|ban dou|/ -  - n. art of unarmed self-defence. -- MEDict314
{ban:} /|ban:|/ - n. 1. tray. -- MEDict315
{bain.} /|bein.|/ - n. See n. -- MEDict315
{bain:baung:}   /|bein: baun:|/ - n. music played at a fight or a wrestling match. -- MEDict315
{boan:} /|boun:|/ - v. steal; pilfer. -- MEDict315

{Ban.pwei} /|ban. bwei:|/  - n. kind of tree whose leaves are used in rolling 'cheroots'-- MEDict327
{Ban-kauk} /|ban gau'|/  - n. silk fabric with iridescent hues woven as in Bangkok.-- MEDict327
{Ban:moan.} /|ban: moun.|/  - n. bun -- MEDict327
{Bain:} /|bein:|/ - n. 1. opium. -- MEDict327
{Boan:} /|hpoun:|/ - n. 1. power; glory; influence. -- MEDict328

{man-da-li} /|man da li|/ - n. Muscovy duck. -- MEDict356
{man:} /|man:|/ v. 1. recite mantra. -- MEDict356
{main.} /|mein.|/ - v. (of royalty or monk) say. -- MEDict357
{main} /|mein|/ - n. 1. season which coincides with the Myanmar month of Dabaung. -- MEDict357
{main:ma} /|mein: ma.|/ - n. 1. female. -- MEDict357
{moan.} /|moun.|/ - n. snack; food other than main meal. -- MEDict357
{moan} /|moun|/ - n. must; musth. -- MEDict357
{moan:} /|moun:|/ - v. hate; detest; dislike; be weary of -- MEDict358

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{yan~tara:} /|jan: daja:|/  - n. machine. -- MEDict387
{yan:} /|jan:|/ - n. yen. -- MEDict387
{yoan} /|joun|/ - n. rabbit; hare. -- MEDict387

{ran} /|jan|/ - n. enmity; danger; quarrel; hostility. -- MEDict408
{ran:} /|jan:|/ - v. 1. (of monk) wear or put on robe; enrobe. -- MEDict409
{roan.} /|joun.|/ - adj. coarse; rough. -- MEDict409
{roan:} /|joun:|/ - v. 1. (of draught animals) pull; struggle. -- MEDict409

{lan.} /|lan.|/ - v. be startled, afraid of; scare -- MEDict454
{lan} /|lan|/ - v. 1. be turned up -- MEDict454
{lan:} /|lan:|/ - v. 1. (of plants) be fresh, invigorated. -- MEDict454
{lain:hto} /|lein: htou:|/ - v. careen (a boat). -- MEDict454

{wan} /|wun|/ - n. 1. burden; load. -- MEDict481
{wan:} /|wun:|/ - v. surround; encircle. -- MEDict482
{woan:hka.n:} /|woun: gane:|/ - adv. 1. with a loud crash or noise. -- MEDict482

{than.} /|than.|/ - adj. clean; pure. -- MEDict518
{than} /|than|/ - n. Same as {than-kaung} : worm (intestinal). -- MEDict518, 518
{than-bak} /|than be'|/ -  - n. day after tomorrow. -- MEDict518
{than:} /|than:|/ - v. 1. cross over, hover over; brush by -- MEDict518
{thain} /|thein|/ - n. glory; good reputation; dignity. (Pali: {thi.ri}) -- MEDict519
{thain:} /|thein:|/ - n. one hundred thousand; lakh. -- MEDict519
{thoan.} /|thoun.|/ v. be warped; be twisted; be crimpled (usually in replicated form) -- MEDict519
{thoan} /|thoun|/ - v. (of wind) blow -- MEDict519
{thoan:} /|thoun:|/ - v. See /|thoun:|/ : deteriorate and cease to be; become extinct. -- MEDict519, 515

{han.} /|han.|/ - v. prevent or stop someone from doing or saying something. -- MEDict533
{han} /|han|/ - n. 1. gesture; pose; posture; style; manner -- MEDict532
{ra.han:} /|jahan:|/- n. Buddhist monk. (Pali: {arahan~ta.}) -- MEDict390
{hain:} /|hein:|/ - v. 1. (of tigers, leopards, etc) roar; (of animals) growl. -- MEDict533
{hoan} /|houn|/ - n. Same as {ahoan} : 1. power. 2. Physics momentum. -- MEDict533, 602
{hoan:} /|houn:|/ - v. roar (as in "roaring flames") -- MEDict533

{an} /|an|/ - v. 1. overflow; spill over -- MEDict532
{an:} /|an:|/ - v. swell slightly -- MEDict532
{oan} /|oun au'|/ - adj. 1. stinking. -- MEDict628
{oan:} /|oun:|/ - n. coconut palm. Cocos nucifera. -- MEDict628


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UKT note

Metallic aluminum
UKT: Though the chemical compound alum was known to the alchemists, metallic aluminum was probably unknown to them, because the metal was very difficult to produce. It was isolated by Hans Christian Oersted in Demark in 1825, and secured in pure form by Friedrich Whler in 1827. It remained a curiosity and a semi-precious metal for a long time, until Charles Martin Hall (a hero to me in my student days as a budding chemist) discovered a cheap method to produce it.

While Hans Christian Oersted is acknowledged as the first to isolate aluminum in 1825 in Copenhagen, Denmark, the eminent German chemist Friedrich Whler is generally regarded as the first to secure a pure sample of the element by chemical reduction in 1827. The intriguing international tale of the discovery of the economical production of aluminum independently by two young men, the American Charles M. Hall and the Frenchman Paul L. T. Hroult, via electrolysis of alumina dissolved in cryolite, is well documented. Certainly, the aluminum industry as we know it today is due to the creative genius of Hall and Hroult.
-- http://pubs.acs.org/cen/80th/print/aluminum.html

alum n. 1. Any of various double sulfates of a trivalent metal such as aluminum, chromium, or iron and a univalent metal such as potassium or sodium, especially aluminum potassium sulfate, AlK(SO4 )2 12H2O, widely used in industry as clarifiers, hardeners, and purifiers and medicinally as topical astringents and styptics. [Middle English from Old French from Latin alūmen] -- AHTD

aluminum n. Symbol Al 1. A silvery-white, ductile metallic element, the most abundant in the earth's crust but found only in combination, chiefly in bauxite. Having good conductive and thermal properties, it is used to form many hard, light, corrosion-resistant alloys. Atomic number 13; atomic weight 26.98; melting point 660.2 C; boiling point 2,467 C; specific gravity 2.69; valence 3. -- AHTD

Hall, Charles Martin . 1863-1914 1. American chemist who developed an electrolytic method of economically producing aluminum from bauxite (1886) and was a founder of the Aluminum Company of America (1888).

Go back metal-aluminum-b

1. Red lead. [Latin] -- AHTD
Go back minium-b

musth also must
n. 1. An annual period of heightened aggressiveness and sexual activity in male elephants, during which violent frenzies occur. [Urdu mast from Persian drunk]  -- AHTD
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Myanmar lunar year
The first lunar month is {tan-hku:} with 29 days. It is close to the Spring Equinox in March. The first day of the first month is not celebrated as the new year day. The second lunar month has 30 days. Lunar months have alternating 29 and 30 days. In order to correct to the solar year, a leap "month" is inserted every 3 years or so, and it is the duty of a body of officials recognized by the government, to make minute calculations to declare when to insert the leap month. The body of officials in charge of the calendar is made up of astrologers (in reality indigenous astronomers), and this practice has directly descended from the days predating Gottama Buddha.
   Myanmar celebrates the solar new year and it falls in about the middle of April, and so in reality the Solar New Year falls in the month of {tan-hku:}. The exact moment of the beginning of the Solar New Year is the moment when the Sun passes into the Constellation Aries form Pisces, and it is also the duty of the official calendar body to make minute calculations to arrive at the exact moment. In order to make up for the precession, a period of 4 or 5 days is declared as the "washing period" when the people celebrated by throwing clear water on each other.
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