Update: 2007-02-10 11:20 PM -0500



Burmese Written Language in Roman Script


U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Deep River, Ontario, Canada. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR .

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Group {nga.thut}
With base consonants |
  {wag} r1-aksharas
  {wag} r2-aksharas
  {wag} r3-aksharas
  {wag} r4-aksharas
  {wag} r5-akksharas
With medials: next file

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{ng} in coda
and sign {king:si:}

Generically {ng} in the coda, belongs to classification of rime (rhyme), however, it is more convenient to classify it with the vowels.

{ng} in the coda brings up a special set of syllables, written with the vowel-sign {king:si:}, defined as:

{king:si:} /|kin: si:|/ - n. orthography miniature symbol of killed {nga.} superscripted
   on the following letter (as in {sng:~krn} and {thng:~bau:} - ed MEDict016

There are two tell-tale signs in Romabama by which you can detect the presence of a {king:si:} : the extended Latin character (Alt0239) and 'tilde' ~. See Romabama Rule 6. The {king:si:} is actually not a conjoined sign and may be written horizontally. You will not see {wus~sa.} in the superscript, but the syllable is generally pronounced (tone 3) as if there was one, however, in other cases, only tone 2 is realised.

tone 3: {dng:~ga:} /|din: ga:|/  - n. coin; minted pieces of metal used as currency. -- MEDict 213

However, there are exceptions. e.g.

tone 2: {tadng~ga.} /|tadin ga.|/ - n. moment. (Pali: {ta.dng~ga.}) -- MEDict162


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Group {nga.thut}

UKT: Do not forget that <ng> is a diagraph with the pronunciation /ŋ/. This diagraph is not realised as a consonant in the onset of English-Latin syllables, but used in the coda as in <sing> /sɪŋ/. The <g> is usually not pronounced.

Rime: {ing} {ng} {aing} {oang} {ng} {aung} {eing}

With Base-aksharas

01. With the base-consonants

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{wag.} r1-aksharas

{king} /|kin|/ - n. roast; boil; barbecue; toast (bread) -- MEDict015
{king:} /|kin:|/  - n. general term for centipedes and scorpion -- MEDict016
{kaung} /|kaun|/ - n. Same as {a.kaung} - n. 1. corporeal form; physique; body  -- MEDict017,537
{kaung:} /|kaun:|/ - adj. 1. good; nice; fine; pleasant -- MEDict017
{keing} /|kain|/ - v. 1. hold in the hand; handle; grasp; fondle. -- MEDict017
{keing:} /|kain:|/ - n. 1. land formed by the process of silting. -- MEDict017

{hking} /|khin|/ - v. be friendly with; be fond of; have an attachment for somebody. -- MEDict060
{hking:} /|khin:|/ - v. spread; roll out (carpet, mat, etc.); lay or set (tables, chairs, etc.) -- MEDict061
{hkaung} /|khaun|/ - adj. 1. desolate. -- MEDict061
{hkaung:} /|gaun:|/ - n. 1. head. -- MEDict061
{hkeing} /|khain|/ - v. 1. be steadfast; be constant; be firm -- MEDict063
{hkeing:} /|khain:|/ - v. order or ask someone to do something; put to work. -- MEDict063

{ging-to} /|gin dou|/ - n. short and stubby person. -- MEDict086
{gng:~ga} /|gin: ga|/  - n. 1. Ganges River (Pali: {gng~ga}) -- MEDict 086
{geing-taung.} /|gain taun.|/ - v. slang be loaded. -- MEDict086
{geing:} /|gain:|/ - n. large pair of scales. -- MEDict086

{nging} /|ngin|/ - v. 1. pull; draw. -- MEDict 095
{ngaung:} /|ngaun:|/ - n. fabulous bird said to have only one leg. -- MEDict095
{ngeing} /|ngain|/ - v. mope. -- MEDict095

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{wag.} r2-aksharas

{sing} /|sin|/ - n. 1. platform; dais; podium; stage. -- MEDict 116
{sng:~krn} /|zin: gjan|/  - n. walk; path. -- MEDict116
{sing:} /|sin:|/ - v. 1. be straight, true. -- MEDict 117
{saung.} /|saun.|/ - v. 1. wait for. -- MEDict117
{saung} /|saun|/ - v. 1. keep in reserve. -- MEDict117
{saung:} /|saun:|/ - n. harp; collective term for all kinds of harp. -- MEDict117
{seing} /|sain|/ - n. banteng or wild ox. Boxs banteng. -- MEDict118
{seing:} /|sain:|/ - v. 1. ride or drive (horses, draught cattle) at speed. -- MEDict118

{-- sis --}
   [UKT: Though all 3 are orthographically possible, only one can be articulated.]
{sis} /|si'|/ - adj. military (as in military weapons) --MEDict 118

{si. si si:} /|sin. sin sin:|/ -- MEDict 120
  -- same pronunciation as {sing. sing sing:} /|sin. sin sin:|/ -- MEDict 116-117
{si.} /|sin.|/ - n. glaze -- MEDict 120
{si} /|sin|/ - v. 1. be flung out (as in "flung out of the car"). -- MEDict 120
{si:} /|sin:|/ - v. mince; cut or chop into small pieces. -- MEDict 120

{s. s s:} /|si. si si:|/ -- MEDict 121-122
{s.} /|si.|/ - n. granary; barn. -- MEDict 121
{s} /|si|/ - n. 1. big drum (musical instrument). -- MEDict 121
{s:} /|si:|/ - n. 1. fence; line. -- MEDict 121

{hsing.} /|hsin.|/ - v. put one on top of the other; pile up; stack up. -- MEDict 139
{hsing} /|hsin|/  - n. 1. elephant. -- MEDict 138
{hsing:} /|hsin:|/ - v. 1.a go down; enter (as in "enter the water"). -- MEDict 139
{hsaung.} /|hsaun.|/ - v. 1.collide; bang; ram into. -- MEDict140
{hsaung} /|hsaun|/ - v. 1. carry; take or bring along -- MEDict139
{hsaung:} /|hsaun:|/ - v. 1. cover one's head. -- MEDict140
{hseing} /|hsain|/ - n. shop; stall; store; stand of goods for sale. -- MEDict140
{hseing:} /|hsain:|/ - v. 1. hang or suspend by a rope or string. -- MEDict140

UKT: To describe a <blind elephant> we write {hsing-kan:}. Imagine a blind elephant crashing through the forest. And we have a figure of speech {hsing-kan: tau:to:} /|hsin gan: to: dou:|/ - adv. figurative rashly; blindly. -- MEDict 138. Let us take a rhyming word {thng~kan:} /|thin gan:|/ - n. 1. robe worn by a Buddhist monk. -- MEDict 510 is written.
  Compare the way in which the two words are written. {hsing-kan:} is written horizontally, but {thng~kan:} is written with the {king:si:} (literally: "centipede-ridden") sign .

{zing} /|zin|/ -- n. denim. (Eng: <jean>) -- MEDict151
{mag~ga.zing:} /|me' gazin:|/ -- n. 1. magazine (periodical) (English: <magazine>) -- MEDict349
{zaung:} /|zaun:|/ - n. stable (for horse). -- MEDict151

{ing-tha} /|njin tha|/ - v. be smooth; be gentle; (of speech and manner) be polite. -- MEDict 157
{ing:} /|njin:|/ - adj. soft; gentle (as in "a soft and gentle breeze") -- MEDict 157
{aung} /|njaun|/ - n. banyan tree; generic term for some species of Ficus. -- MEDict157
{aung:} /|njaun:|/ - v. 1. (of time) be long. -- MEDict158

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{wag.} r3-aksharas

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{wag} r4-aksharas

{ting.} /|tin.|/ - adj. 1. comely; becoming. -- MEDict177
{ting} /|tin|/ - v. 1. put or place something on something. -- MEDict177
{ting:} /|tin:|/ - n. volume-unit of dry measure (approximately a bushel) -- based on MEDict177
{taung.} /|taun.|/ - v. 1. stiff. -- MEDict179
{taung} /|taun|/ -  n. mountain; hill. -- MEDict178
{taung:} /|taun:|/ - v. ask for (something). -- MEDict179
{teing} /|tain|/ - v. 1. request (as in "request permission to leave") -- MEDict179
{teing:} /|tain:|/ - v. 1. measure; gauge; compare. -- MEDict180

{hting.} /|htin.|/ - v. Same as {sait-hting.}: have misgivings about something. -- MEDict200, 123
{hting} /|htin|/ - v. be visible; be seen. -- MEDict200
{hting:} /|htin:|/ - n. firewood. -- MEDict200
{htaung.} /|htaun.|/ - v. 1. (of a journey) be tortuous -- MEDict201
{htaung} /|htaun|/ - v. 1. stand (as in "to put an umbrella in a standing position in a corner") -- MEDict200
{htaung:} /|htaun:|/ - v. 1. pound. -- MEDict201
{hteing} /|htain|/ - v. 1. sit. -- MEDict201
{hteing:} /|htain|/ - v. 1. be damp; be moist. -- MEDict202

{ding} /|din|/ - n. butt (of a gun) -- MEDict 212
{tadng~ga.} /|tadin ga.|/ - n. moment. (Pali: {ta.dng~ga.}) -- MEDict162
{dng:~ga:} /|din: ga:|/  - n. coin; minted pieces of metal used as currency. -- MEDict 213
{daung.ta.laung} /|daun. dalaun|/ - n. creeper with glossy leaves. Dalbergia volubilis. -- MEDict213
{daung} /|daun|/ - n. Same as {dauk} /|dau'|/ - n. 5. height; build; stature (of a person). -- MEDict213, 212
{daung:} /|daun:|/ - n. peafowl. -- MEDict213
{deing} /|dain|/ - n. 1. obsolete  grouping of villages for revenues purposes. -- MEDict214
{deing:} /|dain:|/ - n. principal rafter. cf -- MEDict214

{ning.} /|nin.|/ - v. be packed tightly. -- MEDict233
{ning} /|nin|/ - v. be stuck in the throat. -- MEDict233
{ning:} /|nin:|/ - v. 1. tread on; step on; trample. -- MEDict234
{tanng:~la} /|tanin: la|/  - n. Monday. -- MEDict162
{naung} /|naun|/ - n. word indicating future
   (expressed in English by adverbs "in future", "later", "afterwards"). -- MEDict234
{neing} /|nain|/ - v. 1. win; conquer; prevail -- MEDict234
{neing:hkying:} /|nain: gjin:|/ - adv. 1. in equal proportions. -- MEDict235

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{wag} r5-aksharas

{ping.} /|pin.|/ - v. 1. raise (as in "raising eyebrows") -- MEDict 268
{ping} /|pin|/ - n. Same as {aping}: plant; tree. -- MEDict 267, 571
{ping:} /|pin:|/ - v. 1. wedge; drive in a wedge. -- MEDict 269
{paung} /|paun|/ - v. 1. add on; attach, append, affix
   (something to make another stronger, complete, fuller, etc) -- MEDict269
{paung:} /|paun:|/ - v. 1. add; mix. -- MEDict269
{peing.} /|pain.|/ - n. pint (fluid measure). -- MEDict271
{peing} /|pain|/ - v. 1. own; possess -- MEDict270
{peing:} /|pain:|/ - v. 1. divide; cut up -- MEDict271

{hping.} /|hpin.|/ - v. delay; be dilatory. -- MEDict 302
{hping} /|hpin|/ - n. 1. vulgar  anus. -- MEDict 302
{hping:} /|hpin:|/ - v. Same as {ping:} : v. 2. be biased; be partial; participate in a fraud.
  -- based on MEDict 302
{hpaung} /|hpaun|/ - n. 1. raft. -- MEDict302
{hpaung:} /|hpaun:|/ - v. swell; bulge; be inflated, plump, bloated. -- MEDict302
{hpeing.} /|hpain.|/ - adj. full; broad; plump; square built (of a person). -- MEDict303
{hpeing} /|hpain|/ - n. file (of sheets of paper, correspondence, etc) -- MEDict303

{bing-tha:} /|bin dha:|/ - n. sluice gate operator of a dam or weir. -- MEDict 314
{baung-baung} /|baun baun|/ - n. toy bamboo pop-gun. -- MEDict314
{baung:} /|baun:|/ - n. kind of fillet or turban. -- MEDict314
{being:} /|bain:|/ - n. 1. cotton. -- MEDict314

{Bing:} /|bin:|/ - n. ganja; cannabis; Indian hemp; hashish; marijuana.
  (Sanskrit: {bng~ga.}) -- MEDict 326
{Baung} /|baun|/ - n. 1. (a) frame; bounds; limit. -- MEDict326
{Baung:} /|baun:|/ - n. wooden arm attached to the pestle of an oil-press. -- MEDict327
{Being} /|bain|/ - n. large tree with heavy buttress roots. Tetrameles nudifflora. -- MEDict327
{Being:being:l:} /|bain: bain: le:|/ - v. See - v. collapse. -- MEDict327, 314

{ming.} /|min.|/ - part. verb-suffix indicating certainty -- ed. MEDict 350
{ming} /|min|/ - v. like; love; be fond of -- MEDict 349
{mng~ga.la} /|min gala|/  - n. source of prospersity; blessing. -- MEDict 350
{ming:} /|min:|/ - n. 1. monarch; king; ruler of a state. -- MEDict 350
{maung} /|maun|/ - n. 1. brother of a woman
   (according to current usage the term refers to the younger brother). -- MEDict351,352
{maung:} /|maun:|/ - v. 1. drive out (someone or something). -- MEDict352
{meing} /|main|/ - n. mile. [Eng mile ] -- MEDict353
{meing:} /|main:|/ - n. 1. mine -- MEDict353

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{ying} /|jin|/ - n. Same as {ying-kaung} : fly. -- MEDict 385, 385
{ying:} /|jin:|/ - n. 1. sun-blind made of bamboo-screen; chick. -- MEDict 385
{yaung} /|jaun|/ - v. 1. speak or act absent-mindedly. -- MEDict385
{yaung:} /|jaun:|/ - adj. dry. -- MEDict385
{yeing} /|jain|/ - v. 1. incline; lean; sway; totter. -- MEDict386
{yeing:ping:} /|jain: pin:|/ - v. See {reing:ping:} /|jain: bin:|/ - v. rally round; come to the aid of;
   help. -- MEDict386, 407

{ring.} /|jin.|/ - adj. (of fruit, tree, age, experience) mature. -- MEDict406
{ring} /|jin|/ - n. breast; chest. -- MEDict405
{ring: /|jin:|/ - v. 1. put in; invest (as in "invest with money") -- MEDict406
{raung.} /|jaun.|/ - v. rise; swell. -- MEDict407
{raung} /|jaun|/ - v. swell. -- MEDict406
{raung:} /|jaun:|/ - v. sell. -- MEDict407
{reing} /|jain|/ - n. bamboo matting (used in making an enclosure for storing grain). -- MEDict407
{reing:} /|jain:|/ - adj. 1. rude; uncouth; uncivilized. -- MEDict407

{ling.} /|lin.|/ - v. 1. wait; wait for; keep vigil. -- MEDict450
{ling} /|ling|/ - n. husband. -- MEDict449
{lng~ka} /|lin ga|/  - n. verse. (Pali: {a.lng~ka-ra.}) -- MEDict450
{ling:} /|lin:|/ - adj. 1. bright. -- MEDict450
{laung} /|laun|/ - v. 1. burn; be burnt. -- MEDict451
{laung:} /|laun:|/ - v. 1. pour (a liquid like water, particles like sand); put into the alms bowl,
   proffer (food or other offerings to a monk on his round of collecting offerings) -- MEDict451
{leing-sing} /|lainsin|/ - n. licence -- MEDict452
{leing:} /|lain:|/ - n. 1. line. (English <line>) -- MEDict452

{wing.} /|win.|/ - v. 1. brandish (as in "brandishing a sword") -- MEDict479
{wing} /|win|/ - v. 1 (a) enter; come in; go in. -- MEDict478
{wng~ka.pa} /|win gaba|/ - n. labyrinth; maze. -- MEDict479
{wing:} /|win:|/ - n. enclosure; compound; ground. -- MEDict479
{weing} /|wain|/ - n. wine. -- MEDict479
{weing:} /|wain:|/ - v. 1. gather around; surround; besiege. -- MEDict479

{ing} {ng} {aing} {oang} {ng} {aung} {eing}
{thin.} /|thin.|/ - v. 1. be proper, suitable, becoming; agree with; get on well. -- MEDict511
{thin} /|thin|/ - pron. you. -- MEDict509
{thng~kan:} /|thin gan:|/  - n. 1. robe worn by a Buddhist monk. -- MEDict510
{thing:} /|thin:|/ - v. 1. exude a pleasing aroma. -- MEDict511
{thang~gi} /|thein gi|/ - n. superior quality gold. (Pali: {thang~gi}) -- MEDict512
{thaung} /|thaun|/ - v. be robust, sprightly. -- MEDict512
{thaung:} /|thaun:|/ - n. ten thousand. -- MEDict512
{theing:} /|thain:|/ - v. 1. wear something slung across one's shoulder (like a sash) -- MEDict479

{hing.ing} /|hin. in|/ - part. colloquial word denoting dissent or refusal. -- MEDict530
{hing} /|hin|/ -- int. exclamation showing disapproval or surprise. -- MEDict530
{hng~tha} /|hin: tha|/ - n. Brahminy duck. (Pali: {hn-tha.}) -- MEDict530
{hing:} /|hin:|/ - n. 2. curry. -- MEDict530
{haung} /|haun|/ - v. 1. (of dog) bark. -- MEDict531
{haung:} /|haun:|/ - adj. ancient; out-of-date; used; past. -- MEDict531
{heing:} /|hain:|/ - n. 1. tuskless elephant. -- MEDict531

{ing.} /|in.|/ - part. colloquial  word expressed when passing something to another person. -- MEDict622
{ing} /|in|/ - n. 1. quantity; number; amount; extent; measure; standard. -- MEDict621
{ng~ga} /|in ga|/ - n. 1. part of body; anatomical part; limb; member. -- MEDict622
{ing:} /|in:|/ - n. 1. natural pond or lake. -- MEDict622
{aung.} /|aun.|/ - v. 1. feel a dull pain in stomach, chest, etc. -- MEDict624
{aung} /|aun|/ - v. 1. be victorious. -- MEDict623
{aung:} /|aun:|/ - v. 1. be cooped up. -- MEDict624
{eing.} /|ain.|/ - adj. 1. concave; dented. -- MEDict624
{eing} /|ain|/ - n. 1. pond; puddle; pool. -- MEDict624
{eing:} /|ain:|/ - n. open sore. -- MEDict625


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UKT note

n. Abbr. 1. a. A unit of volume or capacity in the U.S. Customary System, used in dry measure and equal to 4 pecks, 2,150.42 cubic inches, or 35.24 liters. b. A unit of volume or capacity in the British Imperial System, used in dry and liquid measure and equal to 2,219.36 cubic inches or 36.37 liters. See note at measurement . 2. A container with the capacity of a bushel. 3. Informal A large amount; a great deal. [Middle English from Anglo-Norman bussel variant of Old French boissiel from boisse one sixth of a bushel of Celtic origin] -- AHTD
Go back bushel-b

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End of TIL file