Update: 2011-12-29 06:38 PM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary


by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp], reprint 1966 
Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) .

in Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan) by U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, {pa.dat~hta.mi-zu-a}, 1st printing ca. 1959, Ministry of Religious Affairs publication, Rangoon , p1180.

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{u.} {oak} {oag}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p125 p126 p127 p000 p000
{oac {oaz} {oa}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p128 p129
{oaT} {oa} {oaN}
p130 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{oat} {oad} {oan}
p000 p131 p132 p133 p134 p135 p136 p137 p138 p000
{u.pa.} {u.pak
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p139
p140 p141 p142 p143 p144 p145 p146 p147 p148 p000
{u.pa} {u.pi.} {u.p} {u.pau:}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p149
p150 p151 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{oap} {oab} {oam} {u.yya} {ul}
p000 p000 p152 p153 p154 p155 p156 p157 p158 p000
UKT notes
Ascaris Human-head lice Killed {a.wag}-consonants Ucchedavada

UKT: This file will show you how to arrive at a Pal-Myan pronunciation of the International Pali. I have used different colors to show the syllables in a polysyllabic word. You may have to use a hand-lens to see the graphemes in conjunction.
   Secondly, there are two akshara-graphemes, the vowel-letter {U.} and the consonant {a.}. that look so much alike and which the type-setters before the introduction of computers had represented with the same grapheme. The result was utter confusion unless you know the languages: Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan. The confusion was exacerbated in Pal-Myan which does not allow {a.t} but only conjuncts. Since the second grapheme in the conjunct had to be written in much smaller size, we usually cannot make out what the word is. The obvious solution is to allow {a.t} in Pali. But the question then becomes whether we can change a 'dead' language especially if it has been used as a holy language of a religion - the Theravada Buddhism. I am hoping for input from my peers. -- UKT111222


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u {U.}
-- the sound or syllable u, expld. by Bdhgh at Vism 495 as expressing origin (= ud).
-- UHS-PMD0197

UKT from UHS: prefix - up-climb, upwards, above, prescribed, free, ought to be, imply, capable, as example, etc.
See https://mywebspace.wisc.edu/jrblack/web/BU/UWPSG/paliprefixes.pdf 111220


-- UHS-PMD0197

UKT from UHS: m. bed-bug


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ukkaŋsa {OAk~kn-a.}
-- [fr. ud + kṛṣ see ukkassati] exaltation, excellence, superiority (opp. avakkaŋsa) D i.54 (ukkaŋs -- vakkaŋsa = hāyana -- vaḍḍhana DA i.165); M i.518; Vism 563 (id.); VvA 146 (˚gata excellent), 335 (instr. ukkaŋsena par excellence, exceedingly); PvA 228 (˚vasena, with ref. to devatās; v. l. SS okk˚).
-- UHS-PMD0198

UKT from UHS: mfn. exceeding, exalting. m. exceeding exaltation, excellent


-- (adj.) [fr. ukkaŋsa] raising, exalting (oneself), extolling M i.19 (att˚; opp. para -- vambhin); J ii.152. Cp. sāmukkaŋsika.


-- [ud + kṛṣ, karṣati, lit. draw or up, raise] to exalt, praise M i.498; J iv.108. -- pp. ukkaṭṭha. -- ukkaŋseti in same meaning M i.402 sq. (attānaŋ u. paraŋ vambheti); A ii.27; Nd2 141.


-- (f.) [abstr. of ukkaŋsati] raising, extolling, exaltation, in att˚ self -- exaltation, self -- praise M i.402 (opp. para -- vambhanā); Nd2 505 (id.).


ukkaṭṭha {OAk~kT~HTa.} =
-- (adj.) [pp. of ukkaŋsati] -- 1. exalted, high, prominent, glorious, excellent, most freq. opp. to hīna, in phrase hīna -- m -- ukkaṭṭha -- majjhime Vin iv.7; J i.20 (v.129), 22 (v.143); iii.218 (= uttama C.). In other combn. at Vism 64 (u. majjhima mudu referring to the 3 grades of the Dhutangas); SnA 160 (dvipadā sabbasattānaŋ ukkaṭṭhā); VvA 105 (superl. ukkaṭṭhatama with ref. to Gotama as the most exalted of the 7 Rishis); Sdhp 506 (opp. lāmaka). -- 2. large, comprehensive, great, in ukkaṭṭho patto a bowl of great capacity (as diff. from majjhima & omaka p.) Vin iii.243 (= uk. nāma patto aḍḍhālhak' odanaŋ gaṇhāti catu -- bhāgaŋ khādanaŋ vā tadūpiyaŋ vā byajanaŋ). -- 3. detailed, exhaustive, specialised Vism 37 (ati -- ukkaṭṭha -- desanā); also in phrase ˚vasena in detail SnA 181. -- 4. arrogant, insolent J v. 16. -- 5. used as nom at J i.387 in meaning "battle, conflict". -- an˚ Vism 64 (˚cīvara).
-- niddesa exhaustive exposition, special designation, term par excellence DhsA 70; VvA 231; PvA 7. -- pariccheda comprehensive connotation SnA 229, 231, 376.
{OAk~kT~HTa.} =
-- UHS-PMD0198

UKT from UHS: exalted, glorious, excellent


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ukkaṭṭha] superiority, eminence, exalted state J iv.303 (opp. hīnatā).


-- [for ukkaṭhita, ud + pp. of kvath, see kaṭhati & kuthati] boiled up, boiling, seething A iii.231 & 234 (udapatto agginā santatto ukkaṭṭhito, v. l. ukkuṭṭhito); J iv.118 (v. l. pakkudhita = pakkuṭhita, as gloss).


ukkaṇṭhati {OAk~kN~Hta.ti.}
-- [fr. ud + kaṇṭh in secondary meaning of kaṇṭha neck, lit. to stretch one's neck for anything; i. e. long for, be hungry after, etc.] to long for, to be dissatisfied,
to fret J i.386 (˚māna); iii.143 (˚itvā); iv.3, 160; v.10 (anukkhaṇṭhanto); DhsA 407; PvA 162 (mā ukkaṇṭhi, v. l. ukkaṇhi, so read for T. mā khuṇḍali). -- pp. ukkaṇṭhita (q. v.). Cp. pari˚.
-- UHS-PMD0198

UKT from UHS: bored, oppose


-- (f.) [fr. ukkaṇṭhati] emotion, commotion D ii.239.


-- (f.) [fr. ukkanṭḥ˚] longing, desire; distress, regret Nett 88; PvA 55 (spelt kkh), 60, 145, 152.


-- (f.) [fr. ukkanṭḥ˚] longing, dissatisfaction ThA 239 (= arati).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ukkaṇṭhita] = ukkaṇṭhi, i. e. longing, state of distress, pain J iii.643.


-- [pp. of ukkaṇṭhati] dissatisfied, regretting, longing, fretting J i.196; ii.92, 115; iii.185; Miln 281; DhA iv.66, 225; PvA 13 (an˚), 55, 187.


-- (adj.) [ud + kaṇṇa] having the ears erect (?) J vi.559.


-- (ad.) [ut + kaṇṇa + ka lit. "with ears out" or is it ukkandaka?] a certain disease (? mange) of jackals, S ii.230, 271; S. A. ʻ the fur falls off from the whole body ʼ.


-- [ud + kantati] to cut out, tear out, skin Vin i.217 (˚itva); J i.164; iv.210 (v. l. for okk˚); v.10 (ger. ukkacca); Pv iii.94 (ukkantvā, v. l. BB ukkacca); PvA 210 (v. l. SS ni˚), 211 (= chinditvā).


ukkapiṇḍaka {OAk~ka.paiN~a.ka.}
-- [etymology unknown] only in pl.; vermin, Vin i.211 = 239. See comment at Vin. Texts ii.70.
-- UHS-PMD0198

UKT from UHS: m. animal [implying one who knows only how to eat, sleep and mate]


-- (nt. adv.), in jhān˚ & kasiṇ˚, after the method of stepping away from or skipping Vism 374.


-- (or okk˚ which is v. l. at all passages quoted) [ud + kamati from kram] to step aside, step out from (w. abl.), depart from A iii.301 (maggā); J iii.531; iv. 101 (maggā); Ud 13 (id.); DA i.185 (id.). Caus. ukkāmeti; Caus. II. ukkamāpeti J ii.3.


-- (nt.) [fr. ukkamati] stepping away from Vism 374.


ukkala {OAk~ka.la.}
-- in phrase ukkala -- vassa -- bhaa S iii.73 = A ii.31 = Kvu 141 is trsld. as "the folk of Ukkala, Lenten speakers of old" (see Kvu trsl. 95 with n. 2). Another interpretation is ukkalāvassa˚, i. e. ukkalā + avassa˚ [*avaśya˚], one who speaks of, or like, a porter (ukkala = Sk utkala porter, one who carries a load) and bondsman M iii.78 reads Okkalā (v. l. Ukkalā) -- Vassa -- Bhaā, all as N. pr.
-- UHS-PMD0198

UKT from UHS: m. the country of Oakkala, porter


-- see uklāpa.

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-- [= ukkilissati? ud + kilissati] to become depraved, to revoke(?) Miln 143.


ukkā {OAk~ka}
-- (f.) [Vedic ulkā & ulkuṣī, cp. Gr. a)/flac (= lamprw_s torch Hesychius), velxa/nos (= Volcanus); Lat. Volcanus, Oir. Olcān, Idg. *ṷI̊q to be fiery] 1. firebrand, glow of fire, torch D i.49, 108; S ii.264; Th 2, 488 (˚pama); J i.34 (dhamm -- okkā); ii.401; iv.291; v.322; Vism 428; ThA 287; DA i.148; DhA i.42, 205; PvA 154. Esp. as tiṇ˚ firebrand of dry grass M i.128, 365; Nd2 40Ie; DhA i.126; Sdhp 573. -- 2. a furnace or forge of a smith A i.210, 257; J vi.437; see also below ˚mukha. <-> 3. a meteor: see below ˚pāta.
-- dhāra a torch -- bearer Sn 335; It 108; Miln 1. -- pāta "falling of a firebrand", a meteor D i.10 (= ākāsato ukkānaŋ patanaŋ DA i.95); J i.374; vi.476; Miln 178. -- mukha the opening or receiver of a furnace, a goldsmith's smelting pot A i.257; J vi.217 (= kammārɔuddhana C.), 574; Sn 686; DhA ii.250.
-- UHS-PMD0198

UKT from UHS: blow torch, fire brand, torch, furnace, crucible .
   Note: Pix on the right shows a small furnace and bamboo pumps known as {hpo-kyin}. Using the right kind of charcoal, you can smelt iron. It was probable that these were the iron-furnaces that the people of Ancient Pagan had used. It was also probable that a larger version of such a furnace had been used to execute the Blacksmith of Tagaung who came to be worshipped as the Spirit Protector of the Household by the ancient people of Pagan, right down to my ancestors, Bo Yan Shin - my great-grandfather. My suggestion is based on Bob Hudson, The founding villages and early palaces of Bagan, Archaeology Department, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia, Texts and Contexts Conference, Yangon, 2001 December. http://acl.arts.usyd.edu.au/~hudson/villages_parabaik.pdf 080918


ukkācanā {OAk~ka-sa.na}
-- (f.) [fr. ukkāceti, ud + *kāc, see ukkācita] en- lightening, clearing up, instruction Vbh 352 (in def. of lapanā, v. l. ˚kāpanā). Note Kern, Toev. s. v. compares Vism p. 115 & Sk. uddīpana in same sense. Def. at Vism 27 (= uddīpanā).
-- UHS-PMD0199

UKT from UHS - f. words of praise elucidating a person's character as an introduction


-- [pp. either to *kāc to shine or to kāceti denom. fr. kāca1] enlightened, made bright (fig.) or cleaned, cleared up A i.72, 286 (˚vinīta parisā enlightened & trained).


ukkāceti {OAk~ka-s-ti.}
-- [according to Morris J.P.T.S. 1884, 112 a denom. fr. kāca2 a carrying pole, although the idea of a bucket is somewhat removed from that of a pole] to bale out water, to empty by means of buckets J ii.70 (v. l. ussicati).
- UHS-PMD0199

UKT from UHS: to clean up, to splash out or bail out water (from a one-man country boat) using a water-bail.
   UKT note: The use of a bamboo-bail with one hand to splash out water from the bottom of a small country boat is faster than using a bucket using two hands. Right in front of the rower-platform is an open space in which the water seeping in would collect. The rower would let go of his oars for a moment, and sitting down would splash out the water with the bamboo-bail. I have spent many hours as a child (in the 1930s) accompanying my father U Tun Pe along the tidal creeks near Kungyangon - the town where I was born. My father used to take me along on his inspection tours as the Public Health Inspector of two large townships in his charge. In the pix you see the boat carrying paddy aka unhusked-rice. That space holding the paddy would be the space, where my father and I would be sitting under a bamboo-mat made into a roof.
   Note the difference of spelling for water-bail: {pak-hkn} by UHS and {pak~hkn.} by MLC.


-- [Caus. of ukkamati] to cause to step aside J vi.11.


-- [fr. ud + kṛ "do out"] dung, excrement J iv.485, otherwise only in cpd. ukkāra -- bhūmi dung -- hill J i.5, 146 (so read for ukkar˚), ii.40; iii.16, 75, 377; iv.72, 305; Vism 196 (˚pama kuṇapa); DhA iii.208. Cp. uccāra.


-- [ud + kāsati of kas to cough] to "ahem"! to cough, to clear one's throat Vin ii.222; iv.16; M ii.4; A v.65; aor. ukkāsi J i.161, 217. -- pp. ukkāsita.


ukkāsikā {OAk~ka-i.ka}
-- (f.?) [doubtful] at Vin ii.106 is not clear. Vin Texts iii.68 leave it untranslated. Bdhgh's expln. is vattavaṭṭi (patta˚? a leaf? Cp. S iii.141), prob. = vaṭṭi (Sk. varti a kind of pad). See details given by Morris J.P.T.S. 1887, 113, who trsls. "rubber, a kind of pad or roll of cotton with which the delicate bather could rub himself without too much friction".
-- UHS-PMD0199

UKT from UHS: f. monk's waistcloth used for bathing in, an old longyi 'Bur-Myan sarong' used for bathing in or as a towel.
Note UKT111221: What PTS has given as "rubber, a kind of pad or roll of cotton with which the delicate bather could rub himself without too much friction" does not fit well with my understanding

{r-a.noap} - n. 1. same as {re-l}. 2. monk's waistcloth used for bathing in. - MED2006-398

   Country folks - both monks and nuns, and laypersons - bathe in the open in a stream or at a surface well. And of course, they have to have a waistcloth or an old longyi to bathe in. Monks cannot own towels according to the monastic rules, and so after the bath, they would change into the second waistcloth - they are allowed only two sets of clothing by the rules - wash the one they had just worn during the bath, squeeze the water out, and use it as a towel to dry their bodies as well as they could.
   Note also the difference of spelling for 'waistcloth': {r-a.noat} by UHS and {r-a.noap} by MLC.


-- [pp. of ukkāsati] coughed, clearing one's throat, coughed out, hawking D i.89; Bu i.52 (+ khipita) <-> ˚sadda the noise of clearing the throat D i.50; J i.119; DhA i.250 (+ khipita˚).


-- [pp. of ud + kṛ dig2] dug up or out D i.105; J iv.106; Miln 330; DA i.274 (= khāta).


-- [Caus. of ud + klid, see kilijjati] to take the dirt out, to clean out DA i.255 (dosaŋ); SnA 274 (rāgaŋ; v. l. BB. uggileti).


-- (adj.) [ud + kujja] set up, upright, opp. either nikkujja or avakujja A i.131; S v.89 (ukkujjɔvakujja); Pug 32 (= uparimukho ṭhapito C. 214).


ukkujjati {OAk~koaz~za.ti.}
-- (˚eti) [Denom. fr. ukkujja] to bend up, turn up, set upright Vin i.181; ii.126 (pattaŋ), 269 (bhikkhuŋ); mostly in phrase nikkujjitaŋ ukkujjeyya "(like) one might raise up one who has fallen" D i.85, 110; ii.132, 152; Sn p. 15 (= uparimukhaŋ karoti DA i.228 = SnA 155).
-- UHS-PMD0199

UKT from UHS: turn up, turn up and show


-- (nt.) [fr. ukkujjati] raising up, setting up again Vin ii.126 (patt˚).


ukkuṭika {OAk~ku.Ti.ka.}
-- [fr. ud + *kuṭ = *kuc, as in kuṭila & kucita; lit. "bending up". The BSk. form is ukkuṭuka, e. g. Av. S i.315] a special manner of squatting. The soles of the feet are firmly on the ground, the man sinks down, the heels slightly rising as he does so, until the thighs rest on the calves, and the hams are about six inches or more from the ground. Then with elbows on knees he balances himself. Few Europeans can adopt this posture, & none (save miners) can maintain it with comfort, as the calf muscles upset the balance. Indians find it easy, & when the palms of the hands are also held together upwards, it indicates submission. See Dial. i.231 n. 4. -- Vin i.45 (˚ŋ nisīdati); iii.228; A i.296; ii.206; Pug 55; Vism 62, 104, 105 (quot. fr. Papaca Sūdanī) 426; DhA i.201, 217; ii.61 (as posture of humility); iii.195; iv.223.
-- padhāna [in BSk. distorted to utkuṭuka -- prahāṇa Divy 339 = Dh 141] exertion when squatting (an ascetic habit) D i.167; M i.78, 515; A i.296; ii.206; J i.493; iii.235; iv.299; Dh 141 (= ukkuṭika -- bhāvena āraddha -- viriyo DhA iii.78).
-- UHS-PMD0199

UKT from UHS: mfn. squatting position of sitting.
I cannot make out two more meanings given by UHS. I will have to consult my peers. -- 111221


-- (f.) [fr. ud + kruś, cp. *kruc as in P. kuca & Sk. krośati] shouting out, acclamation J ii.367; vi.41; Bu i.35; Miln 21; Vism 245; DhA ii.43; VvA 132 (˚sadda).


-- [see ukkuṭṭhi & cp. BSk. utkrośa watchman (?) Divy 453] an osprey J iv.291 (˚rāja), 392.


-- (adj.) [ud + kūla] sloping up, steep, high (opp. vikkūla) A i.35 sq.; Vism 153 (nadi); SnA 42. Cp. utkūlanikūla -- sama Lal. V. 340.


ukkoṭana {OAk~kau:Ta.na.}
-- (nt.) [fr. ud + *kuṭ to be crooked or to deceive, cp. kujja & kuṭila crooked] crookedness, perverting justice, taking bribes to get people into unlawful possessions (Bdhgh.) D i.5; iii.176; S v.473; A ii.209, v.206; DA i.79 = Pug A 240 ("assāmike sāmike kātuŋ lacagahaṇaŋ").


-- (adj.) [fr. ukkoṭana] belonging to the perversion of justice Vin ii.94.


-- [denom. fr. *ukkoṭ -- ana] to disturb what is settled, to open up again a legal question that has been adjudged, Vin ii.94, 303; iv.126; J ii.387; DA i.5.


-- (˚lī) (f.) [der. fr. Vedic ukha & ukhā pot, boiler; related to Lat. aulla (fr. *auxla); Goth. auhns oven] a pot in which to boil rice (& other food) J i.68, 235; v. 389, 471; Pug 33; Vism 346 (˚mukhavaṭṭi), 356 (˚kapāla, in comp.); DhA i.136; ii.5; iii.371; iv.130; Pug A 231; VvA 100. Cp. next.


-- (f.) = ukkhali. Th 2, 23 (= bhatta -- pacana- bhājanaŋ ThA 29); DhA iv.98 (˚kāla); DhsA 376.


-- (?) [can it be compared with Vedic ukṣan?] in ukkha- sataŋ dānaŋ, given at various times of the day (meaning = e(kato/mbh?) S ii.264 (v. l. ukkā). Or is it to be read ukhāsataŋ d. i. e. consisting of 100 pots (of rice = mahā danaŋ?). S A: paṇītabhojana -- bharitānaŋ mahā -- ukkhalinaŋ sataŋ dānaŋ. Cp. ukhā cooking vessel ThA 71 (Ap. v.38). Kern, Toev. under ukkhā trsl. "zeker muntstuck", i. e. kind of gift.


ukkhita {OAk~hki.ta.}
-- [pp. of ukṣ sprinkle] besmeared, besprinkled J iv.331 (ruhir˚, so read for ˚rakkhita). Cp. okkhita.


ukkhitta {OAk~hkait~ta.}
-- [pp. of ukkhipati] taken up, lifted up, t.t. of the canon law "suspended" Vin iv.218; J iii.487.
-- ˚āsika with drawn sword M i.377; S iv.173; J i.393; DhsA 329; Vism 230 (vadhaka), 479. -- paligha having the obstacles removed M i.139; A iii.84; Dh 398 = Sn 622 (= avijjā -- palighassa ukkhittatāya u. SnA 467 = DhA iv.161). -- sira with uplifted head Vism 162.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ukkhitta] a bhikkbu who has been suspended Vin i.97, 121; ii.61, 173, 213.


-- [ut + khipati, kṣip]. To hold up, to take up J i.213; iv.391: vi.350; Vism 4 (satthaŋ); PvA 265. A [p126] t. t. of canon law, to suspend (a bhikkhu for breach of rules) Vin iv.309; Pug 33. -- ukkhipiyati to be suspended Vin ii.61. Caus. II. ukkhipāpeti to cause to be supported J i.52; ii.15, 38; iii.285, 436. -- pp. ukkhitta, ger. ukkhipitvā as adv. "upright" Vism 126.

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-- (nt.) [fr. ud + kṣip] 1. pushing upwards J i.163. -- 2. throwing up, sneering Vism 29 (vācāya).


-- [pp. of ud + kheṭ or *khel, see kheḷa] spit out, thrown off, in phrase moho (rāgo etc) catto vanto mutto pahino paṭinissaṭṭho u. Vin iii.97 = iv.27.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ud + kṣip] (adj.) throwing away DhA iv.59 (˚dāya a throw -- away donation, tip). -- (m.) lifting up raising J i.394 (cel˚); vi.508; DA i.273; dur˚ hard to lift or raise Sdhp 347.


-- (adj.) [fr. ukkhepa] throwing (up); ˚ŋ (acc.) in the manner of throwing Vin ii.214 = iv.195 (piṇḍ˚).


-- (nt.) [fr. ud + kṣip] suspension J iii.487.


-- (f.) [= last] throwing up, provocation, sneering Vbh 352 = Vism 23, expld. at p. 29.


-- (adj.) [ukkhepana + iya, cp. BSk. utkṣepa- nīyaŋ karma Divy 329] referring to the suspension (of a bhikkhu), ˚kamma act or resolution of suspension Vin i.49, 53, 98, 143, 168; ii.27, 226, 230, 298: A i.99.


-- (ukkalāpa) (adj.) [cp. Sk. ut -- kalāpayati to let go] - 1. deserted J ii.275 (ukkalāpa T.; vv. ll. uklāpa & ullāpa). -- 2. dirtied, soiled Vin ii.154, 208, 222; Vism 128; DhA iii.168 (ukkalāpa).

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ugga {OAg~ga.}
-- (adj.) [Vedic ugra, from ukṣati, weak base of vakṣ as in vakṣana, vakṣayati = Gr. a)ve/cw, Goth. wahsjan "to wax", also Lat. augeo & P. oja] mighty, huge, strong, fierce, grave, m. a mighty or great person, noble lord D i.103; S i.51 = VvA 116 (uggateja "the fiery heat"); J iv.496; v.452 (˚teja); vi.490 (+ rājaputtā, expld. with etymologising effort as uggatā paātā by C.); Miln 331; DhA ii.57 (˚tapa); Sdhp 286 (˚daṇḍa), 304 (id.). <-> Cp. sam˚. As Np. at Vism 233 & J i.94.
-- putta a nobleman, mighty lord S i.185 ("high born warrior" trsl.); J vi.353 (= amacca -- putta C.); Th 1, 1210.


ugga {OAg~ga.}
-- = uggamana, in aruṇ -- ugga sunrise Vin iv.272.


-- [ud + gam] to rise, get up out of (lit. & fig.) Th 1, 181; aruṇe uggacchante at sunrise VvA 75; Pv iv.8; Vism 43, ger. uggachitvāna Miln 376. -- pp. uggata (q. v.).


-- [ud + gajjati] to shout out Nd1 172.


-- [ud + gṛh, see gaṇhāti] to take up, acquire, learn [cp. BSk. udgṛhṇāti in same sense, e. g. Divy 18, 77 etc.] Sn 912 (uggahaṇanta = uggahaṇanti = uggaṇhanti SnA 561); imper. uggaṇha J ii.30 (sippaŋ) & uggaṇhāhi Miln 10 (mantāni); ger. uggayha Sn 832, 845; Nd1 173. -- Caus. uggaheti in same meaning Sdhp 520; aor. uggahesi Pv iii.54 (nakkhatta -- yogaŋ = akari PvA 198); ger. uggahetvā J v.282, VvA 98 (vipassanākammaṭṭhānaŋ); infin. uggahetuŋ VvA 138 (sippaŋ to study a craft). -- Caus. II. uggaṇhāpeti to instruct J v. 217; vi.353. -- pp. uggahita (q. v.). See also uggahāyati. -- A peculiar ppr. med. is uggāhamāna going or wanting to learn DA i 32 (cp. uggāhaka).


-- [pp. of uggacchati] come out, risen; high, lofty, exalted J iv.213 (suriya), 296 (˚atta), 490; v.244; Pv iv.14 (˚atta one who has risen = uggata -- sabhāva samiddha PvA 220); VvA 217 (˚mānasa); DA i.248; PvA 68 (˚phāsuka with ribs come out or showing, i. e. emaciated, for upphāsulika). Cp. acc˚.


-- in all Pv. readings is to be read uttatta˚, thus at Pv iii.32; PvA 10, 188.


-- at J vi.590 means a kind of ornament or trinket, it should prob. be read ugghaṭṭana [fr. ghaṭṭeti] lit. "tinkling", i. e. a bangle.


-- [fr. ud + gam; Sk. udgama] rising up Sdhp 594.


-- (˚na) (nt.) [fr. ud + gam] going up, rising; rise (of sun & stars) D i.10, 240; S ii.268 (suriy˚); J iv.321 (an˚), 388; Pv ii.941 (suriy˚); DA i.95 (= udayana); DhA i.165 (aruṇ˚); ii.6 (id.); VvA 326 (oggaman˚); PvA 109 (aruṇ˚). Cp. ugga2 & uggama.


-- (adj) ( -- ˚) [fr. ud + gṛh, see gaṇhāti] -- 1. taking up, acquiring, learning Vism 96 (ācariy˚), 99 (˚paripucchā), 277 (kananaṭṭhānassa). -- 2. noticing, taking notice, perception (as opp. to manasikāra) Vism 125, 241 sq. neg. an˚ Sn 912 (= gaṇhāti Nd1 330). Cp. dhanuggaha.


-- (nt.) [fr. uggaṇhāti] learning, taking up, studying PvA 3 (sipp˚). As uggaṇhana at Vism 277.


-- [poetic form of uggaheti (see uggaṇhati), but according to Kern, Toev. s. v. representing Ved. udgṛbhāyati] to take hold of, to take up Sn 791 (= gaṇhāti Nd1 91). -- ger. uggahāya Sn 837.


-- [pp. of uggaṇhāti] taken up, taken, acquired Vin i.212; J iii.168 (˚sippa, adj.), 325; iv.220; vi 76; Vism 241. The metric form is uggahīta at Sn 795, 833, 1098; Nd1 175 = Nd2 152 (= gahita parāmaṭṭha).


-- [n. ag. to ugganhāti, Caus. uggaheti] one who takes up, acquires or learns A iv.196.


-- [ud + gṛ or *g&lcircle; to swallow, see gala & gilati; lit. to swallow up] spitting out, vomiting, ejection Vism 54; DA i.41; KhA 61.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ud + gṛh, see uggaṇhāti] one who is eager to learn J v.148 [cp. M Vastu iii.373 ogrāhaka in same context].


-- see uggaṇhāti.


-- 2Sk. udgirati, ud + gṛ2; but BSk. udgirati in meaning to sing, chant, utter, formation fr. gṛ2 instead of gṛ1, pres. gṛṇāti; in giraŋ udgirati Jtm 3126. -- The by -- form uggirati is uggilati with interchange of I̊ and ṛ, roots *gr̥ & *gI̊, see gala & gilati] to vomit up ("swallow up") to spit out Ud 14 (uggiritvāna); DA i.41 (uggāraŋ uggiranto). Cp. BSk. prodgīrṇa cast out Divy 589.


-- [cp. Sk. udgurate, ud + gur] to lift up, carry Vin iv.147 = DhA iii.50 (talasattikaŋ expld. by uccāreti); J i.150 (āvudhāni); vi.460, 472. Cp. sam˚.


-- = uggirati1, i. e. to spit out (opp. ogilati) M i.393; S iv.323; J iii.529; Miln 5; PvA 283.


-- (nt.) [ud + gīva] a neckband to hold a basket hanging down J vi.562 (uggīva cɔpi aŋsato = aŋsakūṭe pacchi -- lagganakaŋ C.).


-- [ud + ghṛṣ, see ghaŋsati1] to rub Vin ii.106. - pp. ugghaṭṭha (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [pp. of ud + ghaṭati; cp. BSk. udghaṭaka skilled Divy 3, 26 and phrase at M Vastu iii.260 udghaṭitaja] striving, exerting oneself; keen, eager in cpd. ˚ū of quick understanding A ii.135; Pug 41; Nett 7 -- 9, 125; DA i.291.


-- [ud + ghaṭati] to open, reveal (? so Hardy in Index to Nett) Nett 9; ugghaṭiyati & ugghaṭanā ibid.


ugghaṭṭa {OAg~GT~Ta.}
-- (Ugghaṭṭha?) [should be pp. of ugghaŋsati = Sk. udghṛṣṭa, see ghaŋsati1, but taken by Bdhgh. either as pp. of or an adj. der. fr. ghaṭṭ, see ghaṭṭeti] knocked, crushed, rubbed against, only in phrase ughaṭṭa -- pāda [p127] foot -- sore Sn 980 (= maggakkamaṇena ghaṭṭa -- pādatala etc. SnA 582); J iv.20 (ṭṭh; expld. by uṇha -- vālukāya ghaṭṭapāda); v.69 (= raj okiṇṇa -- pāda C. not to the point).

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-- [ud + kṣar] to ooze Th 1, 394 = DhA iii.117.


-- (nt.?) [fr. ugghāṭeti] that which can be removed, in ˚kiṭikā a curtain to be drawn aside Vin ii.153 (cp. Vin Texts iii.174, 176). Ch s. v. gives "rope & bucket of a well" as meaning (kavāṭaŋ anugghāṭeti). Cp. ugghaṭanā.


-- [pp. of ugghāṭeti] opened Miln 55; DhA i.134.


-- [for ugghaṭṭeti, ud + ghaṭṭ but BSk. udghāṭayati Divy 130] to remove, take away, unfasten, abolish, put an end to Vin ii.148 (tālāni), 208 (ghaṭikaŋ); iv.37; J ii.31; vi.68; Miln 140 (bhava -- paṭisandhiŋ), 371; Vism 374. -- Caus. II. ugghāṭāpeti to have opened J v.381.


-- [ud + ghāta] shaking, jolting; jolt, jerk Vin ii. 276 (yān˚); J vi.253 (an˚); DhA iii.283 (yān˚).


-- (f.) [fr. ud + ghāta] -- 1. shaking, shock VvA 36. -- 2. striking, conquering; victory, combd. with nighāti Sn 828; Nd1 167; SnA 541; Nett 110 (T. reads ugghāta˚).


-- [pp. of ugghāteti, denom. fr. udghāta] struck, killed A iii.68.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ugghoseti, cp. ghosanā] procla- mation DA i.310.


-- [ud + ghoseti] to shout out, announce, proclaim J i.75; DhA ii.94; PvA 127.

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ucca {OAc~sa.}
-- (adj.) [For udya, adj. formation from prep. ud above, up] high (opp. avaca low) D i.194; M ii.213; A v.82 (˚ṭhāniyaŋ nīce ṭhāne ṭhapeti puts on a low place which ought to be placed high); Pv iv.74 (uccaŋ paggayha lifting high up = uccataraŋ katvā PvA 265); Pug 52, 58; DA i.135; PvA 176.
-- vaca high and low, various, manifold Vin i.70, 203; J iv.115, 363 (= mahaggha -- samaggha C. p. 366); Sn 703, 714, 792, 959; Dh 83; Nd1 93, 467; Vv 121 (= vividha VvA 60); 311. -- kulīnatā high birth A iii.48 (cp. uccā˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. ucca] high Vin ii.149 (āsandikā a kind of high chair).


-- (nt.) [fr. ucca = Sk. uccatvaŋ] height J iii.318.


-- [fr. ud + ci, see cināti; Sk. uccaya] heaping up, heap, pile, accumulation Dh 115, 191, 192; Vv 4711; 827 (= cetiya VvA 321); DhA iii.5, 9; DhsA 41 (pāpassa). -- siluccaya a mountain Th 1, 692; J i.29 (v.209); vi.272, 278; Dāvs V.63.


uccā {OAc~sa}
-- (˚ -- ) (adv.) [cp. Sk. uccā, instr. sg. of uccaŋ, cp. paścā behind, as well as uccaiḥ instr. pl. -- In BSk. we find ucca˚ (uccakulīna Av. Ś iii.117) as well as uccaŋ (uccaŋgama Divy 476). It is in all cases restricted to cpds.] high (lit. & fig.), raised, in foll. cpds.
-- kaṇerukā a tall female elephant M i.178. -- kāḷārikā id. M i.178 (v. l. ˚kaḷārikā to be preferred). -- kula a high, noble family Pv iii.116 (= uccā khattiya -- kul -- dino PvA 176). -- kulīnatā birth in a high -- class family, high rank M iii.37; VvA 32. -- sadda a loud noise D i.143, 178; A iii.30. -- sayana a high bed (+ mahāsayana) Vin i. 192; D i.5, 7; cp. DA i.78.


-- [Ud + car] discharge, excrement, faeces Vin iii.36 (˚ŋ gacchati to go to stool); iv.265, 266 (uccāro nāma gūtho vuccati); DhA ii.56 (˚karaṇa defecation); uccārapassāva faeces & urine D i.70; M i.83; J i.5; ii.19.


-- (f.) [fr. uccāreti] lifting up, raising Vin iii.121.


-- [pp. of uccāreti] -- 1. uttered, let out PvA 280 (akkharāni). -- 2. lifted, raised ThA 255.


-- [ud + cāreti, Caus. of car] to lift up, raise aloft Vin iii.81; iv.147 = DhA iii.50; M i.135. -- pp. uccārita (q. v.).


uccālinga {OAc~sa-lan~ga.}
-- [etym.?] a maw -- worm Vin iii.38, 112; J ii.146.
-- UHS-PMD0203

UKT from UHS: m. stomach worm, semen worm
   See my note on Ascaris - the roundworm which infest humans and pigs. During my childhood days, many local populations around Kungyangon believed that every human being must have at least a single  mawworm inside their stomach. They called it {ak-saung.n} 'life's guarding worm' showing how common the infestation was.
   I remember, Daw Htay wife of U Po Tu of Tawpalwei quarter, a neighbour of ours who on her deathbed was saved by my father who just administered a deworming medication: chenopodium oil. The sad fact was, U Po Tu was a local indigenous medical practitioner. Those were the days when training in indigenous medicine -- a specialization of some Burmese-Buddhist monks -- had been neglected and the locals were too afraid to see a hospital-doctor. -- UKT111222


-- [ud + cināti] to select, choose, search, gather, pick out or up Vin i.73; ii.285 (aor. uccini); J iv.9; Pv iii.2 4 (nantake = gavesana -- vasena gahetvāna PvA 185); Dpvs iv.2.


-- [Sk. utsanga, ts > cch like Sk. utsahate > BSk. ucchahate see ussahati] the hip, the lap Vin i.225; M i. 366; A i.130 (˚paa); J i.5, 308; ii.412; iii.22; iv.38, 151; Pug 31; Vism 279; DhA ii.72.


ucchādana {OAc~hsa-da.na.}
-- (nt.) [ut + sād, Caus. of sad, sīdati, cp. ussada] rubbing the limbs, anointing the body with perfumes shampooing D i.7, 76; at the latter passage in combn. anicc˚ -- dhamma, of the body, meaning "erosion, decay", and combd. with parimaddana abrasion (see about detail of meaning Dial. i.87); thus in same formula at M i. 500; S iv.83; J i.146 & passim; A i.62; ii.70 (+ nahāpana); iv.54, 386; It 111; Th 2, 89 (nahāpan˚); Miln 241 (˚parimaddana) 315 (+ nahāpana); DA i.88.


-- [fr. ut + sād, see ucchādana] to rub the body with perfumes J vi.298; Miln 241 (+ parimaddati nahāpeti); DA i.88.


-- [pp. of ud + śiṣ] left, left over, rejected, thrown out; impure, vile Vin ii.115 (˚odakaŋ); iv.266 (id.); J ii.83 (bhattaŋ ucchiṭṭhaŋ akatvā), 126 (˚nadī impure; also itthi outcast), 363; iv.386 (˚ŋ piṇḍaŋ), 388; vi.508; Miln 315; DhA i.52; ii.85; iii.208; PvA 80 (= chaḍḍita), 173 (˚bhattaŋ). At J iv.433 read ucch˚ for ucciṭṭha. -- an˚ not touched or thrown away (of food) J iii.257; DhA ii.3. -- See also uttiṭṭha & ucchepaka.


-- (fr. ucchiṭṭha) = ucchiṭṭha J iv.386; vi.63, 509.


-- [ud + chid, see chindati] to break up, destroy, annihilate S v.432 (bhavataṇhaŋ), A iv.17 (fut. ucchecchāmi to be read with v. l. for T. ucchejjissāmi); Sn 2 (pret. udacchida), 208 (ger. ucchijja); J v.383; Dh 285. <-> Pass. ucchijjati to be destroyed or annihilated, to cease to exist S iv.309; J v.242, 467; Miln 192; PvA 63, 130 (= na pavattati), 253 (= natthi). -- pp. ucchinna (q. v.).


-- [pp. of ucchindati] broken up, destroyed S iii. 10; A v.32; Sn 746. Cp. sam˚.


ucchu {OAc~hsu.}
-- [Sk. cp. Vedic Np. Ikṣvāku fr. ikṣu] sugar -- cane Vin iv.35; A iii.76; iv.279; Miln 46; DhA iv.199 (˚ūnaŋ yanta sugar -- cane mill), PvA 257, 260; VvA 124.
-- agga (ucch˚) top of s. c. Vism 172. -- khaṇḍikā a bit of sugar -- cane Vv 3326. -- khādana eating s. c. Vism 70. -- khetta sugar -- cane field J i.339; VvA 256. -- gaṇṭhikā a kind of sugar -- cane, Batatas Paniculata J i.339; vi.114 (so read for ˚ghaṭika). -- pāla watchman of s. -- c. VvA 256. -- pīḷana, cane -- pressing, Asl. 274. -- puṭa sugar -- cane basket J iv.363. -- bīja seed of s. -- c. A i.32; v.213. -- yantra a sugar -- mill J i.339. -- rasa s. -- c. juice Vin i.246; Vism 489; VvA 180 -- vāta, Asl. 274. -- sālā, Asl. 274.


uccheda {OAc~hs-da.}
-- [fr. ud + chid, chind, see ucchindati & cp. cheda] breaking up, disintegration, perishing (of the soul) Vin iii.2 (either after this life, or after kāmadeva life, or after brahmadeva life) D i.34, 55; S iv.323; Nd1 324; Miln 413; Nett 95, 112, 160; DA i.120.
-- diṭṭhi the doctrine of the annihilation (of the soul), as opp. to sassata -- or atta -- diṭṭhi (the continuance of the soul after death) S ii.20; iii.99, 110 sq; Ps i.150, 158; Nd1 248 (opp. sassati˚); Dhs 1316; Nett 40, 127; SnA 523 (opp. atta˚). -- vāda (adj.) one who professes the doctrine of annihilation (ucchedadiṭṭhi) Vin i.235; iii.2; D i.34, 55; S ii.18; iv.401; A iv.174, 182 sq.; Nd1 282; Pug 38. -- vādin = ˚vāda Nett 111; J v.244.
-- UHS-PMD0204

UKT from UHS: m. cutting off, annihilation without remainder, perishing of all life {Ba.wa.} 'life' including after lives.
See my note on Ucchadavada and Sassatavada.


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-- (adj.) [fr. ud + chid] cutting off, destroying; f. ˚anī J v.16 (surā).


-- (adj.) an adherent of the ucchedavāda J v.241.


-- (nt.) [= ucchiṭṭhaka in sense of ucchiṭṭha- bhatta] leavings of food M ii.7 (v. l. uccepaka with cc for cch as ucciṭṭha: ucchiṭṭha). The passage is to be read ucchepake va te ratā. A diff. connotation would be implied by taking ucchepaka = uchā, as Neumann does (Majjhima trsl.2 ii.682).


uju {U.zu.}
-- & ujju (adj.) [Vedic ṛju, also ṛjyati, irajyate to stretch out: cp. Gr. o)re/gw to stretch; Lat. rego to govern; Goth. ufrakjan to straighten up; Ohg. recchen = Ger. recken = E. reach; Oir. rēn span. See also P. ajjava] straight, direct; straightforward, honest, upright D iii.150 T. ujja), 352 (do.) 422, 550; Vv 187 (= sabba -- jimha -- vanka -- kuṭilabhāvɔpagama -- hetutāya u. VvA 96); Pug 59; Vbh 244 (ujuŋ kāyaŋ paṇidhāya); Vism 219 (uju avanka akuṭila); DA i.210 (id.), KhA 236; DhA i.288 (cittaŋ ujuŋ akuṭilaŋ nibbisevanaŋ karoti); VvA 281 (˚koṭi -- vanka); PvA 123 (an˚).
-- angin (ujjangin) having straight limbs, neg. an˚ not having straight limbs, i. e. pliable, skilful, nimble, graceful J v.40 (= kacana -- sannibha -- sarīra C.); vi.500 (T. anuccangin = anindita -- agarahitangin C.). -- gata walking straight, of upright life M i.46; A iii.285 sq. (˚citta); v.290 sq.; Sn 350 (ujju˚), 477 (id.); Dh 108 (ujju˚, see DhA ii.234 for interpretation). -- gāmin, neg. an˚ going crooked, a snake J iv.330. -- cittatā straightness, unwieldiness of heart Vbh 350. -- diṭṭhitā the fact of having a straightforward view or theory (of life) Miln 257. -- paṭipanna living uprightly D i.192; S iv.304; v.343; Vism 219. -- magga the straight road D i.235; Vin v.149; It 104; J i.344; vi.252; DhA ii.192. -- bhāva straightness, uprightness SnA 292, 317; PvA 51. -- bhūta straight, upright S i.100, 170; ii.279; v.384, 404; A ii.57; iv.292; J i.94; v.293 (an˚); Vv 3423 (see VvA 155); Pv i.1010 (= citta -- jimha -- vankaKutīla -- bhāva -- karānaŋ kilesānaŋ abhāvena ujubhāvappatta PvA 51). -- vaŋsa straight lineage, direct descendency J v.251. -- vāta a soft wind Miln 283. -- vipaccanīka in direct opposition D i.1; M i.402; DA i.38.


-- & ujjuka (adj.) [uju + ka] straight, direct, upright M i.124; S i.33 (ujuko so maggo, the road to Nibbāna), 260 (citta); iv.298; v.143, 165; J i.163; v.297 (opp. khujja); DhA i.18 (˚magga); Sdhp 321. -- anujjuka crooked, not straight S iv.299; J iii.318.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ujuka] straightness, rectitude Dhs 50, 51 (kāyassa, cittassa); Vism 436 sq.


-- (f.) [abstr. of uju] straight(forward)ness, rectitude Dhs 50, 51.



ujjagghati {OAz~zag~Ga.ti.}
-- [ud + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock, make fun of Vin iii.128; Th 2, 74 (spelt jjh = hasati ThA 78); A iii.91 (ujjh˚, v. l. ujj˚) = Pug 67 (= pāṇiŋ paharitvā mahāhasitaŋ hasati Pug A 249).


-- [ud + jangala] hard, barren soil; a very sandy and deserted place D ii.146 (˚nagaraka, trsl. "town in the midst of a jungle", cp. Dial. ii.161); J i.391; Vv 855 (= ukkaŋsena jangala i. e. exceedingly dusty or sandy, dry); Pv ii.970 (spelt ujjhangala, expld. by ativiya -- thaddhabhūmibhāga at PvA 139); Vism 107. Also in BSk. ujjangala, e. g. M Vastu ii.207.


-- (adj.) [ud + jval, see jalati] blazing, flashing; bright, beautiful J i.220; Dāvs ii.63.


-- [ud + jalati, jval] to blaze up, shine forth Vin i.31; VvA 161 (+ jotati). -- Caus. ujjāleti to make shine, to kindle Vin i.31; Miln 259; Vism 428; ThA 69 (Ap. v.14, read dīpāŋ ujjālayiŋ); VvA 51 (padīpaŋ).


-- (adj.) [ud + java] "running up", in cpd. ujjav -- ujjava a certain term in the art of spinning or weaving Vin iv. 300, expld. by "yattakaŋ patthena (patthana?) acitaŋ hoti tasmi takkamhi vedhite".


-- [ud + javati] to go up -- stream Vin ii.301.


-- instr. fem. of ujjavanaka used as adv. [ud + javanaka, q. v.] up -- stream, lit "running up" Vin ii.290; iv.65 (in expln. of uddhaŋgāmin, opp. ojavanikāya).


-- [ud + jahati] to give up, let go; imper. ujjaha S i.188; Th 2, 19; Sn 342.


-- & ujjuka see uju & ujuka.


-- [ud + *jot of jotati, Sk. uddyotate] light, lustre J i.183 (˚kara); Miln 321.


-- [pp. of ujjoteti, ud + joteti] illumined Dāvs v.53.


-- see ujjagghati.


ujjhaggikā {OAz~Zag~gi.ka}
-- (f.) [fr. ujjagghati, spelling varies] loud laughter Vin ii.213, cp. iv.187.


-- [Sk. ujjhati, ujjh] -- 1. to forsake, leave, give up J vi.138; Dāvs ii.86. -- 2. to sweep or brush away J vi.296. -- pp. ujjhita (q. v.).


-- (f.) [fr. ud + jhāyati1, corresponding to a Sk. *ud -- dhyāti] irritation, discontent A iv.223, 467 (v. l. ujj˚); cp. ujjhāna.


-- (nt.) [ud + jhāna1 or jhāna2?] -- 1. taking offence, captiousness Dh 253 (= paresaŋ randha -- gavesitāya DhA iii.377); Miln 352 (an˚ -- bahula). -- 2. complaining, wailing J iv.287.
-- sain, -- saika irritable S i.23; Th 1, 958; Vin ii.214, cp. iv.194; Dpvs ii.6; DhA iii.376 (˚saitā irritability).


ujjhāpana {OAz~Za-pa.na.}
-- (nt.) [fr. ud + jhāyati1 or jhāyati2 to burn, to which jhāpeti to bring to ruin etc.? cp. ujjhāna] stirring up, provoking J v.91 (devat˚), 94 (˚kamma).
-- UHS-PMD0205

UKT from UHS: n. to arouse anger, reproach and ridicule


-- (adj.) [fr. ujjhāpana] one who stirs up an- other to discontent Vin iv.38.


-- [Caus. of ujjhāyati] to harass, vex, irritate M i. 126; S i.209 ("give occasion for offence"); Vin iv.38 (cp. p. 356); J v.286; PvA 266.


-- [ud + jhāyati1 or perhaps more likely jhāyati2 to burn, fig. to be consumed. According to Mller P. G. pp. 12 & 42 = Sk. ava -- dhyā, but that is doubtful phonetically as well as semantically] to be irritated, to be annoyed or offended, to get angry, grumble; often in phrase ujjhāyati khīyati vipāceti expressing great annoyance Vin i.53, 62, 73; ii.207; iv.226; S i.232 & passim. -- S i.232 (mā ujjhāyittha); J ii.15; DhA ii.20; aor. ujjhāyi J i.475; DhA ii.88; inf. ujjhātuŋ J ii.355. <-> Caus. ujjhāpeti (q. v.).


-- [pp. of ujjhati] destitute, forsaken; thrown out, cast away M i.296 (+ avakkhitta); Th 1, 315 (itthi); 2, 386 (cp. ThA 256 vātakkhitto viya yo koci dahano); Dh 58 (= chaḍḍita of sweepings DhA i.445); J iii.499; v.302; vi.51.

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ucha {OA~hsa.} =
-- & uchā (f.) [Sk. ucha & uchana, to uch. Neu- mann's etym. uchā = E. ounce, Ger. unze (Majjhima trsl.2 ii.682) is incorrect, see Walde Lat. Wtb. under uncia] anything gathered for sustenance, gleaning S ii. 281; A i.36; iii.66 sq., 104; Vin iii.87; Sn 977; Th 2, 329, 349; J iii.389; iv.23, 28, 434, 471 (˚ya, dat. = phalphalɔatthāya C.); ThA 235, 242. Cp. samuchaka.
-- cariyā wandering for, or on search for gleaning, J ii.272; iii.37, 515; v.3; DA i.270; VvA 103; ThA 208. -- cārika (adj.) going about after gleanings, one of 8 kinds of tāpasā SnA 295 (cp. DA i.270, 271). -- patta the gleaning -- bowl, in phrase uchāpattāgate rato "fond of [p129] that which has come into the gl. b." Th 1, 155 = Pv iv.73 (= uchena bhikkhācārena laddhe pattagate āhāre rato PvA 265; trsld. in Psalms of Brethren "contented with whatever fills the bowl"). aāt˚, marked off as discarded (goods) S ii.281, so S A.

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-- [fr. uch] to gather for sustenance, seek (alms), glean Vism 60 (= gavesati).


{OA~a} =
-- (f.) [= avaā (?) from ava + , or after uā- tabba?] contempt Vin iv.241; Vbh 353 sq. (att˚).


-- (adj.) [grd. fr. ava + (?)] to be despised, contemptible, only in stock -- phrase "daharo na uṇṇātabbo na paribhotabbo" S i.69; Sn p. 93; SnA 424 (= na avajānitabbo, na nīcaŋ katvā jānitabbo ti). In same connection at J v.63 mā naŋ daharo [ti] uāsi (v. l. maāsi) apucchitvāna (v. l. ā˚).

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-- at Vin ii.131 is doubtful reading (see p. 318, v. l. uḍḍhetvā), and should perhaps be read uḍḍetvā (= oḍḍetva, see uḍḍeti), meaning "putting into a sling, tying or binding up".


uṭṭepaka one who scares away (or catches?) crows (kāk˚) Vin i.79 (vv. ll. uṭṭhe˚, uḍḍe˚, uḍe˚). See remarks on uṭṭepeti.


-- in phrase kāke u. "to scare crows away" (or to catch them in snares?) at Vin i.79. Reading doubtful & should probably be read uḍḍepeti (? Caus. of uḍḍeti = oḍḍeti, or of uḍḍeti to make fly away). The vv. ll. given to this passage are uṭṭeceti, upaṭṭhāpeti, uḍḍoyeti. See also uṭṭepaka.


-- see vo˚.


uṭṭhahati {OAT~HTa.ha.ti.} =
-- & Uṭṭhāti [ud + sthā see tiṭṭhati & uttiṭṭhati] to rise, stand up, get up, to arise, to be produced, to rouse or exert oneself, to be active, pres. uṭṭhahati Pug 51. -- pot. uṭṭhaheyya S i.217; as imper. uttiṭṭhe Dh 168 (expld. by uttiṭṭhitvā paresaŋ gharadvāre ṭhatvā DhA iii.165, cp. Vin Texts i.152). -- imper. 2nd pl. uṭṭhahatha Sn 331; 2nd sg. uṭṭhehi Pv ii.61; J iv.433. -- ppr. uṭṭhahanto M i.86; S i.217; J i.476. -- aor. uṭṭhahi J i.117; PvA 75. -- ger. uṭṭhahitvā PvA 4, 43, 55, 152, & uṭṭhāya Sn 401. -- inf. uṭṭhātuŋ J i.187. <-> Note. When uṭṭh˚ follows a word ending in a vowel, and without a pause in the sense, a v is generally prefixed for euphony, e. g. gabbho vuṭṭhāsi an embryo was produced or arose Vin ii.278; āsanā vuṭṭhāya arising from his seat, Vism 126. See also under vuṭṭhahati. -- pp. uṭṭhita; Caus. uṭṭhāpeti. -- Cp. pariyuṭṭhāti.


-- [ppr. of uṭṭhahati] exerting oneself, rousing one- self; an˚ sluggish, lazy Dh 280 (= ayāyāmanto DhA iii. 409); cp. anuṭṭhahaŋ S i.217.


-- [n. ag. of ut + ṣṭhā, see uṭṭhahati] one who gets up or rouses himself, one who shows energy S i.214; A iv.285, 288, 322; Sn 187; J vi.297. -- an˚ one who is without energy S i.217; Sn 96.


-- (nt.) [fr. ut + ṣṭhā] -- 1. rising, rise, getting up, standing (opp. sayana & nisīdana lying or sitting down) D ii.134 (sīha -- seyyaŋ kappesi uṭṭhāna -- saaŋ manasikaritvā); Dh 280 (˚kāla); J i.392 (an˚ -- seyyā a bed from which one cannot get up); Vism 73 (aruṇ -- uṭṭhānavelā time of sunrise) DhA i.17. -- 2. rise, origin, occasion or oppertunity for; as adj. ( -- ˚) producing J i.47 (kapp˚); vi.459; Miln 326 (dha˚ khettaŋ atthi). -- 3. "rousing", exertion, energy, zeal, activity, manly vigour, industry, often syn. with viriya M i.86; A i.94; ii.135 (˚phala); iii.45 (˚viriya), 311; iv.281 (˚sampadā); It 66 (˚adhigataŋ dhanaŋ earned by industry); Pv iv.324; Pug 51 (˚phala); Miln 344, 416; ThA 267 (˚viriya); PvA 129 (+ viriya). -- an˚ want of energy, sluggishness A iv.195; Dh 241. <-> Note. The form vuṭṭhāna appears for uṭṭh˚ after a vowel under the same conditions as vuṭṭhahati for uṭṭhahati (q. v.) gabbha -- vuṭṭhānaŋ J i.114. See also vuṭṭh˚, and cp. pariy˚.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. uṭṭhāna] -- 1. giving rise to yielding (revenue), producing J i.377, 420 (satasahass˚); iii. 229 (id.); v.44 (id.). Cp. uṭṭhāyika. -- 2. energetic J vi.246.


-- (adj.) [uṭṭhāna + vant] strenuous, active Dh 24.


-- [Caus. ii. of utthahati] -- 1. to make rise, only in phrase aruṇaŋ (suriyaŋ) u. to let the sun rise, i. e. wait for sunrise or to go on till sunrise J i.318; vi.330; Vism 71, 73 (aruṇaŋ). -- 2. to raise J vi.32 (paṭhaviŋ). <-> 3. to fit up J vi.445 (nāvaŋ). -- 4. to exalt, praise DA i.256. -- 5. to turn a person out DhA iv.69. -- See also vuṭṭhāpeti.


-- (adj.) [adj. formation fr. uṭṭhāya, ger. of uṭṭha- hati] "getting -- up -- ish", i. e. ready to get up, quick, alert, active, industrious; f. ˚ikā Th 2, 413 (= uṭṭhāna -- viriyasampannā ThA 267; v. l. uṭṭhāhikā)


-- (adj.) [= uṭṭhānaka] yielding, producing J ii.403 (satasahass˚).


-- (adj.) [adj. form. fr. uṭṭhāya, cp. uṭṭhāyaka] getting up D i.60 (pubb˚ + pacchā -- nipātin rising early & lying down late).


-- (adj.) [for uṭṭhāyaka after analogy of gāhaka etc.] = uṭṭhāyaka J v.448; f. ˚ikā A iii.38 (v. l. ˚āyikā); iv.266 sq.


-- [pp. of uṭṭhahati] -- 1. risen, got up Pv ii.941 (kāl˚); Vism 73. -- 2. arisen, produced J i.36; Miln 155. -- 3. striving, exerting oneself, active J ii.61; Dh 168; Miln 213. -- an˚ S ii.264; Ps i.172. -- Cp. pariy˚. <-> Note. The form is vuṭṭhita when following upon a vowel; see vuṭṭhita & uṭṭhahati, e. g. paṭisallāṇā vutthito arisen from the seclusion D ii.9; pāto vuṭṭhito risen early PvA 128.

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uḍḍayhana {OA~a.yha.na.} =
-- (nt.) [fr. uḍḍayhati, see uddahati] burning up, conflagration Pug 13 (˚velā = jhāyana -- kālo Pug A 187); KhA 181 (T. uḍḍahanavelā, v. l. preferable uḍḍayh˚).
{OA~a.yha.na.} =
-- UHS-PMD0207


-- [ud + ḍahati] to burn up (intrs.) KhA 181 (uḍḍaheyya with v. l. uḍḍayheyya, the latter preferable). Usually in Pass. uḍḍayhati to be burnt, to burn up (intrs.) S iii.149, 150 (v. l. for ḍayhati); J iii.22 (udayhate); v.194. fut. uḍḍayhissati J i.48.


-- [pp. of uḍḍeti2] ensnared (?), bound, tied up S i.40 (= taṇhāya ullanghita C.; trsld. "the world is all strung up").


-- [ud + ḍeti to fly. The etym. is doubtful, Mller P. Gr. 99 identifies uḍḍeti1 & uḍḍeti2 both as causatives to ḍī. Of uḍḍeti2 two forms exist, uḍḍ˚ & oḍḍ˚, the latter of which may be a variant of the former, but with specialisation of meaning ("lay snares"), it may be a cpd. with ava˚ instead of ud˚. It is extremely doubtful whether uḍḍeti2 belongs here, we should rather separate it & refer it to another root, probably , layate (as in allīna, nilīyati etc.), to stick to, adhere, fasten etc. The change l > ḍ is a freq. Pāli phenomenon. Another Caus. II. of the same root (ḍī?) is uṭṭepeti] to fly up M i.364 (kāko maŋsapesiŋ ādāya uḍḍayeyya; vv. ll. ubbaḍaheyya, uyya, dayeyya); J v.256, 368, 417.


-- [see discussion under uḍḍeti1] (a) to bind up, tie up to, string up Vin ii.131 (so read for uṭṭitvā, v. l. uḍḍhetvā). -- (b) to throw away, reject PvA 256 (+ chaḍḍayāmi gloss). -- pp. uḍḍita.


-- ( -- ˚) (num. ord.) [the apocope form of catuttha = uttha, dialectically reduced to uḍḍha under the influence of the preceding aḍḍha] the fourth, only in cpd. aḍḍhuḍḍha "half of the fourth unit", i. e. three & a half (cp. [p130] diyaḍḍha 1 1/2 and aḍḍha -- teyya 2 1/2) J v.417 sq. (˚āni itthisahassāni); Mhvs xii.53.

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uṇṇa {OAN~Na.}
-- (nt.) & Uṇṇā (f.) [Sk. ūrṇa & ūrṇā; Lat. lāna wool; Goth. wulla; Ohg. wolla = E. wool; Lith. vilna; Cymr. gwlan (= E. flannel); Gr. lh_nos, also ou_)los = Lat. vellus (fleece) = Ags. wil -- mod] -- 1. wool A iii.37 = iv.265 (+ kappāsā cotton) J ii.147; SnA 263 (patt˚). -- 2. hair between the eyebrows Sn 1022, & in stock phrase, describing one of the 32 signs of a Mahāpurisa, bhamukɔantare jātā uṇṇā odātā etc. D ii.18 = iii.144 = 170 = SnA 285. Also at Vism 552 in jāti -- uṇṇāya.
-- ja in uṇṇaja mukha J vi.218, meaning "rounded, swelling" (C. expls. by kacanɔādāso viya paripuṇṇaŋ mukhaŋ). -- nābhi (either uṇṇa˚ or uṇṇā, cp. Vedic ūrṇavābhi, ūrṇa + vābhi from Idg. *ṷebh to weave as in Lat. vespa = wasp, of which shorter root in Sk. ) a spider, lit. "wool -- i. e. thread -- weaver", only in combn. with sarabū & mūsikā at Vin ii.110 = A ii.73 = J ii.147 (= makkaṭaka C).
-- UHS-PMD0207

UKT from UHS: n. body-hair, sheep-wool, {OAN~Na.lon}-hair
Note: Just behind this place where the {OAN~Na.lon}-hair grows is
the Pineal gland aka the Third Eye. See my note on Pineal gland .

{mhw:rhin-tau} - n. a single hair which grows between Buddha's eyebrows. Also {OAN~Na.lon} - MED2006-374

{OAN~Na.lon} - n. a single hair which grows between Buddha's eyebrows - MED2006-626

-- (adj.) [pp. of uṇṇamati, Sk. unnata] raised, high, fig. haughty (opp. oṇata) A ii.86; Sn 702 (an˚ care = uddhaccaŋ nɔāpajjeyya SnA 492); Pug 52 (= ucca uggata Pug A 229). Cp. unnata.


-- (f.) [fr. uṇṇamati] haughtiness Sn 830; Nd1 158, 170; Dhs 1116, 1233. Cp. unnati.


-- [fr. uṇṇamati] loftiness, height, haughtiness Dhs 1116, 1233. Cp. unnama.


-- [ud + nam] to rise up, to be raised, to straighten up, to be haughty or conceited Sn 366, 829, 928; Nd1 169; J vi.346 inf. uṇṇametave Sn 206. Cp. unnamati.


-- (f.) [Sk. aurṇī fr. aurṇa woollen, der. of ūrṇa] a woollen dress Vin ii.108.


uṇha {U.Nha.}
-- (adj. -- n.) [Vedic uṣṇā f. to oṣati to burn, pp. uṣṭa burnt, Sk. uṣṇa = Lat. ustus; cp. Gr. eu)/w, Lat. uro to burn, Ags. ysla glowing cinders, Lith. usnis nettle] hot, as adj. only in phrase uṇhaŋ lohitaŋ chaḍḍeti to spill hot blood, i. e. to kill oneself DhA i.95; otherwise in cpds.; abs. only as nt. "heat" & always in contrast to sītaŋ "cold" Vin ii.117 (sītena pi uṇhena pi); D ii.15 (opp. sīta); M i.85; A i.145 = 170 = J v.417 (sītaŋ vā uṇhaŋ vā tiṇaŋ vā rajo vā ussāvo vā); Sn 52, 966 (acc ˚); Nd1 486 = Nd2 677 (same as under sita); J i.17 (v.93); Miln 410 (megho uṇhaŋ nibbāpeti); PvA 37 (ati˚).
-- ākāra appearance of heat, often in phrase (Sakkassa) paṇḍu -- kambala -- silɔāsanaŋ uṇhākāraŋ dassesi, of Sakka's throne showing an appearance of heat as a sign of some extraordinary event happening in the world, e. g. J i.330; v.92; DhA i.17, and passim. -- odaka hot water VvA 68. -- kalla glowing -- hot embers or ashes J ii.94 (so read for ˚kalala); iv.389 (˚vassa, rain of hot ashes, v. l. ˚kukkuḷavassa). -- kāla hot weather Vin ii.209.
-- UHS-PMD0207

UKT from UHS: mnf.  hotness. n. heat, feeling hot [as in summer]

Note: I am never sure what the English transliteration uṇha is. It can be u-ṇha or uṇ-ha. The pronunciations are quite different if vowel changes are taken into consideration: u-ṇha is {U.Nha.}, but uṇ-ha is {OAN-ha.}. This has always been an obstacle for me in learning Pali. Moreover, since there are no white spaces in script to show the words - the aksharas just being strung together to form a very long word - I have no idea how to pronounce the syllables which form the word. I am waiting for comments from my peers. -- UKT111223


uṇhatta {U.Nht~ta.}
-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. uṇha] hot state, heat Vism 171.
-- UHS-PMD0207

UKT from UHS: n. state of being hot [scalded?]


uṇhīsa {U.Nhi-a.}
-- [Sk. uṣṇīṣa] a turban D i.7; ii.19 = iii.145 (˚sīsa cp. Dial. ii.16); J ii.88; Miln 330; DA i.89; DhsA 198.
-- UHS-PMD0208

UKT from UHS: m. forehead ornament to keep head-hair from falling down, turban.
   Note: We should not expect Buddha - the historical person, wearing such an ornament. It is found only on his images which were probably not in his likeness because the earliest images were sculpted a hundred years or so after his death. -- UKT111223


-- see uddaṇḍa.


utu {U.tu.}
-- (m. & nt.) [Vedic ṛtu special or proper time, with adj. ṛta straight, right, rite, ṛti manner to Lat. ars "art", Gr. damar(t), further Lat. rītus (rite), Ags. rīm number; of *ar to fit in, adjust etc. q. v. under appeti] -- 1. (lit.) (a) (good or proper) time, season: aruṇa -- utu occasion or time of the sun( -- rise) DhA i.165; utuŋ gaṇhāti to watch for the right time (in horoscopic practice), to prognosticate ibid. sarīraŋ utuŋ gaṇhāpeti "to cause the body to take season", i. e. to refresh the body by cool, sleep, washing etc. J iii.527; DA i.252. -- (b) yearly change, time of the year, season Vism 128. There are usually three seasons mentioned, viz. the hot, rainy and wintry season or gimha, vassa & hemanta A iv.138; SnA 317. Six seasons (in connection with nakkhatta) at J v.330 & vi.524. Often utu is to be understood, as in hemantikena (scil. utunā) in the wintry season S v.51. -- (c) the menses SnA 317; J v.330 (utusinātāya read utusi nhātāya; utusi loc., as expld. by C. pupphe uppanne utumhi nahātāya). -- 2. (applied in a philosophical sense: one of the five fold cosmic order, physical change, physical law of causation (opp. kamma), physical order: see Asl. 272 f.; Dialogues, II, 8, n.; Kvu trsln. 207; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Buddhism, p. 119 f., Cpd. 161, Dhs trsln. introd. xvii; & cp. cpds. So in connection with kamma at Vism 451, 614; J vi.105 (kamma -- paccayena utunā samuṭṭhitā Veraraṇī); perhaps also at Miln 410 (megha ututo samuṭṭhahitvā).
-- āhāra physical nutriment (cp. Dhs trsln. 174) PvA 148. -- pasevanā seasonable activity, pursuit (of activities) according to the seasons, observance of the seasons Sn 249 (= gimhe ātapa -- ṭṭhāna -- sevanā vasse rukkha -- mūla -- sevanā hemante jalappavesa -- sevanā SnA 291). -- kāla seasonable, favourable time (of the year) Vin i.299; ii.173. -- ja produced by the seasons or by physical change Miln 268 (kamma˚, hetu˚, utu˚); Vism 451. -- nibbatta coming to existence through physical causes Miln 268. -- pamāṇa measure of the season, i. e. the exact season Vin i.95. -- pariṇāma change (adversity) of the season (as cause of disease) S iv.230; A ii.87; iii.131; v.110; Miln 112, 304; Vism 31. -- parissaya danger or risk of the seasons A iii.388. -- pubba festival on the eve of each of the (6) seasons J vi.524. -- vāra time of the season, ˚vārena ˚vārena according to the turn of the season J i.58. -- vikāra change of season Vism 262. -- veramanī abstinence during the time of menstruaīion Sn 291 (cp. SnA 317). -- saŋvacchara the year or cycle of the seasons, pl. ˚ā the seasons D iii.85 = A ii.75; S v.442. The phrase utusaŋvaccharāni at Pv ii.955 is by Dhammapāla taken as a bahuvrīhi cpd., viz. cycles of seasons & of years, i. e. vasanta -- gimh ādike bahū utū ca citta -- saŋvaccharɔadi bahūni saŋvaccharāni ca PvA 135. Similarly at J v.330 (with Cy). -- sappāya suitable to the season, seasonable DhA 327. -- samaya time of the menses SnA 317.
-- UHS-PMD0208

UKT from UHS: m. state of coldness or hotness season, woman menstruation


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [utu + ka] seasonable, only in cpd. sabb- otuka belonging to all seasons, perennial D ii.179; Pv iv. 122 (= pupphupaga -- rukkhādīhi sabbesu utūsu sukkhāvaha PvA 275); Sdhp 248.


-- (f.) [formed fr. utu like bhikkhunī fr. bhikkhu] a menstruating woman Vin iii.18; iv.303; S iv.239; A iii. 221, 229; Miln 127. an˚ A iii.221, 226.

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utta {OAt~ta.}
-- [pp. of vac, Sk. ukta; for which the usual form is vutta only as dur˚ speaking badly or spoken of badly, i. e. of bad repute A ii.117, 143; iii.163; Kh viii.2; KhA 218.


-- (adj.) [ud + taṇḍula] "grainy", i. e. having too many rice grains (of rice gruel), too thick or solid (opp. atikilinna too thin or liquid) J i.340; iii.383 (id.); iv.44 (id.).


uttatta {OAt~tt~ta.}
-- [ud + tatta1, pp. of ud + tap, Sk. uttapta] heated; of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure J vi. 574 (hemaŋ uttattaŋ agginā); Vv 8417; Pv iii.32 (˚rūpa, so read for uggata˚, reading correct at PvA 188 ˚singī); PvA 10 (˚kanaka, T. uggatta˚); Mhbv 25 (id.).


-- [= utrasta, is reading correct?] frightened, faint Vin iii.84. See uttasta & utrasta.


uttama {OAt~ta.ma.}
-- (adj.) [superl. of ud˚, to which compar. is uttara. See etym. under ud˚] "ut -- most", highest, greatest, best Sn 1054 (dhammaŋ uttamaŋ the highest ideal = Nibbāna, for which seṭṭhan Sn 1064; cp. Nd2 317); Dh 56; Nd1 211; Nd2 502 (in paraphrase of mahā combd. with pavara); [p131] KhA 124; DhA i.430: PvA 1, 50. -- dum -- uttama a splendid tree Vv 393; nar˚ the best of men Sn 1021 (= narāsabha of 996); pur˚ the most magnificent town Sn 1012; puris˚ the noblest man Th 1, 629, 1084; nt. uttamaŋ the highest ideal, i. e. Arahantship J i.96.
-- anga the best or most important limb or part of the body, viz. (a) the head Vin ii.256 = M i.32 = A iv.278 (in phrase uttamange sirasmiŋ); J ii.163; also in cpd. ˚bhūta the hair of the head Th 2, 253 (= kesa -- kalāpa ThA 209, 210) & ˚ruha id. J i.138 = vi.96 (= kesā C.); (b) the eye J iv.403; (c) the penis J v.197. -- attha the highest gain or good (i. e. Arahantship SnA 332) Sn 324; Dh 386, 403; DhA iv.142; ThA 160. -- adhama most contemptible J v.394, 437. -- guṇā (pl.) loftiest virtues J i.96. -- purisa It 97 & -- porisa the greatest man (= mahāpurisa) Dh 97 (see DhA ii.188). -- bhāva the highest condition, state or place DhA ii.188 (˚ŋ patto = puris'<-> uttamo).

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-- (f.) [abstr. fr. uttama] highest amount, climax, limit DA i.169 (for paramatā).


-- (adj.) compar. of ud˚, q. v. for etym.; the superl. is uttama] -- 1. higher, high, superior, upper, only in cpds., J ii.420 (musal˚ with the club on top of him? Cy not clear, perhaps to uttara2); see also below. -- 2. northern (with disā region or point of compass) D i.153; M i.123; S i.224; PvA 75. uttarāmukha (for uttaraŋmukha) turning north, facing north Sn 1010. -- 3. subsequent, following, second (˚ -- ) J i.63 (˚āsāḷha -- nakkhatta). <-> 4. over, beyond ( -- ˚): aṭṭhɔutara -- sata eight over a hundred, i. e. 108; DhA i.388. -- sa -- uttara having something above or higher, having a superior i. e. inferior D i.80 (citta), ii.299; M i.59; S v.265; Vbh 324 (paā); Dhs 1292, 1596; DhsA 50. -- anuttara without a superior, unrivalled, unparalleled D i.40; S i.124; ii.278; iii.84; Sn 179. See also under anuttara.
-- attharaṇa upper cover J vi.253. -- bhimukha facing North D ii.15. -- āsanga an upper robe Vin i.289; ii. 126; S i.81; iv.290; A i.67, 145; ii.146; DhA i.218; PvA 73; VvA 33 = 51. -- itara something higher, superior D i.45, 156, 174; S i.81; J i.364; DhA ii.60; iv.4. -- oṭṭha the upper lip (opp. adhar˚) J ii.420; iii.26; iv. 184. -- chada a cover, coverlet, awning (sa˚ a carpet with awnings or canopy above it) D i.7; A i.181; iii.50. -- chadana = ˚chada D ii.187; DhA i.87. -- dvāra the northern gate J vi.364. -- dhamma the higher norm of the world (lok˚), higher righteousness D ii.188 (paṭividdha -- lokɔuttara -- dhammatāya uttama -- bhāvaŋ patta). -- pāsaka the (upper) lintel (of a door) Vin ii.120 = 148. -- pubba north -- eastern J vi.518. -- sse (v. l. ˚suve) on the day after tomorrow A i.240.


-- (adj.) [fr. uttarati] crossing over, to be crossed, in dur˚ difficult to cross or to get out of S i.197 (not duruttamo); Miln 158; and in cpd. ˚setu one who is going to cross a bridge Miln 194 (cp. uttara -- setu).


-- (nt.) [fr. uttarati] bringing or moving out, saving, delivery Th 1, 418; J i.195. In BSk. uttaraṇa only in sense of crossing, overcoming, e. g. Jtm 31 8 (˚setu). <-> Cp. uttara.


-- [ud + tarati1] -- 1. to come out of (water) Vin ii.221 (opp. otarati); J i.108 (id.). -- 2. to go over, to flow over (of water), to boil over Miln 117, 118, 132, 260, 277. -- 3. to cross over, to go beyond M i.135; aor. udatāri Sn 471 (oghaŋ). -- 4. to go over, to overspread J v.204 (ger. uttariyāna = avattharitvā C.). -- pp. otiṇṇa (q. v.). -- Caus. uttareti (q. v.).


-- (˚ -- ) & uttariŋ (adv.) [compn. form of uttara, cp. angi -- bhūta uttāni -- karoti etc.] out, over, beyond; additional, moreover, further, besides. -- (1) uttariŋ: D i.71; M i.83; iii.148; S iv.15; Sn 796 (uttariŋ kurute = uttariŋ karoti Nd2 102, i. e. to do more than anything, to do best, to esteem especially); J ii.23; iii.324; Miln 10 (ito uttariŋ anything beyond this, any more) DhA iv.109 (bhaveti to cultivate especially; see vuttari); VvA 152. -- uttariŋ appaṭivijjhanto not going further in comprehension, i. e. reaching the highest degree of comprehension, Vism 314, referring to Ps ii.131, which is quoted at Miln 198, as the last of the 11 blessings of mettā. -- (2) uttari˚ in foll. cpds.
-- karaṇīya an additional duty, higher obligation S ii. 99; iii.168; A v.157 = 164; It 118. -- bhanga an extra portion, tit -- bit, dainties, additional or after -- meal bits Vin ii.214; iii.160; iv.259; J ii.419; DhA i.214 sa -- uttaribhanga together with dainty bits J i.186, cp. 196 (yāgu). -- bhangika serving as dainties J i.196. -- manussa beyond the power of men, superhuman, in cpd. ˚dhamma an order which is above man, extraordinary condition, transcendental norm, adj. of a transcendental character, miraculous, overwhelming Vin i.209; ii.112; iii.105; iv.24; D i.211; iii.3, 12, 18; M i.68; ii.200; S iv.290, 300, 337; A iii.430; v.88; DhA iii.480. -- sāṭaka a further, i. e. upper or outer garment, cloak, mantle J ii.246; DhA iv.200; PvA 48, 49 (= uttarīyaŋ).


uttarika (adj.) [fr. uttara] transcending, superior, super- human Nett 50.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. uttara; uttara + ya = Sk. *ut- tarya] -- 1. state of being higher. Cp. iii.35; neg. an˚ state of being unsurpassed (lit. with nothing higher), preeminence; see anuttariya. -- 2. an answer, rejoinder DhA i.44 (karaṇ˚ -- karaṇa).


uttarīya (nt.) [fr. uttara] an outer garment, cloak Pvi.103 (= uparivasanaŋ uparihāraŋ uttarisāṭakaŋ PvA 49); Dāvs iii.30; ThA 253.


-- [identical in form with next] only in Caus. uttā- seti to impale, q. v.


-- [ut + tasati2] -- 1. to frighten J i.47 (v.267). - to be alarmed or terrified Vin i.74 (ubbijjati u. palāyati); iii.145 (id.); J ii.384; vi.79; ppr. uttasaŋ Th 1, 863; & uttasanto Pv ii.23. -- See utrasati. Caus. uttāseti (q. v.). <-> pp. uttasta & utrasta (q. v.). Cp. also uttanta.


-- (adj. -- nt.) [fr. ud + tras, cp. uttāsana] frightening, fear J i.414 (v. l. for uttasta).


-- [pp. of uttasati2; usual form utrasta (q. v.)] frightened, terrified, faint -- hearted J i.414 (˚bhikkhu; v. l. uttasana˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. ut + tan, see tanoti & tanta] -- 1. streched out (flat), lying on one's back, supine Vin i.271 (macake uttānaŋ nipajjāpetvā making her lie back on the couch); ii.215; J i.205; Pv iv.108 (opp. avakujja); PvA 178 (id.), 265. -- 2. clear, manifest, open, evident [cp. BSk. uttāna in same sense at Av. S ii.106] D i.116; S ii.28 (dhammo uttāno vivaṭo pakāsito); J ii.168 (= pākaṭa); v.460; PvA 66, 89, 140, 168. -- anuttāna unclear, not explained J vi.247. -- The cpd. form (˚ -- ) of uttāna in combn. with kṛ & bhū is uttānī˚ (q. v.). -- 3. superficial, "flat", shallow A i.70 (parisa); Pug 46.
-- mukha "clear mouthed", speaking plainly, easily understood D i.116 (see DA i.287); DhA iv.8. -- seyyaka "lying on one's back", i. e. an infant M i.432; A iii.6; Th 1, 935; Miln 40; Vism 97 (˚dāraka).


-- (adj.) [fr. uttāna] -- 1. (= uttāna1) lying on one's back J vi.38 (˚ŋ pātetvā); DhA i.184. -- 2. (= uttāna2) clear, open D ii.55; M i.340 = DhA i.173.


-- (˚ -- ) [the compn. form of uttāna in cpds. with kṛ & bhū cp. BSk. uttānī -- karoti M Vastu iii.408; uttānī -- kṛta Av. Ś i.287; ii.151] open, manifest etc., in ˚kamma (uttāni˚) declaration, exposition, manifestation S v.443; Pug 19; Vbh 259, 358; Nett 5, 8, 9, 38. -- ˚karaṇa id. SnA 445. -- ˚karoti to make clear or open, to declare, show up, confess (a sin) Vin i.103; S ii.25, 154; iii.132, 139; iv.166; v.261; A i.286; iii.361 sq.

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-- [Caus. of uttapati] to heat, to cause pain, torment J vi.161.


-- [fr. ud + tṛ as in uttarati] crossing, passing over, ˚setu a bridge for crossing (a river) S iv.174 = M i.134; cp. uttara2.


-- [pp. of uttāreti] pulled out, brought or moved out J i.194.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. uttārita] the fact of having or being brought or moved out J i.195.


uttāreti [Caus. of uttarati] to make come out, to move or pull out J i.194; SnA 349. -- pp. uttārita (q. v.).


-- [Sk. uttrāsa, fr. ud + tras] terror, fear, fright D iii.148; S v.386; Miln 170; PvA 180.


-- (nt.) [fr. uttāseti2] impalement J ii.444; SnA 61 (sūle).


-- (adj.) [uttāsa + vant] showing fear or fright, fearful S iii.16 sq.


-- [pp. of uttāseti2] impaled Pv iv.16 (= āvuta āropita VvA 220); J i.499; iv.29.


-- [Caus of uttasati, ud + tras, of which taŋs is uttā- seti2 is a variant] to frighten, terrify J i.230, 385; ii.117.


-- [cp. Sk. uttaŋsayati in meaning to adorn with a wreath; ud + taŋs to shake, a variation of tars to shake, tremble] to impale A i.48; J i.230, 326; ii.443; iii.34; iv.29. -- pp. uttāsita (q. v.). Cp. uttāsana.


-- [= ucchiṭṭha? Cp. ucchepaka. By Pāli Cys. referred to uṭṭhahati "alms which one stands up for, or expects"] left over, thrown out Vin i.44 (˚patta); Th 1, 1057 (˚piṇḍa); 2, 349 (˚piṇḍa = vivaṭadvāre ghare ghare patiṭṭhitvā labhanaka -- piṇḍa ThA 242); J iv.380 (˚piṇḍa; C. similarly as at ThA; not to the point); 386 (˚piṇḍa = ucchiṭṭhaka piṇḍa C.); Miln 213, 214.


-- see uṭṭhahati.


-- (adj.) [ud + tiṇa] in uttiṇaŋ karoti to take the straw off, lit. to make off -- straw; to deprive of the roof M ii.53. Cp. next.


-- [pp. of uttarati] drawn out, pulled out, nt. outlet, passage J ii.72 (paṇṇasālāya uttiṇṇāni karoti make entrances in the hut). Or should it be uttiṇa?


utrasta {U.tra~ta.}
-- [pp. of uttasati, also cp. uttasta] frightened, ter- rified, alarmed Vin ii.184; S i.53, 54 (an˚); Sn 986; Miln 23; DhA ii.6 (˚mānasa); PvA 243 (˚citta), 250 (˚sabhāva).


-- [= uttāsa] terror J ii.8 (citt˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. *Sk. uttrāsa = P. uttāsa] terrified, fright- ened, fearful, anxious S i.99, 219. -- Usually neg. an˚ in phrase abhīru anutrāsin apalāyin without fear, steadfast & not running away S i.99; Th 1, 864; Nd2 13; J iv.296; v.4; Miln 339. See also apalāyin.


-- [Vedic ud -- ; Goth. ūt = Ohg. ūz = E. out, Oir. ud -- ; cp. Lat. ūsque "from -- unto" & Gr. u(/steros = Sk. uttara] prefix in verbal & nominal combn. One half of all the words beginning with u˚ are combns. with ud˚, which in compn. appears modified according to the rules of assimilation as prevailing in Pāli. -- I. Original meaning "out in an upward direction", out of, forth; like ummujjati to rise up out of (water), ujjalati to blaze up high; udeti to come out of & go up; ukkaṇṭha stretching one's neck out high (cp. Ger. "empor"); uggilati to "swallow up", i. e. spit out. -- The opposites of ud -- are represented by either ava or (see under II. & IV. & cp. ucc -- vaca; uddhambhāgiya: orambhāgiya), ni (see below) or vi (as udaya: vi -- aya or vaya). -- II. Hence develop 2 clearly defined meanings, viz. (1) out, out of, away from -- : ˚aṇha ("day -- out"); ˚agga ("top -- out"); ˚āgacchati; ˚ikkhati look out for, expect; ˚kantati tear out; ˚khitta thrown off; ˚khipati pick out; ˚gacchati come out; ˚gamaṇa rising (opp. o˚); ˚gajjati shout out; ˚gilati (opp. o˚); ˚ghoseti shout out; ˚cināti pick out; ˚chiṭṭha thrown out; ˚jagghati laugh at, cp. Ger. aus -- lachen ˚tatta smelted out; ˚tāna stretched out; ˚dāleti tear out; ˚dhaṭa lifted out, drawn out; ˚disati point out to; ˚drīyati pull out; ˚pajjati to be produced; ˚patti & ˚pāda coming out, origin, birth; ˚paṭipatiyā out of reach; ˚paḷāseti sound out; ˚phāsulika "ribs out"; etc. etc. -- (2) up (high) or high up, upwards, on to (cp. ucca high, uttara higher) -- : ˚kujja erect (opp. ava˚); ˚kūla sloping up (opp. vi˚); ˚khipati throw -- up, ˚gaṇhāti take up; ˚chindati cut up; ˚javati go up -- stream, ˚javana id. (opp. o˚); ua pride; ˚thāna "standing up" ˚ṭhita got up; ˚tarati come out, go up (opp. o˚); ˚nata raised up, high (opp. o˚); ˚nama e -- levation; ˚nāmin raised (opp. ni˚); ˚patati fly up; etc. etc. -- III. More specialised meanings (from elliptical or figurative use) are: (1) ud˚ = without, "ex -- ", e. g. unnangala "outplough" = without a plough; uppabbajita an ex -- bhikkhu. <-> (2) ud˚ = off, i. e. out of the way, wrong, e. g. uppatha a wrong road, ummagga id. -- (3) ud˚ = out of the ordinary, i. e. exceedingly, e. g. ujjangala extremely dusty; uppanduka very pale; uppoṭheti to beat hard. -- IV. Dialectical variations & combinations. -- (1) Owing to semantic affinity we often find an interchange between ud˚ and ava˚ (cp. E. break up = break down, grind up or down, tie up or down), according to different points of view. This wavering between the two prefixes was favoured by the fact that o always had shown an unstable tendency & had often been substituted for or replaced by ū, which in its place was reduced to u before a double consonant, thus doing away with the diff. between ū & u or o & u. For comparison see the foll.: ukkamati & okk˚; uā: avaa; uddiyati: odd˚; uḍḍeyya oḍḍ˚; uppīḷeti: opīḷ˚; etc., & cp. abbhokirati > abbhukkirati. -- (2) the most freq. combns. that ud˚ enters into are those with the intensifying prefixes abhi˚ and sam˚; see e. g. abhi + ud (= abbhud˚) + gacchati, ˚jalati; ˚ṭhāti; ˚namati etc.; sam + ud + eti; ˚kamati; ˚chindati; ˚tejeti; ˚pajjati etc.


uda {U.da.}  
-- (indecl.) [Sk. uta & u, with Lat. aut (or), Gr. au(_ti (again), au)ta/r (but, or), Goth. auk = Ger. auch to pron. base ava˚ yonder, cp. ava ii.] disjunctive part. "or"; either singly, as at Sn 455, 955, 1090; J v.478 (v. l. udāhu); Nd1 445 (expld. as "padasandhi" with same formula as iti, q. v.); Pv ii.1216 (kāyena uda cetasā); or combd. with other synonymous particles, as uda vā at Sn 193, 842, 1075; It 82 = 117 (caraŋ vā yadi vā tiṭṭhaŋ nisinno uda vā sayaŋ walking or standing, sitting or lying down); KhA 191. -- See also udāhu.


Uda {U.da.}
-- (˚ -- ) [Vedic udan (nt.), also later uda (but only ˚ -- ), commonly udaka, q. v.] water, wave. In cpds. sometimes the older form udan˚ is preserved (like udajala, udaavant), but generally it has been substituted by the later uda˚ (see under udakaccha, udakanti, udakumbha, udapatta, udapāna, udabindu).


udaka {U.da.ka.}
-- (nt.) [Vedic udaka, uda + ka (see uda2), of Idg. *ṷed, *ud, fuller form *eṷed (as in Sk. odatī, odman flood, odana gruel, q. v.); cp. Sk. unatti, undati to water, udra = Av. udra = Ags. otor = E. otter ("water -- animal"); Gr. u(/dwr water ("hydro"), u(/dra hydra ("water -- animal"); Lat. unda wave; Goth. watō = Ohg. wazzar = E. water; Obulg. voda water, vydra otter] water Vin ii.120, 213; D ii.15 (˚assa dhārā gushes or showers of w.); Dh 80, 145; J i.212; Pv i.57; Pug 31, 32; Miln 318; VvA 20 (udake temanaŋ aggimhe tāpanaŋ); DhA i.289; DhA iii. 176, 256; PvA 39, 70. -- Syn. ambu, ela, jala etc. <-> The compn. form ( -- ˚) is either daka (āsandaka -- dāyin [p133] J iv.435) or ˚odaka (pādodaka water for the feet PvA 78). odaka occurs also in abs. form (q. v.), cp. also oka. Bdgh.'s kaŋ = udakaŋ, tena dāritan: kandaran ti is a false etymology; DA i.209.
-- aṇṇava water -- flood M i.134. -- āyatika a water -- pipe Vin ii.123. -- āḷhaka a certain measure of water, an āḷhaka of w. S v.400; A ii.55 = iii.337; VvA 155. -- pama resembling water, like water A iv.11 (puggala). -- ogāhana plunging into water J iii.235. -- ogha a water flood VvA 48. -- orohaka descending into water, bathing; N. of a class of ascetics, lit. "bather" M i.281; S iv.312; A v. 263. -- orohaṇa plunging into water, taking a bath, bathing D i.167; S i.182; A i.296; ii.206; J iv.299; Pug 55. -- kalaha the "water dispute" DhA iii.256. -- kāka a water crow J ii.441. -- kicca libation of water, lit. water -- performance; cleansing, washing D ii.15. -- kīḷā sporting in the w. J vi.420. -- gahaṇasāṭaka bathing -- gown J v.477. -- ghaṭa a water pitcher PvA 66. -- cāṭi a water jar DhA i.52. -- ṭṭhāna a stand for water Vin ii.120. -- tumba a water vessel J ii.441; DA i.202; DhA ii.193. -- telaka an oily preparation mixed with water Vin ii.107. -- dantapoṇa water for rinsing the mouth & tooth -- cleaner Vin iii.51; iv.90, 92, 233; J iv.69. -- daha a lake (of water) D i.45. -- doṇikā a water -- tub or trough Vin ii.220. -- dhārā a shower of water Ps i.125; J iv.351. -- niddhamana a water spout or drain Vin ii.120, 123; DhA ii.37. -- nibbāhana an aquaduct Miln 295. -- paṭiggaha receiving or accepting water Vin ii.213. -- patta a waterbowl Vin ii. 107; D i.80; S iii.105. -- puchanī a towel Vin ii.122. -- posita fed or nourished by water VvA 173. -- phusita a drop of water S ii.135. -- bindu a drop of w. It 84 (v. l. for udabindu); PvA 99. -- bubbula a w. bubble A iv.137; Vism 109, 479 (in comp.). -- bhasta devoid of water ThA 212 (for anodaka Th 2, 265). -- maṇika a water -- pot Vin i.227; M i.354; A iii.27; Miln 28; DhA i.79. -- mallaka a cup for w. A i.250. -- rakkhasa a water -- sprite DhA iii.74. -- rahada a lake (of w.) D i.74, 84; A i.9; ii.105; iii.25; Sn 467; Pug 47. -- rūha a water plant Vv 356. -- lekhā writing on w. A i.283 = Pug 32 (in simile ˚pama like writing on w.; cp. Pug A 215). -- vāra "waterturn", i. e. fetching water DhA i.49. -- vāraka bucket S ii.118. -- vāha a flow of water, flowing w. J vi.162. -- vāhaka rise or swelling (lit. carrying or pulling along (of water), overflowing, flood A i.178. -- vāhana pulling up water Vin ii.122 (˚rajju). -- sadda sound of water Dhs 621. -- sarāvaka a saucer for w. Vin ii.120. -- sāṭaka = sāṭikā J ii.13. -- sāṭikā "water -- cloak", a bathing -- mantle Vin i. 292; ii.272; iv.279 (= yāya nivatthā nhāyati C.); DhA ii.61 (T. ˚sāṭaka). -- suddhika ablution with water (after passing urine) Vin iv.262 (= mutta -- karaṇassa dhovanā C.).

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udakaccha {U.da.kic~hsa.}
-- [uda + kaccha] watery soil, swamp J v.137.


udakumbha {U.da.koam~Ba.}
-- [uda + kumbha] a water jug J i.20; Dh 121, 122; Pv i.129.


udagga {U.dag~ga.}
-- (adj.) [ud + agga, lit. "out -- top", cp. Sk. udagra] top- most, high, lofty Th 1, 110; fig. elated, exalted, exultant, joyful, happy D i.110 (˚citta); Sn 689 (+ sumana), 1028 (id.); Pv iv.155 (attamana +); iv.58 (haṭṭha +); Miln 248; DhA ii.42 (haṭṭha -- pahaṭṭha udagg -- udagga in high glee & jubilant); Vism 346 (id.); Sdhp 323. See also der. odagya.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. udagga] exaltation, jubilation, glee Sdhp 298.


-- in udaggihuttaŋ [= ud + aggi + hutta, cp. Vedic agnihotra] the fire prepared (for sacrifice) J v.396 (= uda -- aggihuttaŋ C. wrongly), lit. "the sacrifice (being) out"


udangaṇa {U.dn~ga.Na.}
-- (nt.) [ud + angaṇa1; Kern unnecessarily changes it to uttankana "a place for digging for water" see Toev. p. 96] an open place J i.109.
- UHS-PMD0213

UKT from UHS: n. open space


-- 3rd sg. praet. of ucchindati to break up Sn 2, 3 (˚ā metri causa).


-- (nt.) [fr. ud + ac, see achati] a bucket for drawing water out of a well DhA i.94.


-- (adj. -- n.) [ud + acanin to ac see achati] draining, pulling up water f. ˚ī a bucket or pail J i. 417 (f. ˚ī).


udajala {U.di~za.la.}
-- [udan + jala see uda2] in ˚ŋ kīḷati a water -- game: playing with drops of water (?) Vin iii.118 (Bdhgh.: udajalan ti udaka -- cikkhallo vuccati p. 274)
-- UHS-PMD0213

UKT from UHS: n. muddy water
Note: How can PTS and UHS differ so much? I welcome suggestions from my peers. - UKT111223


-- (adj.) [udan = uda(ka) + vant] rich in water, well -- watered J v.405 (= udaka -- sampanna C.).


-- [ud + aṇha] day -- break, dawn, sunrise J v.155.


-- 3rd sg aor. of uttarati to cross over Sn 471 (oghaŋ).


-- (adj.) [Sk. udātta] elevated, high, lofty, clever Nett 7, 118, 123 (= uḷārapaa C.).


-- [uda + dhi, lit. water -- container] the sea, ocean S i.67; It 86; Sn 720; J v.326; vi.526; ThA 289; VvA 155 ("udakaŋ ettha dhīyatī ti udadhi"); Sdhp 322, 577.


-- [ụda for ud, and patta, pp. of pat, for patita? Kern, Toev. s. v. takes it as udak -- prāpta, risen, flying up, sprung up J iii.484 (= uppatita C.); v.71 (= uṭṭhita C.).


-- [uda + patta; Sk. udapātra] a bowl of water, a water -- jug, ewer M i.100; S v.121; A iii.230 sq., 236; v.92, 94, 97 sq.


-- 3rd sg. aor. of uppajjati to arise, originate, be- come D i.110, 180, 185; S ii.273; It 52, 99; SnA 346, 462.


-- [uda + pāna lit. "(place for) drinking water"; cp. opāna, which in the incorrect opinion of Pāli Commentators represents a contracted udapāna] a well, a cistern Vin i.139; ii.122; M i.80; A iv.171; J iii.216; Ud 78; Pv ii.78; ii.925; Miln 411; Vism 244 (in simile); DA i.298; VvA 40; PvA 78.


-- see udapatta.


-- [uda + bindu] a drop of water M i.78; Sn 812; Dh 121, 122, 336; It 84 (v. l. udaka˚); Nd1 135; SnA 114; DhA ii.51.


-- aor. 3rd sg. of ubbadhati [ud + vadh] to destroy, kill Sn 4 (= ucchindanto vadhati SnA 18).


-- 3rd sg. Pot. of ubbahati [ud + bṛh1, see also abbahati] to draw out, tear out, remove Th 1, 158; Sn 583 (= ubbaheyya dhāreyya (?) SnA 460); J ii.223 (= udabbaheyya C.); vi.587 (= hareyya C.); aor. udabbahi Vin iv.5.


-- [fr. ud + i, cp. udeti] rise, growth; increment, in- crease; income, revenue, interest A ii.199; Ps i.34; Vv 847 (dhanɔatthika uddayaŋ patthayāna = ānisaŋsaŋ atirekalābhaŋ VvA 336); 8452; DhA ii.270; PvA 146 (ulār˚ vipāka), 273 (˚bhūtāni paca kahāpaṇa -- satāni labhitvā, with interest); Sdhp 40, 230, 258. -- See also uddaya.
-- attha rise and fall, birth & death (to attha2) M i.356; S v.197 sq., 395; A iii.152 sq.; iv.111, 289, 352; v.15, 25. -- atthika desirous of increase, interest or wealth (cp. above Vv 847 dhanɔatthika) A ii.199. -- bbaya (ud -- aya + vy -- aya) increase & decrease, rise & fall, birth & death, up & down D iii.223; S i.46 = 52 (lokassa); iii.130; A ii.90; iii. 32; iv.153; It 120; Vism 287; Ps i.54; ThA 90. -- vyaya = ˚bbaya S iv.140; A ii.15 (khandhānaŋ); Dh 113, 374 (khandhānaŋ, see DhA iv.110).


-- & udayanto ppr. of udeti (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. ud + i] going up, rise DA i.95.

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-- (nt.) [Vedic udara, Av udara belly, Gr. u(/steros = Lat. uterus belly, womb; Lith. vdaras stomach, See also Walde, Lat. Wtb. under vensica] -- 1 the belly, stomach D ii.266; Sn 78, 604, 609, 716; J i.146, 164, 265; Miln 213; PvA 283; KhA 57, 58; DhA i.47 (pregnant); Sdhp 102. -- 2. cavity, interior, inside Dāvs i.56 (mandir -- odare). -- ūndara with empty belly Th 1, 982; Miln 406, 407; cp. ūna.
-- aggi the fire of the belly or stomach (i. e. of digestion) KhA 59; SnA 462; PvA 33; -- vadehakaŋ (adv.) bhunjati to eat to fill the stomach, eat to satiety, to be gluttonous M i.102; A v.18; Th 1, 935; Vism 33. -- paṭala the mucous membrane of the stomach Vism 359 (= sarīr˚abbhantara 261); SnA 248; KhA 55, 61. -- pūra stomachfilling Vism 108. -- vaṭṭi "belly -- sack", belly Vin iii.39, 117; Vism 262 where KhA reads ud. paṭala). -- vāta the wind of the belly, stomach -- ache 9J i.33, 433; Vism 41 (˚ābādha); DhA iv.129.


-- (nt.) [fr. udara] the stomach Kh iii. (cp. KhA 57); Vism 258, 358. Cp sodariya.


-- 2nd sg. pot. of ud + assayati [ā + śri, cp. assaya] J v.26 (meaning to instal, raise?), expld. by C. as ussayāpesi (?) Reading may be faulty for udāsase (?).


-- [uda + hāraka] a water -- carrier J ii.80.


-- (adj.) [fr. udahāra fetching of water, uda + hṛ] going for water Vv 509.


-- [ud + ā + gacchati] to come to completion Da i.288. Cp sam.


udāna {U.da.na.}
-- (nt.) [fr. ud + an to breathe] -- 1. "breathing out", exulting cry, i e. an utterance, mostly in metrical form, inspired by a particularly intense emotion, whether it be joyful or sorrowful (cp. K. S. p. 29 n. 2) D i.50, 92; S i.20, 27, 82, 160; A i.67; J i.76; Pug 43, 62; Nett 174; PvA 67; Sdhp 514. -- The utterance of such an inspired thought is usually introduced with the standing phrase "imaŋ udānaŋ udānesi" i. e. breathed forth this solemn utterance [Cp. BSk. udānaŋ udānayati Divy 99 etc.], e. g. at Vin i.2 sq., 12, 230, 353; D i.47; ii.107 (udāna of triumph); S iii.55; Mhvs xix.29; DA i.140; Ud. 1 passim; SnA 354 ("the familiar quotation about the sakyas"). Occasionally (later) we find other phrases, as e. g. udānaŋ pavatti J i.61; abhāsi Vin iv.54; kathesi J vi. 38. -- 2. one of the angas or categories of the Buddhist Scriptures: see under nava & anga. -- Cp. vodāna.


-- [pp. of udāneti] uttered, breathed forth, said DhA iv.55.


-- [denom. f. udāna, cp. BSk. udānayati] to breathe out or forth, usually in phrase udānaŋ udānesi: see under udāna1. Absolutely only at J iii.218.


-- at J v.255 is uncertain reading (v. l. udapatvā, C. explns. reading udapatvā by uppatitvā = flying up), perhaps we should read udapatta flew up, pret. of ud + pat = Sk. *udapaptat (so Kern, Toev. s. v.).


-- at DA i.266 (udāyissati fut.) is hardly correct; D i.96 has here udrīyissati (q. v.), which belongs to darati to break, tear etc., udāyati could only belong to dāyāti meaning to cut, mow, reap. but not to split etc. DA i.266 explns. udāyissati with bhijjhissati. The difficulty is removed by reading udrīyissati. To v. l. undriyati cp. ˚undriya for ˚uddaya (dukkh˚ for dukkhudraya see udraya). We find udāyati once more at Vism 156 in expln. of ekodi where it is evidently meant for udeti (Caus. = uṭṭhapeti).


-- (adj.) [Sk. udāra, of which the usual P. form is ulāra (q. v.). Cp. BSk. audāra & audārika.] raised, sublime, noble, excellent Dāvs iii.4 (samussit -- odāra -- sitātapattaŋ); DA i.50 (˚issariya); Sdhp 429, 591.


-- [pp. of udāvattate, ud + ā vattati] retired, de- sisting J v.158 (= udāvattitva nivattitva C).


-- (adj.) [ud + āsīna, pp. of ās to sit; lit. sit apart, be indifferent] indifferent, passive, neutral DhsA 129.


-- [pp of udāharati] uttered, spoken; called, quoted Pug 41.


-- (nt.) [fr. udāharati] example, instance J iii.401 (˚ŋ āharitvā dassento), 510; Miln 345; SnA 445; VvA 297.


-- [ud + ā + hṛ] to utter, recite. speak. Sn 389; J iii.289; DA i.140 (see udāhāra). -- pp udāhaṭa (q. v.). Cp. pariy˚.


-- [fr. udāharati] utterance, speech DA i.140 (˚ŋ udāhari = udānaŋ udānesi); Pug A 223,


-- (indecl.) [uta + āho, cp. P. uda & aho and Sk. utāro] disjunctive -- adversative particle "or", in direct questions D i 157; ii.8; Sn 599, 875, 885; J i.20, 83; VvA 258 (= ādu); PvA 33, 51; Miln 10. -- The first part of the question is often introduced with kiŋ, while udāhu follows in the second (disjunctive) part, e. g. kin nakkhattaŋ kīḷissasi udāhu bhatiŋ karissasi VvA 63; kiŋ amhehi saddhiŋ āgamissasi udāhu pacchā will you come with us or later? DhA ii.96: See under kiŋ. -- Often combd with other expletive particles, e. g. udāhu ve Sn 1075, 1077; udāhu no Sn 347; eva . . . no udāhu (so . . . or not) D i.152; (ayaŋ) nu kho -- udāhu (ayaŋ) is it (this) -- (this) Vism 313.


-- (or udī) is artificial adj. formn. fr. udeti, meaning "rising, excelling", in expln. of ekodi at Vism 156 (udayatī ti udi uṭṭhapetī ti attho).


-- [ud + īkṣ, Sk. udīkṣate] -- 1. to look at, to survey. to perceive Vin i.25 (udiccare, 3sd. pl. pres. med.); J v.71, 296; Vv 8121 (aor. udikkhisaŋ = ullokesiŋ VvA 316); Dāvs ii 109; Sdhp 308. -- 2. to look out for, to expect J i.344; VvA 118. -- 3. to envy Miln 338.


-- [n. ag. of udikkhati] one who looks for or after D iii 167.


udicca {U.dic~sa.}
-- (adj.) [apparently an adjectivised ger. of udeti but distorted from & in meaning = Sk. udac, f. udīcī northern, the north] "rising", used in a geographical sense of the N. W. country, i. e. north -- westerly, of north -- western origin (cp. Brethren 79, Miln trsln. ii.45 n. 1) J i.140, 324, 343, 373; Miln 236. -- See also uddiya.


-- 3sd. pl. pres. med. of udikkhati (q. v.).


-- [pp. of ud -- i, see udeti] risen, high, elevated Miln 222; (˚odita); Dāvs iv.42; Sdhp 14 (of the sun) 442 (˚odita).


-- [pp. of vad, see vadati] spoken, proclaimed, uttered Vuttodaya 2 (quoted by Childers in Khuddaka -- pātha ed. 1869, p. 22).


-- (nt.) [fr. udīreti] utterance, saying J v.237; Dhs 637, 720; Miln 145.


-- [pp. of udīreti] uttered J iii.339; v.394 = 407.


-- [ud + īreti, cp. in meaning īrita] -- 1. to set in motion, stir up, cause J iii.441 (dukkhaŋ udīraye Pot. = udīreyya C.); v.395 (kalahaŋ to begin a quarrel). -- 2. to utter, proclaim, speak, say S i.190; Sn 632 (pot. ˚raye = bhāseyya SnA 468); Dh 408 (giraŋ udīraye = bhāseyya DhA iv.182); J v.78 (vākyaŋ); Pass. udīyati (uddiyyati = Sk. udīryate) Th 1, 1232 (nigghoso).


-- (adj.) [= *ṛtu? cp. utu & uju] straight, upright, in ˚mano straight -- minded D iii.167, 168 (= uju˚ in v. l. and expln. by C.).

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-- (m. & nt.) [Sk. ulukhala] a mortar Vin i.202 (+ musala pestle); J i.502; ii.428; v.49; ii.161, 335; Ud 69 (m; + musaḷa); DhA ii.131 (˚sala); Vism 354 (in comp.). The relation between udukkhala and musala is seen best from the description of eating at Vism 344 and DA i.200, where the lower teeth play the role of ud., the upper teeth act as m., while the tongue takes the part of a hand. On this passage & other connections as well as etym. see Morris J.P.T.S. 1893, 37.


-- (f.) [fr. udukkhala] part of a door (threshold?) Vin ii.148 (+ uttara -- pasaka lintel of a door).


udumbara {U.doam~ba.ra.}
-- [Sk. udumbara] the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata D ii.4; Vin iv.35; A iv.283 (˚khādika), 283 (id.), 324 (id.); Sn 5; DhA i.284; SnA 19; KhA 46, 56; VvA 213. Cp. odumbara.


-- (ud + eti of i to go] to go out or up, to rise (of the sun), to come out, to increase Asl. 169; Vism 156 (eko udetī ti ekodi); J ii.33; iii.324; ppr. udayaŋ It 85 (ādicco), & udayanto PvA 154 (udayante suriye = sole surgente). -- pp. udita (see udita1). Cp. udicca & udi.

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udda {OAd~da.}
-- [Vedic udra, to uda2 water, lit. living in water; Cp. Gr. u(/dros "hydra"; Ohg. ottar = Ags. otor = E. otter; Lith. dra = Obulg. vydra otter] an aquatic animal, the otter (?) Childers s. v. doubts the identity of this creature with the regular otter, since it lives in the jungle. Is it a beaver -- Vin i.186 (˚camma otter -- skin, used for sandals); Cp. i.102 (˚pota); J iii.51 sq., 335. The names of two otters at J iii.333 are Gambhīra -- cārin and Anutīra -- cārin.


udda {OAd~da.}
-- [for uda2?] water, in passage amakkhito uddena, amakkhito semhena, a. ruhirena i. e. not stained by any kind of (dirty) fluid D ii.14; M iii.122.


uddaṇḍa {OAd~dN~a.}
-- [ud + daṇḍa] a kind of building (or hut), in which the sticks stand out (?) Nd1 226 = Nd2 976 (uṭanda) = Vism 25 (v. l. BB uṭṭanda).


-- [a (metric?) variant of udaya] gain, advantage, profit Vv 847 (see udaya); J v.39 (satt˚ -- mahāpaduma of profit to beings?).


-- in compounds dukkh˚ and sukh˚. see udraya.


-- [= udda + lomin beaver -- hair -- y ] a woollen coverlet with a fringe at each end D i.7 (= ubhato dasaŋ uṇṇā -- mayɔ attharaṇaŋ; keci ubhato uggata -- pupphaŋ ti vadanti DA i.87); A i.181. See however uddha -- lomin under uddhaŋ.


-- [ud + dasseti, Caus. of dassati1] to show, reveal, point out, order, inform, instruct D ii.321 sq.; M i.480 (read uddassessāmi for conjectured reading uddisissāmi?); ii.60 (v. l. uddiset˚) A iv.66.


uddāna {OAd~da-na.}
-- (nt.) [fr. ud + , dayati to bind: see under dāma] a group of Suttas, used throughout the Vinaya Piṭaka, with ref. to each Khandhaka, in the Saŋyutta, the Anguttara and other books (cp. Miln 407) for each group of about ten Suttas (cp. DhsA 27). The Uddāna gives, in a sort of doggerel verse, at the end of each group, the titles of the Suttas in the group. It may then be roughly rendered "summary". If all the Uddānas were collected together, they would form a table of contents to the whole work. -- Otherwise the word has only been found used of fishes "macchuddāna" (so J ii.425; DhA ii.132). It then means a group of fish placed apart for for sale in one lot. Perhaps a set or a batch would meet the case.


-- [*udvāpa] foundation of a wall, in stock phrase daḷh˚ etc. D iii.101; S v.194 = also at J vi.276 (= pākāra -- vatthu C.). Kern, Toev. s. v. refers it to Sk. ud -- vapati to dig out, and translates "moat, ditch". The meaning "wall" or "mound" however harmonises quite well with the der. fr. "digging", cp. E. dike > Ger. Teich. See also uddāma 2.


-- (adj.) [fr. uddāpa] having a wall or embank- ment S ii.106 (v. l. uddhā˚); C. expls. as apato uggatattā J iv.536 (so read with v. l. for T. uddhā pavatta; C. expls. as tīra -- mariyādā -- bandhana).


-- [fr. ud + as in uddāna, see dāma] 1. (adj.) "out of bounds", unrestrained, restless Dāvs v.56 (˚sāgara). -- 2. (n.) wall, enclosure (either as "binding in", protecting or as equivalent of uddāpa fr. ud + vam "to throw up" in sense of to throw up earth, to dig a mound = udvapati) in phrase aṭṭāla -- uddāma -- parikhdīni watchtowers, enceintes, moats etc. DhA iii.488.


-- [?] some wild animal J v.416 (reading uncertain, expln. ditto).

UKT: UHS gives uddāra {OAd~da-ra.}
- UHS-PMD0206

UKT from UHS: a juvenile of a small insect which you can hardly see, e.g. {n:hpya.} 'nymph of head lice'
   See my note on human-head-lice and compare the sizes of a human-hair, the egg, the nymph, and the adult.


-- = uddālaka, only as Np. J iv.298 sq.


-- [fr. ud + dal, see dalati] the Uddāla tree, Cassia Fistula (also known as indīvara), or Cordia Myxa, lit. "uprooter" Vv 67 (= vātaghātako yo rājarukkho ti pi vuccati VvA 43); J iv.301 (˚rukkha), 440; v.199 (= vātaghātaka C.), 405; vi.530 (so read for uddh˚); VvA 197 (˚puppha = indīvara); PvA 169.


-- (adj.) [fr. uddālana > ud + dāleti] referring to destruction or vandalism, tearing out Vin iv.169.


-- [ud + dāleti, Caus. of dal, see dalati] to tear out or off Vin iv.170; S iv.178.


-- [pp. of uddisati] -- 1. pointed out, appointed, set out, put forth, proposed, put down, codified M i.480 (paha); Sn p. 91 (id. = uddesa -- mattenɔ eva vutta, na vibhangena SnA 422); SnA 372. -- 2. appointed, dedicated J v.393 (an ˚ŋ pupphaŋ = asukassa nāma dassāmī ti); PvA 50; KhA 138.


-- (adj.) [Sk. udīcya?] northern, northwestern (i. e. Nepalese) J iv.352 (˚kambala) in expln. of uddiyāna [Sk. udīcīna?]. See udicca & cp. Morris in J.P.T.S. 1889, 202, and last not least Lders in K. Z. 1920 (vol. 49), 233 sq. The word is not sufficiently cleared up yet.


-- [ud + disati] -- to propose, point out, ap- point, allot Dh 353, cp. DhA iv.72; Miln 94 (satihāraŋ); fut. uddisissati M i.480 (ex conj., is probably to be changed to uddassessati, q. v.). -- 2. to specify PvA 22 (aor. uddisi), 25 (= nīyādeti, dadāti), 27. -- Pass. uddissati to show oneself, to be seen Pv iii.212, and uddissiyati PvA 46. -- pp. uddiṭṭha (q. v.). -- Caus. II. uddisāpeti (q. v.). -- ger. uddissa (q. v.)


-- [Caus. II. of uddisati] -- 1. to make recite Vin i.47 = ii.224; iv.290. -- 2. to dedicate PvA 35 (v. l. ādisati).


-- (indecl.) [orig. ger. of uddisati] -- 1. indicating, with signs or indications J iii.354 = Miln 230. -- 2. prep w. acc.: (a) (lit.) pointing to, tending towards, towards, to PvA 250 Suraṭṭha -- visayaŋ). -- (b) (appld.) with reference to, on account of, for, concerning PvA 8 (pete), 17 (= ārabbha), 49 (ratanattayaŋ), 70 (maŋ), 146.
-- kata allotted to, specified as, meant for (cp. odissa & odissaka) Vin i.237 (maŋsa); ii.163; D i.166 = A i. 295 = Pug 55 (viz. bhikkhā); M i.77; KhA 222; J ii. 262, 263 (bhatta).


-- (nt.) [fr. uddissa] dedication PvA 27, 80.


-- (f.) [fr. ud + dīpeti] explanation, reasoning, argument Vism 27 (for ukkācanā).


-- Uddīyana ete. see udrī˚.

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-- [Sk. udreka, ud + ric] vomit, spouting out, erup- tion Vism 261 (where id. p. at KhA 61 reads uggāra); ˚ŋ dadāti to vomit Vin i.277.


-- (adj.) [uddeka + ana + ika] spouting, ejecting M ii.39 (maṇika; perhaps better to be read with v. l. as udajanika = udacanika fit for drawing up water).


-- [fr. uddisati] -- 1. pointing out, setting forth, proposition, exposition, indication, programme M iii.223 (u. uddiṭṭha), 239; S iv.299; SnA 422. -- 2. explanation S v.110 sq.; sa -- uddesa (adj.) with (the necessary) expln., point by point, in detail, D i.13, 81; iii.111; A iii.418; It 99; Nd2 6171. -- 3. samaṇuddesa one marked as a Samaṇa, a novice (cp. sāmaṇera) D i.151; M iii.128; A iv.343; uddesa -- bhatta special or specified food Vin i.58 = 96, cp. ii.175, propounding, recitation, repetition Vin i.50 = ii.228 (uddesena paripucchāya ovādena by recitation, questioning & advice); ii.219 (˚ŋ dadāti to hold a recitation + paripucchaŋ d); A iv.114 (+ paripucchā); v.50 sq. (paho, u. veyyākaraṇaŋ); Nd2 3852 (+ paripucchā); J i.116; Miln 257 (+paripucchā). ek'uddesa a single repetition Vin iii.47; A iii.67, 180; Miln 10, 18.


-- (adj.) [fr. uddesa] assigning, defining, determining, in bhatt˚ one who sorts out the food VvA 92.


-- (adj. nt.) [fr. uddesa] -- 1. indicating, referring to, respecting, defining; (nt.) indication, definition D ii. 100 (mam ˚bhikkhusangho); Miln 159 (id.); KhA 29. <-> Esp. as -- ˚ in phrase aṭṭha -- vass' uddesika -- kāla the time referring to (or indicating) the 8th year, i. e. at the age of 8 PvA 67; soḷasa -- vass˚ M i.88; J i.456; VvA 259. In the same application padesika (q. v.). -- 2. memorial J iv.228 (cetiya).


-- (adj.) [fr. ud + dih, see deha] "bubbling up", only adv. ˚ŋ in cpd. pheṇ˚ (paccamāna) boiling) under production of scum (foam) M iii.167; A i.141; J iii.46; Miln 357.


-- [Derivation uncertain. Cp. Mller P. Gr. 42] shed, stable (?) Vin i.140; ii.278; iii.200; iv.223.


-- (adj.) [possibly a combn. of aḍḍha2 & uddhaŋ; or should we read aḍḍh˚ or vuḍḍh˚?] in phrase uddhehi vatthehi in rich, lofty clothes J iv.154 (of a devatā; passage may be corrupt).


uddhaŋ {OAd~Dn}
-- (& uddha˚) (indecl.) [nt. of adj. *uddha = Sk. ūrdhva high; to Idg. *ared(h) as in Lat. arduus steep, or *ured as in Sk. vardhate to raise, Gr. o)rqo/s straight] high up, on top, above (adv. & prep.). -- On uddhaŋ in spatial, temporal, ethical & psychological application see in detail Nd2 155. -- I. (adv.). -- A. (of space) up, aloft, on top, above (opp. adho) Vin iii.121; KhA 248 (= upari). -- In contrast with adho (above > below) D i.23, 153, 251; Vism 176 (u. adho tiriyaŋ expld.); DA i.98 (see also adho). -- Esp. with ref. to the points of the compass as "in zenith" (opp. adho "in nadir"), e. g. at D i.222 ("straight up"); It 120; J i.20. <-> B. (of time) in future, ahead, hence Sn 894; Nd1 303 (u. vuccati anāgataŋ). -- II. (prep. with abl. & instr.). <-> A. (of space) in phrase uddhaŋ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā (above the soles & below the scalp) D ii. 293, 294; iii.104; A iii.323; v.109. -- B. (of time) after, hence Pv i.1012 (u. catūhi māsehi after 4 months = catunnaŋ māsānaŋ upari PvA 52); PvA 147 (sattahi vassa satehi u., meaning here 700 years ago, cp. ito in similar application, meaning both past & future), 148 (sattāhato u. after a week; uttari v. l. BB.). -- In cpds. uddha˚ & uddhaŋ˚ (see below). The reading udhogalaŋ at PvA 104 is to corrected to adho˚. -- III. Note (cp. Trenckner, Notes 60). In certain cases we find ubbhaŋ for uddhaŋ. Notice the foll.: ubbhaŋ yojanaŋ uggato J v.269; ubbhaṭṭhako hoti "standing erect" D i.167; M i.78; ubbhamukhu "mouth (face) upwards", turned upwards S iii.238; Miln 122.
(1) uddha˚ in: -- gāmin going upwards S v.370 sq. cchiddaka ( -- vātapānā) (windows) having openings above DhA i.211. -- pāda heels upwards either with adhosira (head down) A iv.133, or avansira Vv 5225 (v. l.); J i. 233. -- mukha turned upwards, adv. ˚ā upwards or backwards (of a river) Miln 295 (Gangā u. sandati; in same context ubbha˚ Miln 122). -- lomin "having hair on the upper side", a kind of couch or bed (or rug on a couch) Vin i.192 = ii.163, 169. So is prob. to be read for uddalomī (q. v.). -- virecana action of an emetic (lit. throwing up) (opp. adho -- virecana of a purgative) D i.12 (= uddhaŋ dosānaŋ nīharaṇaŋ DA i.98); DhA iii.126; SnA 86. -- suddha clean on top Vin ii.152. -- (2) uddhaŋ˚ in: -- āghātanika an after -- deather, a teacher who maintains that the soul exists after death D i.31, cp. DA i.119. -- pāda feet up (& head down) Vv 5225 (v. l. uddha˚). -- bhāgiya belonging to the upper part (opp. oram˚): see saŋyojana. -- virecana v. l. BB. at SnA 86 for uddha˚. -- sara(ŋ) (adv.) with raised or lofty voice, lit. "sounding high" Sn 901, see Nd1 315. -- sota (adj.) one who is going upwards in the stream of life [cp. BSk. ūrdhvasrotaḥ Mahāvy 46] D iii.237; S v.69, 201, 205, 237, 285, 314, 378; A i.233; ii.134; iv.14 sq., 73 sq., 146, 380; v.120; Dh 218; Th ii.12; Pug 17; Nett 190; DhA iii.289; lit. up -- stream at J iii.371.
-- UHS-PMD0216


-- [ud + dhaŋsati, in lit. meaning of dhvaŋs, see dhaŋsati] to fly out or up (of dust) Vv 784 na tatthɔ uddhaŋsati rajo; expld. by uggacchati VvA 304. -- pp. uddhasta (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [uddha + agga] -- 1. standing on end (lit. with raised point). bristling, of the hair of a Mahāpurisa D ii.18 = iii.144, 154. -- 2. prominent, conspicuous J iv.345 (˚rājin having prominent stripes, of a lion). <-> 3. pointing upwards (of the lower teeth, opp. adhagga point -- downwards) J v.156 (= heṭṭhima -- danta C.). <-> 4. lofty, beneficial (of gifts) A ii.68 (dakkhiṇā); iii.46 (id.) see also uddhaggika.


-- (adj.) [cp. uddhagga) aiming at or resulting in a lofty end, promoting spiritual welfare, beneficial (of gifts) D i.51 = iii.66; S i.90; A iii.259; DA i.158.


-- (nt.) [substantivised ger. of ud -- dharati, ud + dhṛ, cp. uddhaṭa & uddhata. The BSk. auddhatya shows a strange distortion. BSk. uddhava seems to be also a substitute for uddhacca] over -- balancing, agitation, excitement, distraction, flurry (see on meaning Dialogues i.82; Dhs trsln. 119; Cpd. 18, 45, 83). A i.256, 282; iii.375, 421, 449; iv.87; v.142, 145, 148; D iii.234; S v.277 sq.; DhSA 260; SnA 492 (in sense of "haughtiness"? for Sn 702 uṇṇata); Nd1 220, 501; Ps i.81, 83; ii.9, 97 sq.; 119, 142, 145, 169, 176; Pug 18, 59; Dhs 427, 429 (cittassa), 1159, 1229, 1426, 1482; Vbh 168, 369, 372, 377; Vism 137, 469 (= uddhata -- bhāva); Sdhp 459. Together with kukkucca "flurry or worry" u. is enumd. as the 4th of the 5th nīvaraṇa's and as the 9th of the 10 saŋyojana's (q. v.), e. g. at D i.71, 246; iii.49, 234, 269, 278; S i.99; A i.3; iii.16; v.30; Nd2 379; Dhs 1486.


-- (adj.) [uddhaŋ + ja] upright, honest M i.386 (v. l. for pannadhaja).


-- [pp. of uddharati2; see also uddhata, uddhita & uddhacca] -- 1. pulled out J ii.26. -- 2. pulled out, destroyed, extirpated, in phrase˚ dāṭha with its fangs removed (of a snake) J i.505; ii.259; vi.6. -- 3. cut off or out Miln 231 (uddhaṭ -- uddhaṭe ālope whenever a piece is cut off). -- 4. drawn out, lifted out, raised J i.143; sass˚kāle at the time of lifting the corn; v.49 (˚paŋsu). Cp. uddhaṭa -- bīja castrated J ii.237.


-- [pp. of uddharati1; as to its relation to uddhaṭa see remarks under uddhacca]. -- 1. lifted up, raised, risen, high (of the sun, only in this special phrase u. aruṇo) Vin ii.236; Ud 27 (vv. ll. uggata & uddhasta). <-> [p137] 2. unbalanced, disturbed, agitated, shaken S i.61 (+ unnaḷa "muddled in mind & puffed up" trsl.), 204 (id.) v.112 (līnaŋ cittaŋ uddhataŋ c.), 114 = Vism 133, 269; A ii.23; iii.391; v.93 sq., 142, 163; It 72; Th 2, 77 (so read with v. l., T. has uddhaṭa; ThA 80 explns. as nānɔ ārammaṇe vikkhitta -- citta asamāhita); Nd2 433 (+ avūpasanta -- citto); Pug 35 (= uddhaccena samannāgata Pug A 217). -- an˚ well balanced, not shaken, calm, subdued M i.470; A ii.211; v.93 sq., 104; Sn 850 (= uddhaccavirahita SnA 549); Dh 363 (= nibbutacitto DhA iv.93); J v.203; Vv 648. -- See also ubbhata.

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-- (nt.) [*ud -- dhvana, fr. ud + dhvan instead of dhmā, for uddhamana (*uddhmāna Sk.), see dhamati] an oven J i.33, 68, 71, 346; ii.133, 277; iii.178, 425; v.385, 471; ii.218 (kammār˚), 574; Sn p. 105; Miln 118, 259; Vism 171, 254; DhA i.52, 224; ii.3; iii.219 (˚panti); iv.176.


-- [ud + dhamma] false doctrine Dpvs v.19.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. uddharati] -- 1. taking up, lifting, raising Miln 307 (sass˚ -- samaya the time of gathering the corn; to uddharati 1. but cp. in same meaning uddhaṭa from uddharati 2). DA i.192. -- 2. pulling or drawing out (cp. uddharati 2) Vin iii.29. See also ubbahati2.


uddharati {OAd~Da.ra.ti.}
-- [ud + dharate of dhṛ] -- 1. (in this meaning confused with ubbharati from bṛh, cp. interchange of ddh & bbh in uddha: ubbha, possibly also with bṛh: see abbahati and cp. ubbahati1). (a) to raise, rise, lift up; hence: to raise too much, overbalance, shake etc.: see pp. uddhata (*udbhṛta) & cp. uddhacca & uddharaṇa. -- (b) to take up, lift, to remove, take away D i.135 (baliŋ uddhareyya raise a tax); M i.306 (hiyaŋ); J i.193 (aor. poet. udaddhari = uddharitvā kaḍḍhitvā pavaṭṭesi C.); VvA 157. -- Caus. uddharāpeti Vin ii.180, 181; J vi.95. -- 2. to pull out, draw out (syn. with abbahati, q. v. for comparison) D i. 77 (ahiŋ karaṇḍā uddhareyya, further on ahi k. ubbhato) PvA 115 (= abbahati); imper. uddharatha J ii.95 (for abbaha); Dh 327 (attānaŋ duggā); aor. uddhari J iii.190 (ankena); cond. uddhare Th 1, 756; ger. uddharitvā D i.234; Nd1 419; SnA 567; DhA iv.26; PvA 139, & (poet.) uddhatvā J iv.406 (cakkhūni, so read for T. laddhatva cakkhūni = akkhīni uddharitvā C.). -- pp. uddhaṭa & ubbhata.


-- īn an˚ Sn 952 see under niṭṭhurin.


-- see uddhasta.


-- [pp. of uddhaŋseti, see dhaŋsati & cp. anuddhaŋ seti] attacked, perhaps "spoilt" (smothered!) in combn. with pariyonaddha (covered) at A i.202 (T. uddhaseta, expld. by upari dhaŋsita C.); ii.211 (vv. ll. uddhasotā for ˚etā & uddhaŋso). -- Registered with an˚ as anuddhasta in Index vol. to A, should however be read as anuddhasta (q. v.). Cp. also viddhasta.


uddhāra {OAd~Da-ra.}
-- (& ubbhāra in Vin.; e. g. ii.255, cp. 256 where ubbhata unterchanges with uddhāra) [fr. uddharati1] <-> 1. taking away, withdrawal, suspension, in kaṭhin˚ (q. v.) Vin i.255 sq.; iii.262; iv.287; v.177 sq. -- 2. a tax, levy, debt, in phrase ˚ŋ sodheti (so read for sādheti loc. cit.) to clear up a debt J ii.341; iii.106; iv.45, 247. uddhāra -- sodhana (v. l. sādh˚) the clearance of a debt J ii.341. -- 3. synopsis or abstract Dpvs v.37 (atth˚ of the meaning of the Vin.); SnA 237 (atth˚ + pad˚).


-- at J vi.530 is to be read uddālaka.


-- [a by -- form of uddhaṭa] pulled out, destroyed, extirpated, removed J vi.237 (˚pphala = uddhaṭa -- bīja C.).


uddhunāti {OAd~Du.na-ti}
-- [ud + dhunāti] to shake VvA 279.


-- (adj.) [pp. of uddhumāyati] swollen, bloated, risen (of flour) A i.140; Sn 200 (of a corpse); SnA 100 sq., 171; DA i.114. Cp. next.


uddhumātaka (adj.)
-- [prec. + ka] swollen, bloated, puffed up M i.88 (of a corpse; + vinīlaka); Vism 178, 193 (id.); J i.164 (udaraŋ ˚ŋ katvā), 420 (˚nimitta appearance of being blown up); Miln 332; DhA i.307. See also subha & asubha.
-- saā the idea of a bloated corpse A ii.17; Dhs 263; Miln 331; cp. Dhs trsln. 69.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. uddhumāta] swollen con- dition Vism 178.


-- [ud + dhmā, see dhamati & remarks on uddhacca] to be blown up, to swell up, rise; aor. ˚āyi J iii.26; VvA 76; ger. ˚ājitvā J ii.18; DhA i.126. -- pp. uddhumāta & ˚āyita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. uddhumāyati] puffing, blowing or swelling up J iv.37.


-- (adj.) [cp. uddhumāyita] like blowing or swelling up, of blown -- up appearance M i.142 sq.


-- [pp. of uddhumāyati] swollen, bloated, puffed up VvA 218.


udrabhati {U.dra.Ba.ti.}
-- [? doubtful in form & etym.] to eat M i.306 (upacikā bījaŋ na udrabheyyuŋ; vv. ll. on p. 555: udrah˚, udah˚, udāh˚, uddhah˚, uṭṭhah˚; udraheyyun ti khādeyyuŋ C. (udrabhāsane, Dhātum.)). -- Note. The Dhātupāṭha, 212, and the Dhātu -- majūsā, 311, explain udrabha by adane, eating.
-- UHS-PMD0218

UKT from UHS: to eat
Note: I wonder why PTS and UHS have udra only after uddhu. Does Pali udra have a Sanskrit counterpart as udra? Is it similar to Pali {km~ma.} Skt कर्म karma.? If the answer is 'yes', then the pronunciation of {U.dra.Ba.ti.} would have to be /{OAd~da.Ba.ti.}/. My questions become moot when we remember that Romabama is not all transcription, but transliteration as well in accordance with our Bur-Myan saying: What is spelled must be correct, what is said is just sound. See below also where it is stated that "BSk. usually renders P. dd by dr." The second point to remember is Pali is not as rhotic as Sanskrit, and whenever we find a rhotic syllable we should try to find if it could be made nonrotic. I am waiting for input from my peers. -- UKT111225


-- (& uddaya) ( -- ˚) [perhaps a bastard form of uddaya = udaya yielding etc. The BSk. usually renders P. dd by dr. If so, then equal to adaya & uddaya1] coming forth, result, consequence. Usually in foll. two phrases: dukkh˚ (yielding pain) & sukh˚ (giving pleasure); e. g. as dukkh˚ at M i 415; J iv.398; v.119 (v. l. ˚indriya); Pv i.1110 (so read for T. ˚andriya, cp. undriyati as v. l. for udāyati); Ps ii.79 (kammaŋ); as sukh˚ at J v.389 (v. l. ˚indriya); DhA ii.47 (˚uddaya). Both dukkh˚ & sukh˚ at Ps i.80. Besides these in foll. combns.: kaṭuk˚ causing bitterness J v.241; sa˚ with (good or evil) consequences S ii.29; M i.271.


  (& uddīyati) [cp. Sk. ud dīryate, Pass of ud + dṛ, dṛṇōti, and P. darati & dalati; see also avadīyati which may be a Sanskritised oddīyati for uddīyati] to burst, split open, break, fall to pieces Vin i.148 (vihāro udriyati); ii 174 (id); iv.254 (i); D i.96 (˚īyissati = bhijjhissati DA i 96, so read for udāyati); S i 113, 119.


-- & uddīyana (nt.) [fr. udrīyati] breaking or splitting open, bursting J i.72; DhA ii.7 (˚sadda), 100 (paṭhavī -- uddīyana -- sadda; vv. ll. uddri˚, udri˚).

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undura {OAn~du.ra.}
-- [etym ?] a rat Vin i.209; ii.148, 152; iii.151; J i.120; Miln 23, 363. Spelt undūra at Vism 62.


-- [pp. of ud, unatti & undati, see udaka] in phrase pīti -- vegenɔunna "bubbling up with the excitement of joy", overflowing with joy Mhvs 19, 29 (expld. by uggatacitta i. e. lofty, exalted C.). -- It may however be better & more in keeping with Pāli word -- formation as well as with meaning & interpretation to explain the word as ud + na, taking ˚na as abs. (base) -- form of nam, thus lit. "bent up", i. e. raised, high, in meaning of unnata. Cp. the exactly similar formation, use & meaning of ninna = ninnata. Thus unna / ninna would correspond to unnata / ninnata.


-- [etym.?] a species of perfume J vi 537 (gloss kuṭantaja).


-- (adj.) [ud + nangala, on meaning of ud in this case see ud] in phrase ˚ŋ karoti, according to Morris, J P T S 1887, 120 "to make an up -- ploughing, to turn up etc.", but more aptly with C. on J vi.328 to make [p138] "out -- plough" (not "up -- plough") in sense of out -- of -- work, i. e. to make the people put their ploughs (or work in general) away and prepare for a festival; to take a holiday. A typical "Jātaka" -- phrase; J i.228; ii.296, 367; iii. 129, 414; iv.355; vi.328; DhA iii.10.

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-- [pp. of unnamati. Besides this form we find uṇṇata in fig. special meaning, q. v.] raised, high, lofty, in high situation (opp. oṇata) Pv iv.66 (= sāmin PvA 262); J i.71; ii369; vi 487; Miln 146, 387; DA i.45 See also unnaḷa.


-- (f) [fr. unnamati; cp. uṇṇati] rising, lifting up, elevation Miln 387 (˚avanati).


-- [ud + nadati] to resound, shout out, roar J i.110; ii 90; iii.271, 325; Miln 18; aor. unnadi J i 74; Miln 13. -- Caus. unnādeti (q. v.).


-- [fr ud + nam; cp. also uṇṇama in fig. meaning] rising ground, elevation, plateau Kh vii.7 = Pv i.57 (= thala unnata -- padesa PvA 29); Miln 349; DA i.154.


-- [ud + namati, see uṇṇamati in fig. meaning] to rise up, ascend Miln 117 (oṇamati +); Vism 306. -- Caus. unnāmeti (q. v.). -- pp. unnara & uṇṇata (q. v.).


-- & unnaḷa (adj.) [Bdhgh. has ud + nala; but it is either a dissimilated form for *ullala (n > l change freq., cp. P. nangala > lāngala; nalāṭa > lalaṭa) from ud + lal to sport, thus meaning "sporting, sporty, wild" etc.; or (still more likely) with Kern, Toev. s. v. a dial. form of unnata P. uṇṇata, although the P. Commentators never thought of that. Cp. with this the BSk. unnata in same stock phrase uddhata unnata capala M Vastu i.305, and the Marathic Prk. mula = Sk. mṛta, Pischel, Gr. 244. To these may be added P. celakedu > cetakedu J vi.538] showing off, insolent, arrogant, proud, haughty, in phrase uddhata unnaḷa capala M i.32; S i.61 = 204 (trsld. as "muddled in mind, puffed up, vain", expld. as uggata -- nala uddhaṭa -- tuccha -- māna K. S. 318); A i.70, 266; ii.26; iii 199, 355, 391; It 113 (+ asamāhita); Dh 292 (+ pamatta; expld. as "māna -- naḷaŋ ukkhipitvā caraṇena unnala" DhA iii.452); Th 1, 634; Pug 35 (= uggatanaḷo tuccha -- mānaŋ ukkhipitvā ti attho PugA 217).


-- (f.) [ud + nah, see nayhati] flattering, tying or pushing oneself on to somebody, begging Vism 27.


-- [fr. ud + nad] shout, shouting J ii 405.


-- (adj.) [fr. ud + nad] shouting out; resounding, noisy, loud, tumultuous Vin iii.336; D i.95, 143, 178; J ii.216.


-- [Caus. of unnadati] to make resound J i.408 (paṭhaviŋ), ii.34.


-- (adj) [ud + nam in Caus. form] raising or rising; in combn. with ninnāmin raised & bent, high & low A iv.237 (of cultivated land).


-- (unn˚) [Caus. of unnamati] to raise DhsA 5; written uṇṇameti (with a for ā before mutes & liquids) at Sn 206 (inf. uŋṇametave).

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upa {U.pa.}
-- [Vedic upa; Av. upa on, up; Gr. u(po/ under, u(pe/r over; Lat. sub fr. *(e)ks -- upo; Goth. uf under & on; Ohg. ūf = Ags. up = E. up; Oir. fo under. See also upari] prefix denoting nearness or close touch (cp. similarly ā), usually with the idea of approach from below or rest on top, on, upon, up, by. -- In compn. a upa is always contracted to upa, e. g. devūpaṭṭhāna, lokpaga, pupatthambhita. -- Meanings: (1) (Rest): on upon, up -- : ˚kiṇṇa covered over; ˚jīvati live on (cp. anu˚); ˚tthambhita propped up, sup -- ported; ˚cita heaped up, ac -- cumulated; ˚dhāreti hold or take up; ˚nata bent on; ˚nissaya foundation; ˚nissita depending on etc. -- (2) (Aim): (out) up to (the speaker or hearer); cp. the meanings developed out of this as "higher, above" in upara, upari, upama = Lat. superus, supremus E. g. ˚kaḍḍhati drag on to; ˚kappati come to, accrue; ˚kappana ad -- ministering; ˚kāra service to; ˚kkhata administered; ˚gacchati go to, ap -- proach (cp. uptigacchati); ˚disati ad -- vise; ˚dhāvati run up to: ˚nadati to sound out; ˚nikkhamati come out up to; ˚nisevita gone on to or after; ˚neti bring on to; etc. -- (3) (Nearness): close by, close to, near, "ad -- "; e. g. ˚kaṇṇaka close to the ear; ˚cāra ap -- plication; ˚ṭṭhāna at -- tending; ṭṭhita ap -- proached; ˚tiṭṭhati stand by, look after; ˚dduta urged; ˚nāmeti place close to; ˚nibandhati tie close to; ˚nisīdati sit close to or down by. -- (4) (Intensive use): quite, altogether, "up"; e. g. ˚antika quite near; ˚chindati cut up. -- (5) (Diminutive use as in Lat. subabsurdus; Gr. u(po/leukos whitish; Oir. fo -- dord; Cymr. go -- durdd murmur): nearly, about, somewhat, a little, secondary, by -- , miniature, made after the style of, e. g. ˚aḍḍha about half; ˚kacchaka like a little hollow; ˚kaṇḍakin (= ˚paṇḍukin? whitish); ˚deva a minor god; ˚nibha somewhat similar to; ˚nila bluish; upapurohita minor priest; uparajja viceroyalty; upalohitaka, uparopa; ˚vana a little forest. etc. Note. The nearest semantie affinity of upa is ā˚.


-- ( -- ˚) [for ˚upaga] found only in combn. kulpaka where second k stands for g. through assimilation with first k. Only with ref. to a bhikkhu = one who frequents a certain family (for the purpose of getting alms), a family friend, associate Vin i.192, 208; iii.84; S ii.200 sq.; A iii.258 sq.; Nd2 3851; Pv iii.85; PvA 266. -- f. kulpikā (bhikkhunī) Vin ii.268; iv.66. -- Sporadic in gayhūpaka (for ˚paga) at J iv.219.


-- (˚ -- ) [upa + kacchā2] only in combn. with ˚antare lit. "in between the hips or loins or arm -- pits", in 3 phrases (cp. Kern, Toev. ii.140 s. v.), viz. upakacchantare katvā taking (it) between the legs J i.63, 425, khipitvā throwing (it) into the armpits J v.211 & ṭhapetvā id. J v.46.


--[upa + kacchā + ka, cp. Sk. upakakṣa in diff. meaning] (1) [= upa + kaccha1 + ka] like an enclosure, adj. in the form of a hollow or a shelter J i.158. (2) [= upa + kacchā2 + ka] like the armpit, a hollow, usually the armpit, but occasionally it seems to be applied to the hip or waist Vin iii.39; iv.260 (pudendum muliebre); Miln 293; J v.437 (= kaccha2).


-- (adj.) [pp. of upa + karś to draw up or near to] approaehing, near J iv.213 (yāva upakaṭṭha -- majjhantikā till nearly noon). Usually in foll. two phrases: upakaṭṭhe kāle when the time was near, i. e. at the approach of meal time Vin iv.175; VvA 6, 294; and upakaṭṭhāya vasspanāyikāya as Lent was approaching Vin i.253; PvA 42; VvA 44. Cp. vūpakaṭṭha. -- loc. upakaṭṭhe as adv. or prep. "near, in the neighbourhood of" Nd2 639 (= santike); Dāvs v.41 (so read for upakaṇṭhe).


-- [upa + kaḍḍhati, cp. upakaṭṭha] to drag or pull on to (w. dat.), or down to D i.180 (+ apakaḍḍhati); iii.127 (id.); M i.365; S i.49; ii.99; Dh 311 (nirayāya = niraye nibbattapeti DhA iii.484).


-- at Dāvs v.41 is to be corrected to upakaṭṭha.


-- (Pv ii.113) see under uppaṇḍukin.


-- (˚ -- ) [upa + kaṇṇa] lit. (spot) near the ear, only in oblique cases or in der. ˚ka (q. v.) Th 1, 200 (upakannamhi close to the ear, under the ear).


-- (adj.) [upa + kaṇṇa + ka) by the ear, being at or on the ear of somebody, only in loc. as adv. upakaṇṇake secretly Vin i.237; ii.99; iv.20, 271; S i.86; A iii.57; SnA 186; and in cpd. ˚jappin one who whispers into the ear (of another), spreader of reports A iii. 136. Cp. kaṇṇajappaka & kaṇṇajappana.

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-- [upa + kappati] intrs.) to be beneficial to (w. dat.), to serve, to accrue S i.85; Pv i.44 (= nippajjati PvA 19); i.57 (petānaŋ); i.104 (= viniyujjati PvA 49); J v.350; PvA 8, 29 (petānaŋ), 27 (id.), 241; Sdhp 501, 504.


-- (nt.) [fr. upakappati] profit PvA 29 (dān˚), 49 (an˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. upakappana] profitable J i.398; DhA ii.133.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + kṛ] help, service, support; means of existence, livelihood D ii.340; A ii.86; J i.7; PvA 60 (commodities), 133 (˚manussa, adj. suitable, fit); Sdhp 69. In general any instrument or means of achieving a purpose, viz. apparatus of a ship J iv.165; tunnavaya˚ a weaver's outfit J ii.364; dabb˚ fit to be used as wood Vism 120; dān˚ materials for a gift PvA 105 (so read & cp. upakkhaṭa); nahān˚ bathing requisites VvA 248; vitt˚ luxuries A v.264 sq., 283, 290 sq.; PvA 71.


-- [upa + karoti] to do a service, serve, help, sup- port Th 2, 89 (aor. upakāsiŋ = anugaṇhiŋ santappesiŋ ThA 88). -- pp. upakkhaṭa (q. v.).


-- [fr. upa + kṛ, cp. upakaraṇa] service, help, be- nefit, obligation, favour D iii.187 sq.; VvA 68; PvA 8, 18 (˚āya hoti is good for); Sdhp 283, 447, 530. <-> bahpakāra (adj.) of great help, very serviceable or helpful S iv.295; PvA 114. upakāraŋ karoti to do a favour, to oblige PvA 42, 88, 159 (kata); katpakāra one to whom a service has been rendered PvA 116.
-- āvaha useful, serviceable, doing good PvA 86.


-- (adj.) [fr. upakāra] serviceable, helping, effec- tive J v.99; Vism 534. -- f. upakārikā 1. benefactress, helper J iii.437. -- 2. fortification (strengthening of the defence) on a city wall D i.105, see DA i.274 & cp. parikkhāra; M i.86 (= Nd2 1996). -- 3. (philosophy) = cause (that which is an aid in the persistence or happening of any given thing) Tikapaṭṭhāna i.11


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. upakāra; cp. ASk. upakārin Jtm. 3142] a benefactor J iii.11; DA i.187; Sdhp 540, 546.


-- [pp. of upakirati] strewn over with ( -- ˚), covered Vv 351 (rucak˚, so read for rājak˚; expld by okiṇṇa VvA 160).


-- (f.) [fr. upa + kr] implement, ornament J v.408.


upakūjati [upa + kūjati] to sing to (of birds) J iv.296 (kūjantaŋ u. = replies w. song to the singing). -- pp. upakūjita (q. v.).


-- ( -- ˚) [pp. of upakūjati] resounding, filled with the hum or song of (birds) J iv.359; PvA 154.


-- [upa + kūla] embankment, a river's bank, river- side J vi.26 (rukkhɔpakūlaje the trees sprung up at its bank).


-- [derivation uncertain] used of the nose in old age Th 2, 258 (jarāya paṭisedhikā viya says the commentary. Morris J.P.T.S. 1884, 74 trsls. obstructed; Mrs. Rh. D. in "Sisters" takes it for upakūḷita and trsls. seared and shrivelled. So also Ed. Mller J R A S. 1919. 538. This is probably right; but Oldenberg, Pischel and Hardy all read upakūlita.


-- [pp. of kūḍ, a variant of kuth, kvathati] singed, boiled, roasted J i.405 ("half -- roasted" = aḍḍhajjhāmaka C.). See also upakūsita.


-- at J ii.134 is perhaps faulty for ˚kūḷita, which is suggested by C. expln. "kukkule jhāmo" and also by v. l. ˚kuṭhita (for kuṭṭhita boiled, sweltering, hot). The variant (gloss) ˚kūjita may have the same origin, viz. ˚kūḷita, was however interpreted (v. l. BB.) by ˚kupita (meaning "shaken, disturbed by fire").

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-- see uppakka.


-- [pp. of upakkamati] 1. attacked by ( -- ˚) Miln 112. -- 2. attacking, intriguing or plotting against (loc.) DA i.140.


-- [fr. upa + kram] (1) lit. (a) going to, nearing, approach ( -- ˚) VvA 72. -- (b) attack Vin ii.195; Miln 157; DA i.69, 71. -- (2) applied (a) in general: doing, acting, undertaking, act S i.152 = Sn p. 126. -- (b) in special: ways, means, i. e. either good of helpful means, expedient, remedy Sn 575; Miln 151, 152; or bad or unfair means, treachery, plotting Th 1, 143; J iv.115 (punishment); Miln 135, 176.


-- [upa + kamati of kram] to go on to, i e. (1) to attack M i.86 = Ud 71. -- (2) to undertake Vin iii.110, 111. -- (3) to begin Vin iv.316; DA i.318.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + kram] going near to, attacking J iv.12.


-- [fr. upa + krī to buy] a buyer, hawker, dealer combd. with bhataka DhA i.119 = Ud 23 (C. expls. by "yo kahāpaṇdīhi kici kināti so upakkitako ti vuccati"); Ps ii.196 (? T. upakkhittaka).


-- [pp. of upa + klid or kliś, cp. kilesa & next] soiled, stained, depraved, impure S i.179; A i.207 (citta); Vism 13.


-- [fr. upa + kliś] anything that spoils or obstructs, a minor stain, impurity, defilement, depravity, Vin ii.295 (cp. SnA 487 & VvA 134 & see abbha); M i.36, 91; D iii.42 sq., 49 sq., 201; S v.92 sq. (paca cittassa upakkilesā), 108, 115; A i.10 (āgantuka), 207 (cittassa), 253 (oḷārika etc.); ii.53 (candima -- suriyānaŋ samaṇa -- brāhmaṇānaŋ), 67; iii.16 (jātarūpassa, cittassa), 386 sq.; iv.177 (vigatā); v.195; Ps i.164 (eighteen); Pug 60; Dhs 1059, 1136; Nett 86 sq., 94, 114 sq.; Sdhp 216, 225 (as upaklesa). Ten stains at Vism 633.


-- [pp. of upakkosati] blamed, reproached, cen- sured, faulty D i.113 (an˚); Sn p. 115 (id.); J iii.523; DA i.211.


-- [fr. upa + kruś] censure, reproach J vi.489.


-- [upa + kosati] to scold, reprove, blame D i. 161; J iii.436, 523; iv.81, 317, 409.


-- & ˚ta [pp. of upakaroti] done as a favour or service, given, prepared, administered D i.127 (= sajjita DA i.294); Pv ii.84 (= sajjita PvA 107); J vi.139; Miln 156.


-- [upa + khalati] to stumble, trip D ii.250; M ii.209; A iii.101; J iii.433.


-- (nt.) [fr. prec.] stumbling, tripping Vism 500.


-- at Ps ii.196 see upakk˚.


-- [upa + khandha] lit. upper (side of the) trunk, back, shoulder J iv.210 (= khandha C.).


-- (always as ˚paga) (adj.) [upa + ga] -- 1. going to, getting to, reaching, in phrases kāy˚, S ii.24; ākāsɔānacɔ āyatan˚ etc. Ps i.84; kāy˚ S ii.24; brahmalok˚ Pv ii.1319; yathākamm˚ D i.82. -- 2. coming into, experiencing, having, as vikappan˚ according to option Vin iv.283; phal˚ bearing fruit, & pupph˚ having flowers, in flower PvA 275. <-> 3. attached to, belonging to, being at J i.51 (hatth˚); VvA 12 (id. + pādpaga). -- 4. in phrase gayh˚ lit. "accessible to the grip", acquisition of property, theft J iv.219 (T. gayhpaka); Miln 325; DhA ii.29; PvA 4.

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-- [upa + gacchati] -- 1. to come to, go to, approach, flow to (of water) D ii.12; PvA 12 (vasanaṭṭhānaŋ), 29, 32 (vāsaŋ) 132; ger. ˚gantvā PvA 70 (attano santikaŋ), & ˚gamma S ii.17, 20. -- 2. to undergo, go (in) to, to begin, undertake Sn 152 (diṭṭhiŋ anupagamma); J i.106 (vassaŋ); PvA 42 (id.); J i.200; niddaŋ upagacchati to drop off into sleep PvA 43 (aor. upagacchi, MSS. ˚gachi), 105, 128. -- pp. upagata (q. v.).


-- (f.) [abstr. of upa + gṛh] taking up, keeping up. meditating Miln 37.


-- [upa + gaṇhāti] to take up (for meditation) Miln 38.


upagata {U.pa.ga.ta.}
-- [pp. of upagacchati] -- 1. gone to, come, ap- proached (intrs.) Sn 708 (āsan˚ = nisinna SnA 495); PvA 77 (santikaŋ), 78, 79 (petalokaŋ), 123. -- 2. undergoing, coming or come under, overpowered, suffering Nd2 under asita (= ajjhupagata in same conn. at A v.187); Pv i.1110 (khuppipās˚); PvA 60 (= abhibhūta).


-- UHS-PMD0220

UKT from UHS: approaches and then -
Note on Bur-Myan fossilized akshara {rw} :
   {rw} derived from {ru} pronounced as // /{rw.}/
I have translated this word as <then> to signify that what preceded is a subordinate clause to be followed by the main clause.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + gam] approaching, going or coming to, undergoing, undertaking Vin ii.97 (+ ajjhupag˚); Nett 27; Vism 600; PvA 42 (vass˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. upagamana] going to, one who goes to (with acc.) PvA 168 (= ˚upaga).


-- [pp. of upagaḷati] flowing out, spat or slobbered out J v.471 (˚khelo; v. l. paggharita).


-- (adj.) [fr. upa + gam, cp. ˚upaga] going to, undergoing, experiencing A ii.6 (jāti jar˚).


-- [upa + gūhati] to embrace J i.346, 349; ii.424; iii.437; v.157, 328, 384. -- ger. upaguyha J vi.300.


-- [pp. of next] scented, smelled, kissed J vi.543 (C. sīsamhi upasinghita).


-- [upa + ghrā, see ghāyati1] to smell at, in sense of "to kiss" J v.328 (also inf. upagghātuŋ).


-- [pp. of upaghaṭṭeti] knocked or knocking against J i.26 (v.179).


-- [fr. upa + (g)han, cp. ghāta] hurting, injuring, injury M iii.237; S ii.218; iv.323 sq.; A iii.173; Th 1, 583; Miln 274, 307, 347; DA i.273. an˚ not hurting others, kindness Dh 185.


-- (nt.) [fr. upaghāta] hurting DhA iii.237 (an˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. upaghāta] injuring, offending Vin ii.13.


-- (adj.) [fr. upaghāta] hurting, injuring J iii.523.


-- [fr. upa + ci, cp. caya & ācaya] heaping up, gathering, accumulation, heap. As t.t. with ref. to kamma "conservation", with ref. to body & form "integration". (See discussion & defin. at Cpd. 253; Dhs trsl. 195). <-> D i.76 (= odana = kummāsɔpacayo, see under kāya); Dhs 582, 642 (rūpassa u. = āyatanānaŋ ācayo), 864; Vbh 147, 151 sq.; Kvu 520; Nett 113; Vism 449; DA i.220; PvA 198 (but v. l. paccayassa preferable).


-- [upa + carati] to deal with, handle, use J vi. 180. -- pp. upaciṇṇa & upacarita (q. v.).


-- [pp. of upacarati] practised, served, enacted, performed Miln 359, 360.


-- [fr. upa + car] -- 1. approach, access Vin ii.120, 152; iv.304; J i.83, 172; DhsA 328 (phal˚). -- 2. habit, practice, conduct Vin ii.20 (dassan˚); SnA 140 (id.); J iii.280. -- 3. way, means application, use of (esp. of spells etc.) J iii.280 (mantassa); vi.180; Miln 153, 154 (dur˚ an evil spell); VvA 127 (gram. t.t. kāraṇ˚). -- 4. entrance, access, i. e. immediate vicinity or neighbourhood of ( -- ˚) J iv.182 (nagar˚); usually as gām˚ Vin i.109; iii.46; iv.230; KhA 77; SnA 83, 179. -- 5. attention, attendance Vin iv.272; J vi.180; Miln 154. -- 6. civility, polite behaviour J ii.56; vi.102. -- 7. On upacāra as philos, t.t. and its relation to appanā see Dhs trsln. 53, 54; Cpd. 55; Mystic p. xi. Thus used of samādhi (neighbourhood -- , or access -- concentration, distinguishing it from appanā -- samādhi) at Vism 85, 126, 144 and passim.


-- (f.) [connected with Sk. upadīkā, although the relation is not quite clear. Attempts at explns. by Trencker Notes 62 (*utpādikā > upatikā > upacikā) & Kern, Toev. p. 102 (upacikā = Vedic upajīka, this fr. upajihikā for ˚dihikā, vv. ll. upadehihā & upadīkā). It may however be a direct der. from upa + ci, thus meaning "making heaps, a builder"] the termite or white ant Vin ii.113, 148, 152; iii.151; M i.306; J iii.320; iv.331; Miln 363, 392; Vism 62, DhA ii.25; iii.15.


-- [pp. of upacarati] used, frequented, known (as value) J vi.180.


-- [pp. of upacināti] -- 1. heaped up, accumulated, collected, produced (usually of pua merit, & kamma karma) Sn 697; KhA 132; SnA 492; VvA 7, 271, 342; PvA 30, 150. -- 2. built up, conserved (of the body) Miln 232; DA i.220.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. upacita] storing up, accumulation Dhs 431.


-- [upa + ci] -- 1. to collect, heap up, accumulate (puaŋ or pāpaŋ) VvA 254; PvA 8, 241. -- 2. to concentrate, pay attention Th 1, 199 (C. upacetuŋ for ocetuŋ T.); J v.339 (= oloketi). -- Pass. upaciyyati Th 1, 807. -- pp. upacita (q. v.).


-- = uppacca (q. v.) "flying up" (= uppatitvā PvA 103) at Th 2, 248 (= ThA 205, where v. l. and gloss upecca & upacca, expld. by upanetvā), as well as at Pv ii.717 (= PvA 103 where read upaccha; & gloss upacca & upecca).


-- [upa + ati + agā of gam] 3rd sg. pret. of up- tigacchati (q. v.) to escape, pass, go by; to overcome Sn 333 (mā upaccagā = mā atikkami SnA 339) = Th 2, 5 (= mā atikkami ThA 12); Sn 636, 641, 827 (= accagā atikkanta Nd1 167); Dh 315, 412, 417 (= atikkanta DhA iv.225); Bu ii.43. -- pl. upaccaguŋ S i.35; A iii.311.


-- (?) in phrase "akkhīni upacciŋsu" at J vi.187 is probably faulty for apaciyiŋsu aor. of apaciyyati, Pass. of apacināti (cp. upaciyyati > upacināti) "the eyes failed", lost power, went bad; cp. apacaya falling off, diminution. If not this reading we should suggest upacchijjiŋsu from upacchindati "were destroyed", which however is not quite the sense wanted.


-- [upa + chindati] to break up or off, to destroy, interrupt, to stop Sn 972 (pot. ˚chinde); J iv. 127; Nd1 502; ThA 267; PvA 31 (kulavaŋso upacchijji aor. pass.); Vism 164, 676 (bhavangaŋ).


-- [pp. of upacchindati] cut off, interrupted J i. 477; Miln 306.


-- [upa + chubhati from kṣubh or chubh, see chuddha, khobha, nicchubhati, nicchodeti] to throw at M i.364 (vv. ll. ˚chumbh˚, ˚cubh˚).


upaccheda {U.pic~hs-da.}
-- [fr. upa + chid] breaking or cutting off, destruction, stoppage, interruption M i.245, 327 (pāṇ˚ murder); J i.67; Miln 134 (paveṇ˚ break of tradition) PvA 82 (kulavaŋs˚); DhA i.152 (āhār ˚ŋ karoti to prevent fr. taking food); DA i.136, 159.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. upaccheda] destroying, breaking off, stopping, interrupting J i.418 (vacan˚); iv.357; DA i.69 (jīvitɔ indriy˚); VvA 72 (id.).

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-- [upa + jānāti] to learn, acquire or have know- ledge of (w. gen. or instr.), to know Vin i.272 (saŋyamassa); ii.181 (gharāvāsɔatthena); A i.50 (dvinnaŋ dhammānaŋ upaāsin). -- fut. upaissati (& upaassati Sn 716) Sn 701, 716 (= upaayissati kathayissati SnA 498); J v.215. -- pp. upaāta (q. v.).


-- [upa + jīvati] to live on (w. acc.), to depend on, to live by somebody, to be supported by (acc.) D i.228; S i.217; Sn 612 sq.; Th 1, 943; J iii.309, 338; iv.271 (= anujīvati); Pv ii.950 (Ankuraŋ u. ti taŋ nissāya jīvanti PvA 134); Miln 231.


-- (adj.) [= upajīvin] Sdhp 501 (see next).


-- ( -- ˚) (adj. -- n.) [fr. upa + jīv] living on, sub- sisting by A ii.135 (phal˚); Sn 217 (para -- datt˚), J i.227 (vohār˚); iv.380; Pug 51; Miln 160 (Satth˚); VvA 141 (sipp˚). f. upajīvinī in rūp˚ (itthi) a woman earning her living by her beauty (i. e. a courtesan) Miln 122; PvA 46; cp. kiliṭṭha -- kamm˚ gaṇikā PvA 195.


-- (nt.) [upa + jūta] stake at game J vi.192.


-- see next.


-- [Vedic upādhyāya, upa + adhi + i, līt. "one who is gone close up to"] a spiritual teacher or preceptor, master. Often combd. with ācariya e. g. Vin i. 119; Nd1 350; the ācariya being only the deputy or substitute of the upajjhāya. Vin i.45, 53, 62, 120; iv. 130; S i.185; A ii.66, 78; iii.69; SnA 346; DhA ii.93; PvA 55, 60, 230. -- A short form of upajjhāya is upajjha, found in the Vinaya, e. g. at Vin i.94; iii.35; with f. upajjhā Vin iv.326.


-- [pp. of upajānāti] found out, learnt, known Vin i.40; J v.325, 368; A i.61.


-- [upa + aṭṭita, from ard, see aṭṭita] pained, terri- fied; overcome, overwhelmed J vi.82 (visavegena).


-- & ˚ṭṭhāpeti [Caus. II. of upaṭṭhahati] 1. to provide, procure, get ready, put forth, give Vin ii.210; D ii.19; M i.429; J i.266; iv.2; v.218; Pug 59, 68; Miln 15, 257, 366 (pānīyaŋ paribhojanīyaŋ), 397; DA i.270; Sdhp 356. -- 2. to cause to be present Vin i.45; S i.170; Pv iv.170. -- 3. to cause to be waited on or to be nursed A v.72 (gilānaŋ upaṭṭhātuŋ vā upaṭṭhāpetuŋ vā). -- 4. to keep (a servant) for hire Vin ii.267. <-> 5. to ordain Vin i.62, 83.


-- & ˚ṭṭhāti [upa + sthā, cp. upatiṭṭhati] 1 (trs.) to stand near or at hand (with acc.), to wait on, attend on, serve, minister, to care for, look after, nurse (in sickness) Vin i.50, 302; iv.326; M iii.25; S i.167; A iii.94; v.72; Sn 82 = 481 (imper. ˚ṭṭhahassu); J i.67 (ppr. ˚ṭṭhahamāna), 262 (ppr. ˚ṭṭhahanto); iv.131; v.396; Dpvs ii.16; PvA 19, 20. -- aor. upaṭṭhahi PvA 14, 42, 82. -- inf. upaṭṭhātuŋ A v.72; PvA 20. -- ger. upaṭṭhahitvā PvA 76. -- grd. upaṭṭhātabba Vin i.302; PvA 20. -- pp. upaṭṭhita (q. v.). -- 2. (intrs.) to stand out or forth, to appear, to arise, occur, to be present M i.104 sq.; A iv.32; J iv.203 (mante anupaṭṭhahante since the spell did not occur to him); v.207; Miln 64; ThA 258. <-> aor. upaṭṭhāsi J i.61; iv.3; PvA 42. -- Caus. I. upaṭṭheti; Caus. II. upaṭṭhapeti & ˚ṭṭhāpeti (q. v.). -- Pass. upaṭṭhīyati J iv.131 (ppr. ˚ṭṭhiyamāna), & upaṭṭhahīyati A iii.94 (ppr. ˚ṭṭhahiyamāna).


-- [fr. upa + sthā, cp. BSk. upasthāka M Vastu i.251, and upasthāyaka Divy 426; Av. Ś. i.214; ii.85, 112.] a servitor, personal attendant, servant, "famulus". Ānanda was the last u. of Gotama Buddha (see D i.206; Th 1, 1041 f.; ThA in Brethren loc. cit.; Vin i.179 (Sāgato u.), 194; ii.186; iii.66; iv.47; D i.150 (Nāgita); S iii.113; A i.121; iii.31, 189; J i 15, 100 (a merchant's); ii.416; Pug 28; DhA ii.93; VvA 149; PvA 211. -- agg˚ main follower, chief attendant D ii.6; gilān˚ an attendant in sickness, nurse Vin i.303; A i.26; sangh˚ one who looks after the community of Bhikkhus Vin i.216; A i.26; iii.39. -- dupaṭṭhāka & supaṭṭhāka a bad (& good) attendant Vin i.302.
-- kula a family entertaining (or ministering to) a thera or a bhikkhu, a family devoted to the service of (gen.) Vin i.83 (Sāriputtassa), 213; iii.62, 66, 67; iv.283, 286; VvA 120.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + sthā] -- 1. attendance, waiting on, looking after, service, care, ministering A i.151, 225; Sn 138; J i.226, 237, 291; ii.101; iv.138; vi.351. Ps i.107; ii.7 sq., 28, 230; PvA 104, 145 (paccekabuddhassa), 176; VvA 75 (ther˚); Sdhp 560. -- 2. worship, (divine) service D iii.188 sq. (˚ŋ gacchati); PvA 122. Buddh˚ attendance on a Buddha PvA 93; ThA 18. <-> 3. a state room J iii.257.
-- sambhāra means of catering, provisions PvA 20. -- sālā hall for attendance, assembly room, chapel [cp. BSk. upasthāna -- śālā Divy 207] Vin i.49, 139; ii.153, 208; iii. 70 (at Vesālī); iv.15, 42; D ii.119 (at Vesālī); S ii.280; v.321; A ii.51, 197; iii.298; DhA i.37, 38; iii.413.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + sthā] attendance, service Vin iv. 291.


-- [pp. of upaṭṭhahati or upatiṭṭhāti, cp. BSk. upa- sthita Divy 281, 342] -- 1. furnished provided, served, got ready, honoured with Sn 295 (˚asmiŋ yaasmiŋ); J v.173 (annena pānena); Pv i.52 (= sajjita paṭiyatta PvA 25); ii.98 (= payirupāsita PvA 116); PvA 132. <-> 2. come, come about, appeared, arrived; present, existing Sn 130 (bhattakāle upaṭṭhite when mealtime has come), 898; Dh 235; Miln 274; PvA 124 (dānakāle ˚e). <-> 3. standing up (ready), keeping in readiness M i.77; A ii.206; Sn 708 (= ṭhito C.); Pv ii.953 (ready for service, serving, waiting upon cp. PvA 135.
-- sati with ready attention, one whose attention is fixed, concentrated Vin i.63; D iii.252, 282; S iv.186; A iii. 251; Pug 25.


-- [Caus. of upaṭṭhahati] to make serve or attend; sakkaccaŋ u. (with acc.) to bestow respect (upon) Vin iv.275. fut. ˚essati Vin iv.291. to place, fix (parimukhaŋ satiŋ upaṭṭhapetvā) Vibh. 244.


-- [upa + ḍayhati] to be burnt up Miln 277.


upaḍḍha {U.p~a.}
-- (adj. -- nt.) [upa + aḍḍha, used abs. whereas aḍḍha only in compn., cp. also BSk. upārdha Divy 86, 144, 514; AvS i.211, 240] half Vin i.281 (˚kāsina); ii.200 (˚āsana); J iii.11 (˚rajja); Vism 320 (˚gāma); DhA i.15, 205 (˚uposathakamma); ii.85; KhA 239 (˚gāthā); SnA 298; VvA 38, 61, 120; PvA 209, 276.
-- UHS-PMD0223

UKT from UHS: mfn. half
Note: The conjunct {~a.} is the most difficult grapheme to make out. The original looks like a 'duck' and is shown on the right. If I remember correctly, this conjunct is present in the name of the father, Sirivaḍḍhaka (sp?), of 'Sage Mahosadha' of the Fifth of the Ten Great Birth Stories of the Buddha. This was the Jataka in Bur-Myan we had to study in detail to matriculate in 1950 to the Rangoon University when I was still 15. See http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/j6/j6012.htm 111226
   I propose to reform this grapheme as shown.


-- [upa + tappati1)] to be vexed or tormented J v.90; DhsA 42.


-- [fr. upa + tap] vexation, trouble Vism 166.


-- (nt.) [upa + tāpana] vexation, tormenting, torture J iv.13; ThA 243.


-- (adj.) [fr. upatāpa] causing pain, molesting J ii.224.


-- [upa + tāpeti] to cause pain, to vex, torment, harass J ii.178, 224; iv.11; DhsA 42 (vibādhati +).


-- [upa + sthā, cp. upaṭṭhahati, ˚ṭṭhāti etc.] lit. "to stand by", to look after, to worship Pv iii.118; J ii.73 (ādiccaŋ = namassamāno tiṭṭhati C.); Miln 231 (ger. ˚tiṭṭhitvā); J v.173 (˚tiṭṭhate). pp. upaṭṭhita (q. v.).


-- [upa + akta, pp. of aj] smeared, spread over M i.343; J i.399.


-- [upa + thaddha, pp. of upatthambhati] - 1. stiff Vin iii.37 (angāni). -- 2. supported or held up [p142] by, resting on, founded on, relying on Th 1, 1058, 1194; 2, 72 (yobbanena); J i.47 (v. 267: mettābalena); v. 121, 301; Kvu 251 (cakkhu dhamm˚ "when it is the medium of an idea"); Nett 117; Miln 110 (kārua -- bal˚).

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[fr. upa + stambh] -- 1. a support, prop, stay Miln 355, 415, 417; Sdhp 565. -- 2. relief, ease Vin iii.112. -- 3. encouragement J v.270; DhA i.279.


-- (adj. nt.) [fr. upatthambha) holding up, supporting, sustaining DhsA 153.


-- (nt.) = upatthambha Miln 36; J i.447; DA i.124; ThA 258; Vism 279.


-- [pp. of upatthambheti] propped up, sup- ported, sustained J i.107; Miln 36; DA i 234; PvA 117 (pua -- phal˚), 148 (utu -- āhārehi u.).


-- [upa + thambheti, Caus. of thambhati] to make firm, shore up, support, prop up J i.127 [ppr. ˚ayamāna), 447; DA i.113; DhA iii.73 (˚ayamāna ppr.). <-> pp. upatthambhita.


-- [fr. upa + stṛ] a (floor) covering, carpet, rug D i.103 (rath˚); J ii.126 (pabbat˚); ii.534.


-- [for upadheyya, see Trenckner, Notes 6216] a cushion J vi.490, 513.


-- [n. ag. fr. upadaŋseti] one who shows Pug 49 (where upadhaŋsita is to be corrected to upad˚, as already pointed out by Morris J P T S. 1887, 126. The word seems to be a crux to commentators, philologists, and translators, like upadaŋseti. Kern, Toev. s. v. keeps to the reading upah˚, tries to connect it with Sk. dharṣati & trsls. "one who confirms". The Pug A leaves the word unexplained).


-- [= upadasseti with ˚aŋs˚ for ˚ass˚ like dhan- seti = Sk. dharṣayati, haŋsa = harṣa etc. only in poetical passages] to cause to appear, to manifest M ii.120; S i. 64, 65 (of gods, to become resplendent, to show divers colour -- tones); A ii.84 = iii.139 = 264 = Pug 49 (to show pleasure); Th i.335, to bring forth (a goad, and so incite, urge on); Vin iv.309.


-- (upa + dasseti, Caus. of drś, cp. also upa- daŋseti] to make manifest, to show Miln 276, 316, 347.


-- [upa + dahati1] to put down, supply, furnish, put on; give, cause, make Vin iv.149; D ii.135 (vippaṭisāraŋ); A i.203 (dukkhaŋ); Miln 109, 139, 164, 286, 383. grd. pass. ˚dahātabba to be given or caused Vin ii.250 = A iii.197 (vippaṭisāra). Cp. upadhi.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. upa + ] giving, bestowing Sdhp 319.


-- [pp. of upadisati] pointed out, put forth, speci- fied Miln 144 (paha).


-- [upa + disati] to point out, show, advise, specify J v. 457 (sippaŋ); Miln 21 (dhamma -- maggaŋ). -- pp. upadiṭṭha (q. v.).


-- [upa + dissati] to be seen (open), to be shown up, to be found out or discovered Sn 140 (pres. upadissare = ˚nti SnA 192).


-- [upa + deva, on use of upa in this meaning see upa 5] a secondary, lesser, minor god PvA 136.


-- [fr. upadisati] pointing out, indication, instruction, advice PvA 26 (tadupadesena read for tadupād˚; KhA 208 differs at id. p.); KhA 100; Sdhp 227.


-- [upa + dava2 of dru] lit. rushing on; accident, misfortune, distress, oppression S ii.210; A i.101; Sn 51; Dh 338 (an˚); DhA i.16; Sdhp 267, 398.


-- [fr. upa + dru] to annoy, trouble DA i.213. -- pp. upadduta (q. v.).


-- [pp. of upaddavati] overrun, oppressed, annoyed, overcome, distressed Vin ii.170; iii.144, 283; S ii.210; iv.29; J i.26, 61, 339; ii.102; iv.324, 494; Pv ii.108; Vism 24 (= apakata); Miln 279; VvA 311 (aṭṭita +); PvA 61. an˚ unmolested PvA 195; anupaddutatta state of not being molested VvA 95.


-- & Upadhaŋseti at Pug 49 is to be read upad˚ (q. v.).


-- (adj. nt.) [fr. upa + dhā, cp. upadahati] "putting under", i. e. (1) a pillow, cushion D i.7; S ii.267 = Miln 366 (kaḷingar˚); S iii.145; A i.137, 181; iii.50, J iv.201; v.506 (tamb˚ = ratt˚ C.); (2) imposing, giving, causing Dh 291 dukkh˚).


-- [f. upa + dhā] to suppose, think, reflect DhA i.239 (should be corrected to upadhāreti).


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + dhṛ) "receptacle", milk -- pail D ii.192; A iv.393; J vi.503. See kaŋs˚. Kern, Toev. i. 142 proposes corruption fr. kaŋsɔpadohana, which latter however does not occur in Pali.


-- (f) [cp. upadhāraṇa] calculation VvA 7.


-- [pp. of upadhāreti] considered, reflected upon Dh i.28; spadh˚ Miln 10; dpadh˚ Vin iv.275.


-- (Caus. of upa + dhṛ, cp. dhāreti 3] 1. "to hold or take up" (cp. semantically Lat. teneo = E. tenet), to reason out, conclude, reflect, surmise, know as such & such, realise J i.338; DhA i.28, 41; ii.15, 20, 37, 96; iv.197 (an˚); VvA 48, 200 (an˚), 234, 260 (an˚), 324; PvA 119 (for jānāti). -- 2. to look out for (acc.) J iii. 65; vi.2.


-- [upa + dhāvati 1] to run up to or after, fall upon, surround Vin ii.207; iv.260 (pp. ˚dhāvita); S i.185; S ii.26 (aparantaŋ); Th 1, 1209; Miln 209; VvA 256; PvA 154, 168, 173 (for padhāvitā).


upadhi {U.pa.Di.}
-- [fr. upa + dhā, cp. upadahati & BSk. upadhi Divy 50, 224, 534] 1. putting down or under, foundation, basis, ground, substratum (of rebirth) S i.117, 124, 134, 186; A ii.24 (˚sankhaya); iii.382 (id.); iv.150 (˚kkhaya); It 21, 69; Sn 364, 728 (upadhī -- nidānā dukkha = vaṭṭa -- dukkhaŋ SnA 505), 789, 992; Nd1 27, 141; Nd2 157; Vbh 338; Nett 29; DhA iv.33. -- (2) clinging to rebirth (as impeding spiritual progress), attachment (almost syn. with kilesa or taṇhā, cp. nirupadhi & anupadhi); S A. = pacakkhandhā, S ii.108. At M i 162 (cp. Sn 33 = S i.6 = i.107) wife and children, flocks and herds, silver and gold are called upadhayo. upadhi is the root of sorrow ib. 454; S ii.108; Sn 728 = 1051 = Th i.152 and the rejection of all upadhis is Nibbāna D ii.36. (cp. S i.136; iii.133; v.226; A i.80; M i.107 = ii.93; Vin i.5, 36 = J i.83 = Mvst ii.444; It 46, 62); D iii.112 calls that which has upadhi ignoble (= non -- Aryan). At S i.117 = Divy 224 upadhi is called a bond (saŋgo). Cp. opadhika. -- The upadhis were later systematized into a set of 10, which are given at Nd2 157 as follows: 5 taṇhɔ upadhis (taṇhā, diṭṭhi, kilesa, kamma, duccarita), āhār -- upadhi, paṭigh˚, catasso upādinnā dhātuyo u. (viz. kāma, diṭṭhi, sīlabbata, attavāda; see D iii.230), cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni u., cha viāṇa -- kāyā u. Another modified classification see at Brethren p. 398.


-- (upadhīka) (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. upadhi] having a substratum, showing attachment to rebirth, only in cpds. an˚ free from clinging Vin i.36; Sn 1057, & nir˚ id. S i.141.


-- (nt.) [cp. upadhāna] a cushion J vi.490 (for upatheyya, q. v.).


-- [upa + naccati] to perform a dance D ii.268.


-- [pp. of upanamati] inclined, bent, prone PvA 190.


-- [upa + nadati] to resound (with song) Pv iii.34 (= vikūjati PvA 189).

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-- [pp. of upanayhati, see naddha & nandhati] scorned, grumbled at Vin ii.118.


-- [a secondary der. fr. upanandha, pp. of upa- nayhati] to bear enmity towards, to grumble at (with loc.); aor. upanandhi Vin ii.118 (tasmiŋ); iv.83; Mhvs 36, 117.


-- [upa + namati] to be bent on, strive after J iii 324 (= upagacchati C.). -- pp. upanata; Caus. upanāmeti (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + ni; cp. naya & nayana] tt. for the minor premiss, subsumption (see Kvu trsl. 11) Miln 154; Nett 63; DhsA 329 (so read with v. l. for ˚najana).


-- [upa + nayhati] -- 1. to come into touch with It 68 = J iv.435 (pūtimacchaŋ kusaggena, cp. DhA i.45). -- 2. to bear enmity towards (loc.), to grudge, scorn Dh 3, 4. -- pp. upanandha (for ˚naddha). -- See also upanandhati.


-- (f.) & ˚nayhitatta (nt.) are syn. for upanāha (grudge, ill -- will) in exegesis at Pug 18 = 22, whereas id. p. at Vbh 357 reads upanahanā upanahitattaŋ (with v. l. upanayihanā & upanayihitattaŋ).


-- [pp. of upanāmeti] brought up to, placed against D ii.134.


upanāmeti {U.pa.na-m-ti.}
-- [Caus. of upanamati] 1. to bend over to, to place against or close to, to approach, bring near D ii. 134; S i.207; Th 1, 1055; Sn p. 48 (= attano kāyaŋ Bhagavato upanāmeti); J i.62; v.215; SnA 151. -- 2. to offer, to present J iv.386; ii.5; Miln 210, 373; PvA 274. -- pp. upanāmita (q. v.). [cp. BSk. upanāmayati to hand over Divy 13, 14, 22].


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. upa + ] -- 1. referring to, belonging to in cpd. att˚ ref. to oneself Vin iii.91; Vism 27. -- 2. beginning, in phrase vass'panāyikā (f.) the approach of the rainy season, period for entering on Lent (cp. BSk. varṣopanāyikā Divy 18, 489 & see also upakaṭṭha and vassa) Vin i.253; A i.51 (divided into 2 parts, first & second, or purimikā & pacchimikā); J iii.332; DA i.8; DhA i.203; iii.438; VvA 44; PvA 42.


-- [fr. upa + nah, see upanayhati, same in BSk.; e. g. at M Vastu ii.56.] ill -- will, grudge, enmity M i.15; A i.91, 95, 299; iv.148, 349, 456; v.39, 41 sq., 209, 310; Pug 18 = Vbh 357 (pubbakālaŋ kodho aparakālaŋ upanāho Miln 289.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. upanāha] one who bears ill -- will, grudging, grumbling, finding fault Vin ii.89; M i.95; D iii.45; S ii.206; iv.241; A iii.260, 334; v.123, 156; Sn 116; Th 1, 502; J iii.260 (kodhana +); Pug 18; Vbh 357. -- Opp. an˚ not being angry (loc.) D iii.47; S ii. 207; iv.244; A v.124 sq.; J iv.463.


-- [upa + nikkhamati] to go out, to come out (up to somebody) Th 2, 37; 169; J iii 244; Pv i. 101 (aor. ˚nikkhami; imper. ˚nikkhamassu).


-- [upa + n˚] laid down (secretly), placed by or on top S v.457; J vi.390; Miln 80. -- m. a spy J vi.394 (˚purisa).


-- [= prec.] a spy J vi 409 (˚manussa), 431 (id.), 450 (id.).


-- (upa + n˚] to deposit near, to lay up Vin i.312; S ii.136 sq.; Miln 78, 80; Nett 21, 22; DA i. 125. -- pp. upanikkhitta (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. ˚nikkhipati] putting down (near somebody), putting in the way, trap Vin iii.77.


-- [fr. upa + nis + kṣip] "putting near", depositing; -- 1. appld. to the course of memory, association of ideas Miln 78, 80; cp. ˚nikkhepana S ii.276. -- 2. deposit, pledge J vi.192, 193 (= upajūta).


-- [upa + ni + ghaŋsati1] to rub up against, to crush (close) up to DhA i.58.


-- (nt.) [upa + nijjhāna1] meditation, reflection, consideration only in two phrases: ārammaṇa˚ & lakkhaṇa˚, with ref. to jhāna J v.251; DhA i.230; iii.276; VvA 38, 213. Cp. nijjhāyana.


-- [upa + nijjhāyati] to meditate upon, con- sider, look at, reflect on Vin i.193 ("covet"); ii 269; iii. 118; D i.20; A iv.55; Miln 124; Vism 418. -- pp. upanijjhāyita (q. v.).


-- [for ˚nijjhāna] meditation, reflection Miln 127; Vism 418.


-- [pp. of ˚nijjhāyati] considered, looked at, thought over or about Sn p. 147 (= diṭṭha, ālokita SnA 508).


-- (f.) [abstracted from upanidhāya or direct for- mation fr. upa + ni + dhā?] comparison Nd2 158 (= upamā; should we read upanidhāya?).


-- (indecl.) [ger. of upa + nidahati of dhā] comparing in comparison, as prep. w. acc. "compared with" M i.374; iii.177 (Himavantaŋ pabbatarājānaŋ); S ii.133 (mahāpaṭhaviŋ), 262; v.457 (Sineru -- pabbata -- rājānaŋ); A iii.181 sq.; iv.253 sq. (dibbasukhaŋ); Th 1, 496 (kammaŋ); J ii.93; DA i.29, 59, 283.


-- (f.) [upa + ni + dhā, cp. nidhi] -- 1. deposit, pledge Vin iii.51. -- 2. comparison, in phrase upanidhiŋ na upeti "does not come into comparison, cannot be compared with" M iii.177; S ii.263; v.457 (so read for upanidha); Ud 23.


-- [upa + ni + pad] to lie down close to or on top of (acc.) Vism 269; J v.231.


-- see upanibandhati.


-- [pp. of ˚nibandhāti] -- 1. tied on to Miln 253, 254. -- 2. closely connected with, close to Vin iii. 308 (Samanta Pāsādikā). -- 3. attached to DA i.128.


-- [upa + ni + bandh] 1. close connection, dependence Vism 19 (˚gocara). -- 2. (adj. -- ˚) connected with, dependent on Vism 235 (jīvitaŋ assāsa -- passāsa˚ etc).


-- [upa + n˚) to tie close to, to bind on to, attach M iii.132; Miln 254, 412. -- Pass. upanibajjhati to be attached to Sn 218. -- pp. ˚nibaddha (q. v.).


-- (adj. nt.) [upa + n˚] (adj.) closely con- nected with D i.46; DA i.128; (nt.) tie, fetter, leash Miln 253.


-- [upa + nibbatta] come out, produced DA i.247.


-- (adj. [upa + nibha] somewhat like ( -- ˚) M i. 58 = A iii.324 (sankha -- vaṇṇa˚); J i.207 (= sadisa C.); v.302 (tāla˚).


-- [upa + n˚] to return Sn 712; J iv.417; v.126.


-- (f.) [if = Vedic upaniṣad, it would be fr. upa + ni + sad, but if, as is more likely, a contracted form of upanissaya, it would be fr. upa + ni + śri. The history of this word has yet to be written, cp. Kern, Toev. s. v. & Divy 530 svopaniṣad] -- 1. cause, means D ii. 217, 259; M iii.71 (samādhiŋ sa -- upanisaŋ); S ii.30 -- 32 (S A. = kāraṇa, paccaya); v.25; A i.198; iii.20, 200 sq., 360; iv.99, 336, 351; v.4 sq., 313 sq.; Sn 322 (= upanissaya SnA 331); p. 140 (= kāraṇa, payojana SnA 503); Dh 75 (cp. DhA ii.102 aā nibbānagāminī paṭipadā). <-> 2. likeness, counterfeit [= Sk. upaniṣad = aupamye Pāṇini i.4, 79] J vi.470 (= paṭirūpaka C.).

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-- [upa + nisīdati of sad] to sit close to or down by D i.95; A iv.10; J ii.347; Pv iv.163 (ger. ˚sajja = ˚sīditvā PvA 242); Vism 269.


-- [upa + n˚] to pursue, follow, go up after, cling to (acc) M i.306. -- pp. upanisevita (q. v.).


upanisevana {U.pa.ni.-wa.na.}
-- (adj.) [fr. upanisevati] going close after, fol- lowing J v.399 [f. ˚ī.).


-- [pp. of upanisevati] gone on to, furnished with, sticking or clinging to, full of J v.302 (kakka˚).


upanissaya {U.pa.nai~a.ya.}
--[upa + ni˚] basis, reliance, support, founda- tion, assurance, certainty; esp. sufficing condition or qualification for Arahantship (see long article in Childers s. v.); no 9 in the 24 paccayas, Tikapatthāṇa, Tikapaṭṭhāna i.1, a term only found in the Paṭṭhāna, the Jātaka & later exegetical literature J i.78, 508; iv.96; vi.70; Nett 80; Vism 19 (˚gocara), 535 (˚paccaya); DhsA 315 (id.); DhA ii.33; VvA 98; PvA 38 (sotāpatti -- phalassa), 55 (˚sampatti); Sdhp 265, 320.


-- [upa + ni˚] to depend or rely on (acc.) Miln 240 (attānaŋ). -- ger. ˚nissāya (q. v.); -- pp. ˚nissita (q. v.).


-- (adv.) [ger. of upanissayati, cp. nissayati in same use & meaning) near, close by (with acc.); depending on, by means of (acc) M ii.3; S ii.269; Sn 867 (taŋ), 901 (tāpa˚), 978, PvA 9 (Rājagahaŋ), 67 (id.); VvA 63 (Rājagaha -- seṭṭhiŋ "with"). Cp. BSk. upaniśritya also a ger. formation, in same meaning, e. g. at Divy 54, 207, 505.


-- [upa + ni˚] dependent or relying on Sn 877; Nd1 283, Miln 245.


-- [pp. of upaneti] 1. brought up to or into (mostly -- ˚) Th 2, 498; Sn 677 (niraye), 774 (dukkha˚), 898 (bhava˚); J iii.45 (thūṇa˚); iv.271 (dukkh˚); Nd1 38; Dh 237 (˚yaya = atikkantavayo DhA iii.337, advanced in age); Pv iv.110 (dukkha˚ made to suffer). an˚ Sn 846. -- 2. offered, presented J i.88; PvA 274, 286. <-> 3. brought to conclusion, brought to an end (of life) J v.375 (= maraṇa -- santikaŋ u. C.). -- 4. bringing up (for trial), charging M i.251 (vacanapatha, cp. upanīya).


-- (˚īyya, ˚eyya) [ger. of upaneti] "bringing up" (for trial), charging, accusing D i.107 (vadati, cp. DA i. 276); A i.172 (˚vācā); cp. upanīta 3.


-- (adj.) [upa + nīla] somewhat dark -- blue J v.168.


-- [upa + neti] to bring up to, conduce, adduce; to present, give J i.200; Miln 396; DA i.276; PvA 39, 43, 49, 53, 74. -- Pass. upanīyati (˚niyyati) -- 1. to be brought (up to) J iv.398; ppr. ˚nīyamāna J i.200; PvA 5. -- 2. to be brought to conclusion, or to an end (of life) M ii.68; S i.2. -- 3. to be carried along or away A i.155. -- pp. upanīta (q. v.). -- ger. upanīya (q. v.).


-- (adv.) [upa + anti] near, before, in presence of J iv.337.


-- (adj.) [upa + antika] nt. acc. ˚ŋ near J iv.337; v.58 (with gen.); vi.418 (so read for ˚ā); loc. ˚e near or quite near Pv ii.915 (= samīpe gehassa PvA 120).


-- see uppaccati.


-- [doubtful whether a legitimate form as upa + pad or a diaeretic form of uppajjati = ud + pad. In this case all passages ought to go under the latter. Trenckner however (Notes 77) defends upa˚ & considers in many cases upp˚ a substitution for upa. The diaeresis may be due to metre, as nearly all forms are found in poetry. The v. l. upp˚ is apparently frequent; but it is almost impossible to distinguish between upap˚ and upp˚ in the Sinhalese writing, and either the scribe or the reader may mistake one for the other] to get to, be reborn in (acc.); to originate, rise Vin iii.20 (nirayaŋ); A iii.415; v.292 sq.; Sn 584; It 13 (nirayaŋ), 14 (sugatiŋ; v. l. upp˚), 67 (saggaŋ lokaŋ; v. l. upp˚); 43 = Dh 307 (nirayaŋ); Dh 126, 140; Pv i.107 (v.l. BB. udapajjatha = uppajja PvA 50); Pug 16, 51, 60; Nett 37, 99, cp. Kvu 611 sq. <-> pp. upapannā (q. v.). -- Caus. upapādeti & pp. upapādita (q. v.).


-- [fr. upa + pad, cp. uppatti] -- 1. birth, re- birth, (lit. attainment) M i.82; S iii.53; iv.398; A v. 289 sq.; Sn 139, 643, 836; Dh 419 (sattānaŋ); in var. specifications as: deva˚ rebirth among gods PvA 6, 81; devaloka˚ A i.115; kāma˚ existence in the sensuous universe D iii.218; It 94; arūpa˚ in the formless spheres Vbh 172, 267, 296; rūpa˚, in the world of form Vbh 171 sq., 263 sq.; 299; niraya˚ in Purgatory PvA 53. <-> 2. occasion, opportunity (lit. "coming to"); object for, in dāna˚ objects suitable for gifts A iv.239 (where 8 enumd., see dāna).
-- deva a god by birth (or rebirth) VvA 18; also given as uppatti -- deva, e. g. at KhA 123. See detail under deva.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. upapatti] belonging to a birth or rebirth; in peta˚ born as a Peta PvA 119. -- Cp. upapātika.


-- [pp. of upapajjati] -- 1. ( -- ˚) possessed of, having attained, being furnished with Sn 68 (thāma -- bala), 212, 322, 1077 (āṇa˚, cp. Nd2 266b and uppanna -- āṇa). <-> 2. reborn, come to existence in (with acc.) S i.35 (Avihaŋ, expld. by C. not quite to the point as "nipphattivasena upagata", i. e. gone to A, on account of their perfection. Should we read uppanna?) A v.68.


-- (nt.) = upaparikkhā VvA 232.


-- [upa + pari + īkṣ; cp. BSk. upaparīkṣate Divy 5, 230] to investigate, ascertain, test, examine M i.133, 292, 443; S ii.216; iii.42, 140; iv.174; J i.489; ii.400; v.235; Miln 91, 293; Dāvs v.27; Sdhp 539; PvA 60 (paāya u. = atvā), 140 (= viceyya).


-- (f.) [fr. upaparikkhati, cp. BSk. upaparīkṣā Divy 3 etc.] investigation, examination Vin iii.314; M ii.175 (attha˚); A iii.381 sq.; iv.221; v.126; Dhs 16, 20, 292; Pug 25; Nett 8, 42; DA i.171.


-- (adj.) [fr. upaparikkhati] investigating, re- flecting, testing S iii.61; A iv.221 sq., 296, 328. Cp. BSk. upaparīkṣaka Divy 212.


upapāta {U.pa.pa-ta.}
-- = upapatti [but der. fr. pat (cp. uppāda1 = ud + pat but uppāda2 = ud + pad) with the meaning of the casual & unusual] rebirth Vin iii.4; S iv.59 (cut˚); Pug 50.


-- (adj.) [fr. upapāta but evidently mixed with uppāda1 and uppāda2, cp. upapajjati, upapatti & BSk. upapāduka Av. S ii.94, 95; Divy 523] = opapātika i. e. rebirth without parents, as a deva DA on D iii.107; ThA 207.


-- [pp. of upapādeti, Caus. of upapajjati] accom- plished J ii.236.


-- [Caus. of upapajjati] to execute, perform J v.346.


-- (f.) [upa + pāramī, cp. upa 5] minor perfection Bu i.77 (opp. paramattha -- pāramī); DhA i.84.


-- [upa + piṣ] grinding, powder, in ajan˚ pow- dered ointment (for the eyes) Vin i.203; ii.112.


-- [upa + purohita, see upa 5] a minor or assistant priest J iv.304.


-- at D i.135 read uppīḷa (q. v.).

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-- [upa + phusati, of spṛś] to touch; aor. upap- phusi J v.417, 420.


-- [upa + plavati, cp. uppilavati] to swim or float to (acc.), in uncertain reading as aor. upaplaviŋ at Sn 1145 (dīpā dīpaŋ upaplaviŋ floatcd from land to land; vv. ll. at SnA 606 uppalaviŋ & upallaviŋ; all MSS. of Nd2 p. 54 & no. 160 write upallaviŋ). Perhaps we should better read uppalaviŋ (or upallaviŋ) as diaeretic form for *upplaviŋ, aor. of uppilavati (or uplavati), q. v. Expld. at Nd2 160 by samupallaviŋ.


-- [upa + vraj] to go to, resort to, visit Th 1, 1052; J iv.270, 295; v.495 (= upagacchati C.); vi.43.


-- see sam˚.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + bṛh2, cp. BSk. upabṛŋhita Jtm 3195] expansion, increase, augmentation Vism 145; DhsA 117.


-- (adj.) [fr. next] one who eats or enjoys Vism 555.


-- [upa + bhuj] to enjoy J iii.495; v.350 (inf. ˚bhottuŋ) -- grd. upabhogga. -- pp. upabhattu (q. v.).


-- [pp. of upabhunjati] enjoyed Dāvs iii.65.


-- [fr. upa + bhuj cp. upabhujati] enjoyment, profit Vin iv.267; J ii.431; iv.219 (v. l. paribhoga); vi. 361; Miln 201, 403; PvA 49, 220 (˚paribhoga); DhA iv.7 (id.); Sdhp 268, 341, 547.


-- (adj.) [fr. upabhujati] enjoying Miln 267.


-- (adj.) [Sk. upabhogya, grd. of upabhujati] to be enjoyed, enjoyable Miln 201.


-- (adj.) [compar. -- superl. formation fr. upa, cp. Lat. summus fr. *(s)ub -- mo] "coming quite or nearly up to", i. e. like, similar, equal D i.239 (andha -- veṇ˚); M i.432 (taruṇ˚ a young looking fellow); A iv.11 udak˚ puggala a man like water); Pv i.11 (khett˚ like a well cultivated field; = sadisa PvA 7); PvA 2, 8 etc. -- Note. ūpama metri causa see ū˚ and cp. opamma & upamā.


upamā {U.pa.ma}
-- (f.) [f. of upama in abstract meaning] likeness, simile, parable, example (cp. formula introducing u. S ii. 114; M i.148); Sn 705 (cp. Dh 129, 130), 1137 (= upanidhā sadisaŋ paṭibhāgo Nd2 158); It 114; Vism 341, 478, 512, 582 sq., 591 sq.; PvA 29, 112 (dhen˚); SnA 329, 384; Sdhp 29, 44, 259.
-- vacana expression of comparison (usually applied to part. evaŋ) SnA 13, 472; KhA 185, 195, 208, 212; PvA 25.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + ] comparison, the 2nd part of the comparison J v.341; VvA 13.


-- [pp. of caus. upa + ] measured out, likened, like, comparable Th 2, 382 (= sadisa ThA 255).


-- [upa + ] to measure one thing by another, to compare J vi.252; Vism 314 (˚metvā, read ˚netvā?).


-- (adj.) [grd. of upa + ] to be compared, that which is to be likened or compared, the 1st part of a comparison VvA 13.


-- [fr. upa + i, cp. upāya] approach, undertaking, taking up; clinging to, attachment, only as adj. ( -- ˚) in an˚ (anpaya metri causā) not going near, aloof, unattached S i.141, 181; ii.284; Sn 786, 787, 897 (cp. SnA 558); and in rūppaya (vv. ll. rūpupaya & rūpupāya) "clinging to form" (etc.) S iii.53 = Nd1 25 = Nd2 570 (+ rupɔārammaṇa).


-- [upa + yācati] to beg, entreat, pray to J vi. 150 (divyaŋ).


-- (nt.) [of adj. upa + yācita + ka; pp. of yācati] begging, asking, praying, propitiation J vi.150 (= devatānaŋ āyācana).


-- [upa + yāti of ] to go to, to approach S i.76; ii.118 (also Caus. ˚yāpeti); Dpvs vi.69; Sdhp 579.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + , cp. BSk. upayāna Jtm 3163] nearing, approach, arrival D i.10; DA i.94.


-- [fr. upayāna] a crab J vi.530.


-- [upa + yuj] to combine, connect with; to use, apply; ppr. med. upayujjamāna VvA 245 (preferably be read as ˚bhujamāna, with reference to enjoying drink & food).


-- [fr. upa + yuj] connection, combination; em- ployment, application J vi.432 (nagare upayogaŋ netvā for use in the town? v. l. upabhogaŋ). Usually in cpd. ˚vacana as tt. g. meaning either combined or condensed expression, ellipsis SnA 386; KhA 236; PvA 73, 135; or the acc. case, which is frequently substituted for the foll. cases: sāmi -- vacana SnA 127; PvA 102; bhumma˚ SnA 140; KhA 116; karaṇa˚ SnA 148; sampadāna˚ J v.214; SnA 317; itthambhūta˚ SnA 441; nissakka˚ J v.498.


-- [pp. of upa + rac] formed ThA 211; Sdhp 616.


uparajja {U.pa.riz~za.}
-- (nt.) [upa + rajja, cp. uparaja] viceroyalty A iii. 154 (v. l. opa˚); J i.511; iv.176; DA i.134.

UKT: I derived at the spelling for uparajja as {U.pa.riz~za.} from PTS transliteration. I need this for searching UHS-PMD. The Pal-Myan term found is: {U.pa.ra-za} -- UHS-PMD0229. See below.


-- [pp. of uparamati] having ceased, desisting from ( -- ˚), restraining oneself (cp. orata) Vin i.245 (ratt -- parata abstaining from food at night = ratti -- bhojanato uparata DA i.77); D i.5 (id.); M i.319 (bhaya˚); Sn 914 (= virata etc. Nd1 337); Miln 96, 307; DhsA 403 (vihiŋs˚).


-- (f.) [fr. upa + ram] ceasing, resting; cessation M i.10; S iv.104; Miln 274.


-- [upa + ram] to cease, desist, to be quiet J iii. 489; v.391 (v. l. for upāramati, also in C.); Miln 152.


-- (f.) [cp. lit. Sk. uparama, to uparamati] cessation Miln 41, 44 (an˚).


-- [fr. upa + ru] noise J ii.2.


uparājā {U.pa.ra-za}
-- [upa + rājā; see upa 5] a secondary or deputy king, a viceroy J i.504; ii.316; DhA i.392.


-- (indecl.) [Vedic upari, der. fr. upa, Idg. *uper(i); Gr. uper, Lat. s -- uper; Goth. ufar, Ohg. ubir = Ger. ber E. over; Oir. for] over, above (prep. & prefix) 1. (adv.) on top, above (opp. adho below) Vin iv.46 (opp. heṭṭhā); J vi.432; KhA 248 (= uddhaŋ; opp. adho); SnA 392 (abtimukho u. gacchati explaining paccuggacchati of Sn 442); PvA 11 (heṭṭhā manussa -- saṇṭhānaŋ upari sūkara -- s˚), 47 (upari chattaŋ dhāriyamāna), 145 (sabbattha upari upon everything). -- 2. (prep. w. gen) with ref. either to space = on top of, on, upon, as in kassa upari sāpo patissati on whom shall the curse fall? DhA i 41; attano u. patati falls upon himself PvA 45; etissā upari kodho anger on her, i. e. against her VvA 68; or to time = on top of, after, later, as in catunnaŋ māsānaŋ upari after 4 months PvA 52 (= uddhaŋ catūhi māsehi of Pv i.1012); sattannaŋ vassa -- satānaŋ upari after 700 years PvA 144. <-> 3. (adv. in compn., meaning "upper, higher, on the upper or top side", or "on top of", if the phrase is in loc. case. See below.
-- cara walking in the air, suspended, flying J iii.454. -- pāsāda the upper story of a palace, loc. on the terrace D i.112 (loc.); PvA 105, 279. -- piṭṭhi top side, platform Vin ii 207 (loc). -- bhaddaka N. of a tree [either Sk. bhadraka Pinus Deodara, or bhadra Nauclea Cadamba, after Kern, Toev. s. v.] J vi.269. -- bhāga the upper part; used in instr., loc or aor. in sense of "above, over, [p146] beyond" J iv.232 (instr.). -- bhāva higher state or condition M i.45 (opp. adh˚). -- mukha face upwards DA i. 228; Pug A 214. -- vasana upper garment PvA 49. -- vāta higher than the wind, loc. on the wind J ii.11; or in ˚passe (loc.) on the upper (wind -- ) side DhA ii.17. -- visāla extended on top, i. e. of great width, very wide J iii.207. -- vehāsa high in the air (˚ -- ), in ˚kuṭī a lofty or open air chamber, or a room in the upper story of the Vihāra Vin iv.46 (what the C. means by expln. majjhimassa purisassa asīsa -- ghaṭṭā "not knocking against the head of a middle -- (sized) man" is not quite clear). -- sacca higher truth PvA 66 (so read for upari sacca).

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-- (adj.) [superl. formation fr. upari in analogy to seṭṭha] highest, topmost, most excellent Th 1, 910. Cp. next.


-- (adj) [double -- superl. formation after analogy of seṭṭha, pacchima & heṭṭhima: heṭṭhā] = upariṭṭha & uparima Dhs 1016, 1300, 1401; Pug 16, 17 (sayojanāni = uddhaŋbhāgiya -- sayojanāni Pug A 198).


-- (adj.) [upari + ma, superl. formation] uppermost, above, overhead D iii.189 (disā); Nett 88. Cp. upariṭṭhima.


-- (adv.) [fr. upari] above, on top, in compd. heṭṭh˚ below and above Vism 1.


-- [Sk. uparudhyate, Pass. of uparundhati] to be stopped, broken, annihilated, destroyed D i.223; Th 1, 145; It 106; Sn 724, 1036, 1110; Nd2 159 (= nirujjhati vūpasammati atthangacchati); Miln 151; Sdhp 280. <-> pp. uparuddha.


-- [pp. of uparujjhati] stopped, ceased Miln 151 (˚jīvita).


-- [upa + rudh] to break up, hinder, stop, keep in check M i.243; J i.358; Th 1, 143, 1117; Sn 118, 916 (pot. uparundhe, but uparuddhe Nd1 346 = uparuddheyya etc.); Miln 151, 245, 313. -- ger. uparundhiya Th 1, 525; Sn 751; aor. uparundhi J iv.133; PvA 271. -- Pass. uparujjhati (q. v.).


-- [upa + rūḷha, pp. of ruh] grown again, recovered J iv.408 (cakkhu).


-- [upa + ruc] to please (intrs.) J vi.64.


-- [upa + rud] 1. to lament J vi.551 (fut ˚rucchati) -- 2. to sing in a whining tone J v.304.


-- [fr. upa + rudh] obstacle; breaking up, destruc- tion, end J iii.210, 252; Pv iv.15; Miln 245, 313.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + rudh] breaking up, destruc- tion Sn 732, 761.


-- [Caus of uparundhati] to cause to break up; to hinder, stop; destroy Vin iii.73.


-- [upa + ropa, cp. upa 5] "little plant", sapling Vin ii.154. See also next.


-- = uparopa, sapling J ii.345; iv.359.


-- [Lit. Sk. upala, etym. uncertain] a stone Dāvs iii.87.


-- (f.) & ˚aŋ (nt.) [upa + lakkhaṇa] discrimi- nation S iii.261 (an˚); Dhs 16, 20, 292, 1057; Pug 25; VvA 240.


-- [upa + lakṣay] to distinguish, discriminate Vism 172.


-- [pp. of upalabhati] acquired, got, found J vi. 211 (˚bāla; v. l. paluddha˚); Sdhp 4, 386.


-- (f.) [fr. upa + labh] acquisition; knowledge Miln 268; VvA 279.


-- [upa + labh] to receive, get, obtain to find, make out Miln 124 (kāraṇaŋ); usually in Pass. upalabbhati to be found or got, to be known; to exist M i.138 (an˚); S i.135; iv.384; Sn 858; Pv ii.111 (= paccanubhavīyati PvA 146); Kvu 1, 2; Miln 25; PvA 87.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + lap] talking over or down, per- suasion; diplomacy, humbug D ii.76; Miln 115, 117.


-- [Caus. of upa + lap] to persuade, coax, prevail upon, talk over, cajole Vin i.119; iii.21; J ii.266; iii.265; iv.215; PvA 36, 46, 276.


-- [pp. of upalāḷeti] caressed, coaxed Sdhp 301.


-- [Caus. of upa + lal; cp. BSk. upalāḍayati Divy 114, 503]. -- 1. to caress, coax, fondle, win over J ii. 267; Vism 300; Sdhp 375. -- 2. to boast of, exult in J ii.151. -- pp. upalāḷita (q. v.).


-- [upa + Caus. of las] to sound forth, to (make) sound (a bugle) D ii.337 (for uppaḷāseti? q. v.).


-- [upa + likh] to scratch, scrape, wound A iii. 94 sq. (= vijjhati C.).


-- [pp. of upalimpati] smeared with ( -- ˚), stained, tainted Th 2, 467 (cp. ThA 284; T. reads apalitta); Pug 56. Usually neg. an˚ free from taint, undefiled M i.319, 386; Miln 318; metri causa anpalitta S i.141; ii.284; Sn 211, 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353 (cp. DhA iv.7).


-- [Pass. of upalimpati] to be defiled; to stick to, hang on to Sn 547, 812; J iii.66 (= allīyati C.); Miln 250, 337.


-- [upa + lip] to smear, defile D ii.18; Vin iii. 312; J i.178; iv.435; Miln 154. -- Pass. upalippati, pp. upalitta (q. v.).


-- [fr. upa + lip] defilement J iv.435.


-- (adj. [upa + lohita + ka, see upa 5] reddish J iii.21 (= rattavaṇṇa C.).


-- Sn 1145 see upaplavati.


-- (adj.) [grd. of upavadati] blameworthy S iv.59, 60; A ii.242. an˚ blameless, without fault S iv.57 sq; A iv.82; Miln 391.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. upavajja] blameworthiness S iv. 59 (an˚).


-- [upa + vaṇṇeti] to describe fully Sdhp 487.


-- [upa + vṛt] to come to pass, to take place J vi.58.


-- [upa + vad] to tell (secretly) against, to tell tales; to insult, blame D i.90; S iii.125 (attā sīlato na upav.); A ii.121 (id.); v.88; J ii.196; PvA 13.


-- (nt.) [upa + vana, see upa 5] a kind of wood, miniature wood, park J iv.431; v.249; Miln 1; VvA 170 (= vana), 344; ThA 201; PvA 102 (ārām˚), 177 (mahā˚).


-- [upa + vasiti]. -- 1. to dwell in or at J iii.113; DA i.139. -- 2. to live (trs.); to observe, keep (a holy day); only in phrase uposathaŋ upavasati to observe the fast day S i.208; A i.142, 144, 205; Sn 402 (ger. upavassa); J iii.444; SnA 199; PvA 209. -- pp. upavuttha (q. v.). See also uposatha.


-- [fr. upa + vad] insulting, railing; blaming, finding fault Nd1 386; PvA 269; an˚ (adj.) not grumbling or abusing Dh 185 (anpa˚ metri causa).


-- (adj.) [fr. upavāda] blaming, finding fault, speaking evil of (gen.), generally in phrase ariyānaŋ u. [p147] insulting the gentle Vin iii.5; A i.256; iii.19; iv.178; v.68; It 58, 99. -- an˚ Ps i.115; Pug 60.

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-- (adj. [fr. upavāda] = upavādaka; in ariy˚ S i. 225; ii.124; v.266; Pv iv.339. an˚ M i.360.


-- [upa + vāyati] to blow on or towards somebody M i.424; A iv.46; Th 1, 544; Pv iii.66; Miln 97.


upavāsa {U.pa.wa-a.}
-- [fr. upa + vas, see upavasati] keeping a prescri- bed day, fasting, self -- denial, abstaining from enjoyments [Same as uposatha; used extensively in BSk. in meaning of uposatha, e. g. at Av. Ś i.338, 339; Divy 398 in phrase aṣṭnga -- samanvāgataŋ upavāsaŋ upavasati] A v.40 (? uncertain; vv. ll. upāsaka, ovāpavāssa, yopavāsa); J vi.508; SnA 199 (in expln. of uposatha).


-- (adj.) (upa + vāsita] perfumed PvA 164 (for gandha -- samerita).


-- (nt.) [upa + vāhana] carrying away, washing away Sn 391 (sanghāṭi -- raj -- pa˚ = paŋsu -- malādino sanghāṭirajassa dhovanaŋ SnA 375).


-- [upa + vicāra; cp. BSk. upavicāra Divy 19, trsld on p. 704 in Notes by "perplexed by doubts" (?)] applying (one's mind) to, discrimination D iii.245 (domanass˚); M iii.239; S iv.232 (somanass˚ etc.); A iii.363 sq.; v.134; Ps i.17; Dh 8, 85, 284; Vbh 381.


-- (f.) (adj.) [grd. formation of upa + vi + jan, cp. Sk. vijanya] about to bring forth a child, nearing childbirth M i.384; Th 2, 218; Ud 13; Dāvs iii.38; ThA 197.


-- [upa + visati] to come near, to approach a per- son J iv.408; v.377; aor. upāvisi Sn 415, 418 (āsajja upāvisi = samīpaŋ gantvā nisīdi SnA 384).


upavīna {U.pa.wi-Na.} [UKT: need to chk PTS sp]
-- [upa + vīṇā] the neck of a lute S iv. 197; Miln 53.
-- UHS-PMD0232

UKT from UHS: f. neck of harp.
See my note on Saraswati veena


-- [?] covered (?) at VvA 8 in phrase "vettalatdīhi upavītaŋ āsanaŋ" should prob. be read upanīta (vv. ll. uparivīta & upajita); or could it be pp. of upavīyati (woven with)?


-- [Pass. of upa + 2 to weave] te be woven J vi.26.


-- [pp. of upavasati] celebrated, kept (of a fastday) A i.211 (uposatha); Sn 403 (uposatha). Cp. uposatha.


-- [upa + ā + , cp. avhayati for *āhvayati] to invoke, call upon D ii.259; S i.168.


-- [upa + saŋ + vas] to live with somebody, to associate with (acc.) J i.152.


-- (nt.) [fr. upasaŋharati] drawing together, bringing up to, comparison Vism 232 sq.; J v.186.


-- [upa + saŋ + hṛ] -- 1. to collect, bring together, heap up, gather Miln 132. -- 2. to dispose, arrange, concentrate, collect, focus Vin iv.220 (kāyaŋ); M i.436 (cittaŋ), 468 (cittaŋ tathattāya); S v.213 sq. (id.); DhsA 309 (cakkhuŋ). -- 3. to take hold of, take care of, provide, serve, look after Miln 232.


-- [fr. upa + saŋ + hṛ] taking hold of, taking up, possession, in devat˚ being seized or possessed by a god Miln 298.


-- (adj.) [pp. of upa + saŋ + dhā] accompanied by, furnished or connected with ( -- ˚) D i.152; M i.37, 119 (chand˚); S ii.220 (kusal˚); iv.60 (kām˚), 79 (id.); Sn 341 (rāg˚), 1132 (giraŋ vaṇṇ˚ = vaṇṇena upetaŋ Nd2); Th 1, 970; J i.6; ii.134, 172; v.361.


-- [upa + saŋ + kram, cp. BSk. upasankra- mati Av. S. i.209] -- 1. to go up to (with acc.), to approach, come near; freq. in stock phrase "yena (Pokkharasādissa parivesanā) tenɔ upasankami, upasankamitvā paatte āsane nisīdiɔ', e. g. Vin i.270; D i.109; ii.1, and passim. -- aor. ˚sankami Pv. ii.210; SnA 130, 140; KhA 116; PvA 88; ger. ˚sankamitvā SnA 140; PvA 6, 12, 19, 20, 88; ˚sankamma Sn 166, 418, 460, 980, 986; inf. ˚sankamituŋ PvA 79. -- . 2. to attend on (as a physician), to treat Miln 169, 233, 353; DA i.7.


-- (nt.) [fr. upasankamati] going near, ap- proach M ii.176; S v.67 = It 107; PvA 232.


-- (adj.) [grd of upa + sankharoti] to be prepared, produced or contracted Sn 849 (= ˚sankhātabba SnA 549; cp. Nd1 213).


-- [Sk upasarga, of upa + sṛj] -- 1. attack, trouble, danger Vin i.33; A i.101; Th 2, 353; Dh 139 (where spelt upassaga, cp. DhA iii.70); Miln 418. -- 2. (tt. g.) prefix, preposition J ii.67 (saŋ), 126 (apa); iii.121 (ni, pa); DA i.245 (adhi); KhA 101 (sa˚ and an˚); PvA 88 (atthe nipāto a particle put in metri causa, expln. of handa); DhsA 163, 405.


-- (f.) [fr. upa + sanṭḥapeti] stopping, cau- sing to cease, settling Pug 18 (see also an˚).


-- [pp. of upa + śam, cp. upasammati] calmed, composed, tranquil, at peace M i.125; S i.83, 162; A iii. 394; Sn 848, 919, 1087, 1099; Nd1 210, 352, 434; Nd2 161; Dh 201, 378; Miln 394; DhA iii.260; iv.114; PvA 132 (= santa).


-- [Sk. upaśama, upa + śam] calm, quiet, appea- sement, allaying, assuagement, tranquillizing Vin i 10 = S iv.331 = v.421 (in freq. phrase upasamāya abhiāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saŋvattati; see nibbāna iii.7); D i.50; iii.130 sq., 136 sq., 229 (as one of the 4 objects of adhiṭṭhāna, viz. paā˚ sacca˚ cāga˚ upasama˚); M i. 67; iii.246; S i.30, 34 (sīlena), 46 citta -- v -- pasama), 48, 55; ii.223, 277; iii.86 (sankhārānaŋ . . . v -- ūpasamo) D ii. 157; S i.158 (see vūpasama and sankhāra); (ariyaŋ maggaŋ dukkh˚ -- gāminaŋ); iv.62, 331; v.65 (avūpasama), 179, 234 (˚gāmin), 378 sq.; A i.3 (avūpasama), 30, 42; ii.14 (vitakk˚); iii.325 sq.; v.216, 238 sq.; Sn 257, 724, 735, 737; It 18 (dukkh˚) 83; Dh 205; Nd1 351; J i.97; Ps i.95; Miln 170, 248; Vism 197 (˚nussati); Sdhp 587. Cp. vi˚ (vū˚).


-- [upa + śam in trs. meaning for usual sammati in intrs. meaning] to appease, calm, allay, assuage Sn 919; Th 1, 50 (pot. upasame = upasameyya nibbāpeyya Nd1 352). -- pp. upasanta q. v.).


-- (nt.) = upasama Th 1, 421; Sdhp 335 (dukkh˚).


-- [upa + sampajjati] to attain, enter on, acquire, take upon oneself usually in ger. upasampajja M i.89; S iii.8; A iv.13; v.69; Dhs 160 (see DhsA 167); DA i.313; SnA 158. -- pp. upasampanna (q. v.).


-- (f.) [fr. upa + saŋ + pad] -- 1. taking, acquiring; obtaining, taking upon oneself, undertaking D ii.49; M i.93; A iii.65; Dh 183 (cp. DhA iii.236); Nett 44 (kusalassa). -- 2. (in special sense) taking up the bhikkhuship, higher ordination, admission to the privileges of recognized bhikkhus [cp. BSk. upasampad & ˚padā Divy 21, 281 etc.] Vin i.12, 20, 95, 146 and passim; iii.15; iv.52; D i.176, 177, 202; S i.161; A iv.276 sq. & passim; DhA ii.61 (pabbajjā +); PvA 54 (laddh˚ one who has received ordination), 179 (id.).


-- [pp. of upasampajjati] obtained, got, received; in special sense of having attained the recognition of bhikkhuship, ordained [cp. BSk. upasampanna Divy 281] S i.161; A v.70; Vin iii.24; iv.52, 130; Miln 13.

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-- [Denom. fr. upasampadā] 1. to attain to, obtain, produce DhsA 167 (= nipphādeti). -- 2. to admit to bhikkhuship, to ordain Vin iv.130, 226, 317 (= vutṭhāpeti); grd. ˚etabba Vin i.64 sq.; iv.48; A v.72.


-- [upa + sam + spṛś] to embrace J v.297.


-- [Sk. upasamyati, upa + śam in intrs. function] to grow calm, to cease, to be settled or composed, to be appeased S i.62, 221; Dh 100 sq.


upasavyāna {U.pa.m~bya-na.}
-- (nt.?) [?] "a robe worn over the left shoulder" (Hardy, Index to ed.) VvA 166 (v. l. upavasavya).
-- UHS-PMD0233

UKT from UHS: n. a length of cloth serving as a shawl {su.lya:} worn over the shoulder, a lower un-sewn garment worn below the waist. The term 'robe' given by PTS is a mistake.
   Note: the "longyi" which the Westerners dubbed 'sarong' is a sewn garment. Though "longyi" is worn by both men and women, they are easily differentiated by the patterns and must not be confused. Longyi worn by man is known as a "puso" and by woman a "htamain". It is an extreme insult to say that a man is wearing "htamain" which is equivalent to calling him a (receiving) homosexual or a coward. -- UKT111228
   See MLC MED2006-111 for the definition of {su.lya:} given by UHS.


-- (adj.). [fr. upa + siŋsati = śaŋs, cp. āsiŋsaka] striving after, longing or wishing for Miln 393 (āhār˚; Morris J P T S. 1884, 75 proposes reading upasinghaka).


-- (adj.) [fr. upa + singh] sniffing after J ii. 339; iii.144; Miln 393 (? see upasiŋsaka).


-- [upa + singh] -- 1. to sniff at S i.204 (pa- dumaŋ); i.455; J ii.339, 408; vi.336. -- 2. to sniff up Vin i.279. -- Caus. āyati to touch gently KhA 136. Caus. II. apeti to touch lightly, to stroke J iv.407.


-- [pp. of upasinghati] scented, smelled at (loc.) J vi.543 (sisaŋhi, C. for upagghata).


-- [upa + sussati] to dry up M i.481; Sn 433; J i.71.


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + sic] sprinkling over, i. e. sauce Th 1, 842; J ii.422; iii.144; iv.371 (maŋs˚); vi.24. See also nandi˚ & maŋsa˚.


-- (f.) [Sk. upa + either śayanika of śayana, or sayaniya of śī] (a girl) who likes to be always near (her mother), a pet, darling, fondling J vi.64 (=mātaraŋ upagantvā sayanika C.).


-- [upa + sev] -- 1. to practice, frequent, pursue Miln 355. -- 2. to serve, honour, Sn 318 (˚amāna). <-> pp. upasevita (q. v.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. upasevati] serving, pursuing, fol- lowing, service, honouring, pursuit S iii.53 = Nd1 25 = Nd2 570 (nand˚ pleasure -- seeking); It 68 (bāl˚ & dhīr˚); Sn 249 (utu˚ observance of the seasons); Miln 351.


-- [pp. of upasevati] visited, frequented PvA 147 (for sevita).


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. upasevati] pursuing, following, going after A iii.136 (vyatta˚); Miln 264 (rāj˚); DhA iii.482 (para -- dār˚).


-- [upa + śubh] to appear beautiful, to shine forth Th 1, 1080. -- Caus.˚sobheti to make beautiful, embellish, adorn Vv 526; J v.132; PvA 153. -- pp. upasobhita (q. v.).


-- [pp. of upasobheti] embellished, beautified, adorned PvA 153, 187; Sdhp 593.


-- see upasagga.


-- [Sk. upasṛṣṭa, pp. of upa + sṛj] "thrown upon", overcome, visited, afflicted, ruined, oppressed S iv.29; A iii.226 (udak˚); J i.61; ii.239.


-- [fr. upa + śri, cp. assaya & missaya] abode, resting home, dwelling, asylum S i.32, 33; Vv 684; Miln 160. Esp. freq. as bhikkhuni˚ or bhikkhun˚ a nunnery Vin ii.259; iv.265, 292; S ii.215; J i.147, 428; Miln 124.


-- [upa + assāsa; upa + ā + śvas] breathing J i.160.


-- (f.) [fr. upa + śru] listening to, attention S ii. 75; iv.91; J v.100; Miln 92.


-- (adj.) [fr. upassuti] one who listens, an eaves- dropper J v.81.


-- (˚ -- ) [ger. of upahanti] -- 1. spoiling, impairing, defiling J v.267 (manaŋ) -- 2. reducing, cutting short; only in phrase upahacca -- parinibbāyin "coming to extinction after reducing the time of rebirths (or after having almost reached the destruction of life") S v.70, 201 sq.; A i.233 sq.; iv.380; Pug 17 (upagantvā kālakiriyaŋ āyukkhayassa āsane ṭhatvā ti attho Pug A 199); Nett 190. -- The term is not quite clear; there seems to have existed very early confusion with upapacca > upapajja > uppajja, as indicated by BSk. upapadya -- parinirvāyin, and by remarks of C. on Kvu 268, as quoted at Kvu trsln. 158, 159.


-- [Pass. of upahanti] to be spoilt or injured Sn 584; J iv.14; Miln 26.


-- [pp. of upahanti] injured, spoilt; destroyed D i.86 (phrase khata + upahata); S i.238 (na spahata "not easily put out" trsl.); ii 227; A i.161; Dh 134; J vi. 515; Miln 223, 302; DhA ii.33 (an˚).
The formula at D i.86 (khata+upahata) is doubtful as to its exact meaning. According to Bdhgh it means "one who has destroyed his foundation of salvation," i.e. one who cannot be saved. Thus at DA i.237: "bhinna -- patiṭṭho jāto," i.e. without a basis. Cp. remarks under khata. The trsln at Dial. i.95 gives it as "deeply affected and touched in heart": doubtful. The phrase upahaccaparinibbāyin may receive light from upahata.


-- [Sk. *upahartṛ, n. ag. of upa + hṛ] a bringer (of) M i.447 sq.


-- (& ˚hanati J i.454) [upa + han] to impair, in- jure; to reduce, cut short; to destroy, only in ger. upahacca; pp. upahata & Pass. upahaati (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + hṛ] -- 1. presentation; luxury J i.231. -- 2. taking, seizing J vi.198.


-- [upa + hṛ] to bring, offer, present A ii.87; iii. 33; Dh i.301, 302; J v.477.


-- [fr. upa + hṛ] bringing forward, present, offering, gift Vin iii.136 (āhār˚) A ii.87; iii.33; v.66 (mett˚); J i.47; iv.455; vi.117; DA i.97.


-- [upa + hiŋs] to injure, hurt Vin ii.203; J iv.156.

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-- [upa + ā + gam] to come to, arrive at, reach, obtain, usually aor. upāgachi Cp i 1010, pl. upāgachuŋ Sn 1126; or upāgami Sn 426, 685, pl. upāgamuŋ Sn 302, 1126. Besides in pres. imper. upāgaccha PvA 64 (so read for upagaccha). -- pp. upāgata.


-- [pp. of upāgacchati] come to, having reached or attained Sn 1016; PvA 117 (yakkhattaŋ); Sdhp 280.


-- [according to Kern, Toev. s. v. = Sk. upātta, pp of upa + ā + "taken up"; after Morris J.P. T. S. 1884, 75 = uppāta "flying up"] thrown up, cast up, raised (of dust) Th 1, 675.


- UKT: What is ? I still have to find out? What is its bearing on Pal-Myan? -- 111227

-- [upa + ati + gacchati] to "go out over", to surpass, overcome, only in 3rd sg. pret. upaccagā Sn 333, 636, 641, 827; Th 1, 181; 2, 4; J i.258; vi.182; & 3rd pl. upaccaguŋ S i.35; A iii.311; J iii.201.


-- [upa + ā + dhāvati] to run on or in to Ud 72.


-- [pp. of uptipajjati, upa + ā + pad] fallen into, a prey to (with loc.) Sn 495 (= nipanna with gloss adhimutta SnA 415).


-- [pp. of uptivattati] gone beyond, escaped from, free from (with acc.) S i.143; A ii.15; Sn 55, 474, 520, 907; J iii.7, 360; Fd1 322 = Nd2 163. Cp. BSk. upātivṛtta in same sense at M Vastu iii.281.


-- [upa + ati + vattati] to go beyond, overstep M i.327; Sn 712 (v. l. for upanivattati); Nett 49. <-> pp. uptivatta (q. v.).

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-- (adv.) [shortened ger. of upādiyati for the usual upādāya in specialised meaning] lit. "taking up", i. e. subsisting on something else, not original, secondary, derived (of rūpa form) Dhs 877, 960, 1210; Vism 275, 444 (24 fold); DhsA 215, 299, 333, cp. Dhs trsln. 127, 197. -- Usually (and this is the earlier use of upādā) as neg. anupādā (for anupādāya) in meaning "not taking up any more (fuel, so as to keep the fire of rebirth alive)", not clinging to love of the world, or the kilesas q. v., having no more tendency to becoming; in phrases a. parinibbānaŋ "unsupported emancipation" M i.148; S iv.48; v.29; DhA i.286 etc.; a. vimokkho mental release A v.64 (A A: catuhi upādānehi agahetvā cittassa vimokkho; arahattassɔetaŋ nāmaŋ); Vin v.164; Ps ii.45 sq.; a. vimutto D i.17 (= kinci dhammaŋ anupādiyitvā vimutto DA i.109); cp. M iii.227 (paritassanā).


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + ā + ] -- (lit. that (material) substratum by means of which an active process is kept alive or going), fuel, supply, provision; adj. ( -- ˚) supported by, drawing one's existence from S i.69; ii 85 (aggikkhandho ˚assa pariyādānā by means of taking up fuel); v.284 (vāt˚); J iii.342 sa -- upādāna (adj.) provided with fuel S iv.399; anupādāna without fuel DhA ii.163. <-> 2. (appld.) "drawing upon", grasping, holding on, grip, attachment; adj. ( -- ˚) finding one's support by or in, clinging to, taking up, nourished by. See on term Dhs trsln. 323 & Cpd. 171. They are classified as 4 upādānāni or four Graspings viz. kām˚, diṭṭh˚, sīlabbat˚, attavād˚ or the graspings arising from sense -- desires, speculation, belief in rites, belief in the soul -- theory D ii.58; iii.230; M i.51, 66; S ii.3; v 59; Dhs 1213; Ps i.129; ii.46, 47; Vbh 375; Nett 48; Vism 569. -- For upādāna in var. connections see the foll. passages: D i.25; ii.31, 33, 56; iii.278; M i.66, 136 (attavād˚) 266; S ii.14, 17, 30, 85; iii.10, 13 sq., 101, 135, 167, 191; iv.32, 87 sq., 102 (tannissitaŋ viāṇaŋ tadupādānaŋ), 390, 400 (= taṇhā); A iv.69; v.111 (upāy˚); Sn 170, 358, 546; Ps i.51 sq., 193; ii.45 sq, 113; Vbh 18, 30, 67, 79, 119, 132; Dhs 1059, 1136, 1213, 1536 sq.; Nett 28 sq., 41 sq., 114 sq.; DhA iv.194. -- sa˚ full of attachment (to life) M i.65; Vin iii.111; S iv.102; an˚ unattached, not showing attachment to existence S iv.399; Vin iii.111; Th 1, 840; Miln 32; DA i.98.
-- kkhandha, usually as pacɔ upādāna -- kkhandhā the factors of the "fivefold clinging to existence" [cp. BSk. pacɔ u˚ -- skandhāḥ Av. Ś ii.1681 & note] D ii.35, 301 sq.; iii.223, 286; M i.61, 144, 185; iii.15, 30, 114, 295; Ps ii.109 sq.; Vbh 101; Vism 505 (khandha -- pacaka). See for detail khandha ii.B 2. -- kkhaya extinction or disappearance of attachment S ii.54; A iii.376 sq.; Sn 475, 743; It 75. -- nidāna the ground of upādāna; adj. founded on or caused by attachment Ps ii.111; Vbh 135 sq. -- nirodha destruction of "grasping" Vin i.1 (in formula of paṭicca -- samuppāda); S ii.7; iii.14; A i.177. -- paccaya = ˚nidāna S ii.5; iii 94; Sn 507, 742.


-- (adj.) [fr. upādāna, for *upādānika > ˚aka] be- longing to or connected with upādāna, sensual, (inclined to) grasping; material (of rūpa), derived. See on term Dhs trsln. 203, 322. -- S ii.84; iii.47; iv.89, 108; Dhs 584, 1219, 1538; Vbh 12 sq., 30, 56, 119, 125, 319, 326.


-- (adv.) [ger. of upādiyati] -- 1. (as prep. with acc.) lit. "taking it up" (as such & such), i. e. (a) out of, as, for; in phrase anukampaŋ upādāya out of pity or mercy D i.204; PvA 61, 141, 164. -- (b) compared with, alongside of, with reference to, according to D i.205 (kāla ca samaya ca acc. to time & convenience); DhA i.391; VvA 65 (paŋsucuṇṇaŋ); PvA 268 (manussalokaŋ). The same use of upādāya is found in BSk., e. g. at Divy 25, 359, 413; Av. Ś i.255. -- 2. (ic same meaning & application as upādā, i. e. in neg. form first & then in positiv abstraction from the latter) as philosophical term "hanging on to", i. e. derived, secondary (with rūpa) Vbh 12, 67 etc.; Nd1 266. Usually as anupādāya "not clinging to", without any (further) clinging (to rebirth), emancipated, unconditioned, free [cp. BSk. paritt -- anupādāya free from the world Divy 655], freq. in phrase a. nibbuta completely emancipated S ii.279; A i.162; iv. 290; besides in foll. pass.: Vin i.14 (a. cittaŋ vimuccati) 182 (id.); S ii.187 sq.; iv.20, 107; v.317; Dh 89 = S v.24 (ādānapaṭi -- nisagge a. ye ratā); Dh 414; Sn 363; It 94 (+ aparitassato).


-- [the compn. -- from of upādāna, derived fr. upādā in analogy to nouns in ˚a & ˚ā which change their a to i in compn. with kṛ & bhū; otherwise a n. formation fr. analogous to ˚dhi fr. dhā in upadhi] = upādāna, but in more concrete meaning of "stuff of life", substratum of being, khandha; only in combn. with ˚sesa (adj.) having some fuel of life (= khandhas or substratum) left, i. e. still dependent (on existence), not free, materially determined S v.129, 181; A iii.143; It 40; Vism 509. More frequently neg. an -- upādi -- sesa (nibbāna, nibbānadhātu or parinibbāna, cp. similarly BSk. anupādi -- vimukti M Vastu i.69) completely emancipated, free, without any (material) substratum Vin ii.239 (nibbāna -- dhātu); D iii.135; M i.148 (parinibbāna); A ii.120; iv.75 sq., 202, 313; J i.28, 55; Sn 876; It 39, 121 (nibbāna -- dhātu); Ps. i.101; Vism 509; DhA iv.108 (nibbāna); VvA 164, 165. Opp. saupādisesa A iv.75 sq., 378 sq.; Sn 354 (opp. nibbāyi); Vism 509; Nett 92. See further ref. under nibbāna & parinibbāna.


-- [for ˚ādinna with substitution of ṇṇ for nn owing to wrong derivation as pp. from ādiyati2 instead of ādiyati1] grasped at, laid hold of; or "the issue of grasping", i. e. material, derived, secondary (cp. upādā), see def. at Dhs trsln. 201, 324. -- Dhs 585, 877, 1211, 1534; Vbh 2 sq., 326, 433; Vism 349, 451; an˚ Vin iii.113; Dhs 585, 991, 1212, 1535.


-- (adj,) = upādiṇṇa DhsA 311, 315, 378; Vism 398.


-- [upa + ā + , see ādiyati1] to take hold of, to grasp, cling to, show attachment (to the world), cp. upādāna D ii.292; M i.56, 67; S ii.14; iii.73, 94, 135; iv. 168 (na kici loke u. = parinibbāyati); Sn 752, 1103, 1104; Nd1 444 (= ādeti); Nd2 164. ppr. upādiyaŋ S iv. 24 = 65 (an˚); -- ppr. med. upādiyamāna S iii.73; SnA 409, & upādiyāna (˚ādiyāno) Sn 470; Dh 20. <-> ger. upādāya in lit. meaning "taking up" J i.30; Miln 184, 338, 341; for specialised meaning & use as prep. see separately as also upādā and upādiyitvā VvA 209; DA i.109 (an˚); DhA iv.194 (an˚). -- pp. upādiṇṇa (q. v.).


-- [fr. upa + ā + dhā] 1. cushion J vi.253. -- 2. sup- plement, ornament (?), in ˚ratha "the chariot with the outfit", expld. by C. as the royal chariot with the golden slipper J vi.22.


-- [fr. upāhi] being furnished with a cushion J vi. 252 (adj.).


-- [fr. upa + i, cp. upaya] approach; fig. way, means, expedient, stratagem S iii.53 sq., 58; D iii.220 (˚kosalla); Sn 321 (˚ū); J i.256; Nd2 570 (for upaya); PvA 20, 31, 39, 45, 104, 161; Sdhp 10, 12. 350, 385. -- Cases adverbially; instr. upāyena by artifice or means of a trick PvA 93; yena kenaci u. PvA 113. -- abl. upāyaso by some means, somehow J iii.443; v.401 (= upāyena C.). <-> anupāya wrong means J i.256; Sdhp 405; without going near, without having a propensity for S i.181; M iii.25.
-- kusala clever in resource J i.98; Nett 20; SnA 274.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. upāya] a means of ( -- ˚) VvA 84 (paṭipajjan˚).


-- (nt.) [fr. upa + i, cp. upāya] going to (in special sense), enterprise, offering, tribute, present J v.347; vi. 327; Miln 155, 171, 241; Sdhp 616, 619.

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-- [upa + āyāsa, cp. BSk. upāyāsa Divy 210, 314.] (a kind of) trouble, turbulence, tribulation, unrest, disturbance, unsettled condition M i.8, 144, 363; iii.237; A i.144, 177, 203 (sa˚); ii.123, 203; iii.3, 97, 429; Sn 542; It 89 = A i.147 = M i.460; J ii.277 (˚bahula); iv 22 (id.); Pug 30, 36; Vbh 247; Nett 29; Miln 69; Vism 504 (def.); DA i.121. -- anupāyāsa peacefulness, composure, serenity, sincerity D iii.159; A iii.429; Ps i 11 sq.


-- [upa + ā + ram] to cease, to desist J v.391, 498.


-- [pp. of upārambhati] blamed, reprimanded, reproved A v 230.


-- [Sk. upārambha, upa + ālambhatc] -- 1. re- proof, reproach, censure M i.134, 432; S iii.73; v.73; A i.199; ii.181; iii.175; iv.25; Vbh 372. -- 2. (adj.) indisposed, hostile Th 1, 360 sq.; DA i.21, 263.


-- [Sk. upālambhate, upa + ā + labh] to blame, reprimand, reproach M i.432, 433. -- pp. upāraddha (q. v.).


-- at PvA 276 read upalāpeti (q. v.).


-- 3rd sg. aor. of upavisati (q. v.).


upāsaka {U.pa-a.ka.}
-- [fr. upa + ās, cp. upāsati] a devout or faithful layman, a lay devotee Vin i.4, 16 (tevāciko u.), 37, 139, 195 sq.; ii.125; iii.6, 92; iv.14, 109; D i.85; ii.105, 113; iii.134, 148, 153, 168, 172 sq., 264; M i.29, 467, 490; S v.395, 410; A i.56 sq.; ii.132 (˚parisā); iii 206 (˚caṇḍāla, ˚ratana); iv.220 sq. (kittāvatā hoti); Sn 376, 384; J i.83; Pv i 104; Vbh 248 (˚sikkhā); DA i.234; PvA 36, 38, 54, 61, 207. -- f. upāsikā Vin i.18, 141, 216; iii.39; iv.21, 79; D iii.124, 148, 172, 264; M i.29, 467, 491; S ii.235 sq.; A i.88; ii.132; v.287 sq.; Miln 383; PvA 151, 160.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. upāsaka] state of being a be- lieving layman or a lay follower of the Buddha Vin i.37; S iv,301; Vv 8421.


-- [upa + ās] lit. "to sit close by", to go after, attend, follow, serve, honour, worship D ii.287; A i.162; J v. 339, 371 (= upagacchati C.); Miln 418 (lakkhe upāseti fix his attention on the target). -- 3rd pl. pres. med. upāsare A i.162; J iv.417 (= upāyanti C.). Cp. payirupāsati. -- pp. upāsita & upāsīna (q. v.). See also upāsaka, upāsana1.


-- (nt.) [fr. upāsati] attendance, service, honour S i.46 (samaṇ˚); Th 1, 239; Miln 115. Cp. payir˚.


-- (nt.) [fr. upāsati] -- 1. archery J vi.448; usually in phrase katpāsana skilled in archery M i.82; S ii. 266; A ii.48; J iv.211; Mhvs 24, 1. -- Miln 232 (˚ŋ sikkhitvā). -- 2. practice Miln 419. -- 3. in ˚sālā gymnasium, training ground Miln 352.


-- see upāsaka; cp. payir˚.


-- [pp. of upāsati] honoured, served, attended S 1133, cp. Nd2 165; Th 1, 179.


-- [pp. of upāsati] sitting near or close to J v.336.


-- [upa + āhata] struck, afflicted, hurt J i.414.


-- (f.) [with metathesis for upānahā = Sk. upānah f. or upānaha m.; but cp. BSk. upānaha nt. Divy 6] a shoe, sandal Vin i.185; ii.118, 207 (adj. sa -- upāhana), 208; S i.226; J iv.173, 223; Pv ii.49; Nd2 226; KhA 45; DhA i.381 (chatt ˚ŋ as nt? v. l. ˚nā); PvA 127, 186. <-> upāhanaŋ (or upāhanā) ārohati to put on sandals J iv. 16; vi. 524; opp. omucati take off Vin ii.207, 208; J iii.415; iv.16. -- Note. An older form upānad˚ (for upānadh = Sk. upānah) is seen by Kern in pānadpama J ii.223, which is read by him as upānadpama (v. l. upāhan -- upama). See Toev. s. v. upānad.

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-- [ger. of upeti] undergoing, going into, metri causa as ūpiya ( -- ˚) and opiya, viz. hadayasmiŋ opiya S i 199 = Th 1, 119; senpiya J v.96 (v. l. senopiya; C. sayanpagata). In tadpiya the 2nd part upiya represents an adj. upaka fr. upa (see ta I. a), thus found at Miln 9.

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upekkhaka {U.pk~hka.ka.}
-- (adj.) [fr. upekkhā] disinterested, resigned, stoi- cal Vin iii.4; D i.37, 183; iii.113, 222, 245, 269, 281; S v.295 sq., 318; A iii.169 sq., 279; v.30; Sn 515, 855, 912; It 81; Nd1 241, 330; Pug 50, 59; Dhs 163; DhsA 172.

UKT: Note the diacritic over <i> in Romabama spelling of {U.pk~hka.ka.} .


-- [upa + īkṣ] to look on, to be disinterested or indifferent Sn 911; Nd1 328; J vi.294.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. upa + īkṣ] is commentator's paraphrase for upekkhā (q. v.) Nd1 501 = Nd2 166; Vbh 230.


-- (adj.) = upekkhaka J v.403.


-- & upekhā (f.) [fr. upa + īkṣ, cp. BSk. upekṣā Divy 483; Jtm 211. On spelling upekhā for upekkhā see Mller P. Gr. 16] "looking on", hedonic neutrality or indifference, zero point between joy & sorrow (Cpd. 66); disinterestedness, neutral feeling, equanimity. Sometimes equivalent to adukkham -- asukha -- vedanā "feeling which is neither pain nor pleasure". See detailed discussion of term at Cpd. 229 -- 232, & cp. Dhs trsln. 39. -- Ten kinds of upekkhā are enumd. at DhsA 172 (cp. Dhs trsln. 48; Hardy, Man. Buddhism 505). -- D 138 (˚sati -- parisuddhi purity of mindfulness which comes of disinterestedness cp. Vin iii.4; Dhs 165 & Dhs trslnn. 50), 251; ii.279 (twofold); iii.50, 78, 106, 224 sq., 239, 245 (six ˚upavicāras), 252, 282; M i.79, 364; iii 219; S iv.71, 114 sq., v.209 sq. (˚indriya); A i 42; 81 (˚sukha), 256 (˚nimitta); iii.185, 291 (˚cetovimutti); iv.47 sq., 70 sq., 300, 443; v.301, 360; Sn 67, 73, 972, 1107, (˚satisaŋsuddha); Nd1 501 = Nd2 166; Ps i.8, 36, 60, 167, 177; Pug 59 (˚sati); Nett 25, 97 (˚dhātu), 121 sq.; Vbh 12, 15 (˚indriya), 54 (id.), 69, 85 (˚dhātu), 228, 324, 326 (˚sambojjhanga), 381 (˚upavicāra); Dhs 150, 153, 165, 262, 556, 1001, 1278, 1582; Vism 134 (˚sambojjhanga, 5 conditions of), 148 (˚nubrūhanā), 160 (def. & tenfold), 317 (˚bhāvanā), 319 (˚brahmavihāra), 325 (˚vihārin), 461; SnA 128; Sdhp 461.


-- [pp. of upeti] furnished with, endowed with, pos- sessed of Sn 402, 463, 700, 722; Dh 10, 280; Nd2 s. v., Th 1, 789; Pv i.76 (bal˚); ii 712 (phal˚, v. l. preferable ˚upaga), iv.112 (ariyaŋ aṭṭhangavaraŋ upetan = aṭṭhahi angehi upetaŋ yuttaŋ PvA 243); Vism 18 (+ sam˚, upagata, samupagata etc); PvA 7. -- Note. The BSk. usually has samanvāgata for upeta (see aṭṭhanga).


-- [upa + i] to go to (with acc.), come to, approach, undergo, attain D i.55 (paṭhavi -- kāyaŋ an -- upeti does not go into an earthly body), 180; M i.486 (na upeti, as answer: "does not meet the question"); S iii.93; It 89; Sn 209, (na sankhaŋ "cannot be reckoned as") 749, 911, 1074; 728 (dukkhaŋ), 897; Sn 404 (deve); Nd1 63; Nd2 167; Dh 151, 306, 342; Sn 318; J iv.309 (maraṇaŋ upeti to die), 312 (id.), 463 (id.); v.212 (v. l. opeti, q. v.); Th 1, 17 (gabbhaŋ); Pv ii.334 (saggaŋ upehi ṭhānaŋ); iv. 352 (saraṇaŋ buddhaŋ dhammaŋ); Nett 66; fut. upessaŋ Sn 29; 2nd sg. upehisi Dh 238, 348. -- ger. upecca Vv 337; S i.209 = Nett 131; VvA 146 (realising = upagantvā cetetvā vā); PvA 103 (gloss for uppacca flying up); see also upiya & uppacca. -- pp. upeta.

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-- [pp. of upa + ava + ci] heaped up, abounding, comfortable J iv.471.


uposatha {U.pau:a.hta.}
-- [Vedic upavasatha, the eve of the Soma sacrifice, day of preparation]. At the time of the rise of Buddhism the word had come to mean the day preceding four stages of the moon's waxing and waning, viz. 1st, 8th, 15th, [p151] 23d nights of the lunar month that is to say, a weekly sacred day, a Sabbath. These days were utilized by the pre -- Buddhistic reforming communities for the expounding of their views, Vin i.101. The Buddhists adopted this practice and on the 15th day of the half -- month held a chapter of the Order to expound their dhamma, ib. 102. They also utilized one or other of these Up. days for the recitation of the Pāṭimokkha (pāṭimokkhuddesa), ibid. On Up. days laymen take upon themselves the Up. vows, that is to say, the eight Sīlas, during the day. See Sīla. The day in the middle of the month is called cātudassiko or paṇṇarasiko according as the month is shorter or longer. The reckoning is not by the month (māsa), but by the half -- month (pakkha), so the twenty -- third day is simply aṭṭhamī, the same as the eighth day. There is an accasional Up. called sāmaggi -- uposatho, "reconciliation -- Up.", which is held when a quarrel among the fraternity has been made up, the gen. confession forming as it were a seal to the reconciliation (Vin v.123; Mah. 42). -- Vin i.111, 112, 175, 177; ii.5, 32, 204, 276; iii.164, 169; D iii. 60, 61, 145, 147; A i.205 sq. (3 uposathas: gopālaka˚, nigaṇṭha˚, ariya˚), 208 (dhamm˚), 211 (devatā˚); iv.248 (aṭṭhanga -- samannāgata), 258 sq. (id.), 276, 388 (navah angehi upavuttha); v.83; Sn 153 (pannaraso u); Vbh 422; Vism 227 (˚sutta = A i.206 sq.); Sdhp 439; DA i.139; SnA 199; VvA 71, 109; PvA 66, 201. -- The hall or chapel in the monastery in which the Pāṭimokkha is recited is called uposathaggaŋ (Vin iii.66), or ˚āgāraŋ (Vin i.107; DhA ii.49). The Up. service is called ˚kamma (Vin i.102; v.142; J i.232; iii.342, 444; DhA i.205). uposathaŋ karoti to hold the Up. service (Vin i.107, 175, 177; J i.425). Keeping the Sabbath (by laymen) is called uposathaŋ upavasati (A i.142, 144, 205, 208; iv.248; see upavasati), or uposathavāsaŋ vasati (J v.177). The ceremony of a layman taking upon himself the eight sīlas is called uposathaŋ samādiyati (see sīlaŋ & samādiyati); uposatha -- sīla observance of the Up. (VvA 71). The Up. day or Sabbath is also called uposatha -- divasa (J iii.52).
-- UHS-PMD0237

UKT from UHS: To spend the day contemplating the Three Gems (Buddha, Dhamma, Thinga), keeping Eight Precepts, (for monks) reciting the Rules of Order, Sabbath, the elephant named "Upau-tha-hta".
   Note: The local population of Myanmar uses the Lunar Calendar which is synchronized to the Solar Calendar every year in mid-April celebrated by the Water Festival. The Burmese Lunar Calendar is made of 12 lunar months having 29 and 30 days alternately. The first of each month is the New Moon day and the Full Moon day falls in the middle of the month. The first half of the lunar month is the period of the waxing moon and the second half the waning moon. Each half is divided into two with the result that the each quarter of the month is either seven days or eight days. In short each lunar month is made up of four quarters and the end the quarter is the Sabbath.
   The term "Soma sacrifice" in PTS means Moon worship - not a "drinking bout". Soma can mean either an invigorating drink (which need not be fermented to make the drinker intoxicated) or the Moon. The waxing and waning moons are important for people who lives near the sea because of the tides with the accompanying gusts of wind and rough waves. As I was born in the Irrawaddy Delta, I have to know about the tides even when I was a child. - UKT111228


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-- (adj.) [fr. uposatha] -- 1. belonging to the Upo- satha in phrase anuposathikaŋ (adv.) on every U., i. e. every fortnight Vin iv.315. -- 2. observing the Sabbath, fasting (cp. BSk. uposadhika M Vastu ii.9); Vin i.58; iv. 75, 78; J iii.52; Vism 66 (bhatta); DhA i.205.


-- (adj.) [fr. upusatha] = uposathika, fasting Mhvs 17, 6.

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-- indexed at Ud iii.2 wrongly for upakki- taka (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [fr. ud + pac, cp. Sk. pakva & see also uppaccati] -- 1. "boiled out", scorched, seared, dried or shrivelled up; in phrase itthiŋ uppakkaŋ okiliniŋ okiriniŋ Vin iii.107 = S ii.260; expld. by Bdhgh. Vin iii.273 as "kharena agginā pakkasarīra". -- 2. "boiled up", swollen (of eyes through crying) J vi.10.


-- [ger. of uppatati] flying up Th 2, 248 (see under upacca)); S i.209 (v. l. BB. upecca, C. uppatitvā pi sakuṇo viya) = Pv ii.717 (= uppatitvā PvA 103) = DhA iv.21 (gloss uppatitvā) = Nett 131 (upecca).


-- [ud + paccati, Pass. of pac] in ppr. uppacci- yamāna (so read for upapacciyamāna, as suggested by v. l. BB. uppajj˚) "being boiled out", i. e. dried or shrivelled up (cp. uppakka 1) J iv.327. Not with Morris J P T S. 1887, 129 "being tormented", nor with Kern, Toev. under upapacc˚ as ppr. to pṛc (*upapṛcyamāna) "dicht opgesloten", a meaning foreign to this root.


-- [ud + pajjati of pad] to come out, to arise, to be produced, to be born or reborn, to come into existence D i.180; Sn 584; Pv ii.111 (= nibbattati PvA 71); PvA 8 (nibbattati +), 9, 20, 129 (= pātubhavati); DA i.165. <-> Pass. uppajjiyati Vin i.50. -- ppr. uppajjanto PvA 5, 21; fut. ˚pajjissati PvA 5 (bhummadevesu, corresp. with niraye nibbattissati ibid.), 67 (niraye); aor. uppajji PvA 21, 50, 66; & udapādi (q. v.) Vin iii.4; J i.81; ger. ˚pajjitvā D ii.157 = S i.6, 158 = ii.193 = J i.392 = Th 1, 1159; & uppajja J iv.24. -- Caus. uppādeti (q. v.). <-> pp. uppanna (q. v.). See also upapajjati and upapanna.


-- (adj. -- nt.) [fr. uppajjati] coming into existence; birth, rebirth PvA 9 (˚vasena), 33 (id.).


-- (adj.) [fr. uppajjana] (belonging to) coming into existence, i. e. arising suddenly or without apparent cause, in ˚bhaṇḍa a treasure trove J iii.150.


-- [n. ag. fr. uppajjati] one who produces or is reborn in (with acc.) D i.143 (saggaŋ etc.).


-- [abl. of uppaṭipāṭi, ud + paṭipāṭi] lit. "out of reach", i. e. in a distance J i.89; or impossible Vism 96 (ekapaho pi u. āgato nhosi not one question was impossible to be understood). As tt. g. "with reference to the preceding", supra Vism 272; SnA 124, 128; DhsA 135 (T. ˚paṭipāṭika).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ut + paṇd or unknown etym.] ridiculing, mocking Miln 357; Vism 29; PugA 250 (˚kathā).


-- (adj.) [redupl. intens. formation; ud + paṇḍu + ka + jāta; paṇḍu yellowish. The word is evidently a corruption of something else, perhaps upapaṇṇḍuka, upa in meaning of "somewhat like", cp. upanīla, upanibha etc. and reading at Pv ii.113 upakaṇḍakin. The latter may itself be a corruption, but is expld. at PvA 72 by upakaṇḍaka -- jāta "shrivelled up all over, nothing but pieces (?)". The trsln. is thus doubtful; the BSk. is the P. form retranslated into utpāṇḍuka Divy 334, 463, and trsld. "very pale"] "having become very pale" (?), or "somewhat pale" (?), with dubbaṇṇa in Khp, A 234, and in a stock phrase of three different settings, viz. (1) kiso lūkho dubbaṇṇo upp˚ dhamani -- santhata -- gatto Vin i.276; iii.19, 110; M ii.121; distorted to BSk. bhīto utp˚. kṛśāluko durbalako mlānako at Divy 334. -- (2) kiso upp˚. J vi. 71; DhA iv.66. -- (3) upp˚ dhamanisanth˚ J i.346; ii.92; v.95; DhA i.367. Besides in a doubtful passage at Pv ii.112 (upakaṇḍakin, v. l. uppaṇḍ˚ BB.), expld. at PvA 72 "upakaṇḍakajāta", vv. ll. uppaṇḍaka˚ and uppaṇḍupaṇḍuka˚.


-- [ut + paṇḍ, of uncertain origin] to ridicule, mock, to deride, make fun of Vin i.216, 272, 293; iv. 278; A iii.91 = Pug 67 (ūhasati ullapati +); J v.288, 300; DhA ii.29; iii.41; PvA 175 (avamaati +). <-> Note. The BSk. utprāsayati at Divy 17 represents the P. uppaṇḍeti & must somehow be a corruption of the latter (vv. ll. at Divy 17 are utprāśayati, utprāṇayati & utprāśrayati).


-- [ud + patati] to fly or rise up into the air; to spring upwards, jump up; 3rd sq. pret. udapatta [Sk. *udapaptat] J iii.484 (so read for ˚patto, & change si to pi); ger. uppatitvā J iii.484; iv.213; PvA 103, 215; and uppacca (q. v.). -- pp. uppatita (q. v.).


-- [pp. of uppatati] jumped up, arisen, come about Sn 1 (= uddhamukhaŋ patitaŋ gataŋ SnA 4), 591; Dh 222 (= uppanna DhA iii.301); Th 1, 371.


-- (f.) [Vedic utpatti, ud + pad] coming forth, product, genesis, origin, rebirth, occasion A ii.133 (˚paṭilābhikāni sanyojanāni); Vbh 137 (˚bhava), 411; cp. Compendium, 262 f. (khaṇa); Miln 127 (˚divasa); Vism, 571 sq. (˚bhava, 9 fold: kāma˚ etc.); SnA 46, 159, 241, 254, 312, 445; PvA 144, 215. On uppatti deva see deva and upapatti. <-> See also aṭṭhuppatti, dānuppatti.


-- [Sk. utpatha, ud + patha] a wrong road or course D i.10 (˚gamana, of planets); S i.38, 43; J v.453; vi. 235; DhA iii.356 (˚cāra).

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-- [pp. of uppajjati] born, reborn, arisen, produced, D i.192 (lokaŋ u. born into the world); Vin iii.4; Sn 55 ˚āṇa; see Nd2 168), 998; J i.99; Pv ii.22 (pettivisayaŋ); Dhs 1035, 1416; Vbh 12, 17, 50, 319; 327; DhA iii. 301; PvA 21 (petesu), 33, 144, 155. -- anuppanna not arisen M ii.11; not of good class D i.97 (see DA i.267).


-- [ud + pabbajati] to leave the Order DhA i. 68; PvA 55. -- pp. ˚pabbajita. -- Caus. uppabbājeti to turn out of the Order J iv.219; DhA iv.195. -- Caus. II. uppabbajāpeti to induce some one to leave the Order J iv.304.


uppabbajjta {OAp~pb~biz~zi.ta.}
-- [ud + pabbajita] one who has left the community of bhikkhus, an ex -- bhikkhu VvA 319; DhA i.311.
-- UHS-PMD0238

UKT: Is PTS spelling correct?
UKT from UHS: m. one who leaves the Order


-- [Sk. utpala, uncertain etym.] the (blue) lotus; a waterlily. The 7 kinds of lotuses, mentioned at J v.37 are: nīla -- ratta -- set -- uppala, ratta -- seta -- paduma, seta -- kumuda, kalla -- hāra. -- D i.75; ii.19; Vin iii.33 (˚gandha); J ii. 443; Dh 55; Vv 322; 354; Pv ii.120; iii.105; DhA i.384 (nīl˚); iii.394 (id.); ThA 254, 255; VvA 132, 161. <-> What is meant by uppala -- patta (lotus -- leaf?) at Vin iv.261?


-- [uppala + ka] "lotus -- like", N. of a hell (cp. BSk. utpala at Divy 67 etc.) A v.173. See also puṇḍarika.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. uppala] having lotuses rich in l., only in f. uppalinī a lotus -- pond D i.75; ii.38; S i.138; A iii. 26; Vv 322; DA i.219.


-- [ud + pra + las, cp. Sk. samullāsayati in same meaning] to sound out or forth, to make sound Miln 21 (dhamma -- sankhaŋ). Reading at D ii.337 is upaḷāseti in same meaning.


-- [fr. ud + paṭ in meaning of "biting, stinging"] an insect, vermin S i.170 (santhāro ˚ehi sachanno "a siesta -- couch covered by vermin swarm" trsld. p. 215 & note).


-- (nt.) [fr. ud + paṭ] pulling out, uprooting, de- stroying, skinning J i.454; ii.283; vi.238; Miln 166; PvA 46 (kes˚); Sdhp 140 (camm˚). Cp. sam˚.


-- (adj.) [fr. uppāṭana] pulling up, tearing out, uprooting J i.303 (˚vāta); iv.333 (id.).


-- [Sk. utpāṭayati, Caus. uf ud + paṭ to split, cp. also BSk. utpāṭayati nidhānaṇ to dig out a treasure Av. Ś i.294] to split, tear asunder; root out, remove, destroy Vin ii.151 (chaviŋ to skin); M ii.110 (attānaŋ); Th 2, 396 (ger. uppāṭiyā = ˚pāṭetvā ThA 259); J i.281 (bījāni); iv.162, 382; vi.109 (= lucati); Miln 86; DhA iii.206. <-> Caus. uppāṭāpeti in pp. uppāṭāpita caused to be torn off DhA iii.208. See also upphāleti.


-- [Sk. utpāta, ud + pat] flying up, jump; a sudden & unusual event, portent, omen D i.9 (v. l. uppāta) = Vism 30 (T. uppāta, v. l. uppāda) Sn 360; J i.374; vi. 475; Miln 178.


-- [Sk. utpāda, ud + pad] coming into existence, appearance, birth Vin i.185; D i.185; S iii.39 (+ vaya); iv.14; v.30; A i.152 (+ vaya), 286, 296; ii.248 (taṇh˚); iii.123 (citt˚ state of consciousness); iv.65 (id.); Dh 182, 194; J i.59, 107 (sat˚); Vbh 303 (citt˚), 375 (taṇh˚); PvA 10; ThA 282. -- anuppāda either "not coming into existence" D iii.270, M i.60; A i.286, 296; ii.214, 249: iii.84 sq.; Ps i.59, 66; Dhs 1367; or "not ripe" D i.12.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. uppāda2] producing, generating PvA 13 (dukkh˚). f. ˚ikā DhA iv.109 (jhānɔ).


-- (nt.) [fr. uppada2] making, generating, causing PvA 71 (anubal˚ read for anubalappadāna?) 114.


-- (adj.) [fr. uppāda2] having an origin, arising, bound to arise Dhs 1037, 1416; Vbh 17, 50, 74, 92 and passim; DhsA 45.


-- [n. ag. fr. uppādeti] one who produces, causes or brings into existence, creator, producer M i.79; S i. 191; iii.66; v.351; Miln 217.


-- [Caus. of uppajjati, ud + pad] -- 1. to give rise to, to produce, put forth, show, evince, make D i.135; M. i.162, 185; Pug 25; PvA 4, 16, 19, 59; Sdhp 539. cittaŋ u. to give a (temporary) thought to (with loc.) J i.81; Miln 85; DhA ii.89; PvA 3. -- 2. to get, obtain, find J iv.2; Miln 140; DhA i.90; PvA 121. -- 3. in lohitaŋ u. to draw (blood) Miln 214.


-- (& uplavati) [Sk. utplavati, ud + plu, cp. utplutya jumping up, rising Sp. Av. Ś i.209] -- 1. to emerge (out of water), to rise, float S iv.313 (uplava imper.); Miln 80, 379; VvA 47 (uplavitvā, v. l. uppalavitvā); DA i.256 (v. l. upari lavati). -- 2. to jump up, frisk about, to be elated or buoyant J ii.97 (cp. Morris J P T S. 1887, 139); Miln 370. -- See also upaplavati, uplāpeti & ubbillāvita etc.


-- (adj.) [ud + pīḍ] oppressing or oppressed: an˚ free from oppression, not hurt or destroyed D i.135 (opp. sa -- uppīḷa; T. upapīḷa but v. l. upp˚); J iii.443; v.378; PvA 161.


-- [pp. of uppīḷeti] pressed J vi.3.


-- [ud + pīḍ for ava + pīḍ, cp. uplāpeti = opilāpeti, & opīḷeti] -- 1. to press (down) on to, to hold (tight) to (with acc.), to cover up or close M i.539 (piṭṭhi -- pāṇiŋ hanukena); J i 483 (hatthena akkhīni); ii.245 (hatthikumbhe mukhaŋ); v.293 (aggalaŋ); ThA 188. -- 2. to stampede VvA 83 (paṭhaviŋ).


-- [ud + poṭheti] to beat PvA 4.


-- at DhA i.309 remains to be explained, T. faulty.


-- [Caus. of ud + phal] to cut, rip or split open Vin i.276 (udara -- cchaviŋ upphāletvā; v. l. uppāṭetvā, perhaps preferable).


-- (adj.) [ud + phāsulikā for phāsukikā = phā- suka a rib] "with ribs out", i. e. with ribs showing, emaciated, thin, "skinny" Pv ii.11 (= uggata -- phāsuka PvA 68); iv.101 (MSS. uppā˚); ThA 133 (spelt uppā˚).


-- [Sk. avaplāvayati, Caus. of ava + plu, with sub- stitution of ud for ava; see also uppilavati] to immerse M i.135 (vv. ll. upal˚ & opil˚); J iv.162 (fig. put into the shade, overpower; v. l. upal˚). See also opilāpeti & ubbillāvita.

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-- (adj.) [ud + *vṛti (of vṛt) + ma (for mā > mant); cp. Sk. udvṛtta & vṛtimant] going out of its direction, going wrong (or upset?), in phrase ubbaṭumaŋ rathaŋ karoti to put a cart out of its direction A iv. 191, 193.


-- [Caus. of ud + vṛt, as doublet of ubbatteti, cp. BSk. udvartayati Divy 12, 36] to anoint, give perfumes (to a guest), to shampoo J i.87 (gandhacuṇṇena), 238 (id.); v.89, 438.


-- misprint in Pug Index as well as at Pug A 233 for ubbhaṭṭhaka (q. v.).


-- [ud + vṛt] to go upwards, to rise, swell J vi. 486 (sāgaro ubbatti). See also next.


-- [Caus. of ud + vṛt, of which doublet is ubbaṭṭeti; cp. also ubbaṭuma] -- 1. to tear out J i.199; Miln 101 (sadevake loke ubbattiyante); DhA i.5 (hadayamaŋsaŋ), 75 (rukkhaŋ). -- 2. to cause to swell or rise J iii.361 (Gangāsotaŋ); iv.161 (samuddaŋ). -- 3. (intrs.) to go out of direction, or in the wrong direction Vism 327 (neva ubbaṭṭati na vivaṭṭati; v. l. uppaṭṭati); DhA iii.155.

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-- [ud + vadhati] to kill, destroy Sn 4 (praet. udabbadhi = ucchindanto vadheti SnA 18).


-- [ud + bandhati] to hang up, strangle Vin iii. 73 (rajjuyā); J i.504 (id.); iii.345; Th 2, 80; Vism 501; VvA 139, 207 (ubbandhitu -- kāmā in the intention of hanging herself).


ubbarī (f.) [Sk. urvarā, Av. urvara plant] fertile soil, sown field; fig. woman, wife J vi 473 (= orodha C.).


-- see ubbisati.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. ud + vṛh, i. e. to ubbahati1] only in cpd. dur˚ hard to pull out, difficult to remove Th 1, 124, 495 = 1053.


-- [ud + bṛh or vṛh, see also uddharati] to pull out, take away, destroy Sn 583 (udabbahe pot. = ubbaheyya dhāreyya SnA 460); Th 1, 158; J ii.223 (udabbahe = udabbaheyya C.); iv.462 (ubbahe); vi.587 (= hareyya C.).


-- [ud + vahati, although possibly same as ubba- hati1, in meaning of uddharati, which has taken up meanings of *udbharati, as well as of *udbṛhati and *udvahati] to carry away, take away, lift (the corn after cutting); only in Caus. II. ubbahāpeti to have the corn harvested Vin ii 180 = A i.241. -- Here belong uddhaṭa and uddharaṇa. Cp. also pavāḷha.


-- [adj. pp. of ud + bāhati = vāh or more likely of ud + bādh] oppressed, troubled, harassed, annoyed, vexed Vin i.148, 353; ii.119; iv.308; J i.300; Vism 182 (kuṇapa -- gandhena); DhA i.343.


-- [Pass. of ubbāseti, ud + vas] "to be dis -- inhabited", i. e. to be abandoned by the inhabitants Mhvs 6, 22 (= chaḍḍīyati C.). -- Cp. ubbisati.


-- (nt.) [fr. ubbahati2] carrying, lifting, in ˚sa- mattha fit for carrying, i. e. a beast of burden, of an elephant J vi.448.


-- (f.) [orig. f. of ubbāhika, adj. fr. ubbāheti in abstr. use] a method of deciding on the expulsion of a bhikkhu, always in instr. ubbāhikāya "by means of a referendum", the settlement of a dispute being laid in the hands of certain chosen brethren (see Vin Texts iii.49 sq.) Vin ii.95, 97, 305; v.139, 197; A v.71; Mhvs 4, 46.


-- [hardly to be decided whether fr. ud + vāh (to press, urge), or bṛh or bādh; cp. uddharati 2] to oppress, vex, hinder, incommodate J v.417 sq.


-- [Sk. udvigna, pp. of ud + vij] agitated, flurried, anxious Vin ii.184; S i.53; Th 1, 408; J i.486; iii.313; Miln 23, 236, 340 (an˚); Vism 54 (satat˚); DhA ii.27; ThA 267; Sdhp 8, 77.


-- [Pass. of ud + vij] to be agitated, frightened or afraid Vin i.74 (u. uttasati palāyati); iii.145 (id.); S i. 228 (aor. ubbijji); Miln 149 (tasati +), 286 (+ saŋviji); Vism 58. -- Caus. ubbejeti (q. v.). -- pp. ubbigga (q. v.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ubbijjati] agitation, uneasiness DA i.111. Cp. ubbega.


-- (adj.) [ud + vinaya] being outside the Vinaya, ex -- or un -- Vinaya, wrong Vinaya Vin ii.307; Dpvs v.19.


-- (v. l. uppilāva, which is prob. the correct reading] joyous state of mind, elation Ud 37. See next.


-- (according to the very plausible expln. given by Morris J P T S. 1887, 137 sq. for uppilāpita, pp. of uppilāpeti = uplāpeti < uplāveti, as expld. under uppilavati, ud + plu; with ll for l after cases like Sk. ālīyate > P. allīyati, ālāpa > allāpa etc., and bb for pp as in vanibbaka = Sk. vanīpaka (*vanipp˚)] happy, elated, buoyant, ltt. frisky; only in cpds. ˚atta rejoicing, exultancy, elation of mind D i.3, 37; J iii 466; Miln 183; DA i.53, 122; and ˚ākāra id. DhA i.237. At Vism 158 "cetaso ubbilāvitaŋ" stands for ubbilāvitattaŋ, with v. l. BB uppilāvitaŋ. Cp. J v.114 (ubbilāvita -- cittatā).


-- [either a secondary formation fr. ubbilāvita, or representing uppilava (uppilāva) for upplava, ud + plu, as discussed under ubbilāvita. The BSk. word udvilya Lal. V. 351, 357, or audvilya Divy 82 is an artificial reconstruction from the Pāli, after the equation of Sk. dvādaśa > dial. P. bārasa, whereas the original Sk. dv. is in regular P. represented by dd, as in dvīpa > dīpa, *udvāpa > uddāpa. Mller's construction ubbilla > *udvela rests on the same grounds, see P. Gr. 12.] elation, elated state of mind M iii.159; ˚bhāva id. DA i.122; Sdhp 167. See next.


-- [better reading v. l. ubbasati, ud + vas] "to be out home", to live away from home J ii.76. -- See also ubbāsīyati. -- pp. ubbisita (˚kāle) ibid.


-- see uruḷhavant.


-- [Sk. udvega, fr. ud + vij] excitement, fright, an- guish D iii.148; later, also transport, rapture, in cpd. (˚pīti); Vism 143; DhsA 124; PugA 226.


-- (adj.) [fr. ubbega] full of anguish or fear J iii. 313 (= ubbegavant C.).


-- (adj.) [fr. ubbejeti] agitating, causing anxiety J i.323, 504.


-- & ubbejetar [n. ag. fr. ubbejeti] a terrifier, a terror to A ii.109 (˚etar); iv.189 (id.); Pug 47, 48 (= ghaṭṭetvā vijjhītvā ubbegappattaŋ karotī ti PugA 226).


-- [Caus. of ud + vij] to set into agitation, terrify, frighten Miln 388 (˚jayitabba grd.); PugA 226.


-- (nt.) [fr. ud + veṣṭ] an envelope, wrap J vi.508.


-- [ud + vedha of vyadh] height, only as measure, contrasted with āyāma length, & vitthāra width J i.29 (v.219; asīti -- hatth˚), 203 (yojana -- sahass˚); VvA 33 (yojana˚), 66 (asīti -- hatth˚), 158 (hattha -- sat˚), 188 (soḷasa -- yojan˚), 221, 339; PvA 113. See also pabbedha.


-- [ud + vedhati = Sk. vyathate] to be moved, to shake (intrs.), quiver, quake J vi.437 (= kampati C.).


ubbhaŋ {OAb~Bn}
-- (& ubbha˚) (indecl.) [a doublet of uddhaŋ, see uddhaŋ iii.] up, over, above, on top J v.269 (ubbhaŋ yojanaŋ uggata); in cpds. like ubbhakkhakaŋ above the collar bone Vin iv.213; ubbhajānumaṇḍalaŋ above the knee Vin iv.213; ubbhamukha upwards S iii.238; Miln 122.


-- (adj.) [ubbha + ṭha + ka of sthā, prob. contracted fr. ubbhaṭṭhitaka] standing erect or upright D i.167; M i.78, 92, 282, 308, 343; A i.296; ii.206; Pug 55 (ubb˚; = uddhaŋ ṭhitaka PugA 233).


-- [pp. of ubbhaṇḍeti, ud + *bhaṇḍ, cp. bhāṇḍa] bundled up, fixed up, wrapped up, full Vin i.287.


-- [pp. of uddharati with bbh for ddh as in ubbhaŋ for uddhaŋ; cp. ubbahati and see also the doublet uddhaṭa] drawn out, pulled out, brought out, thrown out or up, withdrawn Vin i.256 (kaṭhina, cp. uddhāra & ubbhāra); iii.196 (id.); D i.77 (cp uddharati); M i.383 (ubbhatehi akkhihi); Dh 34 (okamokata u. = *okamokataḥ u.); J i.268; PvA 163.


-- [ud + bhava] birth, origination, production Pgdp 91 (dānassa phal˚). Cp. BSk. udbhāvanā Divy 184 (guṇ˚) 492 (id.).


-- = uddhāra (suspension, withdrawal, removal) Vin i.255, 300; v.136, 175; cp. Vin Texts i.19; ii.157.

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-- [ud + bhid] to burst upwards, to spring up out of the ground, to well up; to sprout D i.74 = M iii. 93 = iii.26; J i.18 (v.104); Dh 339 (ger. ubbhijja = uppajitvā DhA iv.49); DA i.218. -- pp. ubbhinna.


-- (nt.) [Sk. udbhida] kitchen salt Vin i.202, cp. Vin Texts ii.48.


-- (adj.) [fr. ud + bhid] breaking or bursting forth, in cpd. ˚odaka "whose waters well up", or "spring water" D i.74; M i.276; DA i.218.


-- [pp. of ubbhijjati] springing up, welling up Dh i.218.


-- [ud + bhuj] to bend up, to lift up (forcibly), ger. ˚itvā in meaning of "forcibly" Vin ii.222; iii.40.


-- see ubho; cp. ubhato & ubhaya.


-- (adv.) [abl. of *ubha, to which ubhaya & ubho] both, twofold, in both (or two) ways, on both sides; usually ˚ -- , as ˚bhāgavimutta one who is emancipated in two ways D ii.71; Dialogues ii.70, n. 1; M i.477 (cp. 385 ˚vimaṭṭha); S i.191; A i.73; iv.10, 77; Png 14, 73; Nett 190; ˚byajanaka (vyaj˚) having the characteristics of both sexes, hermaphrodite Vin i.89, 136, 168; iii.28; v. 222; ˚sangha twofold Sangha, viz. bhikkhu˚ & bhikkhunī Vin ii.255; iv.52, 242, 287; Mhvs 3234. <-> See further Vin ii.287 (˚vinaye); D i.7 (˚lohitaka, cp. DA i.87); M i.57 (˚mukha tied up at both ends), 129 (˚daṇḍakakakaca a saw with teeth on both sides), 393 (koṭiko paho; S iv.323 (id.).


-- (adj.) [*ubha + ya, see ubho] both, twofold Sn 547, 628, 712, 1106, 1107, 801 (˚ante); Nd1 109 (˚ante); J i.52; PvA 11, 24, 35, 51. -- nt. ˚ŋ as adv. in combn. with ca c'bhayaŋ following after 2nd. part of comprehension) "and both" for both -- and; and also, alike, as well Dh 404 (gahaṭṭhehi anāgārehi c'bhayaŋ with householders and houseless alike); Pv i.69. -- Note. The form ubhayo at Pv ii.310 is to be regarded as fem. pl. of ubho (= duve PvA 86).
-- aŋsa lit. both shoulders or both parts, i. e. completely, thoroughly, all round (˚ -- ) in ˚bhāvita thoroughly trained D i.154 (cp. DA i.312 ubhaya -- koṭṭhāsāya bhāvito).


-- [adv.) [Sk. ubhayatra, fr. ubhaya] in both places, in both cases Vin i.107; A iii.64; Dh 15 -- 17; DhA i.29 (˚ettha), 30; PvA 130.


-- (udj.) [Sk. ubhau, an old remnant of a dual form in Pāli; cp. Gr. a)/mfw both, Lat. ambo, Lith. abū, Goth. bai, Ohg. beide = E. both. To prep. -- adv. *amb, *ambi; see abhi & cp. also vīsati] both; nom. acc. ubho S i.87 = A iii.48 = It 16; It 43 = Sn 661 = Dh 306; Sn 220, 543, 597; Dh 74, 256, 269; 412; Nd1 109; Pv i.76; J i.223; ii.3; PvA 13, 82 (tā ubho). -- ubhantaŋ both ends, both sides Sn 1042 (see Nd2 169; Sn A 588 expls. by ubho ante). -- gen. ubhinnaŋ S i.162; ii. 222; J ii.3; instr. ubhohi (hatthehi) Vin ii.256; J iv.142; loc. ubhosu Sn 778 (antesu); J i.264 (passesu; PvA 94 (hatthesu). <-> Note. The form ubhayo at Pv ii.310 is to be regarded as a nom. fem. (= duve PvA 86).

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-- [ud + magga, lit. "off -- track"] -- 1. an underground watercourse, a conduit, main M i.171; A ii.189; J vi.426, 432; SnA 50 ("ummaggo paā pavuccati"); DhA i.252 (˚cora); ii.37 (v l. umanga); iv.104; PvA 44 (read with v. l. SS kummagga). -- 2. a side track, a wrong way, devious way S i.193 (v. l. ˚manga) = Th 1, 1242; S iv.195; A iv.191.


-- [ud + manga (?) or for ummagga, q. v. for vv. ll.] "out luck", i. e. unlucky; or "one who has gone off the right path" Vin v.144.


ummatta {OAm~mt~ta.}
-- (adj.) [ud + matta of mad] out of one's mind, mad S v.447 (+ viceta); J v.386; Miln 122; Sdhp 88; PvA 40 (˚puggala read with v. l. SS for dummati puggala). Cp. next & ummāda.
-- rūpa like mad, madly, insane Pv i.81; ii.62 (where J iii.156 has santaramāna).


-- (adj.) = ummatta; Vin i.123, 321; ii.60, 80; iii.27, 33; A iv.248; Vism 260 (reason for); Miln 277; PvA 38, 39, 93 (˚vesa appearance of a madman), 95. <-> f. ummattikā Vin iv.259, 265; ThA 111.


-- [ud + maddeti, Caus. of mṛd] to rub something on (acc.) Vin ii.107 = 266 (mukhaŋ).


-- [ud + masati of mṛś.] to touch, take hold of, lift up Vin iii.121. Cp. next.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ummasati] lifting up Vin iii.121 (= uddhaŋ uccāraṇā).


-- (f.) [cp. Sk. umā] flax, only in cpd. ˚puppha the (azure) flower of flax M ii.13 = A v.61 (v. l. dammā˚, ummāta˚); D ii.260; Th 1, 1068; DhsA 13. Also (m.) N. of a gem Miln 118.


-- [ud + māda] madness, distraction, mental aberra- tion S i.126 (˚ŋ pāpuṇeyya citta -- vikkhepaŋ vā); A ii.80; iii.119; v.169; Pug 69; PvA 6 (˚patta frantic, out of mind), 94 (˚vāta), 162 (˚patta).


-- (f.) (or ˚aŋ nt.) [abstr. fr. ummāda] maddening Sn 399 (+ mohanaŋ = paraloke ummādanaŋ ihaloke mohanaŋ SnA 377); ThA 2, 357 (cp. ThA 243).


-- [according to Mller P. Gr. = Sk. udumbara (?)] - 1. a threshold Vin iv.160 (= indakhīla); Th 2, 410; J i. 62; iii.101; Vism 425; DhA i.350. -- 2. a curb -- stone J vi.11. -- 3. as uttar˚ (the upper threshold) the lintel J i.111; DhA ii.5 (v. l. upari˚). -- 4. window -- sash or sill J i.347; iv.356.


-- (& ummī) (f.) [for the usual ūmi, cp. similar double forms of bhummi > bhūmi] a wave Th 1, 681; Miln 346.


-- [ud + misati] to open one's eyes J iii.96 (opp. nimisati; v. l. ummisati for ˚mīḷ˚?).


-- [ud + mih] to urinate Vin i.78 (ūhanati +).


-- [Caus. of ud + mīl; opp. ni(m)mīleti] to open one's eyes J i.439; ii.195; iv.457; vi.185; Miln 179, 357, 394; Vism 185, 186; DhA ii.28 (opp. ni˚); VvA 205, 314.


-- (nt.) [Sk. ulmuka perhaps to Lat. adoleo, cp. also alāta firebrand; see Walde, Lat. Wtb. s. v. adoleo] a fire brand Vin iv.265; S iv.92 (T. ummukka meaning "loosened"?); J ii.69 v. l. ˚kk), 404 (kk); iii.356.


-- [ud + majj] to emerge, rise up (out of water) Vin i.180; S iv.312; A iv.11 sq; J ii.149, 284; iii.507; iv.139; Pug 71; Miln 118; DA i.37, 127; PvA 113.


-- (nt.) [fr. ummujjati] emerging Vism 175 (+ nim- mujjana); DA i.115.


-- (adj.) [ummujjamāna, ppr. med, of um- mujjati, + ka] emerging A ii.182.


-- (f.) [fr. ummujjati] emerging, jumping out of (water), only in phrase ummujja -- nimujjaŋ karoti to emerge & dive D i.78; M i.69; A i.170; J iv.139; Nett 110; Vism 395 (= Ps ii.208).


-- (adj.) [ud + mūla] "roots -- out", with roots showing, laying bare the roots J i.249 (˚ŋ karoti); Sdhp 452.


-- (adj.) [= ummūla] uprooting, laying bare the roots J i.303 (vāta).


-- [Caus. fr. ummūla] to uproot, to root out J i.329.

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-- [Sk. *ut -- smayate, ud + smi] to laugh out loud J ii.131 (= hasitaŋ karoti); iii.44; iv.197; v.299 (˚amāna = hasamāna C.). Caus. umhāpeti J v.297.

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See my note on killed {a.wag}-consonants .

-- (imper. 3rd. sg.) is v. l. BB. and C. reading at J vi.145, 146 for dayassu, fly; probably for (i) yassu of to go.


uyyāti {U.yya-ti.}
-- [ud + ] to go out, to go away J ii.3, 4 (imper. uyyāhi); iv.101. -- Caus. uyyāpeti to cause to go away, to bring or take out S iv.312.


-- (nt.) [Sk. udyāna, fr. ud + ] a park, pleasure grove, a (royal) garden J i.120, 149; ii.104; iv.213; v.95; vi.333; PvA 6, 74, 76; VvA 7; Sdhp 7.
-- kīḷā amusement in the park, sports DhA i.220; iv.3. -- pāla overseer of parks, head gardener, park keeper J ii. 105, 191; iv.264 bhūmi garden ground, pleasure ground J i.58; Vv 6419; Pv ii.129; DA i.235.


-- (adj.) [fr. uyyāna] full of pleasure gardens Pv iii.36.


-- [Sk. udyama, ud + yam; P. uyyāma with ā for a, as niyāma > niyama; cp. BSk. udyama Jtm 210] exertion, effort, endeavour Dhs 13, 22, 289, 571; DhsA 146.


-- [ud + yuj] to go away, depart, leave one's house Dh 91 (cp. DhA ii.170). -- pp. uyyutta. -- Caus. uyyojeti (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [ud + yuta] striving, busy (in a good or bad cause) Sn 247, 248; J v.95.


-- [pp. of uyyujati] striving, active, zealous, energ- etic J i.232.


-- [fr. ud + yuj] departure, approach of death Dh 236 (cp. DhA iii.335).


-- (nt.) [fr. uyyojeti] inciting, instigation A iv.233.


-- [pp. of uyyojeti] instigated Miln 228; PvA 105.


-- [Caus. of uyyujati] -- 1. to instigate Vin iv.235; J iii.265. -- 2. to dismiss, take leave of (acc.), send off, let go Vin i.179; A iii.75; J i.119 (bhikkhu -- sanghaŋ), 293; iii.188; v.217; vi.72; Vism 91; DhA i.14, 15, 398; ii.44; VvA 179; PvA 93. -- pp. uyyojita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. ud + yudh] a plan of combat, sham fight Vin iv.107; D i.6; A v.65; DA i.85.


-- (m. nt.) & Uro (nt.) [Sk. uras] -- 1. the breast, chest. -- Cases after the nt. s. -- declension are instr. urasā Th 1, 27; Sn 609; & loc. urasi Sn 255; J iii.148; iv. 118, also urasiŋ J iii.386 (= urasmiŋ C.). Other cases of nt. a -- stem, e. g. instr. urena J iii.90; PvA 75; loc. ure D i.135; J i.156, 433, 447; PvA 62 (ure jāta; cp. orasa). -- Vin ii.105 (contrasted with piṭṭhi back); iv.129; J iv.3; v.159, 202; Nd2 659; Pv iv.108; DhA iii.175; DA i.254; DhsA 321; PvA 62, 66. -- uraŋ deti (with loc.) to put oneself on to something with one's chest, fig. to apply oneself to J i.367, 401, 408; iii.139, 455; iv.219; v.118, 278. -- 2. (appld.) the base of a carriage pole Vv 6328 (= īsāmūla VvA 269).
-- ga going on the chest, creeping, i. e. a snake S i.69; Sn 1, 604; J i.7; iv.330; vi.208; Vv 808; Pv i.121 (= urena gacchati ti urago sappassɔ etaŋ adhivacanaŋ PvA 63); PvA 61, 67. -- cakka an iron wheel (put on the chest), as an instrument of torture in Niraya J i.363, 414. -- cchada "breast cover", breast plate (for ornament) Vin ii.10; J iv.3; v.215, 409; vi.480; ThA 253. -- ttāḷi beating one's breast (as a sign of mourning & sorrow) M i.86, 136; A ii.188; iii.54, 416; iv.293; PvA 39. -- tthala the breast A ii.174.


-- [Sk. urabhra, with ulā & uraṇa to be compared with Gr. a)rh/n wether, cp. Hom. ei)=ros wool; Lat. vervex; Ags. waru = E. ware (orig. sheepskins) = Ger. ware. Here also belongs P. urāṇī] a ram D i.127; A i.251 sq.; ii.207; iv.41 sq.; J v.241; Pug 56; DA i.294; DhA ii.6. See also orabbhika.


-- (f.) [or uraṇī?, f. of uraṇa, see urabbha] an ewe J v.241 (= urāṇikā C.); v. l. uraṇī & uraṇikā.


-- (adj.) [cp. Av. ravah space; Gr. eu)rus wide; Lat. rūs free or wide space, field; Idg. *ru, *uer wide, to which also Goth. rūms space = Ags. rūm, E. room, Ger. raum] wide, large; excellent, eminent J v.89; Miln 354; Sdhp 345, 592. -- pl. urū sands, soil J v.303.


-- (f.) [ura + undā?] freedom of the chest, free breathing, relief D ii.269 (v. l. uruddhā perhaps preferable, for ura + uddharana lifting or raising the chest).


-- (adj.) [doubtful, prob. for urūḷhavant, with affix vant to a pp. formed with ud˚. The word is taken by Kern, Toev. s. v. as ud -- ūḷha of vah (with d for r). The well accredited (and older) variant ubbuḷhavā is expld. (see Kern, s. v.) as pp. of ud + bṛh2, cp. upabrūhana. Perhaps we have to consider this as the legitimate form urūḷhava as its corruption. Morris, J.P.T.S. 1887, 141 takes urūḷhavā as ud + rūḷha, pp. of ruh (with r. for rr = dr), thus "overgrown"] large, bulky, immense; great, big, strong. Only in one stock phrase "nāgo isādanto urūḷhavo" Vv 209, 439; J vi.488; of which variant n. ī. ubbuḷhavā M i.414 = 450. The word is expld. at J vi.488 by "ubbāhana -- samattha"; at VvA 104 (pl. urṳ̄ḷhavā) by "thāmajava -- parakkamehi byūhanto (v. l. brahmanto) mahantaŋ yuddha -- kiccaŋ vahituŋ samatthā ti attho". The BSk. udviddha (Divy 7) may possibly be a corruption of ubbūḷha.


-- is a commentator's invention; said to be = gacchati to go Vism 60 (in definition of paŋsu -- kūla; paŋsu viya kucchita -- bhāvaŋ ulatī ti paŋsu -- kūlaŋ).


-- [Sk. ulūka; cp. Lat. ulucus & ulula owl, ululāre to howl, Ger. uhu; onomat. *ul, as in Gr. o)lolu/zw, Sk. ululi, Lith. ulůti] an owl Vin i.186 (˚camma, sandals of owl's skin); iii.34; A v.289 sq.; J ii.208, 352 (as king of the birds); Miln 403; DhA i.50 (kāka˚ crows & owls).
-- pakkha owls' wings (used as dress) Vin i.305; D i.167. -- pakkhika dress of owls' wings, or owl feathers A i.241, 296; ii.206; Pug 55 (= ulūka -- pattāni ganthetvā kata -- nivāsanaŋ Pug A 233).

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-- [ud + langh, cp. BSk. prollanghya transgres- sing (= pra + ullangh˚) Divy 596] to leap up J iii.222 (udakato ˚itvā). -- Caus. ullangheti to make jump up (always with olangheti, i. e. to make dance up & down) Vin iii.121; J v.434; DhA iv.197. -- pp. ullanghita (q v.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ud + langh] jumping up, lifting up, raising Vin iii.121; J iv.5 (˚samattha?).


-- [pp. of ullangheti] being jumped on, set on C. on S i.40 (see K. S. i.318) (for uḍḍita = taṇhāya ullanghita).


-- [ud + lapati] to call out, to talk to, lay claim to Vin i.97; iii.105; Pug 67 (= katheti Pug A 249).


-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) [fr. ullapati] calling out, enticing, laying claim to Vin iii.101; Th 2, 357; Miln 127; ThA 243. -- ullapanā = uddhaŋ katvā lapanā Vism 27.


-- (adj.) [?] only in acc. nt. ullahakaŋ used adverbially, in cpd. dant˚ after the manner of rubbing the teeth, by means of grinding the teeth M iii.167. Seems to be a a(/pac legome/non.


-- is v. l. for uklāpa (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. ud + likh] combing, scratching VvA 349; ThA 267.

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-- [pp. of ud + likh] scratched, combed Vin i.254; J ii.92 (aḍḍhullikhitehi kesehi); Ud 22 (id. with upaḍḍh˚ for aḍḍh˚); VvA 197.


-- [Denom. of ud + linga] to exhibit, show as a characteristic Vism 492.


-- [pp. of ud + lip] smeared; only in combn. ullitt- valitta smeared up & down, i. e. smeared all round Vin ii 117; M ii.8; A i.101, 137; iv.231; Th 1, 737.


-- [ud + lup, cp. BSk. ullumpati Mahāvy 268] to take up, to help (with acc.), to save Vin ii.277; D i.249.


-- (nt.) [fr. ullumpati] saving, helping; in phrase ˚sabhāva -- saṇṭhita of a helping disposition, full of mercy DA i.177; PvA 35. Same as ullopana (q. v.).


-- [pp. of ulloleti] waved, shaken (by the wind); waving J vi.536.


-- [ud + lok˚] doubtful in its meaning; occurs at Vin i.48 = ii.209 as ullokā paṭhamaŋ ohāreti, trsl. Vin Texts by "a cloth to remove cobwebs", but better by Andersen, Pāli Reader as "as soon as it is seen"; at Vin ii.151 the translators give "a cloth placed under the bedstead to keep the stuffing from coming out". See on term Morris J.P.T.S. 1885, 31. -- In cpd ulloka -- paduma at J vi.432 it may mean "bright lotus" (lit. to be looked at). See ulloketi.


-- (adj.) [fr. ulloketi] looking on (to), looking out; in phrase mukh˚ looking into a person's face; i. e. cheerful, winning; or "of bright face", with a winning smile D i.60; DA i.59, 168; PvA 219 (˚ika for ˚aka).


-- [pp. of ulloketi] looked at, looked on J i.253; DA i 193.


-- [ud + lok˚, cp. loka, āloka & viloka] to look on to, look for, await J i.232 (ākāsaŋ), 253; ii.221, 434; DA i.153, 168; VvA 316. -- pp. ullokita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) = ullumpana DhA i.309 (T. faulty; see remarks ad locum).


-- [fr. ud + lul] -- 1. a wave J iii.228; vi.394. - 2. commotion, unrest J iv.306, 476.


-- (f.) [fr. ulloleti] wavering, loitering (in expectation of something), greed ThA 243.


-- [denom. fr. ullola] to stroll or hang about, to wait for, expect ThA 243. -- pp. ullulita.


-- (adj.) [Vedic udāra, BSk. audāra] great, eminent, excellent, superb, lofty, noble, rich. -- Dhammapāla at VvA 10 -- 11 distinguishes 3 meanings: tīhi atthehi ūḷāraŋ; paṇītaŋ (excellent), seṭṭhaŋ (best), mahantaŋ (great) Vin iii.41 (˚bhoga); D i.96; M iii.38 (˚bhogatā); S v.159; Sn 53, 58, 301; Nd2 170; J i.399; v.95; Vv 11; 8426; Pv i.512 (= hita samiddha PvA 30); VvA 18 (˚pabhāva = mahānubhāva); ThA 173, 280; PvA 5, 6, 7, 8, 25, 30, 43, 58 and passim; Sdhp 26, 260, 416. <-> Der. oḷārika (q. v.).


uḷāratā (f.)
-- = uḷāratta Sdhp 254.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. uḷāra] greatness etc.; only neg. an˚ smallness, insignificance, inferiority VvA 24.


uḷu {U.Lu.}
-- [Sk. uḍu, dialectical?] a lunar mansion Miln 178.


-- [dial.?] a ladle, a spoon Vin i.286; J i.120, 157; iii.461; Miln 8; DhA i.425; ii.3, 20; iv.75, 123.


-- [dial.?] a raft, a float Vin i.230; iii 63 (˚ŋ ban- dhati); J iv.2; DhA ii.120.


-- [= viṭṭha, pp. of viś, with prefixed u] having entered, come in D ii.274 (v. l. BK. upa˚).


-- [Vedic ṛṣabha; Av. aran male, Gr. a)/rshn, a)/rrhn masculine, to Idg. *eres & *rēs to wet, sprinkle (with semen), as also in Sk. rasa juice, rasā wet, liquid, Lat. rōs dew. A parallel root *ueres in Sk. varṣa rain, Gr. e)/rsh dew; Sk. vṛṣan & vṛṣabha bull] a bull; often fig. as symbol of manliness and strength (cp. nisabha) D i.6 (˚yuddha bull -- fight), 9 (˚lakkhaṇa signs on a b.), 127; Vin iii.39 (puris˚ "bull of a man", a very strong man); A i.188; ii.207; iv.41 sq., 376; v.347, 350; Sn 26 sq., 416, 646, 684; Dh 422; J i.28 (v.203; ˚kkhandha broadshouldered), 336; v.99 (bharatsabha); vi.136; Pug 56; Vism 153 (˚camma, in simile); DhA i.396; SnA 226, 333; KhA 144; PvA 163; VvA 85. -- The compn. forms of usabha are āsabha, isabha (in nisabha) & esabha (q. v.). The relations between usabha, vasabha & nisabha are discussed at SnA 40.


-- (nt.) [= usabha1, in special application (?)] a cer- tain measure of length, consisting of 20 yaṭṭhis (see yaṭṭhi) or 140 cubits J i.64 (eight), 70 (id.); ii.91; iv.17 (one), 142 (eight); DhA i.108 (˚mattaŋ).


-- (f.) [doubtful] (a certain) food J vi.80.


-- (m. & nt.) [Sk. uśīra] the fragrant root of Andropogon Muricatum (cp. bīraṇa) Vin i.201; ii.130 (˚mayā vijanī); S ii.88 (˚nāḷi); A ii.199 (id.); Dh 337; J v.39; Th 1, 402 (˚attho).


-- (m. & f) Sk. iṣu] an arrow Vin iii.106 (˚loma); D i.9; M i.86; iii.133; S i.127; A ii.117; iii.162; J iv.416; vi.79, 248, 454; Miln 331, 339; SnA 466; PvA 155.
-- kāra an arrow -- maker, fletcher M ii.105; Dh 80, 145; Th 1, 29; J ii.275; vi.66; DhA i.288.


-- (f.) [the diaeretic form of Sk. uṣman, of which the direct equivalent is P. usmā (q. v.)] heat J i.31 (= uṇha iii.55), 243; ii.433; Vism 172 (usuma -- vaṭṭi -- sadisa); DA i.186; DhA i.225; ii.20.


usuyyaka {U.u.yya.ka.}
-- (adj.) [fr. usuyyā] envious, jealous Vin ii.190; Sn 318, 325; J ii.192 (v. l. asuyy˚); v.114. -- Note. The long vowel form usūyaka occurs in cpd. abbhusūyaka (q. v.). Spelling ussuyikā occurs at Vv 3321 (see VvA 147).


-- & usūyati [Sk. asūyati; fr. usuyā envy] to be jealous or envious, to envy (with acc.) Vin i.242; J iii. 27 (ppr. an -- usuyyaŋ); Pv ii.320 (maŋ usūyasi = mayhaŋ issaŋ karosi PvA 87).


-- (f.) & usuyyitatta (nt.) are exegetical abstr. formations of usuyyā (q. v.). Dhs 1121; Pug 19.


-- & usūyā (f.) [Sk. asūyā] envy, jealousy, detraction S i.127 (ū); Sn 245 (u); J ii.193 (ū); iii.99 (ū; v. l. ussuyyā); Miln 402 (ū); Dhs 1121 (u); VvA 71 (u); SnA 332 (u).


usmā {OA~ma.}
-- (f.) [see usumā] heat D ii.335, 338; M i.295; S ii. iii.143; iv.215, 294; v.212; Dhs 964; DA i.310. -- In combn. with ˚kata it appears as usmī˚, e. g. at M i 132, 258.
-- gata heated, belonging to heat Dhs 964; as tt. one who mortifies or chastises himself, an ascetic J v.209 (= samaṇateja C.; cp. BSk. uṣṇagata & uṣmagata Divy 166, 240, 271. 469, & see Kern's mistakes at Toev. s. v.).

UKT: I have arrived at the Romabama pronunciation from --> {OA~a}, the prefix in the name {OA~a p:hku:}. It was one of the ancient Mon capitals at the time of King Anawrahta of Pagan. The Mon kingdom sided with Anawrahta in his war with Thaton another Mon kingdom. Historical facts to be checked. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anawrahta 111229 -- UKT111229


ussa {OA~a.} [from
-- (adj.) [der. fr. ud = *ud -- s(y)a, in analogy to oma fr. ava; but taken by Kern, Toev. s. v. as an abbreviated ussada] superior, higher (opp. oma inferior) A iii.359; Sn 860 (= Nd1 251 with spelling ossa), 954.


-- [ud + sakkati, see sakkati] to creep out or up to, to rise A iii.241 sq.; Miln 260.


-- [by -- form of ussukkati] to endeavour Vism 437; VvA 95 (Caus. II. ussakkāpesi), 214.

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-- (adj.) [pp. of ud + śank] = ussankin A iii.128; DhA iii.485 (+ pari˚; cp. ā˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. ud + śank] distrustful, fearful, anxious Vin ii.192.


-- (adj.) [ud + sankha] with ankles midway (?) in ˚pāda the 7th of the characteristics of a Mahāpurisa D ii.17; iii.143, 154; DA explains: the ankles are not over the heels, but midway in the length of the foot.


-- [ud + sṛj, cp. BSk. protsṛjati Divy 587] to dis- miss, set free, take off, hurl A iv.191.


-- [pp. of ud + sarati of sṛ, cp. saṭa for *sūta] run away M ii.65.


-- [most likely to ud + syad; see ussanna]: this word is beset with difficulties, the phrase satt -- ussada is applied in all kinds of meanings, evidently the result of an original application & meaning having become obliterated. satt˚ is taken as *sapta (seven) as well as *sattva (being), ussada as prominence, protuberance, fulness, arrogance. The meanings may be tabulated as follows: (1) prominence (cp. Sk. utsedha), used in characterisation of the Nirayas, as "projecting, prominent hells", ussadanirayā (but see also below 4) J i.174; iv.3, 422 (pallankaŋ, v. l. caturassạŋ, with four corners); v.266. -- adj. prominent ThA 13 (tej -- ussadehi ariyamaggadhammehi, or as below 4?). -- 2. protuberance, bump, swelling J iv.188; also in phrase sattussada having 7 protuberances, a qualification of the Mahāpurisa D iii.151 (viz. on both hands, feet, shoulders, and on his back). -- 3. rubbing in, anointing, ointment; adj. anointed with ( -- ˚), in candan˚ J iii.139; iv.60; Th 1, 267; Vv 537; DhA i.28; VvA 237. -- 4. a crowd adj. full of ( -- ˚) in phrase sattussada crowded with (human beings) D i.87 (cp. DA i.245: aneka -- satta -- samākiṇṇa; but in same sense BSk. sapt -- otsada Divy 620, 621); Pv iv.18 (of Niraya = full of beings, expld. by sattehi ussanna uparpari nicita PvA 221. -- 5. qualification, characteristic, mark, attribute, in catussada "having the four qualifications (of a good village)" J iv.309 (viz. plenty of people, corn, wood and water C.). The phrase is evidently shaped after D i.87 (under 4). As "preponderant quality, characteristic" we find ussada used at Vism 103 (cf. Asl. 267) in combns. lobh˚, dos˚, moh˚, alobh˚ etc. (quoted from the "Ussadakittana"), and similarly at VvA 19 in Dhammapāla's definition of manussa (lobhɔādīhi alobhɔādīhi sahitassa manassa ussannatāya manussā), viz. sattā manussa -- jātikā tesu lobhɔ<-> ādayo alobhɔādayo ca ussadā. -- 6. (metaph.) self -- elevation, arrogance, conceit, haughtiness Vin i.3; Sn 515, 624 (an˚ = taṇhā -- ussada -- abhāvena SnA 467), 783 (expld. by Nd1 72 under formula sattussada; i. e. showing 7 bad qualities, viz. rāga, dosa, moha etc.), 855. -- See also ussādana, ussādeti etc.


-- (adj.) [fr. ussada 4] over -- full, overflowing A iii.231, 234 (˚jāta, of a kettle, with vv. ll. ussuraka˚ & ussuka˚).


-- (adj.) [pp. of ud + syad, cp. abhisanna] -- 1. overflowing, heaped up, crowded; extensive, abundant, preponderant, excessive, full of (˚ -- ) Vin i.285 (cīvaraŋ u. overstocked; ii.270 (āmisaŋ too abundant); iii.286; Th 2, 444 (= upacita ThA 271); J i.48, 145 ˚kusalamūla); DhA i.26 (id.); (lobho etc.) Asl. 267; Miln 223 (id.); J i.336 (kāla, fulfilled); iii.418; iv.140; Pv iii.51 (˚pua, cp. PvA 197); PvA 71 (˚pabhā thick glow). Cp. accussanna. -- 2. anointed VvA 237. -- 3. spread out, wide DhA ii.67 (mahāpaṭhavī u.), 72 (id.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ussanna] accumulation, fulness, plenty Kvu 467 (where Kvu trsln. p. 275 gives ussadattā); VvA 18, 19.


-- in ˚vādika Vin iv.224 is a variant of usuyya˚ "using envious language, quarrelsome". -- Another ussaya [fr. ud + śri, cp. Sk. ucchrita, P. ussita & ussāpeti] meaning "accumulation" is found in cpd. samussaya only.


-- see udassaye.


-- [ud + sarati of sṛ] to run out, run away J i.434 (imper. ussaratha); v.437. -- pp. ussaṭa (q. v.). -- Caus. ussāreti (q. v.).


-- [Sk. utsava] feast, making merry, holiday Vin iii. 249; J i.475; ii.13, 248; VvA 7, 109 (˚divasa).


-- [ud + sah, cp. BSk. utsaha Jtm 215; utsahetavya Divy 494; utsahana Divy 490; ucchahate for utsahate Av. Ś ii.21] to be able, to be fit for, to dare, venture Vin i.47, 83; ii.208; iii.17; D i.135; S iv.308, 310; Miln 242; VvA 100. -- Caus. ussāheti (see pp. ussāhita).


-- [fr. ussādeti] throwing up on DA i.122.


-- (nt.) [to ussādeti, cp. ussādita] -- 1. overflowing, piling up, abundance M iii.230 (opp. apasādana). -- 2. (probably confused with ussāraṇa) tumult, uproar, confusion A iii.91, 92 (v. l. ussāraṇa) = Pug 66 (= hatthiassarathdīnaŋ cɔeva balakāyassa ca uccāsadda -- mahāsaddo Pug A 249).


-- [fr. ussādeti, BSk. ucchrāyita Divy 76, 77, 466]. [See ussāpita & ussārita under ussāpeti & ussāreti. There exists in Pāli as well as in BSk. a confusion of different roots to express the notion of raising, rising, lifting & unfolding, viz. sṛ, syad, śri, sad, chad. (See ussada, ucchādana, ussādeti, ussāpeti, ussāreti)].


-- [Pass. med. of ussādeti, cp. ussada 4] to be in abundance, to be over Vin ii.167.


-- [denom. fr. ussada 1] -- 1. to dismiss D iii.128 [for ussāreti1] -- 2. to raise, cause to rise up on, haul up, pile up M i.135; iii.230; A iv.198, 201; Miln 187, 250. -- Pass. ussādiyati (q. v.). -- pp. ussādita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. ussāpeti] lifting up, raising, erecting, unfolding (of a flag or banner) A iv.41; Nd2 503 (dhamma -- dhajassa).


-- [pp. of ussāpeti, cp. ussādita] lifted, raised, un- furled Miln 328 (dhamma -- dhaja); J ii.219.


-- [Caus. of ud + śri, cp. BSk. ucchrāpayati Av. S i.384, 386, 387; ii.2] to lift up, erect, raise, exalt Vin ii.195; A iv.43; J ii.219; iv.16; v.95 (chattaŋ); PvA 75 (id.); Miln 21; DhA i.3; iii 118 (kaṭṭhāni). -- pp. ussāpita & ussita (q. v.). See also usseti.


-- (nt.) [fr. ussāreti] procession, going or running about, tumult DhA ii.7 (so read for ossāraṇā). Cp. ussādana.


-- [pp. of ussāreti2] lifted out or up Vism 63 (samudda- vīcīhi thale ussārita; v. l. ussādita).


-- [Caus. of ussarati] to cause to move back, to cause to go away or to recede Vin i.32, 46 (here a student, when folding up his master's robe, has to make the corners move back a hand's breadth each time. Then the crease or fold will change and not tend to wear through), 276; ii.237 (here the reading ussādeti may be preferred); J i.419; iv.349; v.347. -- Caus. II. ussārāpeti J ii.290.


-- [= ussādeti] to cause to raise aloft (of a flag), to lift J v.319 (= ussāpeti). -- pp. ussārita.


-- [either = Sk. avaśyāya, or to ud + sru] hoar- frost, dew D ii.19; J iv.120; v.417; ˚bindu a dew drop A iv.137; Pv iv.15; SnA 458; in comparisons: Vism 231, 633.


-- [fr. ud + sru] outflow, taint, stain (cp. āsava) DhA iv.165 (taṇhā˚; v. l. ussada, to ussada 6).


-- (nt.) [= ussāpana] proclamation (of a building [p158] as legal store house); in ˚antika within the proclaimed limit Vin i.239.

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-- see nirussāsa.


-- [Sk. utsāha & utsaha, see ussahati] strength, power, energy; endeavour, good -- will M ii.174; S v.440; A i. 147; ii.93, 195; iii.75, 307; iv.320; v.93 sq.; Miln 323, 329 (dhiti +) Vism 330; Sdhp 49, 223, 535, 619; SnA 50; DhA iii.394; PvA 31, 106, 166; VvA 32, 48. -- In exegetical literature often combd. with the qusi synonym ussoḷhi e. g. at Nd2 s. v.; Dhs 13, 22, 289, 571.


-- (f.) [fr. ussahati cp. BSk. utsahana Divy 490] = ussāha Nett 8.


-- [pp. of ussāheti, Caus. of ussahati] determined, incited, encouraged, urged J i.329; VvA 109; PvA 201. Cp. sam˚.


-- [ud + sic] to bale out, exhaust J i.450, ii.70; iv.16; Miln 261.


-- (nt.) [fr. ussicati] drying, baling out, raising water, exhausting J i.417.


-- [Sk. ucchrita, pp. of ud + sri, see ussāpeti] erected, high S v.228; Th 1, 424 (pannaddhaja); J v.386; Vv 8415; VvA 339. Cp. sam˚.


-- (nt.) [ud + sīsa + ka] the head of a bed, a pillow for the head J i.266; ii.410, 443; iv.154; v.99; vi.32, 37, 56; DhA i.184 (˚passe, opp. pāda -- passe).


-- (adj.) [Sk. utsuka, also BSk. e. g. Jtm 3168] -- 1. endeavouring, zealous, eager, active S i.15 (an˚ inactive); A iv.266; Sn 298. -- 2. greedy, longing for Dh 199 (an˚).


-- (adj.) = ussukin; only neg. an˚ free from greed VvA 74.


-- (adj.) [fr. ussuka] greedy, longing; only neg. an˚ Pug 23.


-- (nt.) [*utsukya fr. ussuka; cp. BSk. utsukya Divy 601 and autsukya Av. Ś i.85] zeal, energy, endeavour, hard work, eagerness Vin i.50; S iv.288, 291, 302; Nd2 s. v. Nett 29; VvA 147; PvA 5, 135; Vism 90 (āpajjati); 644 (˚ppahānaŋ). -- Cp. appossukka.


-- (f.) = ussukka A y.195.


-- [denom. fr. ussukka] to endeavour D i.230. - Caus. II. ussukkāpeti to practice eagerly, to indulge in, to perform VvA 95, 98, 243. See also ussakkati.


-- (adj.) [pp. of ud + sru, cp. avassuta] defiled, lust- ful (cp. āsava), only neg. an˚ free from defilement Dh 400.

Ussuyā, Ussuyaka


ussuyā, ussuyaka, uss.


-- [ud + sussati of śuṣ] to dry up (intrs.) S i.126; iii.149 (mahāsamuddo u.); Sn 985; J vi.195.


-- (adj) [ut + sūra] "sun -- out", the sun being out; i. e. after sunrise or after noon, adverbially in ˚bhatta eating after mid -- day, unpunctual meals A iii.260, and ˚seyyā sleep after sunrise, sleeping late D iii.184; DhA ii.227. Besides as loc. adv. ussūre the sun having been up (for a long time), i. e. at evening Vin i 293; iv.77; J ii.286, also in ati -- ussūre too long after sunrise VvA 65; DhA iii.305.


-- [ud + śri] to erect, raise, stand up J iv 302; aor. ussesi J vi.203. -- Caus. ussāpeti; pp. ussita & ussāpita (q. v.).


-- [denom. fr. ussena = ussayana, ud + śri (?)] to draw on to oneself, to be friendly S iii.89 (v. l. ussi˚); A ii.214 sq. (opp. paṭisseneti); Ps ii.167 (ussi˚); Kvu i. 93 (reading ussineti + visineti). See also paṭiseneti.


-- (?) Vin ii.10 (for ussoḷh˚?); cp. ussoḷhikāya.


-- (adj.) [ud + sota] nt. ussotaŋ as adv. "up -- stream" Miln 117.


-- (f.) [a by -- form of ussāha fr. ud + sah, pp. *soḍha dialectical] exertion M i.103; S ii.132; v.440; A. ii. 93, 195; iii.307; iv.320; v.93 sq. Often comḅd. with ussāha (q. v.).


-- (f.) [adj. of ussoḷhi] belonging to exertion, only in instr. as adv. ussoḷhikāya "in the way of exertion", i. e. ardently, keenly, eagerly S i.170 (naccati).



-- [onomat. uhu + kara, see under ulūka] an owl (lit. "uhu" -- maker) J vi.538 (= ulūka C.).


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UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascaris 111222

Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the "giant intestinal roundworms". One species, A. suum, typically infects pigs, while another, A. lumbricoides, affects human populations, typically in sub-tropical and tropical areas with poor sanitation. A. lumbricoides is the largest intestinal roundworm and is the most common helminth infection of humans worldwide, an infection known as ascariasis. Infestation can cause morbidity, and sometimes death, by compromising nutritional status, affecting cognitive processes, inducing tissue reactions, such as granuloma, and provoking intestinal obstruction or rectal prolapse.

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Human-head lice

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_louse 111224

Head lice, like other insects of the order Phthiraptera, are hemimetabolous.[1][9] Newly hatched nymphs will moult three times before reaching the sexually-mature adult stage.[1] Thus, mobile head lice populations contain members of up to four developmental stages: three nymphal instars, and the adult (imago).[1] Metamorphosis during head lice development is subtle. The only visible differences between different instars and the adult, other than size, is the relative length of the abdomen, which increases with each molt.[1] Aside from reproduction, nymph behavior is similar to the adult. Nymphs feed only on human blood (hematophagia), and cannot survive long away from a host.[1]

Like adult head lice, the nymph cannot fly or jump.

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Killed {a.wag}-consonants

-- by UKT 111229

I have been intrigued by a grapheme such as . Is it a conjunct or a medial? It can be either {oay~ya.}, or, {u.yya.}.

UHS spells Pali words such as uyyāti as {U.yya-ti.}. Remember {yya.} is the {a.wag}-consonant {ya.} /j/ - don't take it to be a semivowel - modified by the medial-grapheme {-ya.}.

The killed-consonants of the {a.wag}-group have been a problem in pairs of words such as {ko} & {ko}, and, {bo} & {bol}. In these pairs, the vowel checked by killed {a.wag}-consonant does not undergo a change. Thus, {ko} & {ko} are pronounced the same. Similarly, {bo} & {bol} have the same pronunciation. Both {ko} and {bo} can have three registers, the creak, modal and emphatic, whereas {ko} and {bol} each has only one register. In this respect, {ko} and {bol} are like any other CV syllable.

We do not have any reliable transcription guide lines for words such as Tao (from Chinese religion Taoism). I am proposing to use killed {a.wag}-consonants, e.g. Tao to be {tauw} [at present Tao is transcribed as  {tauk}]. Notice that {w} is the killed-consonant {wa.} in the coda position. 

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The Pineal gland aka the Third Eye

I have heard about this Third Eye since I was a child from my father, U Tun Pe, a former member of the Theosophy Society, Burma. According to my father, who had done a bit of meditation (concentration) under the tutelage of his mentor, U Kyaw Dun (I was named after him), this area gets hot as your concentration develops. However, unless you are under the watchful eye of a meditation master, and unless your morality is above a certain level, this kind of meditation can alter your mind to extent of total madness. -- UKT111223

From: http://www.crystalinks.com/thirdeyepineal.html 111223

The pineal gland (also called the pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, epiphysis or the "third eye") is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and photoperiodic (seasonal) functions.

The pineal gland is located near to the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join. Unlike much of the rest of the brain, the pineal gland is not isolated from the body by the blood-brain barrier system. It is reddish-gray and about the size of a pea (8 mm in humans), located just rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris, between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies. It is part of the epithalamus. It is a midline structure, and is often seen in plain skull X-rays, as it is often calcified. Calcification is typically due to intake of the fluoride found in water and toothpaste. It was the last endocrine gland to have its function discovered.

The pineal gland's location deep in the brain seems to intimate hidden importance. In the days before its function as a physical eye that could see beyond space-time was discovered, it was considered a mystery linked to superstition and mysticism.

Today it is associated with the sixth chakra whose awakening is linked to prophecy and and increased psychic awareness as consciousness ascends.

UKT: More in the original article.

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Saraswati veena

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraswati_veena 111227

The Saraswati veena (also spelled Saraswati vina) is an Indian plucked string instrument. It is named after the Hindu goddess Saraswati, who is usually depicted holding or playing the instrument. Also known as raghunatha veena (veena also spelled 'vina', Tamil: வீணை,Sanskrit: वीणा (vīṇā), Kannada: ವೀಣೆ, Malayalam: വീണ, Telugu: వీణ) is used mostly in Carnatic Indian classical music. There are several variations of the veena, which in its South Indian form is a member of the lute family. One who plays the veena is referred to as a vainika.

It is one of the three other major types of veena popular today. The others include vichitra veena and rudra veena. Out of these the rudra and vichitra veenas are used in Hindustani music, while the Saraswati veena is used in the Carnatic music of South India. Some people play traditional music, others play contemporary music.


The veena has a recorded history that dates back to the Vedic period (approximately 1500 BCE)

In ancient times, the tone vibrating from the hunter's bow string when he shot an arrow was known as the Vil Yazh. The Jya ghosha (musical sound of the bow string) is referred to in the ancient Atharvaveda. Eventually, the archer's bow paved the way for the musical bow. Twisted bark, strands of grass and grass root, vegetable fibre and animal gut were used to create the first strings. Over the veena's evolution and modifications, more particular names were used to help distinguish the instruments that followed. The word veena in India was a term originally used to generally denote "stringed instrument", and included many variations that would be either plucked, bowed or struck for sound.[1][2]

The veena instruments developed much like a tree, branching out into instruments as diverse as the exotic harp-like Akasa (a veena that was tied up in the tops of trees for the strings to vibrate from the currents of wind) and the Audumbari veena (played as an accompaniment by the wives of Vedic priests as they chanted during ceremonial Yajnas). Veenas ranged from one string to one hundred, and were composed of many different materials like eagle bone, bamboo, wood and coconut shells. The yazh was an ancient harp-like instrument that was also considered a veena. But with the developments of the fretted veena instruments, the yazh quickly faded away, as the fretted veena allowed for easy performance of ragas and the myriad subtle nuances and pitch oscillations in the gamakas prevalent in the Indian musical system.[2] As is seen in many Hindu temple sculptures and paintings, the early veenas were played vertically. It was not until the great Indian Carnatic music composer and Saraswati veena player Muthuswami Dikshitar that it began to be popularized as played horizontally.

"The current form of the Saraswati veena with 24 fixed frets evolved in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, during the reign of Raghunath Nayak and it is for this reason sometimes called the Tanjore veena, or the Raghunatha veena. Prior to his time, the number of frets on the veena were less and also movable." - Padmabhooshan Prof. P. Sambamurthy, musicologist.[3] The Saraswati veena developed from Kinnari Veena. Made in several regions in South India, those made by makers from Thanjavur in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu are to date considered the most sophisticated. Sangeeta Ratnakara calls it Ekatantri Veena and gives the method for its construction.

While the Saraswati veena is considered in the lute genealogy, other North Indian veenas such as the Rudra veena and Vichitra veena are technically zithers. Descendants of Tansen reserved Rudra Veena for family and out of reverence began calling it the Saraswati Veena.

Religious associations

The patron Hindu Goddess of learning and the arts, Saraswati, is often depicted seated upon a swan playing a veena. Lord Shiva is also depicted playing or holding a vina in His form called "Vinadhara," which means "bearer of the vina." Also, the great Hindu sage Narada was known as a veena maestro.[4] and refers to 19 different kinds of Veena in Sangita Makarandha. Ravana, the antagonist of the Ramayana, who is also a great scholar, a capable ruler and a devoted follower of Shiva, was also a versatile veena player. [UKT ]

Scholars hold that as Saraswati was goddess of learning, the most evolved string instrument in a given age was placed in her hands by contemporary artistes.

UKT: On the right is a modern version [from the Internet] of the goddess.

The Ramayana, the Bhagavata and Puranas all contain references to the Veena, as well as the Sutra and the Aranyaka. The Vedic sage Yajnavalkya speaks of the greatness of the Veena in the following verse: "One who is skilled in Veena play, one who is an expert in the varieties of srutis (quarter tones) and one who is proficient in tala attain salvation without effort."[5]

Many references to the veena are made in old Sanskrit and Tamil literature, and musical compositions. Examples include poet Kalidasa's epic Sanskrit poem Kumarasambhava, as well as "veena venu mridanga vAdhya rasikAm" in Meenakshi Pancharathnam, "mAsil veeNaiyum mAlai madhiyamum" Thevaram by Appar.[6]

Each physical portion of the veena is said to be the seat in which subtle aspects of various gods and goddesses reside in Hinduism. The instrument's neck is Shiva, the strings constitute his consort, Parvati. The bridge is Lakshmi, the secondary gourd is Brahma, the dragon head Vishnu. And upon the resonating body is Saraswati. "Thus, the veena is the abode of divinity and the source of all happiness."- R. Rangaramanuja Ayyangar[7]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article


Myanmar varieties

by UKT 111227

Whenever we mention {saung:} we always think of the Burmese harp aka {saung:kauk}. There are other varieties also: such as {byp-saung:} and {mi.kyaung:saung:}. But none were placed in the hands of the Myanmar equivalent of Saraswati. Traditionally we consider musicians to be socially inferior to the scholars, and Saraswati always holds in her hand a {ka.lt} and three palm-leaf manuscripts denoting the Three Baskets or {ti.pi.Ta.ka.}. We take our goddess or Dwi to be the caretaker of the Buddhist scriptures and therefore a scholar, rather than to be a mere musician.

Edited from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saung 111227

The saung {saung:} aka {saung:kauk}; Burmese harp, or Myanmar harp) is an arched harp used in traditional Burmese music. The saung is regarded as a national musical instrument of Burma. The saung is unique in that it is a very ancient harp tradition and the only surviving harp in Asia today.[1]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

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Excerpt from: The Early Buddhist Teaching On the Practice of the Moral Life by Y. Karunadasa, Fall 2001 Chairholder, The Numata Chair in Buddhist Studies, Calgary, Alberta. http://www.ucalgary.ca/numatachair/files/numatachair/Karunadasa_2001.pdf 111222

The early Buddhist view of reality is sought to be presented as a critical response to two other views. Thus, addressing Kaccayana, the Buddha says:

This world, O Kaccayana, generally proceeds on a duality, of the it is and the it is not. But, O Kaccayana, whoever perceives in truth and wisdom how things originate in the world, in his eyes there is no it is not. Whoever, Kacayana, perceives in truth and wisdom how things pass away in the world, in his eyes there is no it is. 8

UKT: The fn#8 refers to Samyutta Nikaya, PTS (=SN.), II, 17 (Tr. from Kindred Sayings). [need to be checked. -- UKT111222]

The two beliefs referred to above are very often introduced as sassatavada and ucchedavada. Sassatavada means the view of permanence or the belief in Being (bhava-ditthi), and ucchedavada, the view of annihilation or the belief in non-Being (vibhava-ditthi). Early Buddhism presents these two views as occupying a position of mutual opposition, while describing its own position as one that sets itself off from both of them. It is, in fact, against these two views that Buddhist polemics are continually directed and it is by demolishing them that Buddhism seeks to construct its own view of the nature of existence. The conclusion suggests itself therefore that it was as a critical response to the mutual opposition between sassatavada and ucchedavada that the early Buddhist view of existence was sought to be presented.

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