Update: 2011-12-27 11:45 PM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary


by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp], reprint 1966 
Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) .

in Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan) by U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, {pa.dat~hta.mi-zu-a}, 1st printing ca. 1959, Ministry of Religious Affairs publication, Rangoon , p1180.

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UKT notes
Three Calamities

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-- (?) [doubtful as to origin & etym. since only found in cpd. anīgha & abs. only in exegetical literature. If genuine, it should belong to ṛgh Sk. ṛghāyati to tremble, rage etc. See discussed under nigha1] confusion, rage, badness SnA 590 (in expln of anigha). Usually as an˚ (or anigha), e. g. J iii.343 (= niddukkha C.); v.343.


īti {I-ti.}
-- & ītī - (f.) [Sk. īti, of doubtful origin] ill, calamity, plague, distress, often combb. with & substituted for upaddava, cp. BSk. ītay' opadrava (attack of plague) Divy 119. <-> Sn 51; J i.27 (v.189); v.401 = upaddava; Nd1 381; Nd2 48, 636 (+ upaddava = santāpa); Miln 152, 274, 418. -- anīti sound condition, health, safety A iv.238; Miln 323.
-- UHS-PMD0197

UKT from UHS: f. danger, effected by one of the great calamities (famine, epidemic, warfare)
See my note on Three Calamities - a Japanese Buddhist view.


-- (adj.) [fr. īti] connected or affected with ill or harm, only in neg. an˚.


-- a doublet of itiha, only found in neg. an˚.


-- (adj.) [Sk. īdṛs, ī + dṛś, lit. so -- looking] such like, such DhsA 400 (f. ˚ī); PvA 50, (id.) 51.


-- (nt.) [= iriṇa, q. v. & cp. Sk. īriṇa] barren soil, desert D i.248; A v.156 sq.; J v.70 (= sukkha -- kantāra C.); vi.560; VvA 334.


-- [pp. of īreti, Caus. of īr, see iriyati] -- 1. set in motion, stirred, moved, shaken Vv 394 (vāt'erita moved by [p124] the wind); J i.32 (id.); Vv 6420 (haday'erita); Pv ii.123 (malut'erita); PvA 156 (has erita for ī˚); VvA 177 (= calita). -- 2. uttered, proclaimed, said Dāvs v.12.

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-- [fr. to have power, perf. īśe = Goth. aih; cp. Sk. īśvara = P. issara, & BSk. īśa, e. g. Jtm 3181] lord, owner, ruler J iv.209 (of a black lion = kāḷa -- sīha C.); VvA 168. f. īsī see mahesī a chief queen. Cp. also mahesakkha.


-- [dimin. of īsā] a pole J ii.152; vi.456 (˚agga the top of a pole).


īsakaŋ {I-a.kn}
-- (adv.) [nt. of īsaka] a little, slightly, easily M i. 450; J i.77; vi.456; DA i.252, 310; VvA 36; Vism 136, 137, 231, īsakam pi even a little Vism 106; Sdhp 586.
-- UHS-PMD0197

UKT from UHS: a little


-- (f.) [Vedic īṣā] the pole of a plough or of a carriage S i.104 (nangal' īsā read with v. l. for nangala -- sīsā T.), 172, 224 (˚mukha): A iv.191 (rath˚); Sn 77; J i.203 (˚mukha); iv.209; Ud 42; Miln 27; SnA 146; VvA 269 (˚mūlaŋ = rathassa uro).
-- danta having teeth (tusks) as long as a plough -- pole (of an elephant) Vin i.352; M i.414; Vv 209 = 439 (= ratha -- īsā -- sadisa -- danto); J vi.490 = 515.


-- (adj.) [fr. īsā] having a pole (said of a carriage) J vi.252.


-- [Vedic īh, cp. Av. īā ardour, eagerness, āzi greed] to endeavour, attempt, strive after Vin iii.268 (Bdhgh.) J vi.518 (cp. Kern, Toev. p. 112); DA i.139; VvA 35.


īhā (I-ha}
-- (f.) [fr. īh] exertion, endeavour, activity, only in adj. nir -- īha void of activity Miln 413.
-- UHS-PMD0197

UKT from UHS: exertion, endeavour


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UKT notes  

Three Calamities - a Japanese Buddhist view

UKT: We are all Buddhists, yet we fail to understand the views of many sects in the world. The following is one of them. -- UKT111220

From: http://www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=2305 111220

[三災] (Jpn san-sai )

Disasters said to occur at the end of a kalpa. There are two sets of three calamities, lesser and greater.

(1) The three lesser calamities are warfare, pestilence, and famine. The calamity of famine is also called the calamity of high grain prices or inflation, because inflation was caused by a shortage of grain. These calamities are said to occur at the end of each kalpa of decrease in the kalpa of continuance. According to one explanation, all three occur at the end of each kalpa of decrease; first, war rages for seven days, then epidemics prevail for seven months, and finally famine lasts for seven years. According to another, they occur alternately, pestilence at the end of the first kalpa of decrease, war at the end of the second, famine at the end of the third, and so on, each calamity lasting for seven days. In a 1279 letter titled King Rinda, Nichiren described the cause of the three lesser calamities as the three poisons of greed, anger, and foolishness, the fundamental evils inherent in life, stating that greed brings about famine, anger incites war, and foolishness leads to pestilence.

(2) The three greater calamities are fire, water, and wind. These are said to occur at the end of the kalpa of decline following the kalpa of continuance and to destroy the world. In the calamity of fire, seven suns appear at the same time and burn up the world. The flames reach from the hell of incessant suffering to the first meditation heaven in the world of form. In the calamity of water, flood sweeps away everything from the hell of incessant suffering up through the second meditation heaven. In the calamity of wind, a great storm demolishes everything from the hell of incessant suffering up through the third meditation heaven.

UKT: Who was Nichiren? The following is an excerpt  from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nichiren_Buddhism 111220
   Nichiren Buddhism (日蓮系諸宗派: Nichiren-kei sho shūha) is a branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese monk Nichiren (12221282).

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