Update: 2011-12-27 10:06 PM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary


by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp], reprint 1966 
Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) .

in Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan) by U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, {pa.dat~hta.mi-zu-a}, 1st printing ca. 1959, Ministry of Religious Affairs publication, Rangoon , p1180.

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{i.} {aik} {aic} {ait} {aid} {ain} {ai}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p118 p119
p120 p121 p122 p123 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
UKT notes
Circumflex in nubhāva Differences in Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan spellings

UKT: This file should be read together with my series on English Phonetics and Phonology for Burmese-Myanmar speakers (Eng-phon-indx.htm) which is based on Peter Roach. English Phonetics and Phonology, a practical course. 2nd ed., 4th printing 1993, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40718-4. pp 262 . For my reference, the printed book was digitized (type-copied) by Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, Myanmar. 2009. Page references to the original book are shown in my text for easy reference:


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{i.} {I.}

See my note on the Differences in Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan spellings

-- in i -- kāra the letter or sound i SnA 12 (˚lopa), 508 (id.).

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ikka {AIk~ka.} = {ic~hsa.} (?)
-- [Sk. ṛkṣa, of which the regular representation is P. accha2] a bear J vi.538 [= accha C.).
{AIk~ka.} = {ic~hsa.} (?)
-- UHS-PMD0189

UKT: UHS gives two meanings: {wn} and {wak-wn}. The second meaning {wak-wn} 'bear' is clear. But the first {wn} generally accepted as 'bear' may have other implications, because it is a word implying an animal that is ferocious as in {lu-wn} 'ape'.

-- (?) [uncertain as regard meaning & etym.] at Vin ii.151 (+ kasāva) is trsl. by "slime of trees", according to Bdhgh's expln. on p. 321 (to C. V. vi.3, 1), who however reads nikkāsa.


-- (nt.) [fr. īkṣ] seeing Vism 16.


-- [fr. īkṣ to look or see, cp. akkhi] a fortune- teller Vin iii.107; S ii.260; J i.456, 457; vi.504.


-- [fr. īkṣ] to look J v.153; ThA 147; DhsA 172.


ingita {AIn~gi.ta.}
-- (nt.) [pp. of ingati = ijati] movement, gesture, sign J ii.195, 408; vi.368, 459.
-- UHS-PMD0190

UKT from UHS: n. movement, gesture, hint, sign [to convey a message]


-- (indecl.) [Sk. anga prob. after P. ingha (or aja,
q. v.); fr. ijati, cp. J.P.T.S. 1883, 84] part. of exhortation, lit. "get a move on", come on, go on, look here, Sn 83, 189, 862, 875 = 1052; J v.148; Pv iv.57; Vv 539 (= codan'atthe nipāto VvA 237); VvA 47; DhA iv.62.


-- [according to Morris J.P. T.S. 1884, 74 = angāra, cp. Marāthī ingala live coal] coal, embers, in inghāḷakhu Th 2, 386 a pit of glowing embers (= angāra -- kāsu ThA 256). The whole cpd. is doubtful.

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-- see iti.

UKT: Though <i> here is a short vowel, <ic> does not have the sound /ɪck/. The syllable <ic> does not rhyme with <kick> /kɪk/ or {kic}. Its vowel rhymes with <cake> /keɪk/ {kait}. However, since I pronounce it more openly, I prefer to use /aɪk/ or /aɪc/. From this sound, I arrive at the Romabama {AIc} for the Pal-Myan syllable.

{kic} - v. [colloq] pilfer - MED2006-018
{kait} - n. [astrol] the moon's descending node taken as the 'ninth planet'. - MED2006-019

Also, compare this to the case of natives of Rangoon (now Yangon) pronouncing the name of a nearby town, {ing:sain} which used to be the capital of Insein District. The English rendition 'Insein' is probably derived from <insane> /in'seɪn/ (DJPD16-280). The problem is compounded because English does not have the most open front vowel /a/. -- UKT 111218


iccha {AIc~hsa.}
-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [the adj. form of icchā] wishing, longing, having desires, only in pāp˚ having evil desires S i.50; ii.156; an˚ without desires S i.61, 204; Sn 707; app˚ id. Sn 628, 707.
-- UHS-PMD0190

UKT from UHS: having desires, longing

-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. iccha] wishing, desirous, only in nt. adv. yad -- icchikaŋ (and yen˚) after one's wish or liking M iii.97; A iii.28.

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-- [Sk. icchati, iṣ, cp. Av. isaiti, Obulg. iskati, Ohg. eiscōn, Ags. āscian = E. ask; all of same meaning "seek, wish"] to wish, desire, ask for (c. acc.), expect S i.210 (dhammaŋ sotuŋ i.); Sn 127, 345, 512, 813, 836; Dh 162, 291; Nd1 3, 138, 164; Nd2 s. v.; Pv ii.63; Pug 19; Miln 269, 327; SnA 16, 23, 321; KhA 17; PvA 20, 71, 74; Pot. icche Dh 84; Sn 835 Pv ii.66 & iccheyya D ii.2, 10; Sn 35; Dh 73, 88; ppr. icchaŋ Sn 826, 831, 937; Dh 334 (phalaŋ) aor. icchi PvA 31. -- grd. icchitabba PvA 8. -- pp. iṭṭha & icchita (q. v.). <-> Note. In prep. -- cpds. the root iṣ2 (icchati) is confused with root iṣ1 (iṣati, eṣati) with pp. both ˚iṭṭha and ˚iṣita. Thus ajjhesati, pp. ajjhiṭṭha & ajjhesita; anvesati (Sk. anvicehati); pariyesati (Sk. parīcchati), pp. pariyiṭṭha & pariyesita.


-- [Sk. rcchati of ṛ, concerning which see appeti] see aticchati & cp. icchatā.


-- ( -- ˚) (f.) [abstr. fr. icchā] wishfulness, wishing: only in aticchatā too great wish for, covetousness, greed Vbh 350 (cp. aticchati, which is probably the primary basis of the word); mah˚ & pāp˚ Vbh 351, 370.


-- (nt.) [fr. iṣ2, cp. Sk. īpsana] desiring, wish J iv. 5; vi.244.


-- (f.) [fr. icchati, iṣ2] wish, longing, desire D ii.243; iii.75; S i.40 (˚dhūpāyito loko), 44 (naraŋ parikassati); A ii.143; iv.293 sq.; 325 sq.; v.40, 42 sq.; Sn 773, 872; Dh 74, 264 (˚lobha -- samāpanna); Nd1 29, 30; Pug 19; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 101, 357, 361, 370; Nett 18, 23, 24; Asl. 363; DhsA 250 (read icchā for issā? See Dhs trsl. 100); SnA 108; PvA 65, 155; Sdhp 242, 320.
-- vacara moving in desires M i.27 (pāpaka); Nett 27. -- vatiṇṇa affected with desire, overcome by covetousness Sn 306. -- pakata same Vin i.97; A iii.119, 191, 219 sq.; Pug 69; Miln 357; Vism 24 (where Bdhgh however takes it as "icchāya apakata" and puts apakata = upadduta). -- vinaya discipline of one's wishes D iii.252, A iv.15; v.165 sq.


-- [pp. of icchati] wished, desired, longed for J i.208; DhsA 364; PvA 3, 53, 64 (read anicchita for anijjhiṭṭha, which may be a contamination of icchita & iṭṭha), 113, 127 (twice).


ijjhati {AIz~Za.ti.}
-- [Vedic ṛdhyate & ṛdhnoti; Gr. a)/lqomai to thrive, Lat. alo to nourish, also Vedic iḍā refreshment & P. iddhi power] to have a good result, turn out a blessing. succeed, prosper, be successful S i.175 ("work effectively" trsl.; = samijjhati mahapphalaŋ hoti C.); iv.303; Sn 461, 485; J v.393; Pv ii.111; ii.913 (= samijjhati PvA 120); Pot. ijjhe Sn 458, 459; pret. ijjhittha (= Sk. ṛdhyiṣṭha) Vv 206 (= nippajjittha mahapphalo ahuvattha VvA 103). <-> pp. iddha. See also aḍḍha2 & aḍḍhaka. Cp. sam˚.
-- UHS-PMD0190

UKT from UHS: fulfilled .
Note: At the end of a meal the Myanmar-Buddhist monks would say to their lay disciples who had been the hosts (the meal-providers), 'We are fully fed'.


-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) [fr. ijjhati] success, carrying out suc- cessfully Ps i.17 sq., 74, 181; ii.125, 143 sq., 161, 174; Vbh 217 sq.; Vism 266, 383 (˚aṭṭhena iddhi); DhsA 91, 118, 237.


ijati {AI~za.ti.}
[Vedic ṛjati (cp. P. ajjati). Also found as ingati (so Veda), and as ang in Sk. anga = P. aja & ingha & Vedic pali -- angati to turn about. See also ānejja & ajati1] to shake, move, turn about, stir D i.56; S i.107, 132, 181 (anijamāna ppr. med. "impassive"); iii.211; Th 1, 42; 2, 231; Nd2 s. v. (+ calati vedhati); Vism 377; DA i.167. -- pp. ijita (q. v.).
-- UHS-PMD0190

UKT from UHS: to shake, to move


-- (f.) & ˚aŋ (nt.) [fr. ij, see ijati] shaking, movement, motion Sn 193 (= calanā phandanā SnA 245); Nett 88 (= phandanā C.). an˚ immobility, steadfastness Ps i.15; ii.118.


-- [pp. of ijati] shaken, moved Th 1, 386 (an˚). Usually as nt. ijitaŋ shaking, turning about, movement, vacillation M i.454; S i.109; iv.202; A ii.45; Sn 750, 1040 (pl. ijitā), 1048 (see Nd2 140); Dh 255; Vbh 390. <-> On the 7 ijitas see J.P. T.S. 1884, 58.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. ijita nt.] state of vacillation, wavering, motion S v.315 (kāyassa).

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iṭṭha {AIT~HTa.} (= )
-- (adj.) [pp. of icchati] pleasing, welcome, agreeable, pleasant, often in the idiomatic group iṭṭha kanta manāpa (of objects pleasing to the senses) D i.245; ii.192; M i.85; S iv.60, 158, 235 sq.; v.22, 60, 147; A ii.66 sq.; v.135 (dasa, dhammā etc., ten objects affording pleasure); Sn 759; It. 15; Vbh 2, 100, 337. -- Alone as nt. meaning welfare, good state, pleasure, happiness at Sn 154 (+ aniṭṭha); Nett 28 (+ aniṭṭha); Vism 167 (id.); PvA 116 (= bhadraŋ), 140. -- aniṭṭha unpleasant, disagreeable PvA 32, 52, 60, 116. -- See also pariy˚, in which iṭṭha stands for eṭṭha.
{AIT~HTa.} (= )
-- UHS-PMD0190

UKT: UHS gives two meanings: 1. mfn. what is desirable. 2. mfn. what is worthy of worship


iṭṭhakā {AIT~HTa.ka}
-- (itthakā) (f.) [BSk. iṣṭakā, e. g. Divy 221; from the Idg. root *idh > *aidh to burn, cp. Sk. idhma firewood, inddhe to kindle (idh or indh), edhaḥ fuel; Gr. a)i/qw burn, ai(_qos fire -- brand; Lat. aedes, aestas & aestus; more especially Av. itya tile, brick] -- 1. a burnt brick, a tile Vin ii 121 (˚pākara a brick wall, distinguished fr. silāpakāra & dāru˚); J iii.435, 446 (pākār iṭṭhikā read ˚aṭṭhakā); v.213 (rattiṭṭhikā); Vism 355 (˚dārugomaya); PvA 4 (˚cuṇṇa -- makkhita -- sīsa the head rubbed with brickpowder, i. e. plaster; a ceremony performed on one to be executed, cp. Mṛcchakaṭika x.5 piṣṭa -- cūṛnɔvakīrṇaśca puruṣo ɔhaŋ paśūkṛtaḥ with striking equation iṣṭaka > piṣṭa). <-> 2. pl. (as suvaṇṇa˚) gold or gilt tiles used for covering a cetiya or tope DhA iii.29, 61; VvA 157.
-- UHS-PMD0191

UKT from UHS: f. brick
Note: The Bur-Myan word {oat} 'brick' pronounced with the back-vowel /u/ ( {U.} {u.}) instead of {ait} pronounced with front-vowel /i/ ( {I.} {i.}) is giving me some food for thought. As a material scientist working in an unknown and untrodden field, I welcome anyone to prove that my observation is wrong. It must be remembered that /i/ and /u/ are close vowels, and are placed far apart in the vowel quadrilateral that there is no chance of a mistake in hearing. Then can we jump to the conclusion that Burmese speakers tend to use back vowels compared to the Pali speakers who prefer the front vowels? -- UKT111217


-- in ˚khagga -- dhāra at J vi.223 should be read iddha.


iṇa {I.Na.}
-- (nt.) [Sk. ṛṇa, see also P. an -- aṇa] debt D i.71, 73; A iii.352; v.324 (enumd. with baddha, jāni & kali); Sn 120; J i.307; ii.388, 423; iii.66; iv.184 (iṇagga for nagga?); 256; v.253 (where enumd. as one of the 4 paribhogas, viz. theyya˚, iṇa˚, dāya˚, sāmi˚); vi.69, 193; Miln 375; PvA 273, 276, iṇaŋ gaṇhāti to borrow money or take up a loan Vism 556; SnA 289; PvA 3. -- iṇaŋ mucati to discharge a debt J iv.280; v.238; ˚ŋ sodheti same PvA 276; labhati same PvA 3.
-- apagama absence of debt ThA 245. -- gāhaka a borrower Miln 364. -- ghāta stricken by debt Sn 246 (= iṇaŋ gahetva tassa appadānena iṇaghāta). -- ṭṭha (with iṇaṭṭa as v. l. at all passages, see aṭṭa) fallen into or being in debt M i.463 = S iii.93 = It 89 = Miln 279. -- paṇṇa promissory note J i.230; iv.256. -- mokkha release from debt J iv.280; v.239. -- sādhaka negotiator of a loan Miln 365.
-- UHS-PMD0191

UKT from UHS: n. loan, debt


-- [fr. iṇa] one connected with a debt, viz. (1) a creditor S i.170; J iv.159, 256; vi.178; ThA 271 see also dhanika); PvA 3. -- (2) a debtor Vin i.76; Nd1 160.


-- [pp. of eti, i] gone, only in cpd. dur -- ita gone badly, as nt. evil, wrong Davs i.61; otherwise in compn. with prep., as peta, vīta etc.


-- (adj.) [Ved. itara = Lat. iterum a second time; compar. of pron. base *i, as in ayaŋ, etaŋ, iti etc.] other, second, next; different Dh 85, 104, 222; J ii.3; iii.26; iv.4; PvA 13, 14, 42, 83, 117. In repetition cpd. itartara one or the other, whatsoever, any Sn 42; J v.425; Nd2 141; Miln 395; KhA 145, 147; acc. itartaraŋ & instr. itartarena used as adv. of one kind or another, in every way, anyhow [cp. BSk. itaretara M Vastu iii. 348 and see Wackernagel Altind. Gram. II. Ś 121 c.] J vi 448 (˚ŋ); Dh 331 (˚ena); Vv 841 (text reads itritarena, v. l. itaritarena, expld. by itaritaraŋ VvA 333).


-- (adj.) freq. spelling for ittara (q. v.).


-- (ti) (indecl.) [Vedic iti, of pron. base *i, cp. Sk. itthaŋ thus, itthā here, there; Av. ipa so; Lat. ita & item thus. Cp. also P. ettha; lit. "here, there (now), then"] emphatic<-> [p119] deictic particle "thus". Occurs in both forms iti & ti, the former in higher style (poetry), the latter more familiar in conversational prose. The function of "iti" is expld. by the old Pāli C. in a conventional phrase, looking upon it more as a "filling" particle than trying to define its meaning viz. -- itī ti padasandhi padasaŋsaggo padapāripurī akkharasamavāyo etc." Nd1 123 = Nd2 137. The same expln. also for iti' haŋ (see below iv.) -- I. As deictic adv. "thus, in this way" (Vism 423 iti = evaŋ) pointing to something either just mentioned or about to be mentioned: (a) referring to what precedes Sn 253 (n'eso maman ti iti naŋ vijaā), 805; It 123 (ito devā. . . taŋ namassanti); Dh 74 (iti bālassa sankappo thus think the -- foolish), 286 (iti bālo vicinteti); Vv 7910 (= evaŋ VvA 307); VvA 5. -- (b) referring to what follows D i.63 (iti paṭisacikkhati); A i.205 (id.) -- II. As emphatic part. pointing out or marking off a statement either as not one's own (reported) or as the definite contents of (one's own or other's) thoughts. On the whole untranslatable (unless written as quotation marks), often only setting off a statement as emphatic, where we would either underline the word or phrase in question, or print it in italics, or put it in quot. marks (e. g. bālo ti vuccati Dh 63 = bālo vuccati). -- 1. in direct speech (as given by writer or narrator), e. g. sādhu bhante Kassapa lābhataŋ esā janatā dassanāyā ti. Tena hi Sīha tvaŋ yeva Bhagavato ārocehī ti. Evaŋ bhante ti kho Sīho . . . . D i.151. -- 2. in indirect speech: (a) as statement of a fact "so it is that" (cp. E. "viz.", Ger. "und zwar"), mostly untranslated Kh iv. (arahā ti pavuccati); J i.253 (tasmā pesanaka -- corā t' eva vuccanti); iii.51 (tayo sahāyā ahesuŋ makkato sigālo uddo ti); PvA 112 (ankuro paca -- sakaṭasatehi . . . aataro pi brāhmaṇo paca -- sakaṭasatehī ti dve janā sakata -- sahassehi . . . patipannā). -- (b) as statement of a thought "like this", "I think", so, thus Sn 61 ("sango eso" iti atvā knowing "this is defilement"), 253 ("neso maman" ti iti naŋ vijaā), 783 ("iti' han" ti), 1094 (etaŋ dīpaŋ anāparaŋ Nibbānaŋ iti naŋ brūmi I call this N.), 1130 (aparā pāraŋ gaccheyya tasmā "Parāyanaŋ" iti). -- III. Peculiarities of spelling. (1) in combn. with other part. iti is elided & contracted as follows: icc' eva, t' eva, etc. -- (2) final a, i, u preceding ti are lengthened to ā, ī, ū, e. g. mā evaŋ akatthā ti DhA i.7; kati dhurānī ti ibid; dve yeva dhurāni bhikkhū ti ibid. <-> IV. Combinations with other emphatic particles: + eva thus indeed, in truth, really; as icc' eva Pv i.119 (= evam eva PvA 59); t' eva J i.253; Miin 114; tv' eva J i.203; ii.2. -- iti kira thus now, perhaps, I should say D i.228, 229, 240. -- iti kho thus, therefore D i.98, 103; iii.135. iti and so on (?), thus and such (similar cases) Nd1 13 = Nd2 420 A1. -- iti ha thus surely, indeed Sn 934, 1084 (see below under ītihītihaŋ; cp. SnA Index 669: itiha? and itikirā); It 76; DA i.247, as iti haŋ at Sn 783 (same expln. at Nd1 71 as for iti). -- kin ti how J ii.159.
-- kirā (f.) [a substantivised iti kira] hearsay, lit. "so I guess" or "I have heard" A i.189 = ii.191 sq. = Nd2 151. Cp. itiha. -- bhava becoming so & so (opp. abhava not becoming) Vin ii.184 (˚abhava); D i.8 (ip = iti bhavo iti abhavo DA i.91); A ii.248; It 109 (id.); syn. with itthabhava (q. v.). -- vāda "speaking so & so", talk, gossip M i.133; S v.73; A ii.26; It iii.35. -- vuttaka (nt.) [a noun formation fr. iti vuttaŋ] "so it has been said", (book of) quotations, "Logia", N. of the fourth book of the Khuddaka -- nikāya, named thus because every sutta begins with vuttaŋ h' etaŋ Bhagavatā "thus has the Buddha said" (see khuddaka and navanga) Vin iii.8; M i.133; A ii.7, 103; iii.86, 177, 361 sq.; Pug 43, 62; KhA 12. Kern, Toev. s. v. compares the interesting BSk. distortion itivṛttaŋ. -- hāsa [= iti ha āsa, preserving the Vedic form āsa, 3rd sg. perf. of atthi] "thus indeed it has been", legendary lore, oral tradition, history; usually mentioned as a branch of brahmanic learning, in phrase itihāsa -- paca -- mānaŋ padako veyyākaraṇo etc. D i.88 = (see DA i.247); A i.163; iii.223; Sn 447, 1020. Cp. also M Vastu i.556. -- hītiha [itiha + itiha] "so & so" talk, gossip, oral tradition, belief by hearsay etc. (cp. itikirā & anītiha. Nd2 spells ītihītiha) M i.520; S i.154; Sn 1084; Nd2 151.

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ito {I.tau:}
-- (indecl.) [Vedic itaḥ, abl. -- adv. formation fr. pron. base *i, cp. iti, ayaŋ etc.] adv. of succession or motion in space & time "from here". "from now". (1) with ref. to space: (a) from here, from this, often implying the present existence (in opp. to the "other" world) It 77; Sn 271 (˚ja. ˚nidāna caused or founded in or by this existence = attabhāvaŋ sandhāy' āha SnA 303), 774 (cutāse), 870 (˚nidāna), 1062 (from this source, i. e. from me), 1101; Pv i.57 (ito dinnaŋ what is given in this world); i.62 (i. e. manussalokato PvA 33); i.123 (= idhalokato PvA 64); Nett 93 (ito bahiddhā); PvA 46 (ito dukkhato mutti). -- (b) here (with implication of movement), in phrases ito c' ito here and there PvA 4, 6; and ito vā etto vā here & there DhA ii.80. -- (2) with ref. to time: from here, from now, hence (in chronological records with num. ord. or card., with ref. either to past or future). (a) referring to the past, since D ii.2 (ito so ekanavuto kappo 91 kappas ago); Sn 570 (ito aṭṭhame, scil. divase 8 days ago SnA 457; T. reads atthami); VvA 319 (ito kira tiŋsa -- kappa -- sahasse); PvA 19 (dvā navuti kappe 92 kappas ago), 21 (id.), 78 (pacamāya jātiyā in the fifth previous re -- birth). -- (b) referring to the future, i. e. henceforth, in future, from now e. g. ito sattame divase in a week VvA 138; ito paraŋ further, after this SnA 160, 178, 412, 549; PvA 83; ito paṭthāya from now on, henceforward J i.63 (ito dāni p.); PvA 41.
-- UHS-PMD0192

UKT from UHS: from this place, from this instant, moreover


ittara {AIt~ta.ra.}
-- (sometimes spelt itara) (adj.) [Vedic itvara in meaning "going", going along, hence developed meaning "passing"; fr. i] -- 1. passing, changeable, short, temporary, brief, unstable M i.318 (opp. dīgharattaŋ); A ii.187; J i.393; iii.83 (˚dassana = khaṇika˚ C.), iv.112 (˚vāsa temporary abode); Pv i.1111 (= na cira -- kāla -- ṭṭhāyin anicca vipariṇāma -- dhamma PvA 60); DA i.195; PvA 60 (= paritta khaṇika). -- 2. small, inferior, poor, unreliable, mean M ii.47 (˚jacca of inferior birth); A ii.34; Sn 757 (= paritta paccupaṭṭhāna SnA 509); Miln 93, 114 (˚paa of small wisdom). This meaning (2) also in BSk. itvaṛa, e. g. Divy 317 (dāna).
-- UHS-PMD0192

UKT from UHS: mfn. short, insufficient, temporary, ignoble


-- (f.) [fr. ittara] changeableness Miln 93 (of a woman).


-- (indecl.) [the regular representative of Vedic ittha here, there, but preserved only in cpds. while the Pāli form is ettha] here, in this world (or "thus, in such a way"), only in cpd. ˚bhāv' aathā -- bhāva such an (i. e. earthly) existence and one of another kind, or existence here (in this life) and in another form" (cp. itibhāva & itthatta) Sn 729, 740 = 752; It 9 (v. l. itthi˚ for iti˚) = A ii.10 = Nd2 172a; It 94 (v. l. ittha˚). There is likely to have been a confusion between ittha = Sk. itthā & itthaŋ = Sk. itthaŋ (see next).


itthaŋ {AIt~htn}
-- (indecl.) [adv. fr. pron. base ˚i, as also iti in same meaning] thus, in this way D i.53, 213; Dāvs iv.35; v.18.
-- nāma (itthan˚) having such as name, called thus, socalled Vin i.56; iv.136; J i.297; Miln 115; DhA ii.98. -- bhūta being thus, of this kind, modal, only in cpd. ˚lakkhaṇa or ˚ākhyāna the sign or case of modality, i. e. the ablative case SnA 441; VvA 162, 174; PvA 150.
-- UHS-PMD0192

UKT from UHS: thus, in this way, because of these


-- (nt.) [ittha + *tvaŋ, abstr. fr. ittha. The curious BSk. distortion of this word is icchatta M Vastu 417] being here (in this world), in the present state of becoming, this (earthly) state (not "thusness" or "life as we conceive it", as Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. i.177; although a confusion between ittha & itthaŋ seems to exist, see ittha); "life in these conditions" K. S. ii.17; expld. by itthabhāva C. on S i.140 (see K. S. 318). -- See also freq. formula A of arahatta. -- D i.18, 84; A i.63; ii.82, 159, 203; Sn 158; Dhs 633; Pug 70, 71; DA i.112.

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-- (nt.) [itthi + *tvaŋ abstr. fr. itthi] state or con- dition of femininity, womanhood, muliebrity Dhs 633 (= itthi -- sabhāva DhsA 321).


itthi {AIt~hti.}
-- & itthī (f.) [Vedic stri, Av. strī woman, perhaps with Sk. sātuḥ uterus fr. Idg. ˚sī to sow or produce, Lat. sero, Goth. saian, Ohg. sāen, Ags. sāwan etc., cp. also Cymr. hīl progeny, Oir. sīl seed; see J. Schmidt, K. Z. xxv.29. The regular representative of Vedic strī is P. thī, which only occurs rarely (in poetry & compn.) see thī] woman, female; also (usually as -- ˚) wife. Opp. purisa man (see e. g. for contrast of itthi and purisa J v.72, 398; Nett 93; DhA i.390; PvA 153). -- S i.33 (nibbānass' eva santike), 42, 125 (majjhim˚, mah˚), 185; A i.28, 138; ii.115, 209; iii.68, 90, 156; iv.196 (purisaŋ bandhati); Sn 112, 769 (nom. pl. thiyo = itthi -- saikā thiyo SnA 513); J i.286 (itthi doso), 300 (gen. pl. itthinaŋ); ii.415 (nom. pl. thiyo); v.397 (thi -- ghātaka), 398 (gen. dat. itthiyā), v.425 (nom pl. itthiyo); Vbh 336, 337; DA i.147; PvA 5, 44, 46, 67, 154 (amanuss˚ of petīs); Sdhp 64, 79. -- anitthi a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, an unfaithful wife J ii.126 (= ucchiṭṭh˚ C.); kul' -- itthi a wife of good descent Vin ii.10; A iii.76; iv.16, 19; dahar˚ a young wife J i.291; dur˚ a poor woman J iv.38. <-> Some general characterisations of womanhood: 10 kinds of women enumd. at Vin iii.139 = A v.264 = VvA 72, viz. mātu -- rakkhitā, pitu˚, mātāpitu˚ bhātu˚, bhaginī˚, āti˚, gotta˚, dhamma˚, sarakkhā, saparidaṇḍā; see Vin iii.139 for expln. -- S i.38 (malaŋ brahmacariyassa), 43 (id.); J i.287 (itthiyo nāma āsa lāmikā pacchimikā); iv. 222 (itthiyo papāto akkhāto; pamattaŋ pamathenti); v. 425 (sīho yathā . . . tath' itthiyo); women as goods for sale S i.43 (bhaṇḍānaŋ uttamaŋ); DhA i.390 (itthiyo vikkiṇiya bhaṇḍaŋ).
-- agāra ( -- āgāra) as itthā̆gāra women's apartment, seraglio Vin i.72; iv.158; S i.58, 89; J i.90; also coll. for womenfolk, women (cp. Ger. frauenzimmer) D ii.249; J v.188. -- indriya the female principle or sex, femininity (opp. puris' indriya) S v.204; A iv.57 sq.; Vism 447, 492; Dhs 585, 633, 653 et passim. -- kathā talk about women D i.7 (cp. DA i.90). -- kāma the craving for a woman S iv.343. -- kutta a woman's behaviour, woman's wiles, charming behaviour, coquetry A iv.57 = Dhs 633; J i.296, 433; ii.127, 329; iv.219, 472; DhA iv.197. -- ghātaka a woman -- killer J v. 398. -- dhana wife's treasure, dowry Vin iii.16. -- dhutta a rogue in the matter of women, one who indulges in women Sn 106; J iii.260; PvA 5. -- nimitta characteristic of a woman Dhs 633, 713, 836. -- pariggaha a woman's company, a woman Nd1 11. -- bhāva existence as woman, womanhood S i.129; Th 2, 216 (referring to a yakkhinī, cp. ThA 178; Dhs 633; PvA 168. -- rūpa womanly beauty A i.1; iii.68; Th 2, 294. -- lakkhaṇa fortune -- telling regarding a woman D i.9 (cp. DhA i.94, + purisa˚); J vi. 135. -- linga "sign of a woman", feminine quality, female sex Vism 184; Dhs 633, 713, 836; DhsA 321 sq. -- sadda the sound (or word) "woman" DhA i.15. -- soṇḍī a woman addicted to drink Sn 112.
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UKT from UHS: f. woman


-- (f.) [fr. itthi] a woman Vin iii.16; D ii.14; J i. 336; Vv 187; Sdhp 79. As adj. itthika in bahutthika having many women, plentiful in women Vin ii.256 (kulāni bahuttikāni appapurisakāni rich in women & lacking in men); S ii.264 (id. and appitthikāni).


ida & idaŋ {I.dn}
-- (indecl.) [nt. of ayaŋ (idaŋ) in function of a deictic part.] emphatic demonstr. adv. in local, temporal & modal function, as (1) in this, here: idappaccayatā having its foundation in this, i. e. causally connected, by way of cause Vin i.5 = S i.136; D i.185; Dhs 1004, 1061; Vbh 340, 362, 365; Vism 518; etc. -- (2) now, then which idha is more freq.) D ii.267, 270, almost syn. (for with kira. -- (3) just (this), even so, only: idam -- atthika just sufficient, proper, right Th 1, 984 (cīvara); Pug 69 (read so for ˚maṭṭhika, see Pug A 250); as idam -- atthitā "being satisfied with what is sufficient" at Vism 81: expld. as atthika -- bhāva at Pug A 250. idaŋsaccbhinivesa inclination to say: only this is the truth, i. e. inclination to dogmatise, one of the four kāya -- ganthā, viz. abhijjhā, byāpāda, sīlabbata -- parāmāsa, idaŋ˚ (see Dhs 1135 & Dhs trsl. 304); D iii.230; S v.59; Nd1 98; Nett 115 sq.
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UKT from UHS: n. this, this object, property


-- (indecl.) [Vedic idānīŋ] now Dh 235, 237; KhA 247.

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-- [pp. of iddhe to idh or indh, cp. indhana & idhuma] in flames, burning, flaming bright, clear J vi.223 (˚khaggadharā balī; so read for T. iṭṭhi -- khagga˚); Dpvs vi.42.


-- [pp. of ijjhati; cp. Sk. ṛddha] (a) prosperous, opulent, wealthy D i.211 (in idiomatic phrase iddha phīta bahujana, of a prosperous town); A iii.215 (id.); J vi.227, 361 (= issara C.), 517; Dāvs i.11. -- (b) successful, satisfactory, sufficient Vin i.212 (bhattaŋ); iv.313 (ovādo).


iddhi {AId~Di.}
-- [Vedic ṛddhi from ardh, to prosper; Pali ijjhati]. There is no single word in English for Iddhi, as the idea is unknown in Europe. The main sense seems to be ʻ potency ʼ. -- 1. Pre -- Buddhistic; the Iddhi of a layman. The four Iddhis of a king are personal beauty, long life, good health, and popularity (D ii.177; M iii.176, cp. J iii.454 for a later set). The Iddhi of a rich young noble is 1. The use of a beautiful garden, 2. of soft and pleasant clothing, 3. of different houses for the different seasons, 4. of good food, A i.145. At M i.152 the Iddhi of a hunter, is the craft and skill with which he captures game; but at p. 155 other game have an Iddhi of their own by which they outwit the hunter. The Iddhi, the power of a confederation of clans, is referred to at D ii.72. It is by the Iddhi they possess that birds are able to fly (Dhp 175). -- 2. Psychic powers. including most of those claimed for modern mediums (see under Abhiā). Ten such are given in a stock paragraph. They are the power to project mind -- made images of oneself; to become invisible; to pass through solid things, such as a wall; to penetrate solid ground as if it were water; to walk on water; to fly through the air; to touch sun and moon; to ascend into the highest heavens (D i.77, 212; ii.87, 213; iii.112, 281; S ii.121; v.264, 303; A i.170, 255; iii.17, 28, 82, 425; v.199; Ps i.111; ii.207; Vism 378 sq., 384; DA i.122). For other such powers see S i.144; iv.290; v.263; A iii.340. -- 3. The Buddhist theory of Iddhi. At D i.213 the Buddha is represented as saying: ʻ It is because I see danger in the practice of these mystic wonders that I loathe and abhor and am ashamed thereof ʼ. The mystic wonder that he himself believed in and advocated (p. 214) was the wonder of education. What education was meant in the case of Iddhi, we learn from M i.34; A iii.425, and from the four bases of Iddhi, the Iddhipādā. They are the making determination in respect of concentration on purpose, on will, on thoughts & on investigation (D ii.213; M i.103; A i.39, 297; ii.256; iii. 82; Ps i.111; ii 154, 164, 205; Vbh 216). It was ar offence against the regulations of the Sangha for a Bhikkhv to display before the laity these psychic powers beyond the capacity of ordinary men (Vin ii.112). And falsely to claim the possession of such powers involved expulsion from the Order (Vin iii.91). The psychic powers of Iddhi were looked upon as inferior (as the Iddhi of an unconverted man seeking his own profit), compared to the higher Iddhi, the Ariyan Iddhi (D iii.112; A i.93; Vin ii.183). There is no valid evidence that any one of the ten Iddhis in the above list actually took place. A few instances are given, but all are in texts more than a century later than the recorded wonder. And now for nearly two thousand years we have no further instances. Various points on Iddhi discussed at Dial. i.272, 3; Cpd. 60 ff.; Expositor 121. Also at Kvu 55; Ps ii.150; Vism xii; DhA i.91; J i.47, 360.
-- nubhāva (iddhnu˚) power or majesty of thaumaturgy Vin 31, 209, 240; iii.67; S i 147; iv.290; PvA 53. -- bhisankhāra (iddhbhi˚) exercise of any of the psychic powers Vin i.16, 17, 25; D i.106; S iii.92; iv.289; v.270; [p121] Sn p. 107; PvA 57, 172 212. -- pāṭihāriya a wonder of psychic power Vin i.25, 28, 180, 209; ii.76, 112, 200; D i.211, 212; iii.3, 4, 9, 12 sq., 27; S iv.290; A i.170, 292; Ps ii.227. -- pāda constituent or basis of psychic power Vin ii.240; D ii.103, 115 sq., 120; iii.77, 102, 127, 221; M ii.11; iii.296; S i.116, 132; iii.96, 153; iv.360; v.254, 255, 259 sq., 264 sq., 269 sq., 275, 285; A iv.128 sq., 203, 463; v.175; Nd1 14, 45 (˚dhīra), 340 (˚pucchā); Nd1 s. v.; Ps i.17, 21, 84; ii.56, 85 sq., 120, 166, 174; Ud 62; Dhs 358, 528, 552; Nett 16, 31, 83; DhsA 237; DhA iii.177; iv.32. -- bala the power of working wonders VvA 4; PvA 171. -- yāna the carriage (fig.) of psychic faculties Miln 276. -- vikubbanā the practice of psychic powers Vism 373 sq. -- vidhā kinds of iddhi D i.77, 212; ii.213; iii.112, 281; S ii.121; v.264 sq., 303; A i.170 sq., 255; iii.17, 28, 82 sq., 425 sq.; v.199; Ps i.111; ii.207; Vism 384; DA i.222. -- visaya range or extent of psychic power Vin iii.67; Nett 23.
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UKT: UHS gives four meanings - f.  perfection, magical power, psychic power of a layman, a Bur-Myan indigenous medicinal plant (MED2006-090)(UHS-Uni-D-0169)(not listed in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance  , Agri.Dept. 2000)
UKT: See my note on circumflex in nubhāva ? -- UKT111218


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-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) the compn. form of addhika in cpd. kapaṇ -- iddhika tramps & wayfarers (see kapaṇa), e. g. at J i.6; iv.15; PvA 78.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [iddhi + ka] possessed of power, only in cpd. mah -- iddhika of great power, always combd. with mah -- nubhāva, e. g. at Vin i.31; ii.193; iii.101; S ii. 155; M i.34; Th 1, 429. As mahiddhiya at J v.149. See mahiddhika.


-- (adj.) [fr. iddhi] -- 1. (lit.) successful, proficient, only in neg. an˚ unfortunate, miserable, poor J vi.361. <-> 2. (fig.) possessing psychic powers Vin iii.67; iv.108; A i.23, 25; ii.185; iii.340; iv.312; Sn 179; Nett 23; Sdhp 32, 472.


idha {I.Da.}
-- (indecl.) [Sk. iha, adv. of space fr. pron. base *i (cp. ayaŋ, iti etc.), cp. Lat. ihi, Gr. i)qa -- genh/s, Av. ida] here, in this place, in this connection, now; esp. in this world or present existence Sn 1038, 1056, 1065; It 99 (idh' papanna reborn in this existence); Dh 5, 15, 267, 343, 392; Nd1 40, 109, 156; Nd2 145, 146; SnA 147; PvA 45, 60, 71. -- idhaloka this world, the world of men Sn 1043 (= manussaloka Nd2 552c); PvA 64; in this religion, Vbh 245. On diff. meanings of idha see DhsA 348.
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UKT from UHS: in this place, in this human world, in this religion


[Sk. idhma, see etym. under iṭṭhakā] fire -- wood - Tela -- kaṭāha -- gāthā, p. 53, J.P.T.S. 1884.

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inda {AIn~da.}
-- [Vedic indra, most likely to same root as indu moon, viz. *Idg. *eid to shine, cp. Lat. īdūs middle of month (after the full moon), Oir. ēsce moon. Jacobi in K. Z. xxxi.316 sq. connects Indra with Lat. neriosus strong & Nero). -- 1. The Vedic god Indra D i.244; ii.261, 274; Sn 310, 316, 679, 1024; Nd1 177. -- 2. lord, chief, king. Sakko devānaŋ indo D i.216, 217; ii.221, 275; S i.219. Vepɔcitti asurindo S i.221 ff. manussinda, S i.69, manujinda, Sn 553, narinda, Sn 863, all of the Buddha, ʻ chief of men ʼ; cp. Vism 491. [Europeans have found a strange difficulty in understanding the real relation of Sakka to Indra. The few references to Indra in the Nikāyas should be classed with the other fragments of Vedic mythology to be found in them. Sakka belongs only to the Buddhist mythology then being built up. He is not only quite different from Indra, but is the direct contrary of that blustering, drunken, god of war. See the passages collected in Dial. ii.294<-> 298. The idiom sa -- Indā devā, D ii.261, 274; A v.325, means ʻ the gods about Indra, Indra's retinue ʼ, this being a Vedic story. But Devā Tāvatiŋsā sahindakā means the T. gods together with their leader (D ii.208 -- 212; S iii.90; cp. Vv 301) this being a Buddhist story].
-- aggi (ind' aggi) Indra's fire, i. e. lightning PvA 56. -- gajjita (nt.) Indra's thunder Miln 22. -- jāla deception DA i.85. -- jālika a juggler, conjurer Miln 331. -- dhanu the rainbow DA i.40. -- bhavana the realm of Indra Nd1 448 (cp. Tāvatiŋsa -- bhavana). -- linga the characteristic of Indra Vism 491. -- sāla N. of tree J iv.92.
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UKT from UHS: m. lord, king, Sakka aka {i.kra:}
UKT note: PTS has clearly stated that the Vedic god Indra, the blustering, drunken, god of war, is exactly the opposite of Sakka of the Buddhist mythology. The Vedic scriptures of the Hindu religion have nothing to do with the Buddhist scriptures. This should be clearly noted by the Myanmar elders, and the MLC (Myanmar Language Commission).

{i.kra:} - n. the Hindu god Indra which appears in the Buddhist Scriptures as Sakka, the lord of the first and second levels of nat devas . - MED2006-495


-- [dimin. fr. inda] -- 1. Np. (see Dict. of names), e. g. at Pv ii.957; PvA 136 sq. -- 2. ( -- ˚) see inda 2.


-- [inda + khīla, cp. BSk. indrakīla Divy 250, 365, 544; Av. Ś i.109, 223]. "Indra's post"; the post, stake or column of Indra, at or before the city gate; also a large slab of stone let into the ground at the entrance of a house D ii.254 (˚ŋ ūhacca, cp. DhA ii.181); Vin iv.160 (expld. ibid. as sayani -- gharassa ummāro, i. e. threshold); S v.444 (ayokhīlo +); Dh 95 (˚pama, cp. DhA ii.181); Th 1, 663; J i.89; Miln 364; Vism 72, 466; SnA 201; DA i.209 (nikkhamitvā bahi ˚ā); DhA ii.180 (˚sadisaŋ Sāriputtassa cittaŋ), 181 (nagara -- dvāre nikhataŋ ˚ŋ).


-- see hindagū.


-- [inda + gopaka, cp. Vedic indragopā having Indra as protector] a sort of insect ("cochineal, a red beetle", Bhtlingk), observed to come out of the ground after rain Th 1, 13; Vin iii.42; J iv.258; v.168; DhA i.20; Brethren p. 18, n.


indanīla {AIn~da.ni-la.}
-- [inda + nīla "Indra's blue"] a sapphire J i.80; Miln 118; VvA 111 (+ mahānīla).
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UKT from UHS: m. dark-red ruby, sapphire


-- (f.) [inda + vāruṇa] the Coloquintida plant J iv.8 (˚ka -- rukkha).


-- (nt.) [etym.?] the blue water lily, Nymphaea Stel- lata or Cassia Fistula J v.92 (˚ī -- samā ratti); vi.536; Vv 451 (= uddālaka -- puppha VvA 197).


indriya {AIn~dri.ya.}
-- (nt.) [Vedic indriya adj. only in meaning "belonging to Indra"; nt. strength, might (cp. inda), but in specific pāli sense "belonging to the ruler", i. e. governing, ruling nt. governing, ruling or controlling principle] A. On term: Indriya is one of the most comprehensive & important categories of Buddhist psychological philosophy & ethics, meaning "controlling principle, directive force, lan, du/namis", in the foll. applications: (a) with reference to sense -- perceptibility "faculty, function", often wrongly interpreted as "organ"; (b) w. ref. to objective aspects of form and matter "kind, characteristic, determinating principle, sign, mark" (cp. woman -- hood, hood = Goth. haidus "kind, form"); (c) w. ref. to moods of sensation and (d) to moral powers or motives controlling action, "principle, controlling" force; (e) w. ref. to cognition & insight "category". <-> Definitions of indriya among others at DhsA 119; cp. Expositor 157; Dhs trsl. lvii; Cpd. 228, 229.
B. Classifications and groups of indriyāni. An exhaustive list comprises the indriyāni enumd under A a -- e, thus establishing a canonical scheme of 22 Controlling Powers (bāvīsati indriyāni), running thus at Vbh 122 sq. (see trsl. at Cpd. 175, 176); and discussed in detail at Vism 491 sq. (a. sensorial) (1) cakkh -- undriya ("the eye which is a power", Cpd. 228) the eye or (personal potentiality of) vision, (2) sot -- indriya the ear or hearing, (3) ghān˚ nose or smell, (4) jivh˚ tongue or taste, (5) kāy˚ body -- sensibility, (6) man˚) mind; (b. material) (7) itth˚ female sex or femininity, (8) puris˚ male sex or masculinity, (9) jīvit˚ life or vitality; (c. sensational) (10) sukh˚ pleasure, (11) dukkh˚ pain, (12) somanasa˚ joy, (13) domanass˚ grief, (14) upekh˚ hedonic indifference (d. moral) (15) saddh˚ faith, (16) viriy˚ energy, (17) sat˚ mindfulness, (18) samādh˚ concentration, (19) pa˚ reason; (e. cognitional) (20) anaāta -- assāmīt˚ the thought "I shall come to know the unknown", (21) (= aā) gnosis, (22) aātā -- v˚ one who knows. -- Jīvitindriya (no. 9) is in some redactions placed before itth˚ (no. 7), e. g. at Ps i.7, 137. -- From this list are detached several groups, mentioned frequently and in various connections, no. 6 manas (mano, man -- indriya) wavering in its function, being either included under (a) or (more frequently) omitted, so that the first set (a) is marked off as pac' indriyāni, the 6th being silently included (see below). This uncertainty regarding manas deserves to be noted. The foll. groups may be mentioned here viz 19 (nos. 1 -- 19) at Ps i.137; 10 (paca rūpīni & [p122] paca arūpīni) at Nett 69; three groups of five (nos. 1 -- 5, 10 -- 14, 15 -- 19) at D iii.239, cp. 278; four (group d without paā, i. e. nos. 15 -- 18) at A ii.141; three (saddh˚, samādh˚, pa˚, i. e. nos. 15, 18, 19) at A i. 118 sq. Under aṭṭhavidhaŋ indriya -- rūpaŋ (Cpd. 159) or rūpaŋ as indriyaŋ "form which is faculty" Dhs 661 (cp. trsl. p. 204) are understood the 5 sensitives (nos. 1 -- 5), the 2 sx -- states (nos. 7, 8) and the vital force (no. 9), i. e. groups a & b of enumn.; discussed & defined in detail at Dhs 709 -- 717, 971 -- 973. -- It is often to be guessed from the context only, which of the sets of 5 indriyāni (usually either group a or d) is meant. These detached groups are classed as below under C. f. -- Note. This system of 22 indriyāni reflects a revised & more elaborate form of the 25 (or 23) categories of the Sānkhya philosophy, with its 10 elements, 10 indri, īni & the isolated position of manas.
C. Material in detail (grouped according to A a -- e) (a) sensorial: (mentioned or referred to as set of 5 viz B. nos. 1 -- 5): M i.295: S iii.46 (pacannaŋ ˚ānaŋ avak kanti), 225; iv.168; A ii.151 (as set of 6, viz. B. nos. 1 -- 6): M i.9; S iv.176; v.74, 205, 230; A i.113; ii.16, 39, 152; iii.99, 163, 387 sq.; v.348. Specially referring to restraint & control of the senses in foll. phrases: in driyāni saŋvutāni S ii.231, 271; iv.112; pacasu ˚esu saŋvuto Sn 340 (= lakkhaṇato pana chaṭṭhaŋ pi vuttaŋ yeva hoti, i. e. the 6th as manas included, SnA 343); ˚esu susaŋvuta Th 2, 196 (= mana -- chaṭṭhesu i˚ suṭṭhu saŋvutā ThA 168) indriyesu guttadvāra & guttadvāratā D iii.107; S ii.218; iv.103, 112, 175; A i.25, 94, 113; ii.39; iii.70, 138, 173, 199, 449 sq.; iv.25, 166; v.134; It 23, 24; Nd1 14; Vbh 248, 360; DA i.182 (= manachaṭṭesu indriyesu pihita -- dvāro hoti), i. vippasannāni S ii. 275; iii.2, 235; iv.294; v.301; A i.181; iii.380. ˚ānaŋ samatā (v. l. samatha) A iii.375 sq. (see also f. below) ˚āni bhāvitāni Sn 516 (= cakkh' ādīni cha i. SnA 426); Nd2 475 B8. -- Various: S i.26 (rakkhati), 48 (˚pasame rato); iv.40, 140 (˚sampanna); v.216, 217 sq. (independent in function, mano as referee); Ps. i.190 (man˚); Vbh 13 (rūpa), 341 (mud˚ & tikkh˚) 384 (ahīn˚). -- (b) physical: (above B 7 -- 9) all three: S v.204; Vism 447; itthi˚ & purisa˚ A iv.57; Vbh 122, 415 sq.; puris˚ A iii.404; jīvit˚ Vbh 123, 137; Vism 230 (˚upaccheda = maraṇa). See also under itthi, jīvita & purisa. -- (c) sensational (above B 10 -- 14): S v.207 sq. (see Cpd. 111 & cp. p. 15), 211 sq.; Vbh 15, 71; Nett 88. -- (d) moral (above B 15<-> 19): S iii.96, 153; iv.36, 365 sq.; v.193 sq., 202, 219 (corresponding to pacabalāni), 220 sq. (and amata), 223 sq. (their culture brings assurance of no rebirth), 227 sq. (paā the chief one), 235, 237 (sevenfold fruit of), A iv.125 sq., 203, 225; v.56, 175; Ps ii.49, 51 sq., 86; Nd1 14; Nd2 628 (sat˚ + satibala); Kvu 589; Vbh 341; Nett 15, 28, 47, 54. Often in standard combn. with satipaṭṭhāna, sammappadhāna. iddhipāda, indriya, bala, bojjhanga, magga (see Nd2 s. v. p. 263) D ii.120; Vin iii. 93, Ps ii.166 & passim. As set of 4 indriyāni (nos. 16<-> 19) at Nett 83. -- (e) cognitional (above B 20 -- 22) D iii.219 = S v.204 (as peculiar to Arahantship); It 53; Ps i.115; ii.30. -- (f) collectively, either two or more of groups a -- e, also var. peculiar uses: personal; esp. physical faculties. S i.61 (pākat˚), 204 (id.); iii.207 (ākāsaŋ ˚āni sankamanti); iv.294 (vipari -- bhinnāni); A iii.441 (˚ānaŋ avekallatā). magic power A iv.264 sq. (okkhipati ˚āni). indriyānaŋ paripāko (moral or physical) over -- ripeness of faculties S ii.2, 42; A v.203; Nd2 252 (in def. of jarā); Vbh 137. moral forces Vin i.183 (˚ānaŋ samatā, + viriyānaŋ s. as sign of Arahant); ii.240 (pac˚). principle of life ekindriyaŋ jīvaŋ Vin iii.156; Miln 259. heart or seat of feeling in phrase ˚āni paricāreti to satisfy one's heart PvA 16, 58, 77. obligation, duty, vow in phrase ˚āni bhinditvā breaking one's vow J ii.274; iv.190.
D. Unclassified material D i 77 (ahīn˚); iii 239 (domanass˚ & somanass˚) M i.437 (vemattatā), 453 (id.); ii. 11, 106; iii.296; S iii.225; v.209 (dukkh˚, domanass˚); A i.39, 42 sq., 297; ii.38 (sant˚), 149 sq.; iii.277, 282; Ps i.16, 21, 88, 180; ii.1 sq, 13, 84, 119, 132, 143, 145, 110, 223; Nd1 45 (˚dhīra), 171 (˚kusala), 341 (pucchā); Dhs 58, 121, 528, 556 (dukkh˚), 560, 644. 736; Nett 18 (sotāpannassa), 28 (˚vavaṭṭhāna), 162 (lok'uttara); Vism 350 (˚vekallatā); Sdhp 280, 342, 364, 371, 449, 473.
E. As adj. ( -- ˚) having one's senses, mind or heart as such & such S i.138 (tikkh˚ & mud˚); iii.93 (pākat˚); v.269 (id.); A i.70 (id) & passim (id.); A i.70 (saŋvut˚) 266 (id.), 236 (gutt˚); ii.6 (samāhit˚); 8n 214 (susamāhit˚ his senses well -- composed); PvA 70 (pīṇit˚ joyful or gladdened of heart).
F. Some compounds: -- gutta one who restrains & watches his senses S i.154; Dh 375. -- gutti keeping watch over the senses, self -- restraint DhA iv.111. a paropariya, b paropariyatta & c paropariyatti (˚āṇa) (knowledge of) what goes on in the senses and intentions of others a J i.78; b A v.34, 38; b Ps i.121 sq., 133 sq.; ii.158, 175; b Vbh 340, 342; c S v.205; c Nett 101. See remark under paropariya. -- bhāvanā cultivation of the (five, see above Cd) moral qualities Vin i.294 (+ balabhāvanā); M iii.298. -- saŋvara restraint or subjugation of the senses D ii.281; M i.269, 346; S i.54; A iii.360; iv.99; v.113 sq., 136, 206; Nd1 483; Nett 27, 121 sq; Vism 20 sq.
-- UHS-PMD0195

UKT from UHS: n. self control, bodily and verbal behavior, correct eye-glances, etc.

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-- (nt.) [Vedic indhana, of idh or indh to kindle, cp. iddha1] firewood, fuel J iv.27 (adj. an˚ without fuel, aggi); v.447; ThA 256; VvA 335; Sdhp 608. Cp. idhuma.


ibbha {AIb~Ba.}
-- (adj.) [Ved. ibhya belonging to the servants] menial; a retainer, in the phrase muṇḍakā samaṇakā ibbhā kaṇhā (kiṇhā) bandhupādpaccā D i.90 (v. l. SS imbha; T. kiṇhā, v. l. kaṇhā), 91, 103; M i.334 (kiṇhā, v. l. kaṇhā). Also at J vi.214. Expld. by Bdhgh. as gahapatika at DA i.254, (also at J vi.215).
-- UHS-PMD0195

UKT from UHS: (officially recognized) rich person, prosperous person
Note: There is not in agreement with PTS. I wait for comments from my peers - UKT111220


-- (nt.) [Vedic iriṇa, on etym. see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under rarus] barren soil, desert J vi.560 (= niroja C.). Cp. īriṇa.


-- [fr. īr to set in motion, to stir, Sk. īrte, but pres. formation influenced by iriyā & also by Sk. iyarti of (see acchati & icchati2); cp. Caus. īrayati (= P. īreti), pp. īrṇa & īrita. See also issā] to move, to wander about, stir; fig. to move, behave, show a certain way of deportment M i.74, 75; S i.53 (dukkhaŋ aticca iriyati); iv.71; A iii.451; v.41; Sn 947, 1063, 1097; Th 1,276; J iii.498 (= viharati); Nd1 431; Nd2 147 (= carati etc.); Vism 16; DA i.70.


-- (f.) [fr. iriyati] way of moving on, progress, Dhs 19, 82, 295, 380, 441, 716.


-- (f.) [cp. from iriyati, BSk. īryā Divy 485] movement, posture, deportment M i.81; Sn 1038 (= cariyā vatti vihāro Nd2 148); It 31; Vism 145 (+ vutti pālana yapana).
-- patha way of deportment; mode of movement; good behaviour. There are 4 iriyāpathas or postures, viz. walking, standing, sitting, lying down (see Ps ii.225 & DA i.183). Cp. BSk. īryāpatha Divy 37. -- Vin i.39; ii.146 (˚sampanna); Vin i.91 (chinn˚ a cripple); S v.78 (cattāro i.); Sn 385; Nd1 225, 226; Nd2 s. v.; J i.22 (of a lion), 66, 506; Miln 17; Vism 104, 128, 290, 396; DhA i.9; iv.17; VvA 6; PvA 141; Sdhp 604.


irubbeda {I.roab~b-da.}
-- the Rig -- veda Dpvs v.62 (iruveda); Miln 178; DA i.247; SnA 447.
-- UHS-PMD0195

UKT from UHS: m. Iruveda
Note: Non-Bur-Myan writers should note how this word with four syllables is spelled. I have indicated the individual syllables by different colors.

illiyā {AIl~li.ya}
-- (f.) [fr. illī, cp. Sk. *īlikā] = illī J v.259; vi.50.


illī {AIl~li}
-- (f.) [cp. Vedic ilībiśa Np. of a demon] a sort of weapon, a short one -- edged sword J v.259.
{AIl~li.ya}, {AIl~li}
-- UHS-PMD0195

UKT from UHS: f. dagger
Note: it implies a concealed weapon.

--v. l. for allīyituŋ at J v.154.


iva {I.wa.}
-- (indecl.) [Vedic iva & va] part. of comparison: like, as Dh 1, 2, 7, 8, 287, 334; J i.295; SnA 12 (= opamma -- vacanaŋ). Elided to 'va, diaeretic -- metathetic form viya (q. v.).
-- UHS-PMD0195

UKT from UHS: this (is how it happens), as if

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isi {I.i.}
-- [Vedic ṛṣi fr. ṛṣ. -- Voc. ise Sn 1025; pl. npm. isayo, gen. isinaŋ S ii.280 & isīnaŋ S i.192; etc. inst. isibhi Th 1, 1065] -- 1. a holy man, one gifted with special powers of insight & inspiration, an anchoret, a Seer, Sage, Saint, "Master" D i.96 (kaṇho isi ahosi); S i.33, 35, 65, 128, 191, 192, 226 sq., 236 (ācāro isīnaŋ); ii.280 (dhammo isinaŋ dhajo); A ii.24, 51; Vin iv.15 = 22 (˚bhāsito dhammo); It 123; Sn 284, 458, 979, 689, 691, 1008, 1025, 1043, 1044, 1116 (dev˚ divine Seer), 1126, Nd2 149 (isi -- nāmakā ye keci isi -- pabbajjaŋ pabbajitā ājīvikā nigaṇṭhā jaṭilā tāpasā); Dh 281; J i.17 (v.90: isayo n' atthi me samā of Buddha); J v.140 (˚gaṇa), 266, 267 (isi Gotamo); Pv ii.614 (= yama -- niyam' ādīnaŋ esanatthena isayo PvA 98); ii.133 (= jhān' ādīnaŋ guṇānaŋ esanatthena isi PvA 163); iv.73 (= asekkhānaŋ sīlakkhandh' ādīnaŋ esanatthena isiŋ PvA 265); Miln 19 (˚vāta) 248 (˚bhattika); DA i.266 (gen. isino); Sdhp 200, 384. See also mahesi. -- 2. (in brahmanic tradition) the ten (divinely) inspired singers or composers of the Vedic hymns (brāhmaṇānaŋ pubbakā isayo mantānaŋ kattāro pavattāro), whose names are given at Vin i. 245; D i.104, 238; A iii.224, iv.61 as follows: Aṭṭhaka, Vāmaka, Vāmadeva, Vessāmitta, Yamataggi (Yamadaggi), Angirasa, Bhāradvāja, Vāseṭṭha, Kassapa, Bhagu.
-- nisabha the first (lit. "bull") among Saints, Ep. of the Buddha Sn 698; Vv 167 (cp. VvA 82). -- pabbajjā the (holy) life of an anchoret Vism 123; DhA i.105; iv.55; PvA 162. -- vāta the wind of a Saint Miln 19; Vism 18. -- sattama the 7th of the great Sages (i. e. Gotama Buddha, as 7th in the sequence of Vipassin, Sikhin, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, Koṇāgamana & Kassapa Buddhas) M i.386; S i.192; Sn 356; Th 1, 1240 (= Bhagavā isi ca sattamo ca uttamaṭṭhena SnA 351); Vv 211 (= buddha -- isinaŋ Vipassi -- ādīnaŋ sattamo VvA 105).
-- UHS-PMD0195

UKT from UHS: m. hermit, holy personage such as Buddha

-- (isīkā) (f.) [Sk. iṣīkā] a reed D i.77, cp. DA i.222; J vi.67 (isikā).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. isi] rishi -- ship D i.104 (= isi -- bhāva DA i.274).


-- [denom. fr. issā. Av. areṣyeiti to be jealous, Gr. e)/ratai to desire; connected also with Sk. arṣati fr. ṛṣ to flow, Lat. erro; & Sk. irasyati to be angry = Gr. *)/arhs God of war, a)rh\; Ags. eorsian to be angry] to bear ill-will, to be angry, to envy J iii.7; ppr. med. issamānaka Sdhp 89, f. ˚ikā A ii.203. -- pp. issita (q. v.).

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-- (nt. m.) [cp. Sk. iṣvastra nt. bow, fr. iṣu (= P. usu) an arrow + as to throw. Cp. P. issāsa. -- Bdhgh. in a strange way dissects it as "usu ca sattha cā ti vuttaŋ hoti" (i. e. usu arrow + sattha sword, knife) SnA 466] -- 1. (nt.) archery (as means of livelihood & occupation) M i.85; iii.1; S i.100 (so read with v. l.; T. has issatta, C. explns. by usu -- sippaŋ K. S. p. 318); Sn 617 (˚ŋ upajīvati = āvudha jīvikaŋ SnA 466); J vi.81; Sdhp 390. -- 2. (m.) an archer Miln 250, 305, 352, 418.


-- [issattha + ka] an archer Miln 419.


issara {AI~a.ra.} =
-- [Vedic īśvara, from īś to have power, cp. also P. īsa] lord, ruler, master, chief A iv.90; Sn 552; J i.89 (˚jana), 100, 283 (˚bheri); iv.132 (˚jana); Pv iv.67 (˚mada); Miln 253 (an˚ without a ruler); DhsA 141; DA i.111; PvA 31 (gehassa issarā); Sdhp 348, 431. -- 2. creative deity, Brahmā, D iii.28; M ii.222 = A i.173; Vism 598.
{AI~a.ra.} =
-- UHS-PMD0196

UKT from UHS: mfn. authority. m. lord, king, Brahma, Vishnu, Parameśhvara
Note: Name 'Parameśhvara' from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiva 111220


-- [fr. issara] rulership, mastership, supremacy, domi- nion (Syn. ādhipacca) D iii.190; S i.43, 100 (˚mada); v.342 (issariy -- dhipacca); A i.62 (˚ādhipacca); ii.205, 249; iii.38; iv.263; Sn 112; Dh 73; Ud 18; Ps ii.171, 176; J i.156; v.443; DhA ii.73; VvA 126 (for ādhipacca) PvA 42, 117, 137 (for ādhipacca); Sdhp 418, 583.


-- (f.) [fr. issariya] mastership, lordship Sdhp 422.


issā {AI~a}  
-- (f.) [Sk. īrṣyā to Sk. irin forceful, irasyati to be angry, Lat. īra anger, Gr. *)/arhs God of war; Ags. eorsian to be angry. See also issati] jealousy, anger, envy, ill -- will D ii.277 (˚macchariya); iii.44 (id.); M i.15; S ii.260; A i.95, 105 (˚mala), 299; ii.203; iv.8 (˚saojana), 148, 349, 465; v.42 sq., 156, 310; Sn 110; J v.90 (˚vatiṇṇa); Pv ii.37; Vv 155; Pug 19, 23; Vbh 380, 391; Dhs 1121, 1131, 1460; Vism 470 (def.); PvA 24, 46, 87; DhA ii.76; Miln 155; Sdhp 313, 510.
-- pakata overcome by envy, of an envious nature S ii.260; Miln 155; PvA 31. See remarks under apakata & pakata.
-- UHS-PMD0196

UKT from UHS: f. envy of another's wealth


-- (f.) [cp. Sk. ṛśya -- mṛga] in issammiga (= issāmiga) J v.410, & issāmiga J v.431, a species of antelope, cp. J v.425 issāsinga the antlers of this antelope.


-- (& issāyitatta) [abstr. formations fr. issā] = issā Pug 19, 23; Dhs 1121; Vism 470.


-- [Sk. iṣvāsa, see issattha] an archer Vin iv.124; M iii.1; A iv.423 (issāso vā issās' antevāsī vā); J ii.87; iv.494; Miln 232; DA i.156.


-- [Sk. iṣvāsa in meaning "bow" + in] an archer, lit. one having a bow J iv.494 (= issāsa C.).


-- [pp. of īrṣ (see issati); Sk. īrṣita] being envied or scolded, giving offence or causing anger J v.44.


-- (adj.) [fr. issā, Sk. īrṣyu + ka + in] envious, jealous Vin ii.89 (+ maccharin); D iii.45, 246; M i.43, 96; S iv.241; A iii.140, 335; iv.2; Dh 262; J iii.259; Pv. ii.34; Pug 19, 23; DhA iii.389; PvA 174. See also an˚.


iha {I.ha.}
-- (indecl.) [Sk. iha; form iha is rare in Pāli, the usual form is idha (q. v.)] adv. of place "here" Sn 460.
-- UHS-PMD0197

UKT from UHS: at this instance, in this human existence, in this present life-time, during this present religion


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UKT notes

Circumflex in nubhāva

-- by UKT 111218

Circumflex   seems to have the pronunciation of the Bur-Myan back mid-vowel {o}. But what about the circumflex [ASCII Alt+0226] ?

In Britain, in the eighteenth century, before the cheap Penny Post and during the time paper was taxed, the combination ough was shortened to when the gh was not pronounced, in order to save room in letters: th for though, thor for thorough, and brt for brought. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circumflex_accent 111218

Caret /krət/ usually refers to the spacing symbol ^ in ASCII and other character sets. In Unicode, however, the corresponding character is U+005E ^ circumflex accent (HTML: &#94; ), whereas the Unicode character named caret is actually a similar but lowered symbol: U+2038 caret (HTML: &#8248; ). A caret can also be called a wedge, up-arrow, hat, control character, or chevron. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caret 111218

Caron ( ˇ ) or hček (English pronunciation: /ˈhɑːtʃɛk/) (from Czech hček, pronounced [ˈɦaːtʃɛk]), also known as a wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization, iotation, or postalveolar pronunciation in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finno-Lappic, and other languages. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caron 111218
UHS-PMD0070 gives nubhāva as {a.nu.Ba-wa.} 'magical power'.

Go back circumflex-a-note-b

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Differences in Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan spellings

-- by UKT 111216

UHS spells all his entries, p0189-197, with vowel-letter {I.}. However, it must be remembered that in Bur-Myan both the vowel-letter {I.} and vowel-sign-with-{a.} {i.} are used. In Bur-Myan when this vowel has to be checked, it is only the {i.} that is checked. However, in Pal-Myan it is the {I.} that is checked: in the conjunct form. Because, I am writing this note from Canada, I have no idea how it was done in Pal-Myan MSS and inscriptions, and the question will be put up to my Bur-Myan peers in due time.

Based on my Bur-Myan ethnicity and my schooling and teaching in Myanmar for over 30 years, in different parts of the country, I can safely say that the {I.} being checked in Pal-Myan, and {i.} checked in Bur-Myan are pronounced the same way. The following are very common words, and any Myanmar-born Burmese speaker knows how to pronounce them: 

{aip} 'to sleep' (MED2006-630) as in {aip-ra} 'bed' (MED2006-630), and
{ait} 'bag' (MED2006-626) as in {sa-ait} (MED2006-107) 

From them you can arrive at the pronunciation of : {aik}, and {aic}. This series in Bur-Myan: {aik}, and {aic}, {ait}, {aip} is duplicated in Pal-Myan, e.g. {AIk~ka.} pronounced as / {aik~ka.}/ . Note the Romabama-capitalization in going from Bur-Myan to Pal-Myan.

Note to non-Burmese speakers (especially to ethnic Burmese born in foreign countries. Please note that I have two grandsons born outside the country of Myanmar and the wish of my closing years is to provide them with a firm basis of speaking Burmese and writing in Myanmar script. Though they speak Bur-Myan language very well, they still do not know how to write the Myan script. Even if at present, they do not wish to learn, a time may come when they may wish to do so. And when that were to happen, I would not be around. So my present work is for them and their progeny also. May the language and culture of my forefathers exist for ever - and I am doing my humble best to make it so. - UKT111220).
   Pronounce Bur-Myan words according to their spelling. You will arrive at the correct pronunciation which may be slightly different from the pronunciation of the Irrawaddy valley -- the Yangon and Mandalay accent. Your accent may sound like the dialects of Rakhine, Yaw, Danu, and other regions, but you will be understood. This is important because, Bur-Myan script is a phonetic way of writing like the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). The Bur-Myan script preceded the IPA by centuries if not by millenniums. Once you have your POA (point of articulation) and phonation correct, you can adapt your pronunciation to that of the dialect of the Irrawaddy valley.
   Pronounce from bilabial through dental, to alveolar, retroflex, and palatal, and finally to velar - NOT the way Burmese-Myanmar children are taught in schools in Myanmar. Pronounce the above series as: {aip} (bilabial-stop), {ait} (dental-stop), {aic} (palatal-stop), {aik} (velar-stop). Then try to pronounce all of them without the coda consonants, or with an IPA glottal-stop /ʔ/ as recommended by MLC in English-Myanmar dictionaries: /ei'/ or IPA /eiʔ/, and, /ei'/ or /eiʔ/. You will notice that without the coda, they all sound the same! -- UKT111216

Go back Diff-Pal-Bur-Myan-spellings-note-b

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