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Pali-English Dictionary


Ľ by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp], reprint 1966 
Ą Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) .

Ľ in Burmese-Myanmar (Bur-Myan) by U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, {pa.dat~hta.mi˝-zu-■a}, 1st printing ca. 1959, Ministry of Religious Affairs publication, Rangoon , p1180.

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p000 p000 p000 p093 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a-ka.} {a-ga.}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p094 p095 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a-sa.} {a-za.}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p096 p097 p000 p000
{a-Ta.} {a-ta.} {a-da.}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p098 p099
p100 p101 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a-pa.} {a-ba.}
p000 p000 p102 p103 p104 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a-ya.}  {a-ra.} {a-la.} {a-wa.}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p105 p106 p107 p108 p109
p110 p111 p112 p113 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a-■a.} {a-ha.}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p114 p115 p116 p117 p000 p000
UKT notes

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ā {a}
-- ╣ (indecl.) [Vedic ā, prep. with acc., loc., abl., meaning "to, towards", & also "from". Orig. an emphatic -- deictic part. (Idg. *ē) = Gr. h)_ surely, really; Ohg. -- ā etc., increment of a (Idg. *e), as in Sk. a -- sau; Gr. e\kei_ (cp. a3), see Brugmann, Kurze Vergl. Gr. 464, 465] a frequent prefix, used as well -- defined simple base -- prefix (with rootderivations), but not as modification (i. e. first part of a double prefix cpd. like sam -- ā -- dhi) except in one case ā -- ni -- saŋsa (which is doubtful & of diff. origin, viz. from combn. āsaŋsa -- nisaŋsa, see below 3b). It denotes either touch (contact) or a personal (close) relation to the object (ā ti anussaraṇɔ atthe nipāto PvA 165), or the aim of the action expressed in the verb. -- (1.) As prep. c. abl. only in J in meaning "up to, until, about, near" J vi.192 (ā sahassehi = yāva s. C.), prob. a late development. As pref. in meaning "forth, out, to, towards, at, on" in foll. applications: -- (a) aim in general or touch in particular (lit.), e. g. ākaḍḍhati pull to, along or up; ˚kāsa shining forth; ˚koṭeti knock at; ˚gacchati go towards; ˚camati rinse over; ˚neti bring towards, ad -- duce; ˚bhā shining forth; ˚bhujati bend in; ˚masati touch at; ˚yata stretched out; ˚rabhati at -- tempt; ˚rohana a -- scending; ˚laya hanging on; ˚loketi look at; ˚vattati ad -- vert; ˚vahati bring to; ˚vāsa dwelling at; ˚sādeti touch; ˚sīdati sit by; ˚hanati strike at. -- (b) in reflexive function: close relation to subject or person actively concerned, e. g. ādāti take on or up (to oneself); ˚dāsa looking at, mirror; ˚dhāra support; ˚nandati rejoice; ˚nisaŋsa subjective gain; ˚bādha being affected; ˚modita pleased; ˚rakkha guarding; ˚rādhita satisfied; ˚rāma (personal) delight in; ˚lingati embrace (to oneself); ˚hāra taking to (oneself). -- (c) in
transitive function: close relation to the object passively concerned, e. g. āghātana killing; ˚carati indulge in; ˚cikkhati point ont, explain; ˚jīva living on; ˚ṇāpeti give an order to somebody; ˚disati point out to some one; ˚bhindati cut; ˚manteti ad -- dress; ˚yācati pray to; ˚roceti speak to; si˝cati besprinkle; ˚sevati indulge in. -- (d) out of meaning (a) develops that of an intensive -- frequentative prefix in sense of "all -- round, completely, very much", e. g. ākiṇṇa strewn all over, ˚kula mixed up; ˚dhuta moved about; ˚rāva shouting out or very much; ˚luḷati move about; ˚hiṇḍati roam about. -- 2. Affinities. Closely related in meaning and often interchanging are the foll. prep. (prefixes): anu (˚bhati), abhi (˚saŋsati), pa (˚tapati), paṭi (˚kankhati) in meaning 1 a -- c; and vi (˚kirati, ˚ghāta, ˚cameti, ˚lepa, ˚lopa), sam (˚tapati, ˚dassati) in meaning 1 d. See also 3b. -- 3. Combinations: (a) Intensifying combns. of other modifying prefixes with ā as base: anu + ā (anvā -- gacchati, ˚disati, ˚maddati, ˚rohati, ˚visati, ˚sanna, ˚hata), paṭi + ā (paccā -- janati, ˚ttharati, ˚dāti, ˚savati), pari + ā (pariyā -- ˝āta, ˚dāti, ˚pajjati, ˚harati), sam + ā (samā -- disati, ˚dāna, ˚dhi, ˚pajjati, ˚rabhati). -- (b) Contrast -- combns. with other pref. in a double cpd. of noun, adj. or verb (cp. above 2) in meaning of "up & down, in & out, to & fro"; ā + ni: āvedhika -- nibbedhika, āsaŋsa -- nisaŋsa (contracted to ānisaŋsa), āsevita -- nisevita; ā + pa: assasatipassasati (where both terms are semantically alike; in exegesis however they have been differentiated in a way which looks like a distortion of the original meaning, viz. assasati is taken as "breathing out", passasati as "breathing in": see Vism 271), assāsa -- passāsa, āmoditapamodita, āhuna -- pāhuna, āhuneyya -- pāhuneyya; ā + paccā: [p093] ākoṭita -- paccākoṭita; ā + pari: ākaḍḍhana -- parikaḍḍhana, āsankita -- parisankita; ā + vi: ālokita -- vilokita, āvāha -- vivāha, āveṭhana -- viniveṭhana; a + sam: allāpa -- sallāpa: ā + samā: āciṇṇa -- samāciṇṇa. -- 4. Before double consonants ā is shortened to a and words containing ā in this form are to be found under a˚, e. g. akkamaṇa, akkhitta, acchādeti, a˝˝āta, appoṭeti, allāpa, assāda.

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ā˚ {a}
-- ▓ guṇa or increment of a˚ in connection with such suf- fixes as -- ya, -- iya, -- itta. So in āyasakya fr. ayasaka; āruppa from arūpa; ārogya fr. aroga; ālasiya fr. alasa; ādhipacca fr. adhipati; ābhidosika fr. abhidosa etc.


ā˚ {a}
-- │ of various other origins (guṇa e. g. of ṛ or lengthening of ordinary root a˚), rare, as ālinda (for alinda), āsabha (fr. usabha).


ā˚ {a}
-- 4 infix in repetition -- cpds. denoting accumulation or variety (by contrast with the opposite, cp. ā1 3b), constitutes a guṇa -- or increment -- form of neg. pref. a (see a2), as in foll.: phalÔphala all sorts of fruit (lit. what is fruit & not fruit) freq. in Jātakas, e. g. i.416; ii.160; iii.127; iv.220, 307, 449; v.313; vi.520; kāraṇÔkāraṇāni all sorts of duties J vi.333; DhA i.385; khaṇḍÔkhaṇḍa pŕle -- mŕle J i.114; iii.256; gaṇḍÔgaṇḍa a mass of boils DhA iii.297; cirÔciraŋ continually Vin iv.261; bhavÔbhava all kinds of existences Sn 801, cp. Nd1 109; Nd2 664; Th 1, 784 (˚esu = mahant -- Ômahantesu bh. C., see Brethren 305); rūpÔrūpa the whole aggregate ThA 285; etc.

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-- [ā + kānkṣ, cp. kankhati] to wish for, think of, desire; intend, plan, design Vin ii.244 (˚amāna); D i.78, 176; S i.46; Sn 569 (˚amāna); Sn p. 102 (= icchati SnA 436); DhA i.29; SnA 229; VvA 149; PvA 229.


-- f. [fr. ā + kānkṣ] longing, wish; as adj. at Th 1, 1030.


-- [ā + kaḍḍhati] to pull along, pull to (oneself), drag or draw out, pull up Vin ii.325 (Bdhgh. for apakassati, see under apakāsati); iv.219; J i.172, 192, 417; Miln 102, 135; ThA 117 (˚eti); VvA 226; PvA 68. <-> Pass. ākaḍḍhiyati J ii.122 (˚amāna -- locana with eyes drawn away or attracted); Miln 102; Vism 163; VvA 207 (˚amāna -- hadaya with torn heart). -- pp. ākaḍḍhita.


-- (nt.) [fr. ākaḍḍhati] drawing away or to, pulling out, distraction VvA 212 (˚parikaḍḍhana pulling about); DhsA 363; Miln 154 (˚parikaḍḍhana), 352. -- As f. Vin iii.121.


-- [pp. of akaḍḍheti] pulled out, dragged along; upset, overthrown J iii.256 (= akkhitta2).


-- (?) a possible reading, for the dŘrakantana of the text at Th 1, 1123, for which we might read durākantana.


-- [cp. Sk. ākalpa ā + kappa] 1. attire, appearance, Vin i.44 (an˚) = ii.213; J i.505. -- 2. deportment Dhs 713 (ā˚ gamanādi -- ākāro DhsA 321).
-- sampanna, suitably attired, well dressed, A iii.78; J iv.542; an˚ sampanna, ill dressed, J i.420.


-- [pp. of ākampeti, Caus. of ā + kamp] shaking, trembling Miln 154 (˚hadaya).


-- [cp. Sk. ākara] a mine, usually in cpd. ratan -- ākara a mine of jewels Th 1, 1049; J ii.414; vi. 459; Dpvs i.18. -- Cp. also Miln 356; VvA 13.


-- [ā + kassati] to draw along, draw after, plough, cultivate Nd1 428.


-- [a + karoti, kṛ] "the (way of) making", i. e. (1) state, condition J i.237 (avasan˚ condition of inhabitability); ii.154 (patan˚ state of falling, labile equilibrium), cp. paṇṇ˚. -- (2) property, quality, attribute D i.76 (anāvila sabb˚ -- sampanna endowed with all good qualities, of a jewel); ii.157 (˚varűpeta); J ii.352 (sabb˚ paripuṇṇa altogether perfect in qualities). -- (3) sign, appearance, form, D i.175; J i.266 (chātak˚ sign of hunger); Miln 24 (˚ena by the sign of . .); VvA 27 (therassa ā. form of the Th.); PvA 90, 283 (ra˝˝o ā. the king's person); Sdhp 363. -- (4) way, mode, manner, sa -- ākāra in all their modes D i.13 = 82 = iii.111; J i.266 (āgaman˚ the mode of his coming). Esp. in instr. sg. & pl. with num. or pron. (in this way, in two ways etc.): chahɔākārehi in a sixfold manner Nd2 680 (cp. kāraṇehi in same sense); Nett 73, 74 (dvādasahɔākārehi); Vism 613 (navahɔākārehi indriyāni tikkhāni bhavanti); PvA 64 (yenɔākārena āgato tenɔākārena gato as he came so he went), 99 (id.). <-> (5) reason, ground, account D i.138, 139; Nett 4, 8 sq., 38; DhA i.14; KhA 100 (in expln. of evaŋ). In this meaning freq. with dass (dasseti, dassana, nidassana etc.) in commentary style "what is meant by", the (statement of) reason why or of, notion, idea PvA 26 (dātabb˚dassana), 27 (thoman˚ -- dassana), 75 (kāru˝˝ ˚ŋ dassesi), 121 (pucchan˚ -- nidassanaŋ what has been asked); SnA 135 (˚nidassana).
-- parivitakka study of conditions, careful consideration, examination of reasons S ii.115; iv.138; A ii.191 = Nd2 151.


-- (nt.) [ākāra + ka] appearance; reason, manner (cp. ākāra4) J i.269 (ākārakena = kāraṇena C.).


-- (adj.) [fr. ākāra] having a reason, reasonable, founded M i.401 (saddhā).


-- ╣ [Sk. ākāśa fr. ā + kāś, lit. shining forth, i. e. the illuminated space] air, sky, atmosphere; space. On the concept see Cpd. 5, 16, 226. On a fanciful etym. of ākāsa (fr. ā + kassati of kṛṣ) at DhsA 325 see Dhs trsl. 178. <-> D i.55 (˚ŋ indriyāni sankamanti the sense -- faculties pass into space); iii.224, 253, 262, 265; S iii.207; iv.218; v.49, 264; J i.253; ii.353; iii.52, 188; iv.154; vi.126; Sn 944, 1065; Nd1 428; Pv ii.118; SnA 110, 152; PvA 93; Sdhp 42, 464. -- ākāsena gacchati to go through the air PvA 75 (āgacch˚), 103, 105, 162; ˚ena carati id. J ii.103; ˚e gacchati id. PvA 65 (cando). -- Formula "ananto ākāso" freq.; e. g. at D i.183; A ii.184; iv. 40, 410 sq.; v.345.
-- anta "the end of the sky", the sky, the air (on ˚anta see anta1 4) J vi.89. -- āna˝ca (or Ôna˝ca) the infinity ef space, in cpd. ˚āyatana the sphere or plane of the infinity of space, the "space -- infinity -- plane", the sphere of unbounded space. The consciousness of this sphere forms the first one of the 4 (or 6) higher attainments or recognitions of the mind, standing beyond the fourth jhāna, viz. (1) ākās˚, (2) vi˝˝āṇɔāna˝c -- āyatana (3) āki˝ca˝˝˚, (4) nɔeva sa˝˝ānÔsa˝˝˚, (5) nirodha, (6) phala. -- D i.34, 183; ii.70, 112, 156; iii.224, 262 sq.; M i.41, 159.; iii. 27, 44; S v.119; Ps i.36; Dhs 205, 501, 579, 1418; Nett 26, 39; Vism 326, 340, 453; DA i.120 (see Nd2 under ākāsa; Dhs 265 sq.; Dhs trsl. 71). As classed with jhāna see also Nd2 672 (sādhu -- vihārin). -- kasiṇa one of the kasiṇɔāyatanas (see under kasiṇa) D iii.268; A i.41. -- gangā N. of the celestial river J i.95; iii.344. -- gamana going through the air (as a trick of elephants) Miln 201. -- cārika walking through the air J ii.103. -- cārin = ˚cārika VvA 6. -- ṭṭha living in the sky (of devatā) Bu i.29; Miln 181, 285; KhA 120; SnA 476. -- tala upper story, terrace on the top of a palace SnA 87. -- dhātu the element of space D iii.247; M i.423; iii.31; A i.176; iii.34; Dhs 638.


-- ▓ (nt.?) a game, playing chess ʻ in the air ʼ (sans voir) Vin ii.10 = D i.6 (= aṭṭhapada -- dasapadesu viya ākāse yeva kiḷanaŋ DA i.85).


-- (adj.) [ākāsa + ka] being in or belonging to the air or sky J vi.124.

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-- [fr. ākāsa1] to shine J vi.89.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. aki˝cana] state of having nothing, absence of (any) possessions; nothingness (the latter as philosophical t. t.; cp. below ˚āyatana & see Dhs trsl. 74). -- Sn 976, 1070, 1115 (˚sambhava, cp. Nd2 116); Th 2, 341 (= aki˝canabhāva ThA 240; trsl. "cherish no wordly wishes whatsoŰer"); Nd2 115, see ākāsa; Miln 342.
-- āyatana realm or sphere of nothingness (cp. ākāsa˚) D i.35, 184; ii.156; iii.224, 253, 262 sq.; M i.41, 165; ii.254, 263; iii.28, 44, S iv.217; A i.268; iv.40, 401; Ps i.36; Nett 26, 39; Vism 333. See also jhāna & vimokkha.


-- [pp. of ākirati] 1. strewn over, beset with, crowded, full of, dense, rich in (˚ -- ) Vin iii.130 (˚loma with dense hair); S i.204 (˚kammanta "in motley tasks engaged"); iv.37 (gāmanto ā. bhikkhūhi etc.); A iii.104 (˚vihāro); iv.4; v.15 (an˚ C. for appakiṇṇa); Sn 408 (˚varalakkhaṇa = vipula -- varalakkh˚ SnA 383); Pv ii.124 (nānā -- dijagaṇ˚ = āyutta PvA 157); Pug 31; PvA 32 (= parikiṇṇa); Sdhp 595. -- Freq. in idiomatic phrase describing a flourishing city "iddha phīta bahujana ākiṇṇa -- manussa", e. g. D i.211; ii.147 (˚yakkha for ˚manussa; full of yakkhas, i. e. under their protection); A iii.215; cp. Miln 2 (˚jana -- manussa). -- 2. (uncertain whether to be taken as above 1 or as equal to avakiṇṇa fr. avakirati 2) dejected, base, vile, ruthless S i.205 = J iii.309 = 539 = SnA 383. At K. S. 261, Mrs. Rh. D. translates "ruthless" & quotes C. as implying twofold exegesis of (a) impure, and (b) hard, ruthless. It is interesting to notice that Bdhgh. explains the same verse differently at SnA 383, viz. by vipula˚, as above under Sn 408, & takes ākiṇṇaludda as vipulaludda, i. e. beset with cruelty, very or intensely cruel, thus referring it to ākiṇṇa 1.


-- [ā + kirati] to strew over, scatter, sprinkle, disperse, fill, heap Sn 665; Dh 313; Pv ii.49 (dānaŋ vipulaŋ ākiri = vippakirati PvA 92); Miln 175, 238, 323 (imper. ākirāhi); Sn 383. -- pp. ākiṇṇa.


-- (nt.) [ākirita + tta; abstr. fr. ākirita, pp. of ākirati Caus.] the fact or state of being filled or heaped with Miln 173 (sakataŋ dha˝˝assa ā).


-- v. l. at KhA 66 for āgilāyati.


-- (or ˚ā?) [etym. unknown, prob. non -- Aryan] an iguana J vi.538 (C. godhā; gloss amattɔākuccā).


-- [onomat. to sound -- root *kur = *kor as in Lat. cornix, corvus etc. See gala note 2 B and cp. kukkuṭa kokila, khaṭa etc., all words expressing a rasping noise in the throat. The attempts at etym. by Trenckner (Miln p. 425 as Denom. of ākula) & Morris (J.P.T.S. 1886, 154 as contr. Denom. of ankura "intumescence", thus meaning "to swell") are hardly correct] to be hoarse Miln 152 (kaṇṭho ākurati).


-- (adj.) [ā + *kul of which Sk. -- P. kula, to Idg *qṷel to turn round, cp. also cakka & carati; lit. meaning "revolving quickly", & so "confused"] entangled, confused, upset, twisted, bewildered J i.123 (salākaggaŋ ˚ŋ karoti to upset or disturb); Vv 849 (andha˚); PvA 287 (an˚ clear). Often reduplicated as ākulākula thoroughly confused Miln 117, 220; PvA 56; ākula -- pākula Ud 5 (so read for akkula -- pakkula); ākula -- samākula J vi.270. <-> On phrase tantākula -- jātā gulā -- guṇṭhika -- jātā see guḷā.


-- (adj.) [fr. ākula] entangled D ii.55 (tant˚ for the usual tantākula, as given under guḷā).


-- (adj.) [grd. of ā + *kulāyati, Denom. of kula] in an˚ not to be confounded or upset PvA 118.


-- ( -- puppha) at KhA 60 (milāta˚) read (according to Index p. 870) as milāta -- bakula -- puppha. Vism 260 (id. p.) however reads ākulī -- puppha "tangle -- flower" (?), cp. Ud 5, gāthā 7 bakkula, which is preferably to be read as pākula.


-- ╣ (nt.) [fr. ākoṭeti] beating on, knocking M i.385; Miln 63, 306; DhsA 144.


-- ▓ (adj.) [= ākoṭana1] beating, driving, inciting, urging J vi.253 (f. ākoṭanī of pa˝˝ā, expld. by "nivāraṇapatoda -- laṭṭhi viya pa˝˝ā koṭinī hoti" p. 254).


-- [pp. of ākoṭeti] -- 1. beaten, touched, knocked against J i.303; Miln 62 (of a gong). -- 2. pressed, beaten down (tight), flattened, in phrase ākoṭita -- paccākoṭita flattened & pressed all round (of the cīvara) S ii. 281; DhA i.37.


-- [a + koṭṭeti, Sk. kuṭṭayati; BSk. ākoṭayati e. g. Divy 117 dvāraŋ trir ā˚, Cowell "break" (?); Av. Ś. Index p. 222 s. v.] -- 1. to beat down, pound, stamp J i.264. <-> 2. to beat, knock, thrash Vin ii.217; J ii.274; PvA 55 (a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ); Sdhp 159. -- 3. Esp. with ref. to knocking at the door, in phrases aggaḷaŋ ākoṭeti to beat on the bolt D i.89; A iv.359; v.65; DA i.252 (cp. aggaḷa); dvāraŋ ā. J v 217; DhA ii.145; or simply ākoṭeti Vv 8117 (ākoṭayitvāna = appoṭetvā VvA 316). -- 4. (intrs.) to knock against anything J i.239. -- pp. ākoṭita (q. v.). Caus. ii. ākoṭapeti J iii.361.


-- [Vedic ākhu, fr. ā + khan, lit. the digger in, i. e. a mole; but given as rat or mouse by Halāyudha] a mouse or rat Pgdp 10.

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-- [ā + gacchati, gam] to come to or towards, approach, go back, arive etc.
I. Forms (same arrangement as under gacchati): (1) √gacch: pres. āgacchati D i.161; J ii.153; Pv iv.151; fut. āgacchissati J iii.53; aor. āgacchi Pv ii.133; PvA 64. -- (2) √gam: aor. āgamāsi PvA 81, āgamā D i.108; J iii.128, and pl. āgamiŋsu J i.118; fut. āgamissati VvA 3; PvA 122; ger. āgamma (q. v.) & āgantvā J i.151; Miln 14; Caus. āgameti (q. v.). -- (3) √: aor. āgā Sn 841; Pv i.123 (= āgacchi PvA 64). -- pp. āgata (q. v.).
II. Mcanings: (1) to come to, approach, arrive D i.108; Pv i.113; ii.133; Miln 14; to return, to come back (cp. āgata) PvA 81, 122. -- (2) to come into, to result, deserve (cp. āgama2) D i.161 (gārayhaŋ ṭhānaŋ deserve blame, come to be blamed); Pv iv.151 (get to, be a profit to = upakappati PvA 241). -- (3) to come by, to come out to (be understood as), to refer or be referred to, to be meant or understood (cp. āgata 3 & āgama 3) J i.118 (tīṇi piṭakāni āgamiŋsu); SnA 321; VvA 3. See also āgamma.


-- [pp. of āgacchati] (1) come, arrived Miln 18 (˚kā- raṇa the reason of his coming); VvA 78 (˚ṭṭhāna); PvA 81 (kiŋ āgatɔattha why have you come here) come by, got attained (˚ -- ) A ii.110 = Pug 48 (˚visa); Mhvs xiv. 28 (˚phala = anāgānuphala) -- āgatɔāgatā (pl.) people coming & going, passers by, all comers PvA 39, 78, 129; VvA 190 (Ep. of sangha). -- svɔāgata "wel -- come", greeted, hailed; nt. welcome, hail Th 2, 337; Pv iv.315, opp. durāgata not liked, unwelcome, A ii.117, 143, 153; iii. 163; Th 2, 337. -- (2) come down, handed down (by memory, said of texts) D i.88; DhA ii.35; KhA 229; VvA 30; āgatāgamo, one to whom the āgama, or the āgamas, have been handed down, Vin i.127, 337; ii 8; iv.158; A ii.147; Miln 19, 21. -- (3) anāgata not come yet, i. e. future; usually in combn. with atīta (past) & paccuppanna (present): see atīta and anāgata.


-- (f.) [ā + gati] coming, coming back, return S iii.53; J ii.172. Usually opp. to gati going away. Used in [p095] special sense of rebirth and re -- death in the course of saŋsāra. Thus in āgati gati cuti upapatti D i.162; A iii.54 sq., 60 sq., 74; cp. also S ii.67; Pv ii.922 (gatiŋ āgatiŋ vā).

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-- (m.) & Āgadana (nt.) [ā + gad to speak] a word; talk, speech DA i.66 (= vacana).


-- [N. ag. fr. āgacchati] one who is coming or going to come A i.63; ii.159; It 4, 95 (nom. āgantā only one MS, all others āgantvā). an˚ A i.64; ii.160.


-- (adj.) [Sk. āgantu] -- 1. occasional, incidental J vi.358. -- 2. an occasional arrival, a new comer, stranger J vi.529 (= āgantuka -- jana C.); ThA 16.


-- (adj. -- n.) [āgantu + ka; cp. BSk. āgantuka in same meaning as P. viz. āgantukā bhikṣavaḥ Av. Ś i.87, 286; Divy 50] -- 1. coming, arriving, new comer, guest, stranger, esp. a newly arrived bhikkhu; a visitor (opp. gamika one who goes away) Vin i.132, 167; ii.170; iii. 65, 181; iv.24, A i.10; iii.41, 366; J vi.333; Ud 25; DhA ii.54, 74; VvA 24; PvA 54. -- 2. adventitions, incidental (= āgantu1) Miln 304 (of megha & roga). <-> 3. accessory, superimposed, added Vism 195.
-- bhatta food given to a guest, meal for a visitor Vin i.292 (opp. gamika˚); ii.16.


-- [fr. ā + gam] -- 1. coming, approach, result, D i.53 (āgamanaŋ pavattatī ti DA i.160; cp. Sdhp 249 dukkh˚). -- 2. that which one goes by, resource, reference, source of reference, text, Scripture, Canon; thus a designation of(?) the Pātimokkha, Vin ii.95 = 249, or of the Four Nikāyas, DA i.1, 2 (dīgh˚). A def. at Vism 442 runs "antamaso opamma -- vagga -- mattassa pi buddhavacanassa pariyāpuṇaṇaŋ". See also āgata 2, for phrase āgatɔāgama, handed down in the Canon, Vin loc. cit. Svāgamo, versed in the doctrine, Pv iv.133 (sv˚ = suṭṭhu āgatɔāgamo, PvA 230); Miln 215. BSk. in same use and meaning, e. g. Divy 17, 333, āgamāni = the Four Nikāyas. -- 3. rule, practice, discipline, obedience, Sn 834 (āgamā parivitakkaŋ), cp. Davs v.22 (takk˚, discipline of right thought) Sdhp 224 (āgamato, in obedience to). <-> 4. meaning, understanding, KhA 107 (vaṇṇ˚). -- 5. repayment (of a debt) J. vi.245. -- 6. as gram. tt. "augment", a consonant or syllable added or inserted SnA 23 (sa -- kārɔāgama).


-- (nt.) [fr. āgacchati, Sk. same] oncoming, ar- rival, approach A iii.172; DA i.160; PvA 4, 81; Sdhp 224, 356. an˚ not coming or returning J i.203, 264.


-- [caus of agacchati] to cause somebody or some- thing to come to one, i. e. (1) to wait, to stay Vin ii. 166, 182, 212; D i.112, 113; S iv.291; PvA 4, 55. <-> (2) to wait for, to welcome Vin ii.128 (ppr. āgamayamāna); M i.161 (id.) J i.69 (id. + kālaŋ).


-- (adv.) [orig. ger. of āgacchati, q. v. under i.2 for form & under ii.3 for meaning. BSk. āgamya in meaning after the Pāli form, e. g. Divy 95, 405 (with gen.); Av. Ś i.85, 210 etc.; M Vastu i.243, 313]. With reference to (c. acc.), owing to, relating to; by means of, thanks to. In meaning nearly synonymous with ārabbha, sandhāya & paṭicca (see K. S. 318 s. v.) D i.229; It 71; J i.50; vi.424; Kh viii.14 (= nissāya KhA 229); PvA 5, 21 etc.


-- found only in neg. form anāgāmitā.


-- (adj. n.) [ā + gāmin] returning, one who returns, esp. one who returns to another form of life in saŋsāra (cp. āgati), one who is liable to rebirth A i.63; ii.159; It 95. See anāgāmin.


-- ( -- ˚) see agāra.


-- & ˚ika (adj. -- n.) ( -- ˚) [cp. BSk. āgārika Divy 275, & agārika] belonging to the house, viz. (1) having control over the house, keeping, surveying, in cpds. koṭṭh˚ possessor or keeper of a storehouse Vin i.209; bandhan˚ prison -- keeper A ii.207; bhaṇḍ˚ keeper of wares, treasurer PvA 2 (see also bhaṇḍ˚). -- (2) being in the house, sharing (the house), companion S iii.190 (paŋsv˚ playmate).


-- (adj.) (ā + gāḷha 1; cp. Sk. samāgāḍhaŋ] strong, hard, harsh, rough (of speech), usually in instr. as adv. āgāḷhena roughly, harshly a i.283, 295; Pug 32 (so to be read for agāḷhena, although Pug A 215 has a˚, but expls. by atigāḷhena vacanena); instr. f. āgāḷhāya Vin v. 122 (ceteyya; Bdhgh. on p. 230 reads āgaḷāya and expls. by daḷhabhāvāya). See also Nett 77 (āgāḷhā paṭipadā a rough path), 95 (id.; v. l. agāḷhā).


-- [ā + gilāyati; Sk. glāyati, cp. gilāna] to be wearied, exhausted or tired, to ache, to become weak or faint Vin ii.200; D iii.209; M i.354; S iv.184; KhA 66 (hadavaŋ ā.). Cp. āyamati.


-- (nt.) [for Vedic āgas nt.] guilt, offence, S i.123; A iii.346; Sn 522 = Nd2 337 (in expln. of nāga as āguŋ na karotī ti nāgo); Nd1 201. Note. A reconstructed āgasa is found at Sdhp 294 in cpd. akatāgasa not having committed sin.
-- cārin one who does evil, D ii.339; M ii.88; iii.163; S ii.100, 128; A ii.240; Miln 110.


-- [Sk. āghāta only in lit. meaning of striking, killing, but cp. BSk. āghāta in meaning "hurtfulness" at M Vastu i.79; Av. Ś ii.129; cp. ghāta & ghāteti] anger, ill -- will, hatred, malice D i.3, 31; iii.72 sq.; S i.179; J i.113; Dhs 1060, 1231; Vbh 167, 362, 389; Miln 136; Vism 306; DA i.52; VvA 67; PvA 178. -- anāghāta freedom from ill will Vin ii.249; A v.80.
-- paṭivinaya repression of ill -- will; the usual enumn. of ā -- ˚ paṭivinayā comprises nine, for which see D iii.262, 289; Vin v.137; A iv.408; besides this there are sets of five at A iii.185 sq.; SnA 10, 11, and one of ten at Vin v.138. -- vatthu occasion of ill -- will; closely connected with ˚paṭivinaya & like that enumd. in sets of nine (Vin v.137; A iv.408; Ps i.130; J iii.291, 404; v.149; Vbh 389; Nett 23; SnA 12), and of ten (Vin v.138; A v. 150; Ps i.130; Vbh 391).


-- (nt.) [ā + ghāta(na), cp. āghata which has changed its meaning] -- 1. slaying, striking, destroying, killing Th 1, 418, 711; death D i.31 (= maraṇa DA i.119). <-> 2. shambles, slaughter -- house Vin i.182 (gav˚); A iv.138; J vi.113. -- 3. place of execution Vin iii.151; J i.326, 439; iii.59; Miln 110; DhA iv.52; PvA 4, 5.


-- [Denom. fr. āghāta, in form = ā + ghāteti, but diff. in meaning] only in phrase cittaŋ a. (with loc.) to incite one's heart to hatred against, to obdurate one's heart. Sdhp. 126 = S i.151 = A v.172.

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-- [ā + cam] to take in water, to resorb, to rinse J iii.297; Miln 152, 262 (+ dhamati). -- Caus. I. ācamcti (a) to purge, rinse one's mouth Vin ii.142; M ii. 112; A iii.337; Pv iv.153 (ācamayitvā = mukhaŋ vikkhāletvā PvA 241); Miln 152 (˚ayamāna). -- (b) to wash off, clean oneself after evacuation Vin ii.221. -- Caus. II. ācamāpeti to cause somebody to rinse himself J vi.8.


-- (nt.) [ā + camana of cam] rinsing, washing with water, used (a) for the mouth D i.12 (= udakena mukhasiddhi -- karaṇa DA i.98); (b) after evacuation J iii 486.
-- kumbhī water -- pitcher used for rinsing Vin i.49, 52; ii.142, 210, 222. -- pādukā slippers worn when rinsing Vin i.190; ii.142, 222. -- sarāvaka a saucer for rinsing Vin ii.142, 221.


-- (f.) [fr. ā + cam] absorption, resorption Nd1 429 (on Sn 945, which both in T. and in SnA reads ājava; expld. by taṇhā in Nidd.). Note. Index to SnA (Pj iii) has ācāma.

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-- [ā + caya] heaping up, accumulation, collection, mass (opp. apacaya). See on term Dhs trsl. 195 & Cpd. 251, 252. -- S ii.94 (kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi); A iv.280 = Vin ii.259 (opp. apacaya); Dhs 642, 685; Vbh 319, 326, 330; Vism 449; DhA ii.25.
-- gāmin making for piling up (of rebirth) A v.243, 276; Dhs 584, 1013, 1397; Kvu 357.


-- [ā + aarati] -- 1. to practice, perform, indulge in Vin i.56; ii.118; Sn 327 (ācare dhamma -- sandosa -- vādaŋ), 401; Miln 171, 257 (pāpaŋ). Cp. pp. ācarita in BSk. e. g. Av. S i.124, 153, 213 in same meaning. -- pp. āciṇṇa. -- 2. to step upon, pass through J v.153.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ā + car] treaching, f. ācarinī a female teacher Vin iv.227 (in contrast to gaṇa & in same sense as ācariya m. at Vin iv.130), 317 (id.).


-- [fr. ā + car] a teacher (almost syn. with upajjhāya) Vin i.60, 61, 119 (˚upajjhāya); ii.231; iv.130 (gaṇo vā ācariyo a meeting of the bhikkhus or a single teacher, cp. f. ācarinī); D i.103, 116 (gaṇ˚) 238 (sattamÔcariyamahāyuga seventh age of great teachers); iii.189 sq.; M iii.115; S i.68 (gaṇ˚), 177; iv.176 (yogg˚); A i.132 (pubb˚); Sn 595; Nd1 350 (upajjhāya vā āc˚); J ii.100, 411; iv.91; v.501; Pv iv.323, 351 (= ācāra -- samācāra -- sikkhāpaka PvA 252); Miln 201, 262 (master goldsmith?); Vism 99 sq.; KhA 12, 155; SnA 422; VvA 138. <-> For contracted form of ācariya see ācera.
-- kula the clan of the teacher A ii.112. -- dhana a teacher's fee S i.177; A v.347. -- pācariya teacher upon teacher, lit. "teacher & teacher's teacher" (see ā1 3b) D i.94, 114, 115, 238; S iv.306, 308; DA i.286; SnA 452 (= ācariyo cɔeva ācariya -- ācariyo ca). -- bhariyā the teacher's fee J v.457; vi.178; DhA i.253. -- muṭṭhi "the teacher's fist" i. e. close -- fistedness in teaching, keeping things back, D ii.100; S v.153; J ii.221, 250; Miln 144; SnA 180, 368. -- vaŋsa the line of the teachers Miln 148. -- vatta serving the teacher, service to the t. DhA i.92. -- vāda traditional teaching; later as heterodox teaching, sectarian teaching (opp. theravāda orthodox doctrine) Miln 148; Dpvs v.30; Mhbv 96.


-- [ācariya + ka, diff. from Sk. ācariyaka nt. art of teaching] a teacher Vin i.249; iii.25, 41; D i.88, 119, 187; ii.112; M i.514; ii.32; S v.261; A ii.170; iv. 310. See also sācariyaka.


-- [Sk. ācāma] the scum or foam of boiling rice D i.166; M i.78; A i.295; J ii.289; Pug 55; VvA 99 sq.; DhA iii.325 (˚kuṇḍaka).


-- [for ācameti? cp. Sk. ācāmayati, Caus. of ā + cam] at M ii.112 in imper. ācāmehi be pleased or be thanked(?); perhaps the reading is incorrect.


-- [ā + car] way of behaving, conduct, practice, esp. right conduct, good manners; adj. ( -- ˚) practising, indulging in, or of such & such a conduct. -- Sn 280 (pāpa˚); J i.106 (vipassana˚); ii.280 (˚ariya); vi.52 (ariya˚); SnA 157; PvA 12 (sīla˚), 36, 67, 252; Sdhp 441. -- an˚ bad behaviour Vin ii.118 (˚ŋ ācarati indulge in bad habits); DhA ii.201 (˚kiriyā). Cp. sam˚.
-- kusala versed in good manners Dh 376 (cp. DhA iv.111). -- gocara pasturing in good conduct; i. e. practice of right behaviour D i.63 = It 118; M i.33; S v.187; A i.63 sq.; ii.14, 39; iii.113, 155, 262; iv.140, 172, 352; v.71 sq., 89, 133, 198; Vbh 244, 246 (cp. Miln 368, 370, quot. Vin iii.185); Vism i.8. -- vipatti failure of morality, a slip in good conduct Vin i.171.


-- (adj. n.) [fr. ācāra] of good conduct, one who be- haves well A i.211 (anācārī viratā l. 4 fr. bottom is better read as ācārī virato, in accordance with v. l.).


-- (adj. n.) [ā + cikkha + ka of cikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA i.71.


-- [Freq. of ā + khyā, i. e. akkhāti] to tell, relate, show, describe, explain D i.110; A ii 189 (atthaŋ ā to interpret); Pug 59; DhA i.14; SnA 155; PvA 121, 164 (describe). -- imper. pres. ācikkha Sn 1097 (= brūhi Nd2 119 & 455); Pv i.109; ii.81; and ācikkhāhi DhA ii.27. <-> aor. ācikkhi PvA 6, 58, 61, 83. -- ācikkhati often occurs in stock phrase ācikkhati deseti pa˝˝āpeti paṭṭhapeti vivarati etc., e. g. Nd1 271; Nd2 465; Vism 163. -- attānaŋ ā. to disclose one's identity PvA 89, 100. -- pp. ācikkhita (q. v.). -- Caus. II. ācikkhāpeti to cause some body to tell DhA ii.27.


-- (adj. -- nt.) [ā + cikkhana of cikkhati] telling, announcing J iii.444; PvA 121.


-- [pp. of acikkhati] shown, described, told PvA 154 (˚magga), 203 (an˚ = anakkhāta).


-- [n. ag. fr. ācikkhati] one who tells or shows DhA ii.107 (for pavattar).


-- [pp. of ācināti? or is it distorted from āciṇṇa?] ac- cumulated; practised, performed Dh 121 (pāpaŋ = pāpaŋ āciṇanto karonto DhA iii.16). It may also be spelt ācina.


-- [ā + ciṇṇa, pp. of ācarati] practiced, performed, (habitually) indulged in M i.372 (kamma, cp. Miln 226 and the expln. of āciṇṇaka kamma as "chronic karma" at Cpd. 144); S iv.419; A v.74 sq.; J i.81; DA i.91 (for aviciṇṇa at D i.8), 275; Vism 269; DhA i.37 (˚samāciṇṇa thoroughly fulfilled); VvA 108; PvA 54; Sdhp 90.
-- kappa ordinance or rule of right conduct or customary practice (?) Vin i.79; ii.301; Dpvs iv.47; cp. v.18.


-- [pp. of ācināti] accumulated, collected, covered, fur- nished or endowed with J vi.250 (= nicita); Vv 411; DhsA 310. See also āciṇa.


-- [ā + cināti] to heap up, accumulate S iii.89 (v. l. ācinati); iv.73 (ppr. ācinato dukkhaŋ); DhsA 44. -- pp. ācita & āciṇa (ācina). -- Pass. ācīyati (q. v.).


-- (& āceyyati) [Pass. of ācināti, cp. cīyati] to be heaped up, to increase, to grow; ppr. āceyyamāna J v.6 (= ācīyanto vaḍḍhanto C.).


-- is the contracted form of ācariya; only found in the Jātakas, e. g. J iv.248; vi.563.


-- in ka˝canācela -- bhūsita "adorned with golden clothes" Pv ii.127 stands for cela˚.

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-- is the contracted form of ājāniya.


-- see ācamā.


-- (adj.) [ā + jāna from j˝ā] understandable, only in cpd. durājāna hard to understand S iv.127; Sn 762; J i.295, 300.


-- (nt.) [ā + jānana, cp. Sk. aj˝āna] learning, knowing, understanding; knowledge J i.181 (˚sabhāva of the character of knowing, fit to learn); PvA 225.


-- [ā + jānāti] to understand, to know, to learn D i.189; Sn 1064 (˚amāna = vijānamāna Nd2 120). As a˝˝āti at Vism 200. -- pp. a˝˝āta. Cp. also āṇāpeti.

Ājāniya (ājānīya)

ājāniya (ājānīya)
-- (adj. n.) [cp. BSk. ājāneya & Sk. ājāti birth, good birth. Instead of its correct derivation from ā + jan (to be born, i. e. well -- born) it is by Bdhgh. connected with ā + j˝ā (to learn, i. e. to be trained). See for these popular etym. e. g. J i.181: sārathissa cittarucitaŋ kāraṇaŋ ājānana -- sabhāvo āja˝˝o, and DhA iv.4: yaŋ assadamma -- sārathi kāraṇaŋ kāreti tassa khippaŋ jānana<-> [p097] samatthā ājāniyā. -- The contracted form of the word is āja˝˝a] of good race or breed; almost exclusively used to denote a thoroughbred horse (cp. assājāniya under assa3). (a) ājāniya (the more common & younger Pāli form): Sn 462, 528, 532; J i.178, 194; Dpvs iv.26; DhA i.402; iii.49; iv.4; VvA 78; PvA 216. -- (b) ājānīya: M i.445; A v.323; Dh 322 = Nd2 475. -- (c) ǡja˝˝a = (mostly in poetry): Sn 300 = 304; J i.181; Pv iv.154; purisāja˝˝a "a steed of man", i. e. a man of noble race) S iii.91 = Th 1, 1084 = Sn 544 = VvA 9; A v.325. -- anājāniya of inferior birth M i.367.
-- susu the young of a noble horse, a noble foal M i. 445 (˚űpamo dhamma -- pariyāyo).

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-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ājāniya] good breed PvA 214.


-- [= ajira with lengthened initial a] a courtyard Mhvs 35, 3.


-- [ā + jīva; Sk. ājīva] livelihood, mode of living, living, subsistence, D i.54; A iii.124 (parisuddha˚); Sn 407 (˚ŋ = parisodhayi = micchājīvaŋ hitvā sammājīvaŋ eva pavattayī SnA 382), 617; Pug 51; Vbh 107, 235; Miln 229 (bhinna˚); Vism 306 (id.); DhsA 390; Sdhp 342, 375, 392. Esp. freq. in the contrast pair sammā -- ājīva & micchā -- ā˚ right mode & wrong mode of gaining a living, e. g. at S ii.168 sq.; iii.239; v.9; A i.271; ii 53, 240, 270; iv.82; Vbh 105, 246. See also magga (ariyaṭṭhangika).
-- pārisuddhi purity or propriety of livelihood Miln 336; Vism 22 sq., 44; DhA iv.111. -- vipatti failure in method of gaining a living A i.270. -- sampadā perfection of (right) livelihood A i.271; DA i.235.


-- (& ˚ika) [ājīva + ka, orig. "one finding his living" (scil. in a peculiar way); cp. BSk. ājīvika Divy 393, 427] an ascetic, one of the numerous sects of non -- buddhist ascetics. On their austerities, practice & way of living see esp. DhA ii.55 sq. and on the whole question A. L. Basham, Hist. & Doctrines of the Ājīvikas, 1951. -- (a) ājīvaka: Vin i.291; ii.284; iv.74, 91; M i.31, 483: S i.217; A iii.276, 384; J i.81, 257, 390. -- (b) ājīvika: Vin i.8; Sn 381 (v. l. BB. ˚aka).
-- sāvaka a hearer or lay disciple of the ājīvaka ascetics Vin ii 130, 165; A i.217.


-- (nt.) (or ājīvikā f.?) [fr. ājīva] sustenance of life, livelihood, living Vbh 379 (˚bhaya) Miln 196 (id.); PvA 274, and in phrase ājīvikɔÔpakata being deprived of a livelihood, without a living M i.463 = S iii.93 (T. reads jīvikā pakatā) = It 89 (reads ājīvikā pakatā) = Miln 279.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ājīva] having one's livelihood, finding one's subsistence, living, leading a life of ( -- ˚) D iii.64; A v.190 (lūkha˚)

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-- [etym.? Cp. Sk. āṭi Turdus Ginginianus, see Aufrecht, Halāyudha p. 148] a kind of bird J vi.539 (= dabbimukha C.).


-- is to be read for aṭaviyo (q. v.) at J vi.55 [= Sk. āṭavika].


-- (f.) at Pug 18 & v. l. at Vbh 357 is to be read aṭṭhapanā (so T. at Vbh 357).


-- see ānejja.


-- see ānaṇya.


-- (f.) [ā + ˝atti (cp. āṇāpeti), Caus. of j˝ā] order, command, ordinance, injunction Vin i.62; KhA 29; PvA 260; Sdhp 59, 354.


-- (adj.) [āṇatti + ka] belonging to an ordinance or command, of the nature of an injunction KhA 29.


-- (f.) [Sk. āj˝ā, ā + j˝ā] order, command, authority Miln 253; DA i.289; KhA 179, 180, 194; PvA 217; Sdhp 347, 576. rājɔāṇā the king's command or authority J i.433; iii.351; PvA 242. āṇaŋ deti to give an order J i.398; ˚ŋ pavatteti to issue an order Miln 189, cp. āṇāpavatti J iii.504; iv.145.


-- (adj. n.) [fr. āṇāpeti] 1. (adj.) giving an order Vism 303. -- 2. (n.) one who gives or calls out orders, a town -- crier, an announcer of the orders (of an authority) Miln 147.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. āṇāpeti] ordering or being, ordered, command, order PvA 135.


-- [ā + ˝āpeti, Caus. of ā + jānāti fr. j˝ā, cp. Sk. āj˝āpayati] to give an order, to enjoin, command (with acc. of person) J iii.351; Miln 147; DhA ii.82; VvA 68 (dāsiyo), 69; PvA 4, 39, 81.


-- (Vedic āṇi to aṇu fine, thin, flexible, in formation an n -- enlargement of Idg. *olenā, cp. Ohg. lun, Ger. lŘnse, Ags. lynes = E. linch, further related to Lat. ulna elbow, Gr. w)le/nh, Ohg. elina, Ags. eln = E. el -- bow. See Walde, Lāt. Wtb. under ulna & lacertus]. -- 1. the pin of a wheel -- axle, a linch -- pin M i.119; S ii.266, 267; A ii.32; Sn 654; J vi.253, 432; SnA 243; KhA 45, 50. -- 2. a peg, pin, bolt, stop (at a door) M i.119; S. ii 266 (drum stick); J iv.30; vi.432, 460; Th 1, 744; Dh i.39. <-> 3. (fig.) (˚ -- ) peg -- like (or secured by a peg, of a door), small, little in ˚colaka a small (piece of) rag Vin ii.271, cp. i.205 (vaṇabandhana -- colaka); ˚dvāra Th 1, 355; C. khuddaka -- dvāra, quoted at Brethren 200, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "the towngate's sallyport" by Neumann as "Gest÷ck" (fastening, enclosure) āṇi -- gaṇṭhikɔāhato ayopatto at Vism 108; DA i.199 is apparently a sort of brush made of four or five small pieces of flexible wood.

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-- [etym. uncertain; Sk. ātanka] illness, sickness, disease M i.437; S iii.1; Sn 966 (˚phassa, cp. Nd1 486). Freq. in cpd. appātanka freedom from illness, health (cp. appābādha) D i.204; iii.166; A iii.65, 103; Miln 14. -- f. abstr. appātankatā M i.124.


-- (adj.) [fr. ātanka] sick, ill J v.84 (= gilāna C.).


-- [fr. ā + tan, pp. tata; lit. stretched, covered over] generic name for drums covered with leather on one side Dpvs xiv.14; VvA 37 (q. v. for enumn. of musical instruments), 96.


-- [ā + tatta1, pp. of ā -- tapati] heated, burnt. scorched, dry J v.69 (˚rūpa = sukkha -- sarīra C.).


-- [ā + tapa] -- 1. sun -- heat Sn 52; J i.336; Dhs 617; Dpvs i.57; VvA 54; PvA 58. -- 2. glow, heat (in general) Pv i.74; Sdhp 396. -- 3. (fig.) (cp. tapa2) ardour, zeal, exertion PvA 98 (viriyā -- tapa; perhaps better to be read ˚ātāpa q. v.). Cp. ātappa.
-- vāraṇa "warding off the sun -- heat", i. e. a parasol, sun -- shade Dāvs i.28; v.35.


-- (f.) [abstr. of ātapa] glowing or burning state, heat Sdhp 122.


-- [ā + tap] to burn J iii.447.


-- (nt.) [Sk. *ātāpya, fr. ātāpa] ardour, zeal, exertion D i.13; iii.30 sq., 104 sq., 238 sq.; M iii.210; S ii.132, 196 sq.; A i.153; iii.249; iv.460 sq.; v.17 sq.; Sn 1062 (= ussāha ussoḷhi thāma etc. Nd2 122); J iii.447; Nd1 378; Vbh 194 (= vāyāma); DA i.104.


-- [ā + tāpa fr. tap; cp. tāpeti] glow, heat; fig. ardour, keen endeavour, or perhaps better "torturing, [p098] mortification" Miln 313 (cittassa ātāpo paritāpo); PvA 98 (viriya˚). Cp. ātappa & ātāpana.

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-- (nt.) [ā + tāpana] tormenting, torture, mortification M i.78; A i.296 (˚paritāpana); ii.207 (id.); Pug 55 (id.); Vism 3 (id.).


-- (adj.) [fr. ātāpa, cp. BSk. ātāpin Av. Ś i.233; ii. 194 = Divy 37; 618] ardÚnt, zealous, strenuous, active D iii.58, 76 sq., 141 (+ sampajāna), 221, 276; M i.22, 56, 116, 207, 349; ii.11; iii.89, 128, 156; S 113, 117 sq., 140, 165; ii.21, 136 sq.; iii.73 sq.; iv.37, 48, 54, 218; v.165, 187, 213; A ii.13 sq.; iii 38, 100 sq.; iv. 29, 177 sq., 266 sq., 300, 457 sq.; v.343 sq.; Sn 926; Nd1 378; It 41, 42; Vbh 193 sq.; Miln 34, 366; Vism 3 (= viriyavā); DhA i.120; SnA 157, 503. -- Freq. in the formula of Arahantship "eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto": see arahant II. B. See also satipaṭṭhāna. <-> Opp. anātāpin S ii.195 sq.; A ii.13; It 27 (+ anottappin).


-- [ā + tāpeti] to burn, scorch; fig. to torment, in- flict pain, torture M i.341 (+ paritāpeti); S iv.337; Miln 314, 315.


-- (nt.) [fr. ati + theyya] great theft (?) A i.93; iv. 63 sq. (v. l. ati˚ which is perhaps to be prcferred).


-- [dialectical] father M i.449 (cp. Trenckner's note on p. 567: the text no doubt purports to make the woman speak a sort of patois).


-- [Vedic ātman, diaeretic form for the usual con- tracted attan; only found in poetry. Cp. also the shortened form tuman] self. nom. sg. ātumo Pv iv.52 (= sabhāvo PvA 259), ātumā Nd1 69 (ātumā vuccati attā), 296 (id.), & ātumāno Nd1 351; acc. ātumānaŋ Sn 782 (= attānaŋ SnA 521), 888, 918; loc. ātume Pv ii.1311 (= attani C.).


-- (adj.) [Sk. ātura, cp. BSk. ātura, e. g. Jtm 3170] ill, sick, diseased; miserable, affected S iii.1 (˚kāya); A i. 250; Sn 331; Vv 8314 (˚rūpa = abhitunna -- kāya VvA 328); J i.197 (˚anna "food of the miserable", i. e. last meal of one going to be killed; C. expls. as maraṇabhojana), 211 (˚citta); ii.420 (˚anna, as above); iii.201; v.90, 433; vi.248; Miln 139, 168; DhA i.31 (˚rūpa); PvA 160, 161; VvA 77; Sdhp 507. Used by Commentators as syn. of aṭṭo, e. g. at J iv.293; SnA 489. -- anātura healthy, well, in good condition S iii.1; Dh 198.


-- (nt.) [= athabbaṇa, q. v.] the Atharva Veda as a code of magic working formulas, witchcraft, sorcery Sn 927 (v. l. ath˚, see interpreted at Nd1 381; expld. as āthabbaṇika -- manta -- ppayoga at SnA 564).


-- (adj. n.) [fr. athabbana] one conversant with magic, wonder -- worker, medicine -- man Nd1 381; SnA 564.

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-- [Caus. of ādāti] to cause one to take, to accept, agree to M ii.104; S i.132.


-- [Sk. ādara, prob. ā + dara, cp. semantically Ger. ehrfurcht awe] consideration of, esteem, regard, respect, reverence, honour J v.493; SnA 290; DA i.30; DhsA 61; VvA 36, 61, 101, 321; PvA 121, 123, 135, 278; Sdhp 2, 21, 207, 560. -- anādara lack of reverence, disregard, disrespect; (adj.) disrespectful S i.96; Vin iv.218; Sn 247 (= ādara -- virahita SnA 290; DA i.284; VvA 219; PvA 3, 5, 54, 67, 257.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ādara] = ādara, in neg. an˚ want of consideration J iv.229; Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 (in expln. of dovacassatā).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. ādara] showing respect of honour; neg. an˚ disregard, disrespect Vin ii.220; A v.146, 148; Pug 20; Vbh 371; miln 266.


-- [ā + dava2?] is gloss at VvA 216 for maddava Vv 5123; meaning: excitement, adj. exciting. The passage in VvA is somewhat corrupt, & therefore unclear.


-- ╣ [ā + dahati1] to put down, put on, settle, fix Vism 289 (samaŋ ā.=samādahati). Cp. sam˚ and ādhiyati.


-- ▓ [ā + dahati2] to set fire to, to burn J vi.201, 203.


-- [ger. of ādāti from reduced base *da of dadāti 1b] taking up, taking to oneself Vin iv.120 (= anādiyitvā C.; cp. the usual form ādāya).

Ādāti (Ādadāti)

ādāti (ādadāti)
-- [ā + dadāti of dadāti base 1 dā] to take up, accept, appropriate, grasp, seize; grd. ādātabba Vin i.50; inf. ādātuŋ D iii.133 (adinnaŋ theyyasankhātaŋ ā.). <-> ger. ādā & ādāya (see sep.); grd. ādeyya, Caus. ādapeti (q. v.). -- See also ādiyati & ādeti.


-- (nt.) [ād + āna, or directly from ā + , base 1 of dadāti] taking up, getting, grasping, seizing; fig. appropriating, clinging to the world, seizing on (worldly objects). (1) (lit.) taking (food), pasturing M iii.133; J v.371 (& ˚esana). -- (2) getting, acquiring, taking, seizing S ii.94; A iv.400 (daṇḍ˚); PvA 27 (phal˚); esp. freq. in adinn˚ seizing what is not given, i. e. theft: see under adinna. -- (3) (fig.) attachment, clinging A v.233, 253 (˚paṭinissagga); Dh 89 (id.; cp. DhA ii.163); Sn 1103 (˚taṇhā), 1104 (˚satta); Nd1 98 (˚gantha); Nd2 123, 124. -- an˚ free from attachment S i.236 (sādānesu anādāno "not laying hold mong them that grip" trsl.); A ii.10; It 109; J iv.354; Miln 342; DhA iv.70 (= khandhādisu niggahaṇo). Cp. upa˚, pari˚.


-- [ger. of ādāti, either from base 1 of dadāti (dā) or base 2 (dāy). See also ādiya] having received or taken, taking up, seizing on, receiving; freq. used in the sense of a prep. "with" (c. acc.) Sn 120, 247, 452; J v.13; Vbh 245; DhA ii.74; SnA 139; PvA 10, 13, 38, 61 etc. -- At Vin i.70 the form ādāya is used as a noun f. ādāyā in meaning of "a casually taken up belief" (tassa ādāyassa vaṇṇe bhaṇati). Cp. upa˚, pari˚.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ā + dadāti base 2, cp. ādāya] taking up, grasping, receiving; one who takes, seīzes or appropriates D i.4 (dinn˚); A iii.80; v.137 (sār˚); DA i.72.


-- [Sk. ādarśa, ā + dṛś, P. dass, of dassati1 2] a mir- ror Vin ii.107; D i.7, 11 (˚pa˝ha mirror -- questioning, cp. DA i.97: "ādāse devataŋ otaretvā pa˝ha -- pucchanaŋ"), 80; ii.93 (dhamnaɔ -- ādāsaŋ nāma dhamma -- pariyāyaŋ desessāmi); S v.357 (id.); A v.92, 97 sq., 103; J i.504; Dhs 617 (˚maṇḍala); Vism 591 (in simile); KhA 50 (˚daṇḍa) 237; DhA i.226.
-- tala the surface of the mirror, in similes at Vism 450, 456, 489.


-- = ādāsa Th 2, 411.


-- [Sk. ādi, etym. uncertain] -- 1. (m.) starting -- point, be- ginning Sn 358 (acc. ādiŋ = kāraṇaŋ SnA 351); Dh 375 (nom. ādi); Miln 10 (ādimhi); J vi.567 (abl. ādito from the beginning). For use as nt. see below 2 b. -- 2. (adj. & adv.) (a) (˚ -- ) beginning, initially, first, principal, chief: see cpds. -- (b) (˚ -- ) beginning with, being the first (of a series which either is supposed to be familiar in its constituents to the reader or hearer or is immediately intelligible from the context), i. e. and so on, so forth (cp. adhika); e. g. rukkha -- gumb -- ādayo (acc. pl.) trees, jungle etc. J i.150; amba -- panasɔ ādīhi rukkehi sampanno (and similar kinds of fruit) J i.278; amba -- labujɔādīnaŋ phalānaŋ anto J ii.159; asi -- satti -- dhami -- ādīni āvudhāni (weapous, such as sword, knife, bow & the like) J i.150; kasi -- gorakkhɔ ādīni karonte manusse J ii.128; . . . ti ādinā nayena in this and similar ways J i.81; PvA 30. Absolute as nt. pl. ādinī with ti (evaŋ) (ādīni), closing a quotation, meaning "this and such like", e. g. at J ii.128, [p099] 416 (ti ādīni viravitvā). -- In phrase ādiŋ katvā meaning "putting (him, her, it) first", i. e. heginning with, from . . . on, from . . . down (c. acc.) e. g. DhA i.393 (rājānaŋ ādiŋ K. from the king down); PvA 20 (vihāraŋ ādikatvā), 21 (pa˝cavaggiye ādiŋ K.).
-- kammika [cp. BSk. ādikarmaka Divy 544] a beginner Vin iii.146; iv.100; Miln 59; Vism 241; DhsA 187. -- kalyāṇa in phrase ādikalyāṇa majjhe -- kalyāṇa pariyosāna -- kalyāṇa of the Dhamma, "beautiful in the beginning, the middle & the end" see references under dhamma C. 3 and cp. DA i.175 (= ādimhi kalyāṇa etc.); SnA 444; abstr. ˚kalyāṇatā Vism 4. -- pubbangama original Dpvs iv.26. -- brahmacariyaka belonging to the principles or fundaments of moral life D i.189; iii.284; M i.431; ii.125, 211; iii. 192; S ii.75, 223; iv.91; v.417, 438; f. ˚ikā Vin i.64, 68; A i.231 sq. -- majjhapariyosāna beginning, middle & end Miln 10; cp. above ādikalyāṇa.

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-- (adj.) [ādi + ka] from the beginning, initial (see adhika); instr. ādikena in the beginning, at once, at the same time M i.395, 479; ii.213; S ii.224; J vi.567. Cp. ādiya3.


-- [Vedic āditya] the sun S i.15, 47; ii.284; iii.156; v.44, 101; A i.242; v.22, 263, 266 sq.; It 85; Sn 550, 569, 1097 ("ādicco vuccati suriyo" Nd2 125); DhA iv. 143; Sdhp 14, 17, 40.
-- upaṭṭhānā sun -- worship D i.11 (= jīvikatthāya ādiccaparicariyā DA i.97); J ii.72 (˚jātaka; ādiccaŋ upatiṭṭhati p. 73 = suriyaŋ namassamāno tiṭṭhati C.). -- patha the path of the sun, i. e. the sky, the heavens Dh 175 (= ākāsa DhA iii.177). -- bandhu "kinsman of the sun", Ep. of the Buddha Vin ii.296; S i.186, 192; A ii.54; Sn 54, 915, 1128; Nd1 341; Nd2 125b; Vv 425, 7810; VvA 116.


-- [Sk. ādīrṇa, pp. of ā + dṛ, see ādiyati2] broken, split open S iv.193 (= sipātikā with burst pod); cp. M i.306.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. ādiṇṇa] state of being broken or split Ps i.49.


-- [ā + ditta1, Sk. ādīpta, pp. of ā + dīp] set on fire, blazing, burning Vin i.34; Kv 209 (sabbaŋ ādittaŋ); S iii.71; iv.19, 108; A iv.320 (˚cela); Sn 591; J iv.391; Pv i.85 (= paditta jalita PvA 41); Kvu 209; DA i.264; PvA 149; Sdhp 599.
-- pariyāya the discourse or sermon on the fire (lit. being in fllames) S iv.168 sq.; Vin i.34; DhA i.88.


-- only at D i.115 (T. reading ādīna, but v. l. S id. ādina, B p. abhinna) in phrase ādina -- khattiya -- kula primordial. See note in Dial. i.148.


-- ╣ (adj.) grd. of admi, ad, Sk. ādya] edible, eatable A iii.45 (bhojanāni).


-- ▓ in ˚mukha is uncertain reading at A iii.164 sq. (vv. ll. ādeyya˚ & ādheyya), meaning perhaps "graspmouth", i. e. gossip; thus equal to ger. of ādiyati1. Perhaps to be taken to ādiyati2. The same phrase occurs at Pug 65 (T. ādheyya˚, C. has v. l. ādheyya˚) where Pug A 248 explns. "ādito dheyyamukho, paṭhama -- vacanasmiŋ yeva ṭhapita -- mukho ti attho" (sticking to one's word?). See ādheyya.


-- │ = ādika, instr. ādiyena in the beginning J vi.567 (= ādikena C.).


-- 4 ger. of ādiyati.


-- ╣ [ā + diyati, med. pass. base of dadāti4, viz. di˚ & dī˚; see also ādāti & ādeti] to take up; take to oneself, seize on, grasp, appropriate, fig. take notice of, take to heart, heed. -- pres. ādiyati A iij.46; Sn 119, 156, 633, 785, Nd1 67; Nd2 123, 124; J iii.296: v.367. -- pot. ādiye Sn 400; imper. ādiya M iii.133 (so read for ādissa?). -- aor. ādiyi D iii.65; A iii.209, ādiyāsi Pv iv.148 (sayaŋ daṇḍaŋ ā. = acchinditvā gaṇhasi PvA 241), & ādapayi (Caus. formation fr. ādāti?) to take heed S i.132 (v. l. ādiyi, trsl. "put this into thy mind"). -- ger. ādiyitvā Vin iv.120 (= ādā); J ii.224 (C. for ādiya T.); iii.104; iv.352 (an˚ not heeding; v. l. anāditvā, cp. anādiyanto not attending J iii.196); DhA iii.32 (id.); PvA 13 (T. anādayitva not heeding), 212 (vacanaŋ anādiyitvā not paying attention to his word), ādiya S iii.26 (v. l. an˚ for anādīya); J ii.223 (= ādiyitvā C.); see also ādiya2, & ādīya S iii.26 (an˚). See also upādiyati & pariyādiyati.


-- ▓ [ā + diyati, Sk. ādīryate, Pass. of dṛ to split: see etym. under darī] to split, go asunder, break Ps i.49. <-> pp. ādiṇṇa. See also avadīyati. Cp. also upādiṇṇa.


-- (f.) [abstr. formation ādiyana (fr. ādiya ger. of ādiyati) + ta] in an˚ the fact of not taking up or heeding SnA 516.


-- [ā + disati] (a) to announce, tell, point out, refer to. -- (b) to dedicate (a gift, dakkhiṇaŋ or dānaŋ). <-> pres. ind. ādisati D i.213 = A i.170 (tell or read one's character); Sn 1112 (atītaŋ); Nd1 382 (nakkhattaŋ set the horoscope); Miln 294 (dānaŋ); pot. ādiseyya Th 2, 307 (dakkhiṇaŋ); Pv iv.130 (id. = uddiseyya PvA 228), & ādise Vin i.229 = D ii.88 (dakkhiṇaŋ); imper. ādisa PvA 49. -- fut. ādissati Th 2, 308 (dakkhiṇaŋ) PvA 88 (id.). -- aor. ādisi Pv ii.28; PvA 46 (dakkhiṇaŋ); pl. ādisiŋsu ibid. 53 (id.) & ādisuŋ Pv i.106 (id.). -- ger. ādissa Vin iii.127; Sn 1018; Pv ii.16 (dānaŋ), & ādisitvāna Th 2, 311. -- grd. ādissa (adj.) to be told or shown M i.12.


-- (adv.) [orig. abl. of ādi, formed with ˚saḥ] from the beginning, i. e. thoroughly, absolutely D i.180; M iii.208.


-- ╣ at M iii.133 is an imper. pres. meaning "take", & should probably better be read ādiya (in corresponsion with ādāna). It is not grd. of ādisati, which its form might suggest.


-- ▓ (adj.) blameworthy M i.12; MA =garāyha.


- at D i.115 & S v.74 (vv. ll. ādina, & abhinna) see ādina. See diṇṇa.


-- [ā + dīna + va (nt.), a substantivised adj., orig. meaning "full of wretchedness", cp. BSk. ādīnava M Vastu iii.297 (misery); Divy 329] disadvantage, danger (in or through = loc.) D i.38 (vedanānaŋ assāda˝ ca ādīnava˝ ca etc.), 213 (iddhi -- pāṭihāriye M i.318; S i.9 (ettha bhīyo); ii.170 sq. (dhātūnaŋ); iii.27, 62, 102 (rūpassa etc.); iv.7, 168; A i.57 (akaraṇīye kayiramāne) 258 (ko loke assādo); iii.250 sq.; 267 sq. (duccarite), 270 (puggala -- ppasāde); iv.439 sq.; v.81; J i.146; iv.2; It 9 = A ii.10 = Nd2 172a; Sn 36, 50 (cp. Nd2 127), 69, 424, 732; Th 2, 17 (kāye ā. = dosa ThA 23), 485 (kāmesu ā. = dosa ThA 287); Pv iii.107 (= dosa PvA 214); iv.67 (= dosa PvA 263); Ps i.192 sq.; ii.9, 10; PvA 12, 208. -- There are several sets of sources of evil or danger, viz. five dussīlassa sīla -- vipattiyā ā. at D ii.85 = iii.235 = A iii.252; five akkhantiyā ā. at Vbh 378; six of six each at D iii.182 sq. -- In phrase kāmānaŋ ā. okāro sankileso D i.110, 148; M i.115; Nett 42; DhA 16.
-- Ônupassin realising the danger or evil of S ii.85 (upā dāniyesu dhammesu) abstr. ˚Ônupassanā Vism 647 sq., 695. -- dassāvin same as ˚Ônupassin D i.245 (an˚); A v.178 (id.); D iii.46; S ii.194, 269; A iii.146; v.181 sq.; Nd2 141. -- pariyesanā search for danger in ( -- ˚) S ii.171; iii.29; iv.8 sq. -- sa˝˝ā consciousness of danger D i.7); iii.253, 283; A iii.79.


ādīpanīya (adj.) [grd. of ā + dīpeti] to be explained Miln 270.


-- [pp. of ādīpeti, ā + caus. of dīp, cp. dīpeti] ablaze, in flames S i.31 (loka; v. l. ādittaka) 108; J v.366; DhA iii.32 (v. l. āditta).


-- (indecl.) [see also adu] emphatic (adversative) part. (1) of affirmation & emphasis: but, indeed, rather J iii. [p100] 499 = vi.443; v.180; vi.552. -- (2) as 2nd component of a disjunctive question, mostly in corresponsion udāhu . . . ādu (= kiŋ . . . udāhu SnA 350), viz. is it so . . . or" Th 1, 1274 = Sn 354; Pv iv.317 = DhA i.31; J v.384; vi.382; without udāhu at J v.460 (adu). The close connection with udāhu suggests an expln. of ādu as a somehow distorted abbreviation of udāhu.

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-- [a + deti, base2 of dadāti (day˚ & de˚), cp. also ādiyati] to take, receive, get Sn 121 (= gaṇhāti SnA 179), 954 (= upādiyati gaṇhāti Nd1 444); cp. i.43; J iii. 103, 296; v.366 (= gaṇhāti C.; cp. ādiyati on p. 367); Miln 336.


-- (adj.) [grd. of ādāti (q. v.)] to be taken up, accept- able, pleasant, welcome, only in phrase ˚vacana welcome or acceptable speech, glad words Vin ii.158; J vi.243; Miln 110; ThA 42.

Ādeva, Ādevanā

ādeva, ādevanā
-- [ā + div. devati] lamenting, deploring, crying etc. in ster. phrase (explaining parideva or pariddava) ādevo paridevo ādevanā pari˚ ādevitattaŋ pari˚ Nd1 370 = Nd2 416 = Ps i.38.


-- [fr. ādisati, cp. Sk. ādeśa] information, pointing out; as tt. g. characteristic, determination, substitute, e. g. kutonidānā is at SnA 303 said to equal kiŋ -- nidānā, the to of kuto (abl.) equalling or being substituted for the acc. case: paccatta -- vacanassa to -- ādeso veditabbo.


-- (f.) [ā + desanā] pointing out, guessing, prophesy; only in phrase ˚pāṭihāriya trick or marvellous ability of mind -- reading or guessing other peoples character Vin ii. 200; D i.212, 213; iii.220; A i.170, 292; v.327; Ps ii. 227. For pāṭihāriya is subsiituted ˚vidhā (lit. variety of, i. e. act or performance etc.) at D iii.103.


-- (nt.) [ā + dhāna] -- 1. putting up, putting down, placing, laying A iv.41 (aggissa ādhānaŋ, v. l. of 6 MSS ādānaŋ). -- 2. receptacle M i.414 (udak˚), cp. ādheyya. <-> 3. enclosure, hedge Miln 220 (kaṇṭak˚ thorny brake, see under kaṇṭaka).
-- gāhin holding one's own place, i. e. obstinate (?), reading uncertain & interchanging with ādāna, only in one ster. phrase, viz. sandiṭṭhi -- parāmāsin ādhāna -- gāhin duppaṭinissaggin Vin ii.89; M i.43, 96; A iii.335 (v. l. ādāna˚, C. expls by daḷhagāhin); D iii.247 (adhāna˚).


-- [ā + dhāra] -- 1. a container, receptacle, basin, lit. holder A iii.27; J vi.257. -- 2. "holding up", i. e. support, basis, prop. esp. a (round) stool or stand for the alms -- bowl (patta) Vin ii.113 (an˚ patto); M iii.95; S v.21; J v.202. -- fig. S v.20 (an˚ without a support, cittaŋ); Vism 8, 444. -- 3. (tt. g.) name for the loc. case ("resting on") Sn 211.


-- (m. & nt.) [ā + dhāraka, or simply ādhāra + ka] -- 1. a stool or stand (as ādhāra2) (always m., except at J i.33 where ˚āni pl. nt.) J i.33; DhA iii.290 = VvA 220; DhA iii.120 = 186 (one of the four priceless things of a Tathāgata, viz.: setacchattaŋ, nisīdanapallanko, ādhārako pādapīṭhaŋ). -- 2. a reading desk, pulpit J iii.235; iv.299.


-- (f.) [ā + dhāraṇatā] concentration, attention, mindfulness SnA 290 (+ daḷhīkaraṇa), 398 (id.).


-- [pp. of ā + dhāreti, cp. dhāreti1] supported, held up Miln 68.


-- [ā + dhavati1] to run towards a goal, to run after M i.265 (where id. p. S ii.26 has upadh˚); DA i. 39. Freq. in combn. ādhāvati paridhāvati to run about, e. g. J i.127, 134, 158; ii.68.


-- (nt.) [fr. ādhāvati] onrush, violent motion Miln 135.


-- (& ādhipateyya) (nt.) [fr. adhi + pati + ya "being over -- lord"; see also adhipateyya] supreme rule, lordship, sovereignty, power S v.342 (issariy˚); A i.62 (id.), 147, 212; ii.205 (id.); iii.33, 76; iv.252 sg.; Pv ii.959 (one of the ṭhānas, cp. ṭhāna ii.2b; see also D iii. 146, where spelt ādhipateyya; expld. by issariya at PvA 137); J i.57; Dāvs v.17; VvA 126 (gehe ā = issariya). The three (att˚, lok˚, dhamm˚) at Vism 14.


-- [ā + dhuta1] shaken, moved (by the wind, i. e. fanned Vv 394 (v. l. adhuta which is perhaps to be preferred, i. e. not shaken, cp. vātadhutaŋ Dāvs v.49; VvA 178 expls. by saṇikaŋ vidhūpayamāna, i. e. gently fanned).


-- (adj.) [grd. of ā + dadhāti cp. ādhāna2] to be deposited (in one's head & heart Pug A), to be heeded, to be appropriated [in latter meaning easily mixed with ādheyya, cp. vv. ll. under ādiya2]; nt. depository (= ādhātabbatā ṭhapetabbatā Pug A 217) Pug 34 (˚ŋ gacchati is deposited); Miln 359 (sabbe tassɔ ādheyya2 honti they all become deposited in him, i. e. his deposits or his property).
-- mukha see ādiya2.


-- [Sk. ānaka, cp. Morris J.P.T.S. 1893, 10] a kind of kettledrum, beaten only at one end S ii.266; J ii. 344; Dpvs xvi.14.


-- see ākāsa˚ and vi˝˝āṇa˚.


-- see ānejja.


-- (nt.) [Sk. ānṛṇya, so also BSk. e. g. Jtm 3118; from a + ṛṇa, P. iṇa but also aṇa in composition, thus an -- aṇa as base of ānaṇya] freedom from debt D i.73; A iii.354 (Ep. of Nibbāna, cp. anaṇa); Nd1 160; Vism 44; DA i.3.


-- [ā + nadati] to trumpet (of elephants) J iv.233.


-- (nt.) [Vedic āna, later Sk. ānana from an to breathe] the mouth; adj. ( -- ˚) having a mouth Sdhp 103; Pgdp 63 (vikaṭ˚).


-- (& ˚ya) [fr. an + antara + ika] without an interval, immediately following, successive Vin i.321; ii. 212; Pug 13; Dhs 1291.
-- kamma "conduct that finds retribution without delay" (Kvu trsl. 275 n. 2) Vin ii.193; J i.45; Kvu 480; Miln 25 (cp. Dhs trsl. 267); Vism 177 (as prohibiting practice of kammaṭṭhāna).


-- [Vedic ānanda, fr. ā + nand, cp. BSk. ānandī joy Divy 37] joy, pleasure, bliss, delight D i.3; Sn 679, 687; J i.207 (˚maccha Leviathan); vi.589 (˚bheri festive drum); DA i 53 (= pītiyā etaŋ adhivacanaŋ).


-- [ā + nandati] to be pleased or delighted J vi. 589 (aor. ānandi in T. reading ānandi vittā, expld. by C. as nandittha was pleased; we should however read ānandi -- cittā with gladdened heart). See also ānandiya.


-- (adj.) [fr. ā + nand] joyful, friendly Th 1, 555; J iv.226.


-- (adj. -- .) [grd. of ānandati] enjoyable, nt. joy, feast J vi.589 (˚ŋ acarati to celebrate the feast = ānandachaṇa C.).


-- (f.) [ā + nandī, cp. ānanda] joy, happiness in cpd. ānandi -- citta J vi.589 (so read probably for ānandi vitta: see ānandati).


-- (adj.) [ā + naya] to be brought, in suvānaya easy to bring S i.124 = J i.80.


-- see āneti.


-- (nt.) [āna + apāna, cpds. of an to breathe] in haled & exhaled breath, inspiration & respiration S v.132, [p101] 311 sq.; J i.58; Ps i.162 (˚kathā); usually in cpd. ˚sati concentration by in -- breathing & out -- breathing (cp. Man. of Mystic 70) M i.425 (cp. D ii.291); iii.82; Vin iii.70; A i.30; It 80; Ps i.166, 172, 185 (˚samādhi); Nd2 466 B (id.); Miln 332; Vism 111, 197, 266 sq.; SnA 165. See detail under sati.

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-- see āneti.


-- [ā + nāmeti, Caus. of namati, which is usually spelt nameti] to make bend, to bend, to bring toward or under J v.154 (doubtful reading fut ānāmayissasi, v. l. ānayissati, C. ānessasi = lead to).


-- [ā + ni + saŋsa, BSk. distorted to anuśaŋsa] praise i. e. that which is commendable, profit, merit, advantage, good result, blessing in or from (c. loc.). <-> There are five ānisaŋsā sīlavato sīla -- sampadāya or blessings which accrue to the virtuous enumd. at D ii.86, viz. bhogakkhandha great wealth, kittisadda good report, visārada self -- confidence, asammūlho kālaŋ karoti an untroubled death, saggaŋ lokaŋ uppajjati a happy state after death. -- D i.110, 143; iii.132 (four), 236 (five); M i.204; S i.46, 52; iii.8, 93 (mahā˚); v.69 (seven), 73, 129, 133, 237 (seven), 267, 276; A i.58 (karaṇīye kariyamāne); ii.26, 185, 239, 243 (sikkhā˚); iii.41 (dāne), 248 (dhammasavane), 250 (yāguyā), 251 (upaṭṭhita -- satissa), 253 sq. (sīlavato sīlasampadāya etc., as above), 267 (sucarite), 441; iv.150 (mettāya ceto -- vimuttiyā), 361 (dhammasavane), 439 sq. (nekkhamme avitakke nippītike), 442, 443 sq. (ākāsɔāna˝cāyatane); v.i, 106 (mahā˚), 311; It 28, 29, 40 (sikkhā˚); Sn 256 (phala˚), 784, 952; J i.9, 94; v.491 (v. l. anu˚); Nd1 73, 104, 441; Kvu 400; Miln 198; VvA 6, 113; PvA 9 (dāna˚) 12, 64 (= phala), 208, 221 (= guṇa); Sdhp 263. -- Eleven ānisaŋsas of mettā (cp. Ps ii.130) are given in detail at Vism 311<-> 314; on another eight see pp. 644 sq.


-- (nt.) [a + sad] "sit down", bottom, behind M i. 80 = 245; J iii.435 (gloss asata) Vism 251 = KhA 45 (˚ttaca), 252 (˚maŋsa).


-- (nt.) [see also anuttariya which as -- ˚ probably represents ānutt˚] incomparableness, excellency, supreme ideal D iii.102 sq.; A v.37.


-- [pp. of ānetī] fetched, brought (here), brought back adduced J i.291; iii.127; iv.1.


-- metri causa for anupuṭṭha (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. anupubba] rule, regularity, order Th 1, 727 (cp. M Vastu ii.224 ānupubbā).


-- (f.) (or ˚ta nt.?) [fr. last] succession; only in tt. g. padÔnu -- pubbatā word sequence, in expln. of iti Nd1 140; Nd2 137 (v. l. ˚ka).


-- [for anupubbi˚ representing its isolated composition form, cp. ānubhāva & see also anupubbi˚] regulated exposition, graduated sermon D i.110; ii.41 sq.; M i.379; J i.8; Miln 228; DA i.277, 308; DhA iv.199.


-- [the dissociated composition form of anubhāva, q. v. for details. Only in later language] greatness, magnificence, majesty, splendour J i.69 (mahanto); ii.102 (of a jewel) v.491; DhA ii.58.


ānejja and Āna˝ja
-- [abstr. fr. an + *a˝ja or *ejja = *ijja. The Sanskritised equivalent would be *i˝jya or *i˝gya of ing to stir, move, with a peculiar substitution of *ang in Pāli, referring it to a base with ṛ (probably Sk. ṛj, ṛ˝jati) in analogy to a form like Sk. ṛṇa = Pāli aṇa & iṇa, both a & i representing Sk. ṛ. The form a˝ja would thus correspond to a Sk. *a˝jya (*a˝gya). The third P. form ān -- e˝ja is a direct (later, and probably re -- instituted) formation from Sk. i˝jya, which in an interesting way became in BSk. re -- sanskritised to ā˝ijya (which on the other hand may represent ā˝ejja & thus give the latter the feature of a later, but more specifically Pāli form). The editions of P. Texts show a great variance of spelling, based on MSS. vacillation, in part also due to confusion of derivation] immovability, imperturbability, impassibility. The word is n. but occurs as adj. at Vin iii. 109 (āna˝ja samādhi, with which cp. BSk. ānijyā śāntiḥ at Av. Ś i.199. -- The term usually occurs in cpd. ānejja -- ppatta (adj.) immovable lit. having attained impassibility, expld. by Bdhgh. at Vin iii.267 (on Pār. i.1, 6) as acala, niccala, i. e. motionless. This cpd. is indicated below by (p.) after the reference. -- The various spellings of the word are as follows: -- 1. ānejja D i.76 (v. l. āna˝ja -- p.) A ii.184 (p.); iii.93 (p.), 100 (p.), 377 sq. (p.); Nd2 471 (v. l. aneja, āna˝ja) = Vbh 137 (āne˝ja); Nd2 569a (v. l. āna˝ja), 601 (v. l. anejja & ane˝ja); Pug 60 (p.); DA i.219 (v. l. BB āne˝ja). -- 2. āna˝ja Vin iii.4 (p.) (v. l. āna˝ca˚, ana˝ja˚, āna˝ja˚; Bdhgh. ānejja˚ p. 267), 109; Ud 27 (samādhi, adj. v. l. āna˝ca); DhA iv.46. See also below cpd. ˚kāraṇa. -- A peculiarity of Trenckner a spelling is āṇa˝ja at M ii.229 (v. l. aṇa˝ja, ane˝ja, āne˝ja), 253, 254. -- 3. āne˝ja S ii.82. (v. l. āṇa˝je, or is it āṇe˝ja?); D iii.217 (˚Ôbhisankhāra of imperturbable character, remaining static, cp. Kvu trsl. 358); Nd1 90 (id.), 206, 442; Ps ii.206; Vbh 135, 340; Vism 377 (p.), 386 (sixteen˚ fold), 571; Nett 87, 99. <-> See also i˝jati.
-- kāraṇa trick of immovability, i. e. pretending to be dead (done by an elephant, but see differently Morris J P T S. 1886, 154) J i.415; ii.325 (v. l. āṇa˝ja, āne˝ca, āna˝ca); iv.308; v.273, 310.


-- (f.) [fr. āne˝ja] steadfastness Vism 330, 386.


-- [ā + neti] to bring, to bring towards, to fetch, pro- cure, convey, bring back Sn 110; PvA 54, 92. pot. 1st pl. ānema (or imper. 2nd pl ānetha M i.371. fut. ānayissati S i.124; Pv ii.65; J iii.173; v.154 (v. l.), & ānessati J v.154. inf. ānayituŋ Pv ii 610, ger. ānetvā PvA 42, 74. aor. ānesi PvA 3, & ānayi Pv i.77 (sapatiŋ). -- pp. ānīta (q. v.). -- Med. pass. ānīyati & āniyyati D ii.245 (āniyyataŋ imper. shall be brought); M i. 371 (ppr. ānīyamāna). -- Caus. II. ānāpeti to cause to be fetched J iii.391; v.225.

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-- & āpo (nt.) [Vedic ap & āp, f. sg. apā, pl. āpaḥ, later Sk. also āpaḥ nt. -- Idg. *ap & *ab, primarily to Lith. ¨pÚ water, Old Prussian ape river, Gr. *)lpi/a N. of the Peloponnesus; further (as *ab) to Lat. amnis river, Sk. abda cloud, & perhaps ambu water] water; philosophically t. t. for cohesion, representative of one of the 4 great elements (cp. mahābhūta), viz. paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo: see Cpd. 268 & Dhs trsl. 201, also below ˚dhātu. <-> D ii.259; M i.327; S ii.103; iii.54, 207; A iv.312, 375; Sn 307, 391 (˚ŋ), 392 (loc. āpe), 437 (id.); J iv.8 (paṭhavi -- āpa -- teja˚); Dhs 652; Miln 363 (gen. āpassa, with paṭhavī etc.); Sdhp 100.
-- kasiṇa the water -- device, i. e. meditation by (the element of) water (cp. Mystic 75 n.) D iii.268; J i.313; Dhs 203; Vism 170; DhA i 312; iii.214. -- dhātu the fluid element, the essential element in water, i. e element of cohesion (see Cpd. 155 n. 2; Mystic 9 n. 2; Dhs trsl. 201, 242) D iii.228, 247; M i.187, 422: Dhs 652; Nett 74. See also dhātu. -- rasa the taste of water A i.32; SnA 6. -- sama resembling water M i.423.


-- (f.) [= āpagā] river J v.452; vi.518.


-- (f.) [āpa + ga of gam] a river Th 1, 309; Sn 319; J v.454; Dāvs i.32; VvA 41.


-- [Sk. āpadyate, ā + pad] to get into, to meet with (acc.); to undergo; to make, produce, exhibit Vin ii.126 (saŋvaraŋ); D i.222 (pariyeṭṭhiŋ); It 113 (vuddhiŋ); J i.73; Pug 20, 33 (diṭṭhɔÔnugatiŋ); PvA 29 (ppr. āpajjanto); DhA ii.71 -- pot. āpajjeyya D i.119 (musāvādaŋ). -- aor. āpajji J v.349; PvA 124 (sankocaŋ) & [p102] āpādi S i.37; A ii.34; It 85; J ii.293; 3rd pl. āpādu D ii.273. -- ger. āpajjitva PvA 22 (saŋvegaŋ), 151. <-> pp. āpanna (q. v.). -- Caus. āpādeti (q. v.). -- Note. The reading āpajja in āpajja naŋ It 86 is uncertain (vv. ll. āsajja & ālajja). The id. p. at Vin ii.203 (CV. vii.4, 8) has āsajjanaŋ, for which Bdhgh, on p. 325 has āpajjanaŋ. Cp. pariyāpajjati.

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-- [Sk. āpaṇa, ā + paṇ] a bazaar, shop Vin i.140; J i.55; v.445; Pv ii.322; Miln 2, 341; SnA 440; DhA i. 317; ii.89; VvA 157; PvA 88, 333 (phal˚ fruit shop), 215.


-- [fr. āpaṇa] a shopkeeper, tradesman J i.124; Miln 344; VvA 157; DhA ii.89.


-- at J vi.17 is C. reading for apatacchika in khārÔpat˚ (q. v.).


-- [ā + patati] to fall on to, to rush on to J v.349 (= upadhāvati C.); vi.451 (= āgacchati C.); Miln 371.


-- (f.) [Sk. āpatti, fr. ā + pad, cp. apajjati & BSk. āpatti, e. g, Divy 330] an ecclesiastical offence (cp. Kvu trsl. 362 n. 1), Vin i.103 (˚khandha), 164 (˚ŋ paṭikaroti), 322 (˚ŋ passati), 354 (avasesā & anavasesā); ii.2 sq. (˚ŋ ropeti), 59, 60 (˚pariyanta), 88 (˚adhikaraṇa), 259 (˚ŋ paṭikaroti); iv.344; D iii.212 (˚kusalatā); A i.84 (id.), 87; ii.240 (˚bhaya); Dhs 1330 sq. (cp. Dhs trsl. 346). <-> anāpatti Vin iii.35.
˚vuṭṭhānatā forgiveness of an offence Vin ii.250 (put before anāpatti).


-- (adj.) [āpatti + ka, cp. BSk. āpattika Divy 303] guilty of an offence M i.443; Vin iv.224. an˚ Vin i.127.


-- in micchāpatha, dvedhāpatha as classified in Vbh Ind. p. 441 should be grouped under patha as micchā˚, dvedhā˚.


-- in ˚jjhāyin Nd2 3422 is read āpādaka˚ at Nd1 226, and āpātaka˚ at Vism 26.


-- (f.) [Sk. āpad, fr. ā + pad, cp. āpajjati & BSk. āpad, e. g. in āpadgata Jtm 3133] accident, misfortune, distress, D iii.190; A ii.68 (loc. pl. āpadāsu), 187; iii. 45; iv.31; Th 1, 371; J iv.163 (āpadatthā, a difficult form; vv. ll. T. aparattā, āpadatvā, C. aparatthā; expld. by āpadāya); v.340 (loc. āpade), 368; PvA 130 (quot.); Sdhp 312, 554. Note. For the contracted form in loc. pl. āpāsu (= *āpatsu) see *āpā.


-- [pp. of āpajjati] -- 1. entered upon, fallen into, possessed of, having done Vin i.164 (āpattiŋ ā.); iii.90; D i.4 (dayāpanna merciful); Nd2 32 (taṇhāya). -- 2. unfortunate, miserable J i.19 (v.124). Cp. pari˚.


-- (& *āvā) (f.) [for āpadā, q. v.] misery, misfortune J ii.317 (loc. pl. āpāsu, v. l. avāsu, C. āpadāsu); iii.12 (BB āvāsu); v.82 (avāgata gone into misery, v. l. apagata, C. apagata parihīna), 445 (loc. āvāsu, v. l. avāsu, C. āpadāsu), 448 (āvāsu kiccesu; v. l. apassu, read āpāsu). Note. Since *āpā only occurs in loc. pl., the form āpāsu is to be regarded as a direct contraction of Sk. āpatsu.


-- [ā + pāṇa] life, lit. breathing, only in cpd. ˚koṭi the end of life Miln 397; Dāvs iii.93; adj. -- koṭika M ii.120; Vism 10.


-- [etym.? Trenckner, Miln p. 428 says: "I suspect ā. to be corrupted from āpāta (cp. āpatati), under an impression that it is allied to patha; but it is scarcely ever written so"] sphere, range, focus, field (of consciousness or perception; cp. Dhs trsl. 199), appearance A ii.67; J i.336; Vbh 321; Miln 298; Vism 21, 548; DA i.228; DhsA 308, 333; VvA 232 (˚kāla); DhA iv.85; Sdhp 356. Usually in phrase āpāthaŋ gacchati to come into focus, to become clear, to appear M i.190; S iv.160, or ˚ŋ āgacchati Vin i.184; A iii.377 sq.; iv.404; Vism 125. Cp. ˚gata below.
-- gata come into the sphere of, appearing, visible M i.174 = Nd2 jhāna (an˚ unapproached); PvA 23 (āpāthaŋ gata). -- gatatta abstr. fr. last: appcarance Vism 617.


-- (adj.) [fr. āpātha] belonging to the (perceptual) sphere of, visible, in ˚nisādin lying down visible D iii.44, 47. Cp. āpathaka.


āpādaka (adj. -- n.) [fr. ā + pad] -- 1. (adj.) producing, leading to ( -- ˚) VvA 4 (abhi˝˝˚ catuttha -- jjhāna). -- 2. (n.) one who takes care of a child, a protector, guardian A i.62 = 132 = It 110 (+ posaka). -- f. āpādikā a nurse, foster -- mother Vin ii.289 (+ posikā).


-- (f.) [short for āpādikā] a nursing woman, in an˚ not nursing, unmarried J iv.178.


-- aor. of āpajjati (q. v.).


-- [Caus. of āpajjati] to produce, make out, bring, bring into M i.78; iii.248; S iv.110 (addhānaŋ to live one's life, cp. addhānaŋ āpādi J ii.293 = jīvitɔaddhānaŋ āpādi āyuŋ vindi C.); SnA 466. -- Cp. pari˚


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + ] drinking; drinking party, banquet; banqueting -- hall, drinking -- hall J i.52 (˚maṇḍala); v.292 (˚bhūmi); Vism 399 (id.); DhA i.213 (id., ra˝˝o).


-- (adj.) [āpāna + ka] drinking, one who is in the habit of drinking D i.167.


-- (adj.) [fr. āpāna, ā + ] drinkable, fit for drinking or drinking with, in ˚kaŋsa drinking -- bowl, goblet M i. 316; S ii.110.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. apāya] one suffering in an apāya or state of misery after death Vin ii.202 = It 85 (v. l. ap˚); Vin ii.205; D i.103; A i.265; It 42; Vism 16; PvA 60.


-- [fr. , cp. appāyati & appeti] to be in motion (in etym. of āpo) Vism 364.


-- [ā + pucchati] to enquire after, look for, ask, esp. to ask permission or leave; aor. āpucchi J i.140; PvA 110; grd. āpucchitabba DhA i.6; ger. āpucchitvā Vin iv.267 (apaloketvā +); Miln 29; PvA 111; āpucchitūna (cp. Geiger ž 211) Th 2, 426; āpuccha Th 2, 416, & āpucchā [= āpṛcchya, cp. Vedic ācyā for ācya], only in neg. form an˚ without asking Vin ii.211, 219; iv.165, 226 (= anapaloketvā); DhA i.81. -- pp. āpucchita Vin iv.272.


-- [a + pūrati] to be filled, to become full, to increase J iii.154 (cando ā. = pūrati C.); iv.26, 99, 100.


-- [Caus. of āp, see appoti & pāpuṇāti] to cause to reach or obtain J vi.46. Cp. vy˚.


-- [ā + phusati] to feel, realise, attain to, reach; aor. āphusi Vv 169 (= adhigacchi VvA 84).

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-- [pp. of ābandhati] tied, bound, bound up DA i. 127; fig. bound to, attached to, in love with DhA i.88; PvA 82 (Tissāya ˚sineha); Sdhp 372 (sineh, ˚hadaya).


-- (adj.) [ā + bandh, cp. Sk. ābandha tie, bond] (being) tied to (loc.) PvA 169 (sīse).


-- (ā + bandhati, Sk. ābadhnāti, bandh] to bind to, tie, fasten on to, hold fast; fig. to tie to, to attach to, J iv.132, 289; v.319, 338, 359. -- pp. ābaddha.


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + bandh] -- 1. tie, bond DA i. 181 = Pug A 236 (˚atthena ˝āti yeva ˝āti -- parivaṭṭo). <-> 2. tying, binding Vism 351 (˚lakkhaṇa, of āpodhātu). <-> 3. reins (?) or harness (on a chariot) J v.319 (but cp. C. expln. "hatthi -- assa -- rathesu ābandhitabbāni bhaṇḍakāni", thus taking it as ā + bhaṇḍa + na, i. e. wares, loads etc.). With this cp. Sk. ābandha, according to Halāyudha 2, 420 a thong of leather which fastens the oxen to the yoke of a plough.

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-- [ā + bādh to oppress, Vedic ābādha oppression] affliction, illness, disease Vin iv.261; D i.72; ii.13; A i.121; iii.94, 143; iv.333, 415 sq., 440; Dh 138; Pug 28; Vism 41 (udara -- vāta˚) 95; VvA 351 (an˚ safe & sound); SnA 476; Sdhp 85. -- A list of ābādhas or illnesses, as classified on grounds of aetiology, runs as follows: pittasamuṭṭhānā, semha˚, vāta˚, sannipātikā, utu -- pariṇāmajā, visama -- parihārajā, opakkamikā, kammavipākajā (after Nd2 304i.c., recurring with slight variations at S iv.230; A ii.87; iii.131; v.110; Nd1 17, 47; Miln 112, cp. 135). <-> Another list of illnesses mentioned in tha Vinaya is given in Index to Vin ii., p. 351. -- Five ābādhas at Vin i. 71, viz. kuṭṭhaŋ gaṇḍo kilāso soso apamāro said to be raging in Magadha cp. p. 93. -- Three ābādhas at D iii.75, viz. icchā anasanaŋ jarā, cp. Sn 311. -- See also cpd. appābādha (health) under appa.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ābādha] affected with illness, a sick person A iii.189, 238; Nd1 160; Miln 302; DA 212; DhA i.31; PvA 271. -- f. ābādhikinī a sick woman A ii.144.


-- [pp. of ābādheti, Caus. of ā + bādh] afflicted, oppressed, molested Th 1, 185.


-- [ā + Caus. of bādh, cp. ābādha] to oppress, vex, annoy, harass S iv.329.


-- (adj.) [Sk. āvila; see also P. āvila] turbid, disturbed, soiled J v.90.


-- [pp. of ā + bharati from bhṛ] brought (there or here), carried, conveyed, taken D i.142; S. i.65; A ii.71, 83; It 12, 14 with phrase yathābhataŋ as he has been reared (cp. J v.330 evaŋ kicchā bhaṭo); Pv iii.5 (ratt˚ = rattiyaŋ ā. PvA 199); DhA ii.57, 81; iv.89; VvA 65. Cp. yathābhata.


-- (adj.) = ābhata; DA i.205 (v. l. ābhata).


-- (nt.) [Sk. ābharaṇa, ā + bhṛ] that which is taken up or put on, viz. ornament, decoration, trinkets D i. 104; Vv 802; J iii.11, 31; DhA iii.83; VvA 187.


--[ā + bhṛ] to bring, to carry; ger. ābhatvā J iv.351.


-- (adj. -- n.) [etym. uncertain; one suggested in Cpd. 138 n. 4 is ā + *bha + *sar, i. e. from whose bodies are emitted rays like lightning, more probably a combn. of ābhā + svar (to shine, be bright), i. e. shining in splendour] shining, brilliant, radiant, N. of a class of gods in the Brahma heavens "the radiant gods", usually referred to as the representatives of supreme love (pīti & mettā); thus at D i.17; Dh 200; It 15; DhA iii.258 (˚loka). In another context at Vism 414 sq.


-- (f.) [Sk. ābhā, fr. ā + bhā, see ābhāti] shine, splendour, lustre, light D ii.12; M iii.147 (adj. -- ˚); S ii.150 (˚dhātu); A ii.130, 139; iii.34; Mhvs xi.11; VvA 234 (of a Vimāna, v. l. pabhā); DhA iv.191; Sdhp 286.


-- [ā + bhā] to shine, shine forth, radiate Dh 387 (= virocati DhA iv.144); J v.204. See also ābheti.


-- [ā + bhāveti] to cultivate, pursue Pv ii.1319 (met- tacittaŋ; gloss & v. l. abhāvetvā; expld. as vaḍḍhetvā brūhetvā PvA 168).


-- [Sk. ābhāsa, fr. ā + bhās] splendour, light, appear- ance M iii.215.


-- (adj.) See abhicetasika. This spelling, with guṇa of the first syllable, is probably more correct; but the short a is the more frequent.


-- (adj.) [abhidosa+ika] belonging to the evening before, of last night Vin iii.15 (of food; stale); M i.170 (˚kālakata died last night); Miln 291.


-- (adj.) [abhidhamma + ika] belonging to the specialised Dhamma, versed in or studying the Abhidhamma Miln 17, 341; Vism 93. As abhi˚ atKhA 151; J iv.219.


-- [ā + bhindati] to split, cut, strike (with an axe) S iv.160 (v. l. a˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. abhiseka] belonging to the conse- cration (of a king) Vin v.129.


-- [ā + bhujati, bhuj1] to bend, bend towards or in, contract; usually in phrase pallankaŋ ā˚ "to bend in the round lap" or "bend in hookwise", to sit crosslegged (as a devotee with straightened back), e. g. at Vin i.24; D i.71; M i.56 (v. l. ābhu˝jitvā), 219; A iii. 320; Pug 68; Ps i.176; J i.71, 213; Miln 289; DA i. 58, 210. In other connection J i.18 (v.101; of the ocean "to recede"); Miln 253 (kāyaŋ).


-- (nt.) [fr. ābhujati] crouching, bending, turning in, in phrase pallankɔābhujana sitting cross -- legged J i 17 (v.91); PvA 219.


-- (f.) [lit. the one that bends, prob. a poetic meta- phor] N. of a tree, the Bhūrja or Bhojpatr J v.195 (= bhūjapatta -- vana C.), 405 (= bhūjapatta C.).


-- [ā + bhuj2, Sk. bhunakti] to enjoy, partake of, take in, feel, experience J iv.456 (bhoge; Rh. D. "hold in its hood"?); DhsA 333.


-- (nt.) [fr. ābhu˝jati] partaking of, enjoying, ex- periencing DhsA 333.


-- [*ābhayati = ābhāti, q. v.] to shine Pv ii.126 (ppr. ˚entī); Vv 82 (˚antī, v. l. ˚entī; = obhāsentī VvA 50).


ābhoga [fr. ābhu˝jati, bhuj2 to enjoy etc. The translators of Kvu derive it from bhuj1 to bend etc. (Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4) which however is hardly correct, cp. the similar meaning of gocara "pasturing", fig. perception etc.] ideation, idea, thought D i.37 (= manasikāro samannāhāro DA i.122; cp. semantically āhāra = ābhoga, food); Vbh 320; Miln 97; Vism 164, 325, 354; Dāvs 62; KhA 42 (˚paccavekkhana), 43 (id.) 68.


-- ╣ (indecl.) [a specific Pāli formation representing either amma (q. v.) or a gradation of pron. base amu˚ "that" (see asu), thus deictic -- emphatic exclamn. Cp. also BSk. āma e. g. Av. Ś i.36] affirmative part. "yes, indeed, certainly" D i.192 sq. (as v. l. BB.; T. has āmo); J i.115, 226 (in C. expln. of T. amā -- jāta which is to be read for āmajāta); ii.92; v.448; Miln 11, 19, 253; DhA i.10, 34; ii.39, 44; VvA 69; PvA 12, 22, 56, 61, 75, 93 etc.


-- (adj.) [Vedic āma = Gr. w)mo/s, connected with Lat. amārus. The more common P. form is āmaka (q. v.)] raw, viz. (a) unbaked (of an earthen vessel), unfinished Sn 443; (b) uncooked (of flesh), nt. raw flesh, only in foll. cpds.: ˚gandha "smell of raw flesh", verminous odour, a smell attributed in particular to rotting corpses (cp. similarly BSk. āmagandha M Vastu iii.214) D ii.242 sq.; A i.280; Sn 241, 242 (= vissagandha kuṇapagandha SnA 286), 248, 251; Dhs 625; and ˚giddha greedy after flesh (used as bait) J vi.416 (= āmasankhāta āmisa C.).


-- (adj.) [= āma2] raw, uncooked D i.5 = Pug 58 (˚maŋsa raw flesh); M i.80 (titta -- kalābu āmaka -- cchinno).
-- dha˝˝a "raw" grain, corn in its natural, unprepared state D i.5 = Pug 58 (see DA i.78 for definition); Vin iv.264; v.135. -- sāka raw vegetables Vism 70. -- susāna "cemetery of raw flesh" charnelgrove (cp. āmagandha under ama2), i. e. fetid smelling cremation ground J i.264, 489; iv.45 sq.; vi.10; DhA i.176; VvA 76; PvA 196.


-- [Sk. āmṛṣṭa, pp. of āmasati; cp. āmasita] touched, handled J i.98 (an˚); DA i.107 (= parāmaṭṭha); Sdhp 333.

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-- [ā + maṇḍala + iya] a formation resembling a circle, in phrase ˚ŋ karoti to form a ring (of people) or a circle, to stand closely together M i 225 (cp. Sk. āmaṇḍalikaroti).


-- in anāmata at J ii.56 is mÚtric for amata.


-- (f.) [ā + mattikā] earthenware, crockery; in ˚āpaṇa a crockery shop, chandler's shop Vin iv.243.


-- (nt.) [ā + maddana of mṛd] crushing VvA 311.


-- (adj. -- adv.) [either ger. of āmanteti (q. v.) or root der. fr. ā + mant, cp. āmantaṇā] asking or asked, invited, only as an˚ without being asked, unasked, uninvited Vin i.254 (˚cāra); A iii.259 (id.).


-- (nt.) & ˚nā (f., also ˚ṇā) [from āmanteti] ad- dressing, calling; invitation, greeting Sn 40 (ep. Nd2 128); ˚vacana the address -- form of speech i. e. the vocative case (cp. Sk. āmantritaŋ id.) SnA 435; KhA 167.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. āmantana] addressing, speaking to, conversing; f. ˚ikā interlocutor, companion, favourite queen Vv 188 (= allāpa -- sallāpa -- yoggā kīḷanakāle vā tena (i. e. Sakkena) āmantetabbā VvA 96).


-- (adj.) [grd. of āmanteti] to be addressed J iv.371.


-- [pp. of āmanteti] addressed, called, invited Pv ii.313 (= nimantita PvA 86).


-- [denom. of ā + *mantra] to call, address, speak to, invite, consult J vi.265; DA i.297; SnA 487 (= ālapati & avhayati); PvA 75, 80, 127. -- aor. āmantesi D ii.16; Sn p. 78 (= ālapi SnA 394) & in poetry āmantayi Sn 997; Pv ii.27; 37 (perhaps better with v. l. SS samantayi). -- ger. āmanta (= Sk. *āmantrya) J iii.209, 315 (= āmantayitvāˊ C.), 329; iv.111; v.233; vi.511. <-> pp. āmantita (q. v.). -- Caus. II. āmantāpeti to invite to come, to cause to be called, to send for D i.134 (v. l. āmanteti); Miln 149.


-- [etym.? cp. Sk. āmaya] affliction, illness, misery; only as an˚ (adj.) not afflicted, not decaying, healthy, well (cp. BSk. nirāmaya Aśvaghoṣa ii.9) Vin i.294; Vv 1510 (= aroga VvA 74); 177; 368; J iii.260, 528; iv. 427; vi.23. Positive only very late, e. g. Sdhp 397.


-- [cp. Sk. āmalaka] emblic myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica Vin i.201, 278; ii.149 (˚vaṇṭika pīthu); S i.150; A v.170; Sn p. 125 (˚matti); J iv.363; v.380 (as v. l. for T. āmala); Miln 11; DhA i.319; VvA 7.


-- (f.) āmalaka Vin i.30; M i.456 (˚vana).


-- [ā + masati fr. mṛś] to touch (upon), to handle, to lay hold on Vin ii.221; iii.48 (kumbhiŋ); J iii.319 (id.); A v.263, 266; J iv.67; Ps ii.209; Miln 306; SnA 400; DhsA 302; VvA 17. -- aor. āmasi J ii.360; ger. āmasitvā Vin iii.140 (udakapattaŋ) J ii.330; grd. āmassa J ii.360 (an˚) and āmasitabba id. (C.). -- pp. āmaṭṭha & āmasita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. āmasati] touching, handling; touch Vin iv.214. Cp. iii.118; Miln 127, 306; DA i.78.


-- [pp. of āmasati] touched, taken hold of, occupied VvA 113 (an˚ khetta virgin land).


-- (adj.) [to be considered either a der. from amā (see amājāta in same meaning) or to be spelt amāya which metri causa may be written ā˚] "born in the house" (cp. semantically Gr. i)qagenh/s > indigenous), inborn, being by birth, in cpd. ˚dāsa (dāsī) a born slave, a slave by birth J vi.117 (= gehadāsiyā kucchismiŋ jātadasī C.), 285 (= dāsassa dāsiyā kucchimhi jātadāsā).


-- [āma2 + āsaya, cp. Sk. āmāśaya & āmāśraya] receptacle of undigested food, i. e. the stomach Vism 260; KhA 59. Opp. pakkāsaya.


-- (nt.?) [etym.?] a woollen cover into which a floral pattern is woven DA i.87.


-- (nt.) [der. fr. āma raw, q. v. for etym. -- Vedic āmis (m.); later Sk. āmiṣa (nt.), both in lit. & fig. meaning] <-> 1. originally raw meat; hence prevailing notion of "raw, unprepared, uncultivated"; thus ˚khāra raw lye Vin i. 206. -- 2. "fleshy, of the flesh" (as opposed to mind or spirit), hence material, physical; generally in opposition to dhamma (see dhamma B 1. a. and also next no.), thus at M i.12 (˚dāyāda); It 101 (id.); A i.91 = It 98 (˚dāna material gifts opp. to spiritual ones); Dhs 1344 (˚paṭisanthāra hospitality towards bodily needs, cp. Dhs trsl. 350). -- 3. food, esp. palatable food (cp. E. sweetmeat); food for enjoyment, dainties Vin ii.269 sq.; J ii.6; Miln 413 (lok˚); DA i.83 (˚sannidhi), -- 4. bait S i.67; iv.158; J iv.57, 219; vi.416; DA i.270. -- 5. gain, reward, money, douceur, gratuity, "tip" PvA 36, 46; esp. in phrase ˚ki˝cikkha -- hetu for the sake of some (little) gain S ii.234; A i.128; v.265, 283 sq., 293 sq.; Pug 29; Pv ii.83 (= ki˝ci āmisaŋ patthento PvA 107); Miln 93; VvA 241 (= bhogahetu). -- 6. enjoyment Pv ii.82 (= kāmāmise -- laggacitto PvA 107). -- 7. greed, desire, lust Vin i.303 (˚antara out of greed, selfish, opp. mettacitto); A iii.144 (id.), 184 (id.); i.73 (˚garū parisā); J v.91 (˚cakkhu); Ps ii.238 (mār˚). See also cpds. with nir˚ and sa˚.


-- [ā + mtic] to put on, take up; to be attached to, cling to DhsA 305. -- pp. āmutta (q. v.).


-- [Sk. āmukta, pp. of ā + muc, cp. also BSk. āmukta jewel Divy 2, 3 etc., a meaning which might also be seen in the later Pāli passages, e. g. at PvA 134. Semantically cp. ābharaṇa] having put on, clothed in, dressed with, adorned with (always ˚ -- ) D i.104 (˚mālābharaṇa); Vin ii.156 = Vv 208 (˚maṇi -- kuṇḍala); S i.211; J iv.460; v. 155; vi.492; Vv 721 (= paṭimukka); 802 (˚hatthābharaṇa); Pv ii.951 (˚maṇikuṇḍala);J iv.183; VvA 182.


-- (or Āmeḍita) [Sk. āmreḍita fram ā + mreḍ, dialectical] -- (nt.) sympathy in ˚ŋ karoti to show sympathy (? so Morris J.P.T.S. 1887, 106) DA i.228 = SnA 155 (v. l. at DA āmeḍita).


-- = āma D i.192, 3.


-- [Sk. āmoda, fr. ā + mud] that which pleases; fragrance, perfume Dāvs v.51.


-- (f.) [fr. ā + mud] rejoicing Dhs 86, 285.


-- (adj.) [ppr. med. of āmodeti] rejoicing, glad S i.100 (v. l. anu˚) = It 66; Vv 648 (= pamodamāna VvA 278); J v.45.


-- [pp. fr. āmodeti] pleased, satisfied, glad J i.17 (v.80); v.45 (˚pamodita highly pleased); Miln 346.


-- [Sk. āmodayati, Caus. of ā + mud] to please, gladden, satisfy Th 1, 649 (cittaŋ); J v.34. -- pp. āmodita (q. v.).


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-- [Sk. āya; ā + i] 1. coming in, entrance M iii.93. - 2. tax J v.113. -- 3. income, earning, profit, gain (opp. vaya loss) A iv.282 = 323; Sn 978; J i.228; KhA 38 (in expln. of kāya), 82 (in etym. of āyatana); PvA 130. <-> 4. (āyā f.?) a lucky dice ("the incomer") J vi.281.
-- kammika a treasurer DhA i.184. -- kusala clever in earnings Nett 20. -- kosalla proficiency in money making D iii.220 (one of the three kosallas); Vbh 325. -- pariccāga expediture of one's income PvA 8. -- mukha (lit.) entrance, inflow, going in D i.74 (= āgamana -- magga DA [p105] 1.78); M ii.15; A ii.166; (fig.) revenue income, money SnA 173.

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-- [Sk. āyata, pp. of ā + yam, cp. āyamati] -- 1. (adj.) outstretched, extended, long, in length (with numeral) D iii.73 (˝ātikkhaya, prolonged or heavy?); M i.178 (dīghato ā˚; tiriya˝ ca vitthata); J i.77, 273 (tettiŋsɔ -- angulɔāyato khaggo); iii.438; Vv 8415 (˚aŋsa; cp. expln. at VvA 339); SnA 447; DhsA 48; PvA 152 (dāṭhā fangs; lomā hair), 185 (˚vaṭṭa); Sdhp 257. -- 2. (n.) a bow J iii.438.
-- agga having its point (end) stretched forward, i. e. in the future (see āyati) It 15, 52. -- paṇhin having long eye -- lashes (one of the signs of a Mahāpurisa) D ii.17 = iii.143. -- pamha a long eye -- lash Th 2, 384 (= dīghapakhuma ThA 250).


-- (adj.) [= āyata] -- 1. long. extended, prolonged, kept up, lasting Vin ii.108 (gītassara); A iii.251 (id.); J i.362. -- 2. sudden, abrupt, instr. ˚ena abruptly Vin ii.237.


-- (nt.) [Sk. āyatana, not found in the Vedas; but freq. in BSk. From ā + yam, cp. āyata. The pl. is āyatanā at S iv.70. -- For full definition of term as seen by the Pāli Commentators see Bdhgh's expln at DA i. 124, 125, with which cp. the popular etym. at KhA 82: "āyassa vā tananato āyatassa vā saŋsāradukkhassa nayanato āyatanāni" and at Vism 527 "āye tanoti āyata˝ ca nayatī ti ā."] -- 1. stretch, extent, reach, compass, region; sphere, locus, place, spot; position, occasion (corresponding to Bdhgh's definition at DA i.124 as "samosaraṇa") D iii.241, 279 (vimutti˚); S ii.41, 269; iv.217; v.119 sq., 318. sq.; A iii.141 (ariya˚); v.61 (abhibh˚, q. v.) Sn 406 (rajass˚ "haunt of passion" = rāgādi -- rajassa uppatti -- deso SnA 381); J i.80 (raj˚). Freq. in phrase ara˝˝˚ a lonely spot, a spot in the forest J i.173; VvA 301; PvA 42, 54. -- 2. exertion, doing, working, practice, performance (comprising Bdhgh's definition at DA i.124 as pa˝˝atti), usually -- ˚, viz. kamm˚ Nd1 505; Vbh 324, 353; kasiṇ˚ A v.46 sq., 60; Ps i.28; titth˚ A i.173, 175; Vbh 145, 367; sipp˚ (art, craft) D i.51; Nd2 505; Vbh 324, 353; cp. an˚ non -- exertion, indolence, sluggishness J v.121. -- 3. sphere of perception or sense in general, object of thought, sense -- organ & object; relation, order. -- Cpd. p. 183 says rightly: "āyatana cannot be rendered by a single English word to cover both sense -- organs (the mind being regarded as 6th sense) and sense objects". -- These āyatanāni (relations, functions, reciprocalities) are thus divided into two groups, inner (ajjhattikāni) and outer (bāhirāni), and comprise the foll.: (a) ajjhatt˚: 1. cakkhu eye, 2. sota ear, 3. ghāna nose, 4. jivhā tongue, 5. kāya body, 6. mano mind; (b) bāh˚: 1. rūpa visible object, 2. sadda sound, 3. gandha odour, 4. rasa taste, 5. phoṭṭhabba tangible object, 6. dhamma cognizable object. -- For details as regards connotation & application see Dhs trsl. introduction li sq. Cpd. 90 n. 2; 254 sq. -- Approximately covering this meaning (3) is Bdhgh's definition of āyatana at DA i.124 as sa˝jāti and as kāraṇa (origin & cause, i. e. mutually occasioning & conditioning relations or adaptations). See also Nd2 under rūpa for further classifications. -- For the above mentioned 12 āyatanāni see the foll. passages: D ii.302 sq.; iii.102, 243; A iii.400; v.52; Sn 373 (cp. SnA 366); Ps i.7, 22, 101, 137; ii. 181, 225, 230; Dhs 1335; Vbh 401 sq.; Nett 57, 82; Vism 481; ThA 49, 285. Of these 6 are mentioned at S i.113, ii.3; iv.100, 174 sq.; It 114; Vbh 135 sq., 294; Nett 13, 28, 30; Vism 565 sq. Other sets of 10 at Nett 69; of 4 at D ii.112, 156; of 2 at D ii.69. -- Here also belongs ākāsɔ āna˝cɔ āyatana, āki˝ca˝˝˚ etc. (see under ākāsa etc. and s. v.), e. g. at D i.34 sq., 183; A iv.451 sq.; Vbh 172, 189, 262 sq.; Vism 324 sq. -- Unclassified passages: M i.61; ii.233; iii.32, 216, 273; S i.196; ii.6, 8, 24, 72 sq.; iii.228; iv.98; v.426; A i.113, 163, 225; iii.17, 27, 82, 426; iv.146, 426; v.30, 321, 351, 359; Nd1 109, 133, 171, 340; J i.381 (paripuṇṇa˚); Vbh 412 sq. (id.).
-- uppāda birth of the āyatanas (see above 3) Vin i.185. -- kusala skilled in the ā. M iii.63. -- kusalatā skill in the spheres (of sense) D iii.212; Dhs 1335. -- ṭṭha founded in the sense -- organs Ps i.132; ii.121.


-- (adj.) [fr. āyatana] belonging to the sphere of (some special sense, see āyatana 3) S iv.126 (phass˚ niraya & sagga).


-- (f.) [fr. ā + yam, cp. Sk. āyati] "stretching forth", extension, length (of time), future. Only (?) in acc. āyatiŋ (adv.) in future Vin ii.89, 185; iii.3; Sn 49; It 115 (T. reads āyati but cp. p. 94 where T. āyatiŋ, v. l. āyati); J i.89; v.431; DA i 236.


-- (adj.) [fr. last] future S i.142.


-- (f.) [of āyataka] a tube, waterpipe Vin ii.123.


-- [Sk. āyatta, pp. of ā + yat]. -- 1. striving, active, ready, exerted J v.395 (˚mana = ussukkamana C.). <-> 2. striven after, pursued J i.341. -- 3. dependent on Vism 310 (assāsa -- passāsa˚); Nett 194; Sdhp 477, 605.


-- (f.) [?] at DhsA 259 and Vism 26 is a grammarian's construction, abstracted from f. abstr. words ending in ˚āyanā, e. g. kankhā > kankhāyanā, of which the correct expln. is a derivation fr. caus. -- formation kankhāyati > kankhāy + a + nā. What the idea of Bdhgh. was in propounding his expln. is hard to say, perhaps he related it to i and understood it to be the same as āyāna.


-- [ā + yam] to stretch, extend, stretch out, draw out Miln 176, usually in ster. phrase piṭṭhi me āgilāyati tam ahaŋ āyamissāmi "my back feels weak, I will stretch it" Vin ii.200; D iii.209; M i.354; S iv.184; J i.491. <-> Besides this in commentaries e. g. J iii.489 (mukhaŋ āyamituŋ).


-- (adj.) [Sk. āyasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S ii. 182; A iii.58; Dh 345; J iv.416; v.81; Vv 845 (an˚? cp. the rather strange expln. at VvA 335).


-- (nt.) dishonour, disgrace, bad repute A iv.96; J v.17; VvA 110; usually in phrase ˚ŋ pāpuṇāti to fall into disgrace Th 1, 292; J ii.33 = 271; iii.514. [Bdhgh. on A iv.96 explains it as ayasaka + ya with guṇa of the initial, cp. ārogya].


-- (adj.) [Sk. āyuṣmant, the P. form showing as- similation of u to a] lit. old, i. e. venerable; used, either as adj. or absolute as a respectful appellation of a bhikkhu of some standing (cp. the semantically identical thera). It occurs usually in nom. āyasmā and is expld. in Nd by typical formula "piya -- vacanaŋ garu˚, sagārava -- sappaṭissÔdhivacanaŋ", e. g. Nd1 140, 445; Nd2 130 on var. Sn loci (e. g. 814, 1032, 1040, 1061, 1096). -- Freq. in all texts, of later passages see SnA 158; PvA 53, 54, 63, 78. -- See also āvuso.


-- [ā + yāga of yaj] sacrificial fee, gift; (m.) recipient of a sacrifice or gift (deyyadhamma) Sn 486 (= deyyadhammānaŋ adhiṭṭhāna -- bhūta SnA 412); Th 1, 566; J vi. 205 (˚vatthu worthy objact of sacrificial fees).


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ā + yāc] one who begs or prays, petitioner Miln 129.


-- [ā + yāc, cp. Buddh. Sk. āyācate Divy 1.] -- 1. to request, beg, implore, pray to (acc.) Vin iii.127; D i.240; PvA 160. -- 2. to make a vow, to vow, promise A i. 88; J i.169 = v.472; i.260; ii.117. -- pp. āyācita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. āyācati] -- 1. asking, adhortation, ad- dressing (t. t. g. in expln. of imperative) SnA 43, 176, 412. -- 2. a vow, prayer A i.88; iii.47; J i.169 = v.472.

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-- [pp. of āyācati] vowed, promised J i.169 (˚bhatta- jātaka N.).


-- [pp. of āyāt.; cp. BSk. āyāta in same meaning at Jtm 210] gone to, undertaken Sdhp 407.


-- [ā + yāti of ] to come on or here, to come near, approach, get into S i.240; Sn 669; Sn p. 116 (= gacchati SnA 463); J iv.410; pv ii.1212 (= āgacchati PvA 158); DhA i.93 (imper. āyāma let us go). -- pp. āyāta.


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + to go] coming, arrival: see āyanā.


-- [fr. ā + yam, see āyamati] -- 1. (lit.) stretching, stretching out, extension Vin i.349 = J iii.488 (mukh˚). <-> 2. (appl.) usually as linear measure: extension, length (often combd. with and contrasted to vitthāra breadth or width & ubbedha height), as n. (esp. in abl. āyāmato & instr. āyāmena in length) or as adj. ( -- ˚): J i.7, 49 (˚ato tīṇi yojanasatāni, vitthārato aḍḍhatiyāni); iii.389; Miln 17 (ratanaŋ soḷasahatthaŋ āyāmena aṭṭhahatthaŋ vitthārena), 282 (ratanaŋ catuhatthɔāyāmaŋ); Vism 205 (+ vitth˚); Khb 133 (+ vitthāra & parikkhepa); VvA 188 (soḷasayojan˚), 199 (˚vitthārehi), 221 (˚ato + vitth˚); PvA 77 (+ vitth˚), 113 (id. + ubbedha); DhA i.17 (saṭṭhi -- yojan˚).


-- [cp. Sk. āyāsa, etym.?] trouble, sorrow, only neg. an˚ (adj.) peaceful, free from trouble A iv.98; Th 1, 1008.


-- (nt.) [Vedic āyus; Av. āyu, gradation form of same root as Gr. ai)w/n "aeon", ai)e/n always; Lat. aevum, Goth. aiws. Ohg. ēwa, io always; Ger. ewig eternal; Ags. āē eternity, ā always (cp. ever and aye)] life, vitality, duration of life, longevity D iii.68, 69, 73, 77; S iii.143 (usmā ca); iv.294; A i.155; ii.63, 66 (addh˚); iii.47; iv.76, 139; Sn 694, 1019; It 89; J i.197 (dīgh˚); Vv 555 (cp. VvA 247 with its definition of divine life as comprising 30 600 000 years); Vism 229 (length of man's āyu = 100 years); Dhs 19, 82, 295, 644, 716; Sdhp 234, 239, 258. -- Long or divine life, dibbaŋ āyu is one of the 10 attributes of ādhipateyya or majesty (see ṭhāna), thus at Vin i.294; D iii.146; S iv.275 sq.; A i.115; iii. 33; iv.242, 396; Pv ii.959 (= jīvitaŋ PvA 136).
-- ūhā see āyūhā. -- kappa duration of life Miln 141; DhA i.250. -- khaya decay of life (cp. jīvita -- kkhaya) D i.17 (cp. DA i.110); iii.29. -- pamāṇa span or measure of life time D ii.3; A i.213, 267; ii.126 sq.; iv.138, 252 sq., 261; v.172; Pug 16; Vbh 422 sq.; SnA 476. -- pariyanta end of life It 99; Vism 422. -- sankhaya exhaustion of life or lifetime Dpvs v.102. -- sankhāra (usually pl. ˚ā) constituent of life, conditions or properties resulting in life, vital principle D ii.106; M i.295 sq.; S ii.266; A iv.311 sq.; Ud 64; J iv.215; Miln 285; Vism 292; DhA i.129; PvA 210. Cp. BSk. āyuḥ -- saŋskāra Divy 203.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. āyu] -- being of life; having a life or age A iv.396 (niyat˚); VvA 196 (yāvatāyukā dibbasampatti divine bliss lasting for a lifetime). Esp. freq. in combn. with dīgha (long) and appa (short) as dīghāyuka A iv.240; PvA 27; appāyuka A iv.247; PvA 103; both at Vism 422. In phrase vīsati -- vassasahassɔāyukesu manussesu at the time when men lived 20 000 years D ii.5 -- 12 (see Table at Dial. ii.6); DhA ii.9; PvA 135; dasa -- vassasahassɔāyukesu manussesu (10 000 years) PvA 73; cattāḷīsa˚ DhA i.103; catusaṭṭhi -- kappɔāyukā subhakiṇhā Vism 422.


-- (adj.) [fr. āyu] = āyuka; in appāyukin short lived Vv 416.


-- (adj.) [Sk. ayuta, pp. of ā + yu, yuvati] -- 1. con- nected with, endowed, furnished with Th 1, 753 (dve pannarasɔāyuta due to twice fifteen); Sn 301 (nārī -- varagaṇ˚ = ˚saŋyutta SnA 320); Pv ii.124 (nānā -- saragaṇ˚ = ˚yutta PvA 157). -- 2. seized, conquered, in dur˚ hard to conquer, invincible J vi.271 (= paccatthikehi durāsada C.).


-- [Sk. āyukta; pp. of ā + yuj] -- 1. yoked, to con- nected with, full of Pv i.1014 (tejasɔāyuta T., but PvA 52 reads ˚āyutta and explns. as samāyutta); PvA 157 (= ākiṇṇa of Pv ii.124). -- 2. intent upon, devoted to S i.67.


-- (adj. -- n.) [āyutta + ka] one who is devoted to or entrusted with, a trustee, agent, superintendent, overseer J i.230 (˚vesa); iv.492; DhA i.101, 103, 180.


-- is the Vedic form of the common Pāli form āvudha weapon, and occurs only spuriously at D i.9 (v. l. āvudha).


-- (adj.) [fr. āyu] advanced in years, old, of age Th 1, 234.


-- (adj.) [Sk. āyuṣmant; see also the regular P. form āyasmant] having life or vitality PvA 63 (āyusmāvi˝˝āṇa feeling or sense of vitality; is reading correct?).


-- (adj.) [Sk. *āyuṣya] connected with life, bringing (long) life A iii.145 dhamma).


-- (adj.) [fr. āyūhati] keen, eager, active Miln 207 (+ viriyavā).


-- [ā + y + ūhati with euphonic y, fr. Vedic ūhati, ūh1, a gradation of vah (see etym. under vahati). Kern's etym. on Toev. 99 = āyodhati is to be doubted, more acceptable is Morris' expln. at J.P.T.S. 1885, 58 sq., although contradictory in part.] lit. to push on or forward, aim at, go for, i. e. (1) to endeavour, strain, exert oneself S i.1 (ppr. anāyūhaŋ unstriving), 48; J vi.35 (= viriyaŋ karoti C.), 283 (= vāyamati C.). -- (2) to be keen on (w. acc.), to cultivate, pursue, do Sn 210 (= karoti SnA 258); Miln 108 (kammaŋ ūyūhitvā), 214 (kammaŋ āyūhi), 326 (maggaŋ). -- pp. āyūhita (q. v.).


-- (adj. -- nt.) [fr. āyūhati] -- 1. endeavouring, striving, Ps i.10 sq., 32, 52; ii.218; Vism 103, 212, 462, 579. f. āyūhanī Dhs 1059 ("she who toils" trsl.) = Vbh 361 = Nd2 taṇhā 1. (has āyūhanā). -- 2. furtherance, pursuit DA i.64 (bhavassa).


-- f. [āyu + ūhā] life, lifetime, only in ˚pariyosāna at the end of (his) life PvA 136, 162; VvA 319.


-- [Caus. II. fr. āyūhati] to cause somebody to toil or strive after DhsA 364.


-- [*Sk. ā + ūhita, pp. of ūh] busy, eager, active Miln 181.


-- [Sk. āyoga, of ā + yuj; cp. āyutta] -- 1. binding, bandage Vin ii.135; Vv 3341; VvA 142 (˚paṭṭa). -- 2. yoke Dhs 1061 (avijj˚), 1162. -- 3. ornament, decoration Nd1 226; J iii.447 (˚vatta, for v. l. ˚vanta?). -- 4. occupation, devotion to, pursuit, exertion D i.187; Dh 185 (= payoga -- karaṇa DhA iii.238). -- 5. (t. t.) obligation, guarantee(?) SnA 179. -- Cp. sam˚.

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-- (nt.) [*ārakāt + tvaŋ] warding off, keeping away, holding aloof, being far from (c. gen.); occurring only in pop. etym. of arahant at A iv.145; DhA iv.228; DA i.146 = VvA 105, 106 = PvA 7; cp. DhsA 349.


-- (adv.) [Sk. ārāt & ārakāt, abl. form. fr. *āraka, see ārā2] far off, far from, away from, also used as prep. c. abl. and as adj. pl. keeping away from, removed, far Vin ii.239 = A iv.202 (sanghamhā); D i.99, 102 (adj.) 167; M i.280 (adj.) S ii.99; iv.43 sq.; A i.281; It 91; J i.272; iii.525; v.451; Miln 243; VvA 72, 73 (adj. + viratā).


-- [ā + rakkha] watch, guard, protection, care D ii.59; iii.289; S iv.97, 175, 195; A ii.120; iii.38; iv. 266, 270, 281 (˚sampadā), 322 (id.), 400; v.29 sq.; J i.203; ii.326; iv.29 (˚purisa); v.212 (˚ṭṭhāna, i. e. harem), 374 (˚parivāra); Pug 21 (an˚), 24; Miln 154; Vism 19 [p107] (˚gocara preventive behaviour, cautiousness); SnA 476 (˚devatā); KhA 120 (id.), 169; DhA ii.146; PvA 195; Sdhp 357, 365.

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-- [fr. ārakkha] a guard, watchman J iv.29.


-- see arakkheyya.

-- (nt.) [ārā + agga; Sk. ārāgra of ārā an awl, a prick] the point of an awl, the head of certain arrows, having the shape of an awl, or an arrow of that kind (see Halayudha p. 151) A i.65; Sn 625, 631; Dh 401, 407; Vism 306; DhA ii 51; iv.181.


-- [ā + racayā a ger. or abl. form. fr. ā + *rac, in usual Sk. meaning "to produce", but here as a sound -- root for slashing noise, in reduplication for sake of intensification. Altogether problematic] by means of hammering, slashing or beating (like beating a hide) Sn 673 (gloss ārajayārajayā fr. ā + *ra˝j or *raj). -- SnA 481 explns. the passage as follows: ārajayārajayā; i. e. yathā manussā allacammaŋ bhūmiyaŋ pattharitvā khīlehi ākoṭenti, evaŋ ākoṭetvā pharasūhi phāḷetvā ekam ekaŋ koṭiŋ chinditvā vihananti, chinnachinnakoṭi punappuna samuṭṭhāti; āracayāracayā ti pi pāṭho, āvi˝jitvā (v. l. BB. āvijjhitvā) āvi˝jitvā ti attho. -- Cp. āra˝jita.


-- (adj.) [fr. ara˝˝a + ka] belonging to solitude or the forest, sequestered; living in the forest, fond of seclusion, living as hermits (bhikkhū). Freq. spelt ara˝˝aka (q. v.). -- Vin i.92 (bhikkhū); ii.32, 197, 217 (bh.), 265 (bh.); M i.214; A iii.100 sq., 219; iv.21; v.66; J iii.174 (v. l. BB. a˚); Miln 342; DhA ii.94 (vihāra).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. āra˝˝aka, see also ara˝˝a- katta] the habit of sequestration or living in solitude M i.214; iii.40; A i.38.


-- (adj.) = āra˝˝aka Vin iii.15; A i.24; Pug 69; Vism 61, 71 (where defined); Miln 341.


-- [in form = Sk. *āra˝jita, ā + pp. of ra˝jayati, Caus. of ra˝j or raj, but in meaning different. Perhaps to rac (as *racita) to furnish with, prepare, or better still to be regarded as an idiomatic Pāli form of soundroot *rac (see āracayā˚) mixed with ra˝j, of which we find another example in the double spelling of āracayā (& ārajayā) q. v.] furrowed, cut open, dug up, slashed, torn (perhaps also "beaten") M i.178 (hatthipadaŋ dantehi āra˝jitaŋ an elephant -- track bearing the marks of tusks, i. e. occasional slashes or furrows).


-- [Sk. ārata, pp. of ā + ram, cp. ārati] leaving off, keeping away from, abstaining J iv.372 (= virata); Nd2 591 (+ virata paṭivirata).


-- (f.) [Sk. ārati, ā + ram] leaving off, abstinence Vv 639 (= paṭivirati VvA 263); in exegetical style occurring in typ. combn. with virati paṭivirati veramaṇī, e. g. at Nd2 462; Dhs 299.


-- (nt.?) [Sk. cp. ārakta, pp. of ā + raj] time, period (orig. affected, tinted with), only in cpd. vassāratta the rainy season, lent J iv.444; Dāvs ii.74.


-- (adj.) [pp. of ā + rabh] begun, started, bent on, undertaking, holding on to, resolved, firm A i.148 (āraddhaŋ me viriyaŋ It 30; PvA 73 (ṭhapetuŋ began to place), 212 (gantuŋ). Cp. ārādhaka 1.
-- citta concentrated of mind, decided, settled D i.176; M i.414; S ii.21; Sn p. 102; SnA 436. Cp. ārādheti 1. -- viriya (adj.) strenuous, energetic, resolute Vin i.182; D iii.252, 268, 282, 285; A i.24; Sn 68, 344; It 71 (opp. hīna -- viriya); Nd2 131; Ps i.171; ThA 95. Cp. viriyārambha; f. abstr. ˚viriyatā M i.19.


-- (indecl.) [ger. of ārabhati2 in abs. function; cp. Sk. ārabhya meaning since, from] -- 1. beginning, undertaking etc., in cpd. ˚vatthu occasion for making an effort, concern, duty, obligation D iii.256 = A iv.334 (eight such occasions enumd). -- 2. (prep. with acc.) lit. beginning with, taking (into consideration), referring to, concerning, with reference to, about D i.180; A ii.27 = It 103 (senāsanaŋ ā.); Sn 972 (upekhaŋ; v. l. ārambha; C. uppādetvā); Pv i.41 (pubbe pete ā.); DhA i.3; ii.37; PvA 3 (seṭṭhiputta -- petaŋ ā.), 16, and passim.


-- ╣ [not with Morris J.P.T.S. 1889, 202 fr. rabh and identical with ārabhati2, but with Kern, Toev. s. v. identical with Sk. ālabhate, ā + labh meaning to seize the sacrificial animal in order to kill it; cp. nirārambha] to kill, destroy M i.371 (pāṇaŋ).

Ārabhati & Ārabbhati

-- ▓ & ārabbhati [ā + rabhati, Sk. ārabhati & ārambhati, ā + rabh] to begin, start, undertake, attempt S i.156 (ārabbhatha "bestir yourselves") = Miln 245 = Th 1, 256 (bh.); Pug 64 (bh.); viriyaŋ ārabhati to make an effort, to exert oneself (cp. ārambha) A iv.334. <-> aor. ārabhi DhA ii.38 & ārabbhi PvA 35. -- ger. ārabbha, see sep. -- pp. āraddha (q. v.).


-- [Sk. ārambha in meaning "beginning", fr ā + rabh (rambh) cp. ārabhati] -- 1. attempt, effort, inception of energy (cp. Dhs trsl. 15 & K. S. p. 318 giving C. def. as kicca, karaṇīya, attha, i. e. 1. undertaking & duty, 2. object) S i.76 (mah˚); v.66, 104 sq. (˚dhātu); iii.338 (id.), 166 (˚ja; T. arabbhaja, v. l. ārambhaja to be preferred) = Pug 64; Miln 244; Net 41; DhsA 145. -- viriyārambha (cp. āraddha -- viriya) zeal, resolution, energy Vin ii.197; S iv.175; A i.12, 16. -- 2. support, ground, object, thing Nett 70 sq., 107; an˚ unsupported, independent Sn 743 (= nibbāna SnA 507). Cp. also nirambha, upārambha, sārambha.


-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. ālambana, lamb, but in meaning confounded with rambh (see rabhati)] primary meaning "foundation", from this applied in the foll. senses: (1) support, help, footing, expedient, anything to be depended upon as a means of achieving what is desired, i. e. basis of operation, chance Sn 1069 (= ālambana, nissaya, upanissaya Nd2 132); Pv i.41 (yaŋ ki˝cɔ ārammaṇaŋ katvā); ārammaṇaŋ labhati (+ otāraŋ labhati) to get the chance S ii.268; iv.185. -- (2) condition, ground, cause, means, esp. a cause of desire or clinging to life, pl. ˚ā causes of rebirth (interpreted by taṇhā at Nd1 429), lust Sn 474 (= paccayā SnA 410), 945 (= Nd1 429); KhA 23; DhA i.288 (sappāy˚); PvA 279. -- (3) a basis for the working of the mind & intellect; i. e. sense -- object, object of thought or consciousness, the outward constituent in the relation of subject & object, object in general. In this meaning of "relation" it is closely connected with āyatana (see āyatana3), so that it sometimes takes its place, it is also similar to visaya. Cpd. 3 distinguishes a 5 fold object, viz. citta, cetasika, pasāda -- & sukhuma -- rūpa, pa˝˝atti, nibbāna. See on term especially Cpd. 3, 14; Dhs trsl. xli. & 209. -- A 1. sq.; iv.385; Sn 506; Ps i.57 sq., 84 (four ā.); ii.97, 118, 143; Dhs 1 (dhamm˚ object of ideation), 180, 584, 1186 et passim; Vbh 12, 79, 92, 319, 332 (four); Nett 191 (six); Vism 87 sq., 375 (˚sankantika), 430 sq. (in var. sets with ref. to var. objects), 533; DhsA 48, 127; VvA 11, 38. -- rūpārammaṇa lit. dependence on form, i. e. object of sight, visible form, especially striking appearance, visibility, sight D iii.228; S iii.53; A i.82; J i.304; ii.439, 442; PvA 265. <-> ārammaṇaŋ karoti to make it an object (of intellection or intention), to make it one's concern (cp. Pv i.41, above 1). -- ārammaṇa -- kusala clever in the objects (of meditation) S iii.266; ā˚ -- paccayatā relation of presentation (i. e. of subj. & obj.) Nett 80. -- (4) ( -- ˚) (adj.) being supported by, depending on, centred in, concentrated upon PvA 8 (nissay˚), 98 (ek˚); VvA 119 (buddh˚ pīti rapture centred in the Buddha).


-- (adj.) metri causa for araha deserving J vi.164.

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-- ╣ (f.) [Sk. ārÔ; *ēl "pointed", as in Ohg. āla = Ger. ahle, Ags. āēl = E awl; Oicel. alr] an awl; see cp. āragga. Perhaps a der. of ārā is āḷakā (q. v.).


-- ▓ (indecl.) [Vedic ārād, abl. as adv.; orig. a root der. fr. *ara remoteness, as in Sk. araṇa foreign & araṇya solitude q. v. under araṇa1 and ara˝˝a] far from, remote (from) (adv. as well as prep. with abl.) Sn 156 (pamādamhā), 736; Dh 253 (āsavakkhayā; DhA iii.377 expls. by dūragata); J ii.449 (jhānabhūmiyā; = dūre ṭhita C.); v.78 (saŋyame; = dūrato C.). See also ārakā.
-- cāra [in this combn. by Kern, Toev. s. v. unecessarily expld. as ārā = ārya; cp. similar phrases under ārakā] a life remote (from evil) A iv.389. -- cārin living far from evil leading a virtuous life D i.4; M i.179; iii.33; A iii. 216, 348; iv.249; v.138, 205; DA i.72 (= abrahmacariyato dūra -- cārin).


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ā + rādh] 1. [perhaps for *āraddhaka because of analogy to āraddha of ā + rabh] successful, accomplishing or accomplished, undertaking, eager Vin i.70 (an˚ one who fails); M i.491; ii.197 = A i.69 = Miln 243; S v.19; A v.329 (in correlation with āraddhaviriya). -- 2. pleasing, propitiating Miln 227; VvA 220 (˚ikā f.).


-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) (either fr. ā + rādh or ā + rabh, cp. ārādhaka] satisfying, accomplishing; satisfaction, accomplishment D ii.287 (opp. virādhanā failure); M i.479; ii.199; A v.211 sq.; J iv.427.


-- (adj.) [grd. fr. ārādheti] to be attained, to be won; successful Vin i.70 (an˚); J ii.233 (dur˚).


-- [pp. of ārādheti; Sk. ārādhita, but BSk. ārāgita, e. g. Divy 131, 233] pleased Sdhp 510.


-- [Caus. of ā + rādh, in meaning 2 confused with ārabhati. In BSk. strangely distorted to ārāgayati; freq. in Divy as well as Av. Ś] -- 1. to please, win favour, propitiate, convince J i.337 (dārake), 421, 452; ii.72 (manusse); iv.274 (for ābhirādheti T.); Vism 73 (ārādhayanto Nāthassa vana -- vāsena mānasaŋ); DhA ii.71; Dāvs iii.93 (ārādhayi sabbajanaŋ); Miln 352. In older literature only in phrase cittaŋ ārādheti to please one's heart, to gladden, win over, propitiate D i.118 sq., 175 (but cp. āraddha -- citta to ārabhati); M i85, 341; S ii.107; v.109; J ii.372; Miln 25. -- 2. to attain, accomplish, fulfill, succeed S v.23 (maggaŋ), 82, 180, 294; It iii. (v. l. ārām˚); Sn 488 = 509. Cp. ārādhaka 1. -- pp. ārādhita (q. v.). -- See also parābhetvā.


-- [Sk. ārāma, ā + ram] -- 1. pleasure, fondness of ( -- ˚), delight, always as adj. ( -- ˚) delighting in, enjoying, finding pleasure in (usually combd. with rata, e. g. dhammārāma dhammarata finding delight in the Dh.) S i.235; iv.389 sq. (bhav˚, upādān˚); A i.35, 37, 130; ii.28 (bhāvan˚); It 82 (dhamm˚); Sn 327 (id.; expld. by SnA 333 as rati and "dhamme ārāmo assā ti"); Pug 53 (samagg˚); Vbh 351. -- 2. a pleasure -- ground, park, garden (lit. sport, sporting); classified at Vin iii.49 as pupph˚ and phal˚ a park with flowers or with fruit (i. e. orchard), def. at DhA iii.246 as Veḷuvana -- Jīvakɔ ambavanɔ ādayo, i. e. the park of Veḷuvana, or the park belonging to Jīvaka or mango -- groves in general. Therefore: (a) (in general) a park, resort for pastime etc. Vin ii.109; D i. 106; Dh 188; Vv 795 (amb˚ garden of mangoes); VvA 305 (id.); Pv ii.78 (pl. ārāmāni = ārāmɔ űpavanāni PvA 102). -- (b) (in special) a private park, given to the Buddha or the Sangha for the benefit of the bhikkhus, where they meet & hold discussions about sacred & secular matters; a place of recreation and meditation, a meeting place for religious gatherings. Amongst the many ārāmas given to the bhikkhus the most renowned is that of Anāthapiṇḍika (Jetavana; see J i.92 -- 94) D i.178; Vin iv.69; others more frequently mentioned are e. g. the park of Ambapālī (Vin i.233); of Mallikā (D i.178), etc. -- Vin i.39, 140, 283, 291; ii.170; iii.6, 45, 162; iv.85; A ii.176; Dpvs v.18.
-- pāla keeper of a park or orchard, gardener Vin ii. 109; VvA 288. -- ropa, -- ropana planter, planting of pleasuregroves S i.33; PvA 151. -- vatthu the site of an Ārāma Vin i.140; ii. 170; iii.50, 90.


-- (f.) see ārāmika.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ārāma 1] pleasure, satisfaction A ii.28; iii.116; Vbh 381; Miln 233.


-- (adj.) [fr. ārāma] 1. (to ārāma 1) finding delight in, fond of (c. gen.) (or servant in general?) Miln 6 (sanghassa trsl. at the service of the order). -- 2. (to ārāma 2) belonging to an Ārāma, one who shares the congregation, an attendant of the Ārāma Vin i.207 sq.; ii.177 (& ˚pesaka), 211; iii.24; iv.40; v.204; A ii.78 (˚samaṇuddesa); iii.109 (id.), 275 (˚pesaka); J i.38 (˚kicca) Vism 74 (˚samaṇuddesa). -- f. ārāmakiṇī a female attendant or visitor of an Ārāma Vin i.208.


-- [cp. Sk. ārāva, fr. ā + ru] cry, sound, noise Dāvs iv.46.


-- (nt.) only in pl. gihīnaŋ ārahāni, things proper to laymen, D iii.163.


-- in anāriya at Sn 815 is metric for anariya (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [orig. pp of ā + rud] weeping, crying, lam- enting Miln 357.


-- (adj.) [fr. arūpa as ā (= a2) -- *rūpya] formless, incorporeal; nt. formless existence D iii.275; M i.410, cp. 472; iii.163; S i.131 (˚ṭṭhāyin); ii.123; A iv.316; It 61; Sn 754; J i.406; Dhs 1385 (cp. trsl. 57); Vism 338; DA i.224; SnA 488, 508; Sdhp 5, 10; the four: Vism iii, 326 sq.


-- [ā + ruh] to climb, ascend, go up or on to Sn 1014 (aor. āruhaŋ); Sdhp 188; ger. āruhitvā Sn 321 & āruyha J vi.452; Sn 139 (v. l. abhiruyha); It 71. <-> Caus. āropeti (q. v.).


-- see ārogya.


-- [pp. of āruhati] -- 1. ascended, mounted, gone up, gone on to iv.137; J vi.452 (T. āruḷha); Vism 135 (nekkhamma -- paṭipadaŋ an˚); VvA 64 (magga˚); PvA 47 (˚nāva), 56 (hatthi˚). -- 2. come about, effected, made, done PvA 2, 144 (cp. BSk. pratij˝ām ārūḍha having taken a vow Divy 26). -- 3. (of an ornament) put on (to), arrayed J vi.153, 488.


-- see āroha.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. a + roga + tā] freedom from illness, health Miln 341.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. aroga, i. e. ā (= a2) + roga + ya] absence of illness, health D i.11; iii.220 (˚mada), 235 (˚sampadā); M i.451 (T. ārūgya, v. l. ārogya), 508, 509; S ii.109; A i.146 (˚mada); ii.143; iii.72; v.135 sq.; Sn 749, 257 = Dh 204 = J iii.196; Nd1 160; Vism 77 (˚mada pride of health); PvA 129, 198; Sdhp 234.


-- (nt.) [fr. ārocāpeti, Caus. of āroceti] announ- cement DhA ii.167.


-- (Caus. II. of āroceti] to make some one announce, to let somebody know, usually in phrase kālaŋ ā. Sn p. 111; J i.115, 125; DhA ii.89; PvA 141.


-- [pp. of āroceti] announced, called Vin ii.213 (kāla).


-- [ā + roceti, Caus. of ruc; cp. BSk. ārocayati Sp. Av. Ś i.9 etc.] to relate, to tell, announce, speak to, address D i.109, 224; Pv ii.89 (aor, ārocayi); PvA 4, 13 [p109] (a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ anārocetvā not speaking to each other), 81, 274 & freq. passim. -- pp. ārocita; Caus. II. ārocāpeti (q. v.).

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-- (nt.) [fr. ā + rud, cp. āruṇṇa] crying, lamenting A iii.268 sq.; J i.34; DhA i.184; ii.100.


-- (nt.) [fr. āropeti] "putting on to", impaling Miln 197 (sūl˚), 290 (id.).


-- [pp. of āropeti] -- 1. produced, come forward, set up PvA 2. -- 2. effected, made S iii.12; PvA 92, 257. -- 3. put on (to a stake), impaled PvA 220 (= āvuta).


-- [Caus. of āruhati]. -- 1. to make ascend, to lead up to (w. acc.) PvA 76 (pāsādaŋ), 160 (id.) -- 2. to put on, take up to (w. acc. or loc.) Pv ii.92 (yakkhaŋ yānaŋ āropayitvāna); PvA 62 (sarīraŋ citakaŋ ā.), 100 (bhaṇḍaŋ sakaṭesu ā.). -- 3. to put on, commit to the care of, entrust, give over to (w. loc.) J i.227; PvA 154 (rajjaŋ amaccesu ā.). -- 4. to bring about, get ready, make PvA 73, 257 (sangahaŋ ā. make a collection); SnA 51, 142. <-> 5. to exhibit, tell, show, give S i.160 (ovādaŋ); Miln 176 (dosaŋ); DhA ii.75 (id.) -- 6. vādaŋ āropeti to refute a person, to get the better of (gen.) Vin i.60; M ii.122; S i.160. -- pp. āropita (q. v.).


-- ( -- ˚) [fr. ā + ruh] -- 1. climbing up, growth, in- crease, extent, in cpd. ˚pariṇāha length & circumference S ii.206; A i.288; ii.250; iv.397; v.19; J iii.192; v. 299; vi.20; Vbh 345 (˚māna + pariṇāha -- māna); SnA 382. -- 2. one who has climbed up, mounted on, a rider, usually in cpd. ass˚ & hatth˚ horse -- rider & elephantrider S iv.310; A ii.166 = iii.162 (T. ārūha); iv.107; DhsA 305. -- 3. outfit, possession (or increase, as 1?) Sn 420 (vaṇṇ˚).


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + ruh] climbing, ascending; ascent J i.70; vi.488; Miln 352; Vism 244; PvA 74.

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ālaka -- manda
-- [ālaya˚?] at Vin ii.152 is of uncertain reading and meaning ("open to view"? or "not having pegs" = āḷaka?) vv. ll. āḷakamanta & ālakamandāra; Bdhgh on p. 321 explns. āḷakamandā ti ekangaṇā manussÔbhikiṇṇā, i. e. full of a crowd of people, Ch. quotes ālakamandā as "the city of Kuvera" (cp. Sk. alakā).


[ā + Caus. of lag] to (make) hang on to (loc.), to stick on, fasten to Vin ii.110 (pattaŋ veḷagge ālaggetvā).


-- [ā + lapati] to address S i.177, 212; J v.201; SnA 42, 347, 383, 394 (= āmantayi of Sn 997), 487 (<-> avhayati); PvA 11, 13, 33, 69.


-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) [fr. ā + lap] talking to, addressing, conversation Vin iii.73 (with ref. to exclam. "ambho"); J v.253 (˚ā); Vism 23 (˚ā); SnA 396; PvA 131 (re ti ā.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ālapana] speaking to, conversing with, conversation M i.331) (an˚).


-- [Sk. ālamba, ā + lamb] anything to hang on, support S i.53 (an˚ without support); Sn 173 (id. + appatiṭṭha); J iii.396; Miln 343; Sdhp 245, 463.


-- [ā + lamb] to hang on to or up, to take hold of, to fasten to Vin i.28, J i.57; vi.192; Vv 8448; ThA 34. -- ālambeti id. VvA 32.


-- (adj. -- nt.) [fr. ā + lamb, cp. ālamba] (adj.) hanging down from, hanging up J iii.396; iv.457; SnA 214. -- (nt.) support, balustrade (or screen?) Vin ii.117, 152 (˚bāha) Miln 126.


-- & āḷambara (nt.) [Sk. āḍambara] a drum Vin i.15 (l); J ii.344 (ḷ); v.390 (l); Vv 5418 (ḷ).


-- (m. & nt.) [cp. Sk. ālaya, ā + , līyate, cp. allīna & allīyati, also nirālaya] -- 1. orig. roosting place, perch, i. e. abode settling place, house J i.10 (geh˚); Miln 213; DhA ii.162 (an˚ = anoka), 170 (= oka). -- 2. "hanging on", attachment, desire, clinging, lust S i.136 = Vin i.4 (˚rāma "devoted to the things to which it clings" K. S.); Vin iii.20, 111; S iv.372 (an˚); v.421 sq. (id.); A ii. 34, 131 (˚rāma); iii.35; It 88; Sn 177 (kām˚ = kāmesu taṇhā -- diṭṭhi -- vasena duvidho ālayo SnA 216), 535 (+ āsavāni), 635; Nett 121, 123 (˚samugghāta); Vism 293 (id.), 497; Miln 203 (Buddh ˚ŋ akāsi?); DhA i.121; iv.186 (= taṇhā); SnA 468 (= anoka of Sn 366). -- 3. pretence, pretext, feint [cp. BSk. ālaya M Vastu iii.314] J i.157 (gilān˚), 438; iii.533 (mat˚); iv.37 (gabbhinī); vi 20, 262 (gilān˚).


-- see allīyati.


-- (nt.) [Der. fr. alasa] sloth, idleness, laziness S i.43; D iii.182; A iv.59; v.136; Sdhp 567. Spelling also ālasya S i.43 (v. l. BB); Vbh 352; Miln 289, and ālasiya J i.427; DA i.310; DhA i.299; VvA 43.


-- & āḷāna -- (nt.) [for ānāhana with substitution of l for n (cp. apilandhana for apinandh˚ and contraction of ˚āhana to ˚āna originally meaning "tying to" then the thing to which anything is tied] a peg, stake, post, esp. one to which an elephant is tied J i.415; iv.308; DhA i.126 (ḷ) where all MSS. have āḷāhana, perhaps correctly.


-- ╣ (m. or f.? [Sk. āḷi] a certain kind of fish J v.405.


-- ▓ & āḷi (f.) [Sk. ālī] a dike, embankment Vin ii.256; M iii.96; A ii.166 (˚pabbheda); iii.28; J i.336; iii.533, 334.


-- in saccālika at S iv.306 is sacc˚alika distortion of truth, falsehood S iv.306.


-- [ā + likhati] to draw, delineate, copy in writing or drawing J i.71; Miln 51.


-- [ā + ling] a small drum J v.156 (suvaṇṇ˚ -- tala).


-- [ā + ling] to embrace, enfold D i.230; iii.73; J i.281; iv.21, 316, 438; v.8; Miln 7; DhA i.101: VvA 260.


-- [pp. of ālimpati; Sk. ālipta] besmeared, stained Th 1, 737.


-- (& āḷinda) [Sk. alinda] a terrace or verandah be- fore the house -- door Vin i.248; ii.153; D i.89; M ii.119; S iv.290 (ḷ); A v.65 (ḷ); J vi.429; DA i.252; DhA i. 26; iv.196; SnA 55 (˚ka -- vāsin; v. l. alindaka); Mhvs 35, 3. As ālindaka at J iii.283.


-- Pass. of ālimpeti (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [for āḷimp˚ = Sk. ādīpana, see ālimpeti2] conflagration, burning, flame Miln 43.


-- [pp. of ālimpeti2] ignited, lit. A iv.102 (v. l. ālepita).


-- ╣ [Sk. ālimpayati or ālepayati. ā + lip or limp] to smear, anoint Vin ii.107; S iv.177 (vaṇaŋ). -- Caus. II. ālimpāpeti Vin iv.316. -- Pass. ālimpīyati Miln 74 & ālippati DhA iv.166 (v. l. for lippati). -- pp. ālitta (q. v.).


-- ▓ [for Sk. ādīpayati, with change of d to l over ḷ and substitution of limp for ḷīp after analogy of roots in ˚mp, like lup > lump, lip > limp] to kindle, ignite, set fire to Vin ii.138 (dāyo ālimpetabbo); iii.85; D ii.163 (citakaŋ); A i.257; DhA i.177 (āvāsaŋ read āvāpaŋ), 225; PvA 62 (kaṭṭhāni). -- pp. ālimpita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [Sk. ālu & ˚ka; cognate with Lat. ālum & alium, see Walde Lat. Wtb. under alium] a bulbous plant, Radix [p110] Globosa Esculenta or Amorphophallus (Kern), Arum Campanulatum (Hardy) J iv.371 = vi.578; iv.373.

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-- ╣ = ālu J iv.46 (C. for ālupa).


-- ▓ (adj.) [etym.?] susceptiblÚ of, longing for, affected with ( -- ˚) Vin i.288 (sīt˚); DA i.198 (id.); J ii.278 (taṇh˚ greedy).


-- (nt.) [etym.? Kern, Toev. s. v. suggests ālu -- a > ālu- va > ālupa] = āluka the edible root of Amorphophallus Campanulatus J iv.46 (= āluka -- kaṇḍa C.).
the form āluva occurs at Ap 237.


-- [reading not sure, to ālumpati or ālopa] breaking off, falling off (?) or forming into bits(?) DhA ii.55 (˚gūtha).


-- [ā + lup or lump, cp. ālopa] to pull out, break off M i.324.


-- (adj. [fr. ā + lul] being in motion, confusion or agitation, disturbed, agitated J vi.431.


-- [ā + lul; Sk. ālolati, cp. also P. āloḷeti] to move here & there, ppr. med. āluḷamāna agitated, whirling about DhA iv.47 (T. ālūl˚; v. l. āḷul˚) confuse DhsA 375. Caus. āluḷeti to set in motion, agitate, confound J ii.9, 33. -- pp. āluḷita (q. v.).


-- [pp. of āluḷeti] agitated, confused J ii.101; Miln 397 (+ khalita).


-- [cp. Sk. ālepa, of ā + lip] ointment, salve, liniment Vin i.274; Miln 74; DhsA 249.


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + lip] anointing, application of salve D i.7 (mukkh˚).


-- [ā + lok, Sk. āloka] seeing, sight (obj. & subj.), i. e. -- 1. sight, view, look S iv.128 = Sn 763; A iii. 236 (āloke nikkhitta laid before one's eye). anāloka without sight, blind Miln 296 (andha +). -- 2. light A i. 164 (tamo vigato ā. uppanno) = It 100 (vihato); A ii. 139 (four lights, i.e. canda˚, suriya˚, agg˚, pa˝˝˚, of the moon, sun, fire & wisdom); J ii 34; Dhs 617 (opp. andhakāra); VvA 51 (dīp˚). -- 3. (clear) sight, power of observation, intuition, in combn. with vijjā knowledge D ii.33 = S ii.7 = 105, cp. Ps ii.150 sq. (obhāsaṭṭhena, S A. on ii.7). -- 4. splendour VvA 53; DvA 71.
-- kara making light, bringing light, n. light -- bringer It 108. -- karaṇa making light, illumining It 108. -- da giving light or insight Th 1, 3. -- dassana seeing light, i. e. perceiving Th 1, 422. -- pharaṇa diffusing light or diffusion of light Vbh 334; Nett 89. -- bahula good in sight, fig. full of foresight A iii.432. -- bhūta light J vi 459. -- sa˝˝ā consciousness or faculty of sight or perception D iii.223; A ii.45; iii.93 -- sa˝˝in conscious of sight, i. e. susceptible to sight or insight D iii.49; M iii.3; A ii 211; iii.92, 323; iv.437; v.207; Pug 69. -- sandhi "break for the light", a slit to look through, an opening, a crack or casement Vin i.48 = ii.209 = 218; ii.172; iii.65; iv.47; J iv.310; PvA 24.


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + lok] looking at, regarding DA i.194.


-- (nt.) [pp. of āloketi] looking before, looking at, looking forward (opp. vilokitaŋ looking behind or backward), always in combn. ālokita -- vilokita in ster. phrase at D i.70 = e. g. A ii.104, 106, 210; Pug 44, 45, 50; Vism 19; VvA 6; DA i.193 (ālokitaŋ purato pekkhanaŋ vil˚ anudisā p.).


-- [n. ag. to āloketi] one who looks forward or be- fore, a beholder DA i.194 (opp. viloketar).


-- [Sk. ālokayati, ā + lok] to look before, look at, regard, see DA i.193, 194. -- pp. ālokita (q. v.).


-- [ā + lup, cp. ālumpati; BSk. ālopa, e. g. Av. Ś i. 173, 341; Divy 290, 481] a piece (cut off), a bit (of food) morsel, esp. bits of food gathered by bhikkhus D i.5 = A v.206; iii.176; A ii 209; iii.304; iv.318; Th 1, 1055; It 18; Pv ii.17; Pug 58; Miln 231, 406; Vism 106; DA i.80 (= vilopa -- karaṇaŋ).


-- [ālopeti? ā + lopeti, Caus. of ālumpati] to break in, plunder, violate Th 1, 743.


-- (adj.) [ālopa + ika] getting or having, or con- sisting of pieces (of food) A i.295; ii.206; Pug 55.


-- [fr. ā + luḷ, cp. āluḷati & āloḷeti] confusion, uproar, agitation DhA i.38.


-- (f.) [a + luḷ] that which is stirred up, mud, in cpd. sītāloḷī mud or loam from the furrow adhering to the plough Vin i.206.


-- [Caus. of āluḷati, cp. āluḷeti] to confuse, mix, shake together, jumble S i.175; J ii.272, 363; iv.333; vi.331; Vism 105.


-- (or ˚ā f.) [Dimin of aḷa (?) or of ārā i (?). See Mor- ris J.P.T.S. 1886, 158] -- 1. a thorn, sting, dart, spike, used either as arrow -- straightener Miln 418; DhA i.288; or (perhaps also for piece of bone, fishbone) in making up a comb VvA 349 (˚sandhāpana = comb; how Hardy got the meaning of "alum" in Ind. to VvA is incomprehensible). -- 2 a peg, spike, stake or post (to tie an elephant to, cp. ālāna). Cp. ii.13.


-- = āḷambara Vv 189 = 5024. See ālambara.


-- (& ˚ika) (adj. -- n.) [= āṭavika] dwelling in forests, a forest -- dweller S ii.235. As Np. at Vism 208.


-- (adj.) at J v.81, 82 is corrupt & should with v. l. perhaps better be read advāraka without doors. Cp. Kern, Toev. 29 (ālāraka?). J v.81 has āḷāraka only.


-- (adj.) [= aḷāra or uḷāra or = Sk. arāla?] thick, mas- sed, dense or crooked, arched (?), only in cpd. ˚pamha with thick eyelashes Vv 6411 (= gopakhuma VvA 279); Pv iii.35 (= vellita -- dīgha -- nīla -- pamukha). Cp. alāra.


-- & ˚iya (adj. -- n.) [Sk. ārālika, of uncertain etym.] a cook D i.51 (= bhattakāraka DA i.157); J v.296 (= bhattakāraka C.); 307; vi.276 (˚iya, C. ˚ika = sūpika); Miln 331.


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + ḍah or dah, see dahati] a place of cremation, cemetery D i.55; J i.287 (here meaning the funereal fire) 402; iii.505; Pv ii.122; Vism 76; Miln 350; DA i.166; DhA i.26; iii.276; PvA 92, 161, 163 (= sarīrassa daḍḍha -- ṭṭhāna). -- Note. For āḷāhana in meaning "peg, stake" see ālāna.


-- at A iii.352, 384 (an˚) is preferably to be read āḷhika, see āḷhaka.


-- (nt.) = āḷhaka; only at A iii.52 (udak˚), where perhaps better with v. l. to be read as āḷhaka. The id. p. at A ii.55 has ālhaka only.


-- (m. & nt.) [Sk. āḍhaka, fr. *āḍha probably meaning "grain"] a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka˚). Its size is given by Bdhgh. at SnA 476 as follows: "cattāro patthā āḷhakāni doṇaŋ etc." -- udakāḷhaka S v.400; A ii.55 = iii.337; VvA 155. -- In other connections at J i.419 (aḍḍh˚); iii.541 (mitaŋ āḷhakena = dha˝˝a -- māpaka -- kammaŋ kataŋ C.); Miln 229 (patt˚); DhA iii.367 (aḍḍh˚). [p111] -- thālikā a bowl of the capacity of an āḷhaka Vin i. 240; A iii.369; DhA iii.370 (v. l. bhatta -- thālikā).

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-- (& āḷhika) (adj.) [fr. *āḷha, Sk. āḍhya, orig. pos- sessing grain, rich in grain, i. e. wealth; semantically cp. dha˝˝a2] rich, happy, fortunate; only in neg. anāḷhiya poor, unlucky, miserable M i.450; ii.178 (+ daḷidda); A iii.352 sq. (so read with v. l. BB. ˚āḷhika for T. ˚āḷika; combd. with daḷidda; v. l. SS. anaddhika); J v. 96, 97 (+ daḷidda; C. na āḷhika).




-- [ā + vajati, vraj] -- 1. to go into, to or towards J iii.434; iv.49, 107. -- 2. to return, come back J v.24, 479.


-- [not with Senart M Vastu 377 = ava + dhyā, but = Sk. āvṛṇakti ā + vṛj, with pres. act. āvajjeti = Sk. āvarjayati] -- 1. to reflect upon, notice, take in, advert to, catch (a sound), listen J i.81; ii.423; v.3; Miln 106. -- 2. to remove, upset (a vessel), pour out Vin i.286 (kumbhiŋ); J ii.102 (gloss āsi˝cati). -- Caus. āvajjeti (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. āvajjati, cp. BSk. āvarjana in diff. meaning] turning to, paying attention, apprehending; adverting the mind. -- See discussion of term at Cpd. 85, 227 (the C. derive āvajjana fr. āvaṭṭeti to turn towards, this confusion being due to close resemblance of jj and ṭṭ in writing); also Kvu trsl. 221 n. 4 (on Kvu 380 which has āvaṭṭanā), 282 n. 2 (on Kvu 491 āvaṭṭanā). -- Ps ii.5, 120; J ii.243; Vbh 320; Miln 102 sq.; Vism 432; DA i.271.


-- [pp. of āvajjeti cp. BSk. āvarjita, e. g. Divy 171; Itin 221] bent, turned to, inclined; noticed, observed Miln 297; Vism 432 (citta); Sdhp 433.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. āvajjita] inclination of mind, observation, paying attention Ps ii.27 sq.


-- [Caus. of āvajjati] 1. to turn over, incline, bend M iii.96; J iv.56 (so read for āvijjhanto); DA i.10 (kāyaŋ). <-> 2. to incline (the mind); observe, reflect, muse, think, heed, listen for. According to Cpd. 227 often paraphrased in C. by pariṇāmeti. -- J i.69, 74, 81, 89, 108, 200; Miln 297; DhA ii.96; PvA 181 (= manasikaroti). -- 3. to cause to yield A iii.27 (perhaps better āvaṭṭ˚). <-> pp. āvajjita (q. v.).


-- [Sk. āvṛta, pp. of ā + vṛ] covered, veiled, shut off against, prohibited D i.97, 246; M i.381 (˚dvāra); J vi.267. -- anāvaṭa uncovered, unveiled, exposed, open D i.137 (˚dvāra); iii.191 (˚dvāratā); S i.55; J v.213; Pv iii.64; Miln 283. Cp. āvuta2 & vy˚.


-- (adj. -- n.) [Sk. āvarta, ā + vṛt] -- 1. turning round, winding, twisting M i.382; S i.32 (dvi -- r -- ā˚ turning twice); J ii.217; SnA 439 (˚gangā). -- 2. turned, brought round, changed, enticed M i.381; DhA ii.153. -- 3. an eddy, whirlpool, vortex M i.461 = A ii.123 (˚bhaya); Miln 122, 196, 377. -- 4. circumference J v.337; Dāvs v.24; DhA iii 184.


-- [= āvattati] in phrase ā. vivaṭṭati to turn forward & backward Vism 504.


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + vṛt, cp. āvaṭṭa 2 and āvaṭṭanin] turning, twisting; enticement, snare, temptation J iii.494; DhA ii.153.


-- (f.) [most likely for āvajjana. q. v. & see also Kvu trsl. 221, 282] turning to (of the mind), adverting, apprehending Kvu 380, 491.


-- (adj.) [fr. āvaṭṭana] turning (away or towards), changing, tempting, enticing M i.375, 381; A ii.190; J ii.330 = iv.471; DA i.250. -- Cp. etymologically the same, but semantically diff. āvattanin.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. āvaṭṭa instead of āvaṭṭana] only at M i.91 in neg. an˚ not enticed by (loc.), i. e. kāmesu. <-> Cp. āvattin.


-- [ā + vatteti, Caus. of vṛt, cp. BSk. āvartayati to employ spells Divy 438] to turn round, entice, change, convert, bring or win over M i.375, 381, 383, 505; A iii.27; DA i.272.


-- ╣ (adj.) [pp. of āvattati] gone away to, fallen back to, in phrase hīnāyɔāvatta (see same phrase under āvattati) M i.460; S ii.50; J i.206.


-- ▓ (nt.) [Sk. āvarta, of ā + vṛt, cp. āvaṭṭa[ winding, turn, bent J i.70 (in a river); Nett 81 (v. l. āvaṭṭa?), 105 (˚hārasampāta).


-- (adj.) [āvatta + ka] turning, in dakkhiṇ˚ turning to the right, dextrorsal D ii.18; cp. dakkhiṇÔvatta at DA i.259.


-- [ā + vattati, of vṛt] to turn round, come to, go back, go away to, turn to; only in phrase hīnāya āvattati to turn to "the low", i. e. to give up orders & return to the world Vin i.17; M i.460; S ii.231; iv.191; Sn p. 92 (= osakkati SnA 423); Ud 21; Pug 66; Miln 246. <-> pp. āvatta (q. v.). Cp. āvaṭṭati.


-- (adj. -- nt.) [Sk. āvartana] turning; turn, return Nett 113; Miln 251.


-- (adj.) [fr. āvattana] turning round or back Th 1, 16 (cp. āvaṭṭanin).


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. āvatta, cp. āvaṭṭin in diff. meaning] returning, coming back, one who returns, in spec. meaning of one who comes back in transmigration, syn. with āgāmin (an˚), only in neg. anāvattin not returning, a non -- returner, with ˚dhamma not liable to return at D i. 156; iii.132; S v.346, 357, 376, 406; M i.91; DA i.313.


-- (adj.) [ā + vatthika] befitting, original, inherent (one of the 4 kinds of nomenclature) Vism 210 = KhA 107.


-- [a + vap] to give away, to offer, to deposit as a pledge Miln 279.


-- (nt.) [fr. āvapati] sowing, dispersing, offering,de- positing, scattering J i.321.


-- (adj.) [fr. ā + vṛ] obstructing, keeping off from J v.325 (so to be read in ariya -- magg -- Ôvara).


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. ā + vṛ, cp. āvarati; BSk. āvaraṇa in pa˝cɔ āvaraṇāni Divy 378] shutting off, barring out, withstanding; nt. hindrance, obstruction, bar Vin i.84 (˚ŋ karoti to prohibit, hinder); ii.262 (id.); D i.246 (syn. of pa˝ca nīvaraṇāni); S v.93 sq.; A iii.63; J i.78 (an˚); v.412 (nadiŋ ˚ena bandhāpeti to obstruct or dam off the river); Sn 66 (pahāya pa˝cɔ āvaraṇāni cetaso, cp. Nd2 379), 1005 (an˚ -- dassāviṇ); Ps i.131 sq.; ii.158 (an˚); Pug 13; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 341, 342; Miln 21 (dur˚ hard to withstand or oppose). -- dant˚ "screen of the teeth", lip J iv.188; vi.590.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. āvaraṇa] keeping away from, withholding from A iii 436.


-- (adj.) [grd. fr. āvarati], M i.273; an˚ not to be obstructed, impossible to obstruct M iii.3; Miln 157.


-- [ā + vṛ, cp. āvuṇāti] to shut out from (abl.), hold back from, refuse, withhold, obstruct M i.380 (dvāraŋ); Sn 922 (pot. ˚aye, cp. Nd1 368); DA i.235 (dvāraŋ); Dpvs i.38. -- pp. āvaṭa and āvuta2 (q. v.).


-- (f.) [cp. Sk. āvalī & see valī] a row, range J v.69; DA i.140.

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-- [ā + vas] to live at or in, to inhabit, reside, stay M ii.72; S i.42; Sn 43, 805, 1134; Nd1 123, 127; Nd2 133; J vi.317. -- pp. āvuttha (q. v.).


-- [Sk. āvasatha, fr. ā + vas] dwelling -- place, ha- bitation; abode, house, dwelling Vin i 226 (˚Ôgāra restinghouse); iv.304 (= kavāṭabaddha); S i.94, 229; iv.329; Sn 287, 672; J iv.396; vi.425; Pug 51; Miln 279.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. ā + vah] bringing, going, causing Pv ii.924 (sukh˚); Vv 2211 (id); Dāvs ii.37; PvA 86 (upakār˚), 116 (anatth˚); Sdhp 15, 98, 206.


-- [ā + vahati] to bring, cause, entail, give S i.42 = Sn 181, 182 (āvahāti sukhaŋ metri causā); J iii.169; v. 80; Sn 823; Nd1 302; PvA 6. -- Pass. āvuyhati VvA 237 (ppr. ˚amāna).


-- (adj) ( -- ˚) [= āvaha] bringing, causing Th 1, 519; Sn 256.


-- (adj. -- nt) [= āvahana] one who brings VvA 114 (sukhassa).


-- (misery, misfortune) see avā.


-- [etym.?] a hole dug in the ground, a pit, a well D i.142 (ya˝˝˚); J i.99, 264; ii 406; iii.286; iv 46 (caturassa); vi.10; DhA i.223; VvA 63; PvA 225.


-- [if correct, fr. ā + 2 to blow with caus. p. -- Cp. J R A S. 1898, 750 sp.] a potter's furnace DhA i.177 (read for āvāsa?), 178.


-- [Sk. āvāra, fr. ā + vṛ] warding off, protection, guard J vi 432 (yanta -- yutta˚, does it mean "cover, shield"?). <-> For cpd. khandhɔāvāra see khandha.


-- [Sk. āvārayati, ā + Caus. of vṛ] to ward off, hold back, bar, S iv 298; Nett 99.


-- [Sk. āvāsa; ā + vas] sojourn, stay, dwelling, living; dwelling -- place, residence Vin i.92; D iii.234; S iv.91; A ii 68, 168; iii.46, 262; Sn 406; Dh 73 (cp. DhA ii.77); Nd1 128; J vi.105; Dhs 1122; Pug, 15, 19, 57; KhA 40; DhA i.177 (āvāsaŋ ālimpeti: read āvāpaŋ); PvA 13, 14, 36; VvA 113; Sdhp 247. -- anāvāsa (n. & adj.) uninhabited, without a home; an uninhabited place A iv.345; J ii.77; Pv ii.333; PvA 80 (= anāgāra); VvA 46.
-- kappa the practice of (holding Uposatha in different) residence (within the same boundary) Vin ii.294, 300, 306; Dpvs iv.47, cp. v.18. -- palibodha the obstruction of having a home (in set of 10 Palibodhas) KhA 39; cp. Vism 90 sq. -- sappāyatā suitability of residence Vism 127.


-- (adj.) [āvāsa + ika] living in, residing at home, being in (constant or fixed) residence, usually appld. to bhikkhus (opp. āgantuka) Vin i.128 sq.; ii.15, 170; iii. 65; v.203 sq.; M i.473; A i.236; iii.261 sq., 366; J iv.310; Pv iv.84 (= nibaddha -- vasanaka PvA 267).


-- [ā + vah] taking in marriage, lit. carrying away to oneself, marriage D i.99; J vi.363; SnA 273, 448; DhA iv.7. Often in cpd. ā˚ vivāha(ka) lit. leading to (one's home) & leading away (from the bride's home), wedding feast D iii.183 (˚ka); J i.452; VvA 109, 157. (v. l. ˚ka).


-- (nt.) [ā + vshana, of vah] -- 1. = āvāha, i. e. marriage, taking a wife D i.11 (= āvāha -- karaṇa DA i. 96). -- 2. "getting up, bringing together", i. e. a mass, a group or formation, in senā˚ a contingent of an army J iv.91.


-- (adv.) [Sk. āviḥ, to Gr. a)i/w to hear, Lat. audio (fr. *auizdiō) to hear] clear, manifest, evident; openly, before one's eyes, in full view. Only in phrase āvi vā raho openly or secret A v.350, 353; Pv ii.716 = DhA iv.21 (āvī v. l.), expld. at PvA 103 by pakāsanaŋ paresaŋ pākaṭavasana. Otherwise in foll. cpds. (with kar & bhū): ˚kamma making clear, evidence, explanation Vin ii.88; iii.24; Pug 19, 23; ˚karoti to make clear, show, explain D iii.121; Sn 84, 85, 349; J v.457; Pug 57; VvA 79, 150; ˚bhavati (˚bhoti) to become visible or evident, to be explained, to get clear J i.136; Vism 287 (fnt. āvibhavissati); DhA ii.51, 82; bhāva appearance, manifestation D i.78; A iii.17; J ii.50, 111; Vism 390 sq. (revelation, opp. tirobhāva). Cp. pātur.


-- (āvi˝jati, āvi˝chati) [ā + vijjhati of vyadh to pierce; thus recognised by Morris J P T S. 1884, 72, against Trenckner, Notes 59 (to pi˝j) & Hardy Nett. Ind. = vicchāy] -- 1. to encircle, encompass, comprise, go round, usually in ger. āvijjhitvā (w. acc.) used as prep. round about, near J i.153 (khettaŋ), 170 (pokkharaṇiŋ); DA i.245 (nagaraŋ bahi avijjhitvā round the outer circle of the town). Ordinarily = go round (acc.) at J iv.59 (chārika -- pu˝jaŋ). -- 2. [as in lit. Sk.] to swing round, brandish, twirl, whirl round Vin iii.127 (daṇḍaŋ āvi˝ji); M iii.141 (matthena āvi˝jati to churn); J i.313; v.291 (cakkaŋ, of a potter's wheel); SnA 481 (T. āvi˝j˚, v. l. āvijjh˚; see āracaya˚); DhA ii.277 (āvi˝chamāna T.; v. l. āsi˝ciy˚, āvajiy˚, āga˝ch˚). -- 3. to resort to, go to, approach, incline to S iv.199 (T. āvi˝ch˚; v. l. avicch˚ & āvi˝j˚); Nett 13. -- 4. to arrange, set in order J ii.406. <-> 5. to pull (?) A iv.86 (kaṇṇasotani āvijjeyyāsi, v. l. āvijj˚, āvi˝j˚, āvicc˚, āvi˝ch˚; cp. Trenckner, Notes 59 āvi˝jati "to pull"). -- pp. āviddha (q. v.).


-- (so for āvi˝chana & āvi˝jana) (adj. -- n.) [fr. āvijj- hati, lit. piercing through, i. e. revolving axis] -- 1. (= āvijjhati 2) swinging round, hanging loose, spinning in āvijjhana -- rajju a loose, rope, esp. in mythology the swinging or whirling rope by which Sakka holds the world's wheel or axis, in the latter sense at DhA ii.143 (T. āvi˝ch˚ (v. l. āvijj˚) = iii.97, 98 (where āvi˝janaṭṭhāna for ˚rajju). Otherwise a rope used in connection with the opening & shutting of a door (pulling rope?) Vin ii.120, 148; J v.298, 299 (T. āvi˝j˚, v. l. āvicch˚ & āvij˚). -- 2. (cp. āvijjhati 3) going to, approach, contact with DhsA 312 (˚rasa, T. āvi˝j˚, v. l. āvi˝ch˚; or is it "encompassing"? = āvijjhati 1 ?); Vism 444 (āvi˝janarasa). -- 3. (cp. āvijjhati 5) pulling, drawing along Vin iii.121 (= ākaḍḍhanā nāma).


-- (nt.) [fr. āvijjhati in meaning 2] whirling round, that which spins round, the whirling -- round wheel (or pole) of the world (cp. the potter's wheel), the worldaxis DhA ii.146 (T. āvi˝ch˚).


-- [pp. of āvijjhati 2, cp. BSk. āviddha in meaning curved, crooked Av. S i.87 Lal. V. 207] whirling or spinning round, revolving; swung round, set into whirling motion J iv.6 (cakkaŋ = kumbhakāra -- cakkam iva bhamati C.); v.291. What does an -- āviddha at PvA 135 mean?


-- (adj.) [is it a haplological contraction from ā + vi + lul to roll about?] stirred up, agitated, disturbed, stained, soiled, dirty A i.9; iii.233; J v.16, 90 (ābila); Nd1 488 (+ luḷita), 489; ThA 251; DA i.226. More frequent as anāvila undisturbed, clean, pure, serene D i.76; S iii. 83; iv,118; A i.9; iii.236; Sn 160; Dh 82, 413; J iii. 157; Miln 35; VvA 29, 30; ThA 251.


-- [fr. āvila or is it a direct contraction of ā + vi + lulati?] to whirl round, to be agitated, to be in motion Miln 259 (+ luḷati).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. āvila] confusion, disturbance, agita- tion Sn 967; Nd1 488.


-- [ā + vīś] to approach, to enter Vin iv.334; Sn 936 (aor. āvisi); J iv.410, 496; Vism 42.

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-- [in form = *avṛṇoti, ā + vṛ, cp. āvarati, but in meaning = *āvayati, ā + to weave, thus a confusion of the two roots, the latter being merged into the former] to string upon, to fix on to (c. loc.), to impale J i.430; iii.35; v.145; vi.105. -- Caus. II. āvuṇāpeti J iii.218 (sūle). -- pp. āvuta1 (q. v.), whereas the other pp. āvaṭa is the true derivative of ā + vṛ.


-- ╣ [pp. of āvuṇāti in meaning of Sk. āvayati, the cor- responding Sk. form being ā + uta = ota] -- 1. strung upon, tied on, fixed on to D i.76 (suttaŋ); ii.13 (id.); A i.286 (tantāvutaŋ web); J iii.52 (valliyā); vi.346 (suttakena); DA i.94 (˚sutta). -- 2. impaled, stuck on (sūle on the pale) J i.430; iii.35; v.497; vi.105; PvA 217, 220.


-- ▓ = āvaṭa (see āvuṇāti & āvuta1) covered, obstructed, hindered It 8 (mohena); also in phrase āvuta nivuta ophuta etc. Nd1 24 (ṭ) = Nd2 365 = DA i.59.


-- [pp. of āvasati] inhabited D ii.50 (an˚); S i.33.


-- (nt.) [Vedic āyudha, fr. ā + yudh to fight] an instrument to fight with, a weapon, stick etc. D iii 219; M ii.100; A iv.107, 110; Sn 1008; J i.150; ii.110; iii. 467; iv.160, 283, 437; Nd2 on Sn 72; Miln 8, 339; DhA ii.2; iv.207; SnA 225, 466 (˚jīvika = issattha). See also āyudha.


-- ppr. of āvuyhati (Pass. of āvahati), being conveyed or brought VvA 237 (reading uncertain).


-- (voc. pl. m.) [a contracted form of āyusmanto pl. of āyusman, of which the regular Pāli form is āyasmant, with v for y as frequently in Pāli, e. g. āvudha for āyudha] friend, a form of polite address "friend, brother, Sir", usually in conversation between bhikkhus. The grammatical construction is with the pl. of the verb, like bhavaŋ and bhavanto. -- Vin ii.302; D i.151, 157; ii.8; SnA 227; DhA i.9; ii.93; PvA 12, 13, 38, 208.


āveṭhana (nt.)
-- [ā + veṭhana, veṣṭ] rolling up, winding up or round, fig. explanation Miln 28 (+ nibbeṭhana, lit. rolling up and rolling down, ravelling & unravelling), 231 (˚viniveṭhana).


-- [pp. of āveṭheti, ā + veṣṭ, cp. āvedhikā] turned round, slung round or over J iv.383 sq. (v. l. āvedhita & āveḷita, C. expls. by parivattita).


-- (adj) ( -- ˚) [according to Trenckner, Notes 75 fr. ā + vinā "Sine quā non", but very doubtful] special, peculiar, separate Vin ii.204 (˚uposatha etc.); J i.490 (˚sangha -- kammāni).


-- (adj.) [fr. āveṇi; cp. BSk. āveṇika Av. Ś i.14, 108; Divy 2, 182, 268, 302] special, extraordinary, exceptional S iv.239; A v.74 sq.; Vism 268; VvA 112 (˚bhāva peculiarity, specialty), KhA 23, 35.


-- (adj.) = āveṇika Vin i.71; J iv.358; vi.128.


-- [cp. Sk. āviddha, ā + pp. of vyadh] piercing, hole, wound J ii.276 (v. l. aveddha; C. = viddha -- ṭṭhāne vaṇa).


-- (adj. f. scil. pannā) [ā + vedhaka of āvedha, vyadh, but confused with āveṭh˚ of ā + veṣṭ, cp. āveṭhana & nibbedhaka] piercing, penetrating; or ravelling, turning, rolling up or round (cp. āvijjhati which is derived from ā + vyadh, but takes its meaning from āveṭheti), discrimination, thinking over J ii.9 (+ nibbedhikā, v. l. for both ṭh).


-- (adj. & ˚ā f.) [not with MŘller P.Gr. 10, 30, 37 = Sk. āpīḍa, but fr. ā + veṣṭh to wind or turn round, which in P. is represented by āveṭheti as well as āvijjhati; ḷ then standing for either ḍh (ṭh) or dh (āvedha, q. v.). There may have been an analogy influence through vell to move to and fro, cp. āveḷita. MŘller refers to āveḷā rightly the late dial. (Prk.) āmela] -- 1. turning round, swinging round; diffusion, radiation; protuberance, with reference to the rays of the Buddha at J i.12, 95, 501. <-> 2. (f.) a garland or other ornament slung round & worn over the head Vv 362 (ka˝can˚; = āveḷa -- pilandhana VuA 167). See āveḷin.


-- (ḷ?) [pp. of ā + vell, cp. āveḷa & BSk. āviddha curved, crooked Av. Ś i.87, Lal. V. 207] turned round, wound, curved J vi.354 (˚singika with curved horns, v. l. āvellita).


-- (adj.) [fr. āveḷā] wearing garlands or other head- ornaments, usually in f. ˚inī J v.409 (= kaṇṇālankārehi yuttā C.); Vv 302 (voc. āvelinī, but at id. p. 482 āveline), 323; VvA 125 (on Vv 302 expls. as ratana -- maya -- pupphɔ<-> āveḷavatī).


-- (nt.) [fr. āvisati] entrance; workshop; living -- place, house Vin ii 117 (˚vitthaka, meaning?); M ii 53; Pv ii.915.


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-- ╣ contr. -- form of aŋsa in cpd. koṭṭhāsa part., portion etc.: see aŋsa1. Can we compare BSk. āsapātrī (see next).


-- ▓ [Sk. āśa] food, only in cpd. pātarāsa morning food, breakfast Sn 387 (pāto asitabbo ti pātar -- āso piṇḍapātassɔ etaŋ nāmaŋ SnA 374); DhA iv.211; see further ref. under pātar; and pacchā -- āsa aftermath S i.74. Can we compare BSk. āsa -- pātrī (vessel) Divy 246? Der. fr. āsa is āsaka with abstr. ending āsakattaŋ "cating", food, in nānā˚ various food or na + anāsak˚) Sn 249. See also nirāsa, which may be taken either as nir + *āśa or nir + *āsā.


-- │ the adj. form of āsā (f.), wish, hope. See under āsā.


-- 4 archaic 3rd sg. perf. of atthi to be, only in cpd. itihāsa = iti ha āsa "thus it has been".


-- (adj.) [of *āśaŋsā, see next] hoping, expecting something, longing for A i.108 = Pug 27 (expld. by Pug A 208 as "so hi arahattaŋ āsaŋsati patthetī ti āsaŋso"); SnA 321, 336. Cp. nir˚.


-- [for the usual āsiŋsati, ā + śaŋs] to expect, hope for, wish Pug A 208 (= pattheti). See also āsamāna.


-- (f.) [from ā + śaŋs] wish, desire, expectation, hope J iv.92. -- Cp. nirāsaŋsa.


-- (adj.) [fr. āsaŋsā] full of expectation, longing, hankering after, Th 2, 273 (= āsiŋsanaka ThA 217; trsl. "cadging").


-- (adj.) [of āsa2] belonging to food, having food, only in neg. an˚ fasting S iv.118; Dh 141 (f. ā fasting = bhatta -- paṭikkhepa DhA iii.77); J v.17; vi.63.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. āsaka] having food, feeding, in an˚ fasting Sn 249 (= abhojana SnA 292).


-- [ā + śank] to be doubtful or afraid, to suspect, distrust, J i.151 (pret. āsankittha), 163 (aor. āsanki); ii. 203; SnA 298. -- pp. āsankita (q v.),


-- (f.) [Sk. āśankā fr. ā + śank] fear, apprehension, doubt, suspicion J i.338; ii.383; iii.533; vi.350, 370; DhA iii.485; VvA 110. -- Cp. sāsanka & nirāsanka.


-- (adj.) [pp. of āsankati] suspected, in fear, afraid, apprehensive, doubtful (obj. & subj.) Miln 173, 372 (˚parisankita full of apprehension and suspicion); DhA i.223; VvA 110. -- Cp. ussankita & parisankita.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. āsankā] fearing, anxious, apprehensive Sn 255 (bhedā˚); J iii.192 (id.).

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-- [ā + sanga fr. sa˝j to hang on, cp. Sk. āsanga & āsakti] -- 1. adhering, clinging to, attachment, pursuit J iv.11. -- 2. that which hangs on (the body), clothing, garment, dress; adj. dressed or clothed in ( -- ˚); usually in cpd. uttarāsanga a loose (hanging) outer robe e. g. Vin i.289; S iv.290; PvA 73; Vv┴ 33 (suddh˚), 51 (id.).


-- (adj.) [fr. āsanga] hanging on, attached to J iv.11.


-- (indecl.) [ger. of āsādeti, Caus. of āsīdati, ā + sad; Sk. āsādya] -- 1. sitting on, going to, approaching; allocated, belonging to; sometimes merely as prep. acc. "near" (cp. āsanna) Sn 418 (āsajja naŋ upāvisi he came up near to him), 448 (kāko va selaŋ ā. nibbijjāpema Gotamaŋ); J ii.95; vi.194; Miln 271. -- 2. put on to (lit. sitting or sticking on), hitting, striking S i.127 (khaṇuŋ va urasā ā. nibbijjapetha Gotamā "ye've thrust as 't were your breast against a stake. Disgusted, come ye hence from Gotama" trsl. p. 159; C. expls. by paharitvā, which comes near the usual paraphrase ghaṭṭetvā) <-> 3. knocking against or "giving one a setting -- to", insulting, offending, assailing D i.107 (ā. ā. avocāsi = ghaṭṭetvā DA i.276); A iii.373 (tādisaŋ bhikkhuŋ ā.); J v.267 (isiŋ ā. Gotamaŋ; C. p. 272 āsādetvā); Pv iv.710 (isiŋ ā. = āsādetvã PvA 266). -- 4. "sitting on", i. e. attending constantly to, persevering, energetically, with energy or emphasis, willingly, spontaneously M i.250; D iii.258 = A iv.236 (dānaŋ deti); Vv 106 (dānaŋ adāsiŋ; cp. VvA 55 samāgantvā). See āsada, āsādeti, āsīdeti, āsajjana.


-- (nt.) [fr. āsajja in meaning of no. 3] "knocking against", setting on, insult, offence Vin ii.203 (˚ŋ Tathāgataŋ an insult to the T.; quoted as such at VvA 55, where two meanings of ā. are given, corresponding to āsajja 1 & 3, viz. samāgama & ghaṭṭana, the latter in this quot.) = It 86 (so to be read with v. l.; T. has āpajja naŋ); S i.114 (apu˝˝aŋ pasavi Māro āsajjanaŋ Tathāgataŋ; trsl. "in seeking the T. to assail"); J v.208.


-- [from as] to sit DA i.208; h. sg. āsi S i.130. - pp. āsīna (q. v.).


-- ╣ [pp. of ā + sa˝j] (a) lit. hanging on, in phrase kaṇṭhe āsatto kuṇapo a corpse hanging round one's neck M i.120; J i.5. -- (b) fig. attached to, clinging to J i. 377 (+ satta lagga); ThA 259 (an˚).


-- ▓ [pp. of ā + śap] accursed, cursed J v.446 (an˚).


-- (f.) [ā + sa˝j] attachment, hanging on (w. loc.), dependence, clinging Vin ii.156 = A i.138; S i.212; Sn 777 (bhavesu); Nd1 51, 221; Nett 12, 128. -- Cp. nirāsattin.


-- [ā + sad; cp. āsajja & āsādeti] -- 1. approach, dealing with, business with (acc.), concern, affair, means of acting or getting Vin ii.195 = J v.336 (mā ku˝jara nāgam āsado); M i.326 (metaŋ āsado = mā etaŋ āsado do not meddle with this, lit., be not this any affair); J i 414 (cakkaŋ āsado you have to do with the wheel; interpreted as adj. in meaning patto = finding, getting); vi.528 (interpreted as ankusa a hook, i. e. means of getting something). -- 2. (as adj.) in phrase durāsada hard to sit on, i. e. hard to get at, unapproachable, difficult to attack or manage or conquer Sn p. 107 (cp. SnA 451); J vi.272; Vv 5016 (= anupagamanīyato kenaci pi anāsādanīyato ca durāsado VvA 213); Miln 21; Dpvs v.21; vi.38; Sdhp 384.


-- ╣ (nt.) [from āsati] sitting, sitting down; a seat, throne M i.469; Vin i.272 (= pallankassa okāsa); S i.46 (ek˚ sitting alone, a solitary seat); A iii.389 (an˚ without a seat); Sn 338, 718, 810, 981; Nd1 131; J iv.435 (āsān' űdaka -- dāyin giving seat & drink); v.403 (id.); vi.413; DhA ii.31 (dhamm˚ the preacher's seat or throne); SnA 401; PvA 16, 23, 141.
-- Ôbhihara gift or distinction of the seat J i.81. -- űpagata endowed with a seat, sitting down Sn 708 (= nisinna SnA 495). -- pa˝˝āpaka one who appoints seats Vin ii.305. -- paṭikkhitta one who rejects all seats, or objects to sitting down D i.167; A i.296; ii.206; Pug 55. -- sālā a hall with seating accommodation Vism 69; DhA ii. 65; iv.46.


-- ▓ (?) eating Vism 116 (visam˚, cp. visam -- āsita Miln 302). See, however, māsana.


-- (nt.) [āsana + ka] a small seat Vv 15.


-- (adj.) [fr. āsana] having a seat; in ek˚ sitting by oneself Vism 69.


-- (f.) [fr. ā + sad] an extra long chair, a deck -- chair Vin i.192; ii.142, 163, 169, 170; D i.7 (= pamāṇÔtikkant' āsanaŋ DA i.86), 55 = M i.515 = S iii.307 (used as a bier) A i.181; J i.108. See note at Dial. i.11.


-- (f.) fr. āsandi] a small chair or tabouret Vin ii. 149; KhA 44.


-- (adj.) [pp. of ā + sad, see āsīdati] near (cp. āsajja1), opp. dūra J ii.154; DhA ii 91; PvA 42, 243.


-- (fr.) [fr. + sṛp] lit. "creeping on to", doubt, mistrust, always combd. with parisappanā Nd3 1; Dhs 1004 (trsl. "evasion", cp. Dhs trsl. p 116), 1118, 1235; DA i.69.


-- [the guṇa -- and compn. form of usabha, corresponding to Sk. ārṣabha > ṛṣabha, see usabha] (in compn.) a bull, peculiar to a bull, bull -- like, fig. a man of strong & eminent qualities, a hero or great man, a leader, thus in tār˚ Sn 687; nar˚ Sn 684, 696; āsabha -- camma bull's hide J vi. 453 (v. l. usabha˚).
-- ṭṭhāna (as āsabhaṇṭhāna) "bull's place", first place, distinguished position, leadership M i.69; S ii.27; A ii.8 (C. seṭṭha -- ṭṭhāna uttama -- ṭṭhāna); iii.9; v.33 sq.; DA i. 31; KhA 104.


-- (adj.) [fr. āsabha] bull -- like, becoming to a bull, lordly, majestic, imposing, bold; only in phrase ˚ŋ vācaŋ bhāsati "speak the lordly word" D ii.15, 82; M iii.123j J i.53; DA i.91; cp. Dāvs i.28 (nicchārayi vācaŋ āsabhiŋ).


-- (adj.) [ppr. of āsaŋsati or āsiŋsati, for the usual earlier āsasāna] wishing, desiring, hoping, expecting Vv 846 (kiŋ ā = kiŋ paccāsiŋ santo VvA 336); Pv iv.124 (= āsiŋsamāna patthayamana PvA 226).


-- [ā + śī, cp. in similar meaning & derivation anusaya. The semantically related Sk. āśraya from ā + śri is in P. represented by assaya. Cp. also BSk. āśayataḥ intentionally, in earnest Divy 281; Av. Ś ii.161] -- 1. abode, haunt, receptacle; dependence on, refuge, support, condition S i.38; Vin iii.151; J ii.99; Miln 257; VvA 60; PvA 210; jal˚ river VvA 47; Pgdp 80; adj. depending on, living in ( -- ˚) Miln 317; Nd1 362 (bil˚, dak˚ etc.). See also āmāsaya, pakkāsaya. -- 2. (fig.) inclination, intention, will, hope; often combd. & compared with anusaya (inclination, hankering, disposition), e. g. at Ps i. 133; ii.158; Vbh 340; Vism 140 (˚posana); PvA 197. <-> SnA 182 (˚vipatti), 314 (˚suddhi), KhA 103 (˚sampatti). Cp. nirāsaya. -- 3. outflow, excretion Pv iii.53 (gabbh˚ = gabbha -- mala PvA 198); Vism 344.


-- [ā + śī; lit. "lie on", cp. Ger. anliegen & Sk. āśaya = Ger. Angelegenheit] to wish, desire, hope, intend J iv.291 (grd. āsāyana, gloss esamāna). See āsaya.


-- [fr. ā + sru, would corresp. to a Sk. *āsrava, cp. Sk. āsrāva. The BSk. āśrava is a (wrong) sankritisation of the Pāli āsava, cp. Divy 391 & kṣīnāśrava] that which [p115] flows (out or on to) outflow & influx. 1. spirit, the intoxicating extract or secretion of a tree or flower, O. C. in Vin iv.110 (four kinds); B. on D iii.182 (five kinds) DhsA 48; KhA 26; J iv.222; vi.9. -- 2. discharge from a sore, A i.124, 127 = Pug 30. -- 3. in psychology, t.t. for certain specified ideas which intoxicate the mind (bemuddle it, befoozle it, so that it cannot rise to higher things). Freedom from the "Āsavas" constitutes Arahantship, & the fight for the extinction of these āsavas forms one of the main duties of man. On the difficulty of translating the term see Cpd. 227. See also discussion of term āsava (= āsavantī ti āsavā) at DhsA 48 (cp. Expositor pp. 63 sq). See also Cpd. 227 sq., & especially Dhs trsl. 291 sq. -- The 4 āsavas are kām˚, bhav˚, diṭṭh˚, avijj˚, i. e. sensuality, rebirth (lust of life), speculation and ignorance. -- They are mentioned as such at D ii.81, 84, 91, 94, 98, 123, 126; A i.165 sq., 196; ii.211; iii.93, 414; iv.79; Ps i.94, 117; Dhs 1099, 1448; Nd2 134; Nett 31, 114 sq. -- The set of 3, which is probably older (kāma˚, bhava˚, avijjā˚) occurs at M i. 55; A i.165; iii.414; S iv.256; v.56, 189; It 49; Vbh 364. For other connections see Vin i.14 (anupādāya āsavehi cittani vimucciŋsu), 17, 20, 182; ii.202; iii.5 (˚samudaya, ˚nirodha etc.); D i.83, 167; iii.78, 108, 130, 220, 223, 230, 240, 283; M i.7 sq., 23, 35, 76, 219, 279, 445 (˚ṭhāniya); ii.22; iii.72, 277; S ii.187 sq. (˚ehi cittaŋ vimucci); iii.45 (id.); iv.107 (id.), 20; v.8, 28, 410; A i.85 sq. (vaḍḍhanti), 98, 165 (˚samudaya, ˚nirodha etc.), 187; ii.154 (˚ehi cittaŋ vimuttaŋ), 196; iii.21, 93 (˚samudaya, ˚nirodha etc.), 245, 387 sq., 410, 414; iv.13, 146 (˚pariyādāna end of the ā.), 161 (˚vighāta -- pariḷāha); v.70, 237; Th 2, 4, 99, 101 (pahāsi āsave sabbe); Sn 162, 374, 535 (pl. āsavāni), 546, 749, 915, 1100; Dh 93, 253, 292; Nd1 331 (pubb˚); Vbh 42, 64, 426; Pug 11, 13, 27, 30 sq.; Miln 419; DhsA 48; ThA 94, 173; KhA 26; DA i 224; Sdhp 1; Pgdp 65 (piyāsava -- surā, meaning?).
Referring specially to the extinction (khaya) of the āsavas & to Arahantship following as a result are the foll. passages: (1) āsavānaŋ khaya D i.156; S ii.29, 214; iii 57, 96 sq, 152 sq; iv.105, 175; v.92, 203, 220, 271, 284; A i.107 sq., 123 sq., 232 sq., 273, 291; ii.6, 36, 44 sq., 149 sq., 214; iii 69, 114, 131, 202, 306, 319 sq.; iv.83 sq., 119, 140 sq., 314 sq.; v.10 sq., 36, 69, 94 sq, 105, 132, 174 sq., 343 sq.; It 49; Pug 27, 62; Vbh 334, 344; Vism 9; DA i.224; cp. ˚parikkhaya A v 343 sq. See also arahatta formula C. -- (2) khīṇāsava (adj.) one whose Āsavas are destroyed (see khīṇa) S i.13, 48, 53, 146; ii 83, 239; iii.199, 128, 178; iv.217; A i 77, 109, 241, 266; iv.120, 224, 370 sq.; v 40, 253 sq.; Ps ii 173; cp. parikkhīṇā āsavā A iv.418, 434, 451 sq.; āsavakhīṇa Sn 370. -- (3) anāsava (adj.) one who is free from the āsavas, an Arahant Vin ii.148 = 164; D iii.112; S i 130; ii.214, 222; iii.83; iv.128; A i.81, 107 sq., 123 sq., 273, 291; ii.6, 36, 87, 146; iii.19, 29, 114, 166; iv.98, 140 sq., 314 sq., 400; A v.10 sq., 36, 242, 340; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Th i.100; It 75; Nd2 44; Pv ii.615; Pug 27; Vbh 426; Dhs 1101, 1451; VvA 9. Cp. nirāsava ThA 148. -- Opp. sāsava S iii 47; v.232; A i.81 v.242; Dhs 990; Nett 10; Vism 13, 438.

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-- [ā + sru, cp. Sk. āsravati; its doublet is assavati] to flow towards, come to, occur, happen Nett 116.


-- [either grd. for *āsaŋsāna or contracted form of ppr. med. of āsaŋsati (= āsiŋsati) for *asaŋsamāna] hoping, wishing, desiring, longing for Sn 369 (an˚; SnA 365 however reads āsayāna), 1090; Th 1, 528; J iv.18 (= āsiŋsanto C.), 381; v.391 (= āsiŋsanto C.). See anāsasāna, āsaŋsati, āsamāna & āsayāna.


-- (f.) [cp. Sk. āśaḥ f.] expectation, hope, wish, longing, desire; adj. āsa ( -- ˚) longing for, anticipating, desirous of Vin i.255 (˚avacchedika hope -- destroying), 259; D ii. 206; iii.88; M iii.138 (āsaŋ karoti); A i.86 (dve āsā), 107 (vigat -- āso one whose longings have gone); Sn 474, 634, 794, 864; J i.267, 285; v.401; vi.452 (˚chinna = chinnāsa C.); Nd1 99, 261, 213 sq; Vv 3713 (perhaps better to be read with v. l. SS ahaŋ, cp. VvA 172); Pug 27 (vigat˚ = arahattāsāya vigatattā vigatāso Pug A 208); Dhs 1059 (+ āsiŋsanā etc.), 1136; PvA 22 (chinn˚ disappointed), 29 (˚Ôbhibhūta), 105; Dāvs v.13; Sdhp 78, 111, 498, 609.


-- (f.) [cp. Mārāṭhi āsāḍī] a fly's egg, a nit M i.220 sq.; A v.347 sq., 351, 359; Nett 59; J iii.176.


-- [Caus. of āsīdati, ā + sad; cp. āsajja & āsanna] - 1. to lay hand on, to touch, strike; fig. to offend, assail, insult M i.371; J i.481; v.197; aor. āsādesi Th 1, 280 (mā ā. Tathāgate); ger. āsādetvā J v.272; Miln 100, 205 (˚ayitvā); PvA 266 (isiŋ), āsādiya J v.154 (āsādiya metri causa; isiŋ, cp. āsajja3), & āsajja (q. v.); infin. āsāduŋ J v.154 & āsādituŋ ibid.; grd. āsādanīya Miln 205; VvA 213 (an˚). -- 2. to come near to (c. acc.), approach, get J iii.206 (khuracakkaŋ).


-- & āsāḷhī (f.) [Sk. āṣāḍha] N. of a month (June- July) and of a Nakkhatta; only in compn. as Āsaḷha˚ & Āsaḷhi˚, viz. ˚nakkhatta J i.50; SnA 208; ˚puṇṇamā J i.63; DhA i.87; SnA 199; VvA 66; PvA 137; ˚māsa SnA 378 (= vassűpanāyikāya purimabhāge A.); VvA 307 (= gimhānaŋ pacchimo māso).


-- (f.) N. of a creeper (growing at the celestial grove Cittalatā) J iii.250, 251.


-- [cp. Sk. āśāsati & āśāsti, ā + śās] to pray for, expect, hope; confounded with śaŋs in āsaŋsati & āsiŋsati (q. v.) & their derivations. -- pp. āsiṭṭha (q. v.).


-- & āsiŋ 3rd & 1st sg. aor. of atthi (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [fr. ā + siŋsati, cp. āsaŋsā] wishing, aspiring after, praying for Miln 342.


-- [Sk. āśaŋsati, ā + śaŋs, cp. also śās & āsāsati, further abhisaŋsati, abhisiŋsati & āsaŋsati] to hope for, wish, pray for (lit. praise for the sake of gain), desire, (w. acc.) S i.34, 62; Sn 779, 1044, 1046 (see Nd2 135); J i.267; iii.251; iv.18; v.435; vi.43; Nd1 60; Mhvs 30, 100; VvA 337; PvA 226 (ppr. āsiŋsamāna for āsamāna, q. v.).


-- (adj.) [fr. āsiŋsanā] hoping for something, lit. praising somebody for the sake of gain, cadging ThA 217 (for āsaŋsuka Th 2, 273).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ā + śaŋs, cp. āsiŋsati] desire, wish, craving J v.28; Dhs 1059, 1136 (+ āsiŋsitatta). As āsīsanā at Nett 53.


-- (adj.) [grd. of āsiŋsati] to be wished for, desir- able Miln 2 (˚ratana).


-- [pp. of ā + śikṣ, Sk. āśikṣita] sohooled, in- structed PvA 67, 68.


-- [ā + sic, cp. abhisi˝cati & avasi˝cati] to sprinkle, besprinkle Vin i.44; ii.208; J iv.376; Vv 796 (= si˝cati VvA 307); PvA 41 (udakena), 104, 213 (ger. ˚itvā). <-> pp. āsitta (q. v.). Cp. vy˚.


-- [pp. of āsāsati, Sk. āśiṣṭa] wished or longed for PvA 104.


-- ╣ [= asita1?] "having eaten", but probably māsita (pp. of mṛś to touch, cp. Sk. mṛśita, which is ordinarily in massita), since it only occurs in combns. where m precedes, viz. J ii.446 (dumapakkani -- m -- asita, where C. reading is māsita & expln. khāditvā asita (v. l. āsita) dhāta); Miln 302 (visam -- āsita affected with poison = visamāsita). [p116] Cp. also the form māsi(n) touching, eating at J vi.354 (tiṇa˚, expld. by C. as khādaka). -- āsita at J v.70 is very doubtful, v. l. āsina & asita; C. expls. by dhāta suhita p. 73.

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-- ▓ [registered as such with meaning "performed" by Hardy in Index] at VvA 276 is better read with v. l. SS bhāsita ( -- vādana etc.).


-- [pp. of āsi˝cati, Sk. āsikta] sprinkled, poured out, anointed J v.87; Pug 31; Miln 286; DhsA 307; DhA i.10; VvA 69.


-- (adj.) [āsitta + ka] mixed, mingled, adulterated Vin ii.123 (˚űpadhāna "decorated divan"?); ThA 61, 168 (an˚ for asecanaka, q. v.).


-- (adj.) [fr. asīta] 80 years old M ii.124; J iii.395; SnA 172.


-- (m.) [etym.? Cp. BSk. āsītakī Lal. V. 319] a certain plant M i 80 = 245 (˚pabba).


-- [cp. Sk. āsīdati, ā + sad] -- 1. to come together, lit. to sit by D i.248 (v. l. BB ādisitvā for āsīditvā, to be preferred?). -- 2. to come or go near, to approach (w. acc.), to get (to) A iii.69 (āsīvisaŋ), 373 (na sādhurūpaŋ āsīde, should perhaps be read without the na); J iv.56. -- 3. to knock against, insult, offend attack J v. 267 (Pot. āsīde = pharusa -- vacanehe kāyakammena vā gbaṭṭento upagaccheyya C.). -- pp. āsanna (q. v.). See also āsajja, āsajjana, āsada & Caus. āsādeti.


-- (adj.) [pp. of ās, see āsati] sitting S i.195 = Nd2 136; Sn 1105, 1136; Dh 227, 386; J i.390; iii.95; v. 340; vi.297; Dāvs ii.17.


-- [etym. doubtful; Trenckner Miln p. 422 = ā + śyā to freeze or dry up, but taken by him in meaning to thaw, to warm oneself; MŘller, P. Gr. 40 same with meaning "cool oneself"; Morris' J.P. T. S. 1884, 72 as ā + śrā or śrī to become ripe, come to perfection, evidently at fault because of śrā etc. not found in Sk. More likely as a Pass. formation to be referred to ā + śī as in āsaya, i. e. to abide etc.] to have one's home, one's abode or support in (loc.), to live in, thrive by means of, to depend on Miln 75 (kaddame jāyati udake āsīyati i. e. the lotus is born in the mud and is supported or thrives by means of the water).


-- Derivation uncertain. The BSk. āsīviṣa (e. g. Jtm 3161) is a Sanskritisation of the Pali. To suppose this to come from ahi + visa (snake's poison) would give a wrong meaning, and leave unexplained the change from ahi to āsi] a snake Vin iv.108; S iv.172; A ii.110; iii. 69; J i.245; ii.274; iv.30, 496; v.82, 267; Pug 48; Vism 470 (in comp.); DhA i.139; ii.8, 38; SnA 334, 458, 465; VvA 308.


-- see āsiŋsanā.


-- expletive particle = assu3 J v.241 (v. l. assu; nipāta- mattaŋ C. p.243).


-- 3rd pl. aor. of atthi.


-- (& āsumhati) [ā + śumbh to glide] to bring to fall, throw down or round, sling round Vin iv.263, 265; Vv 5011 (˚itvāna); J iii.435 (aor. āsumhi, gloss khipi).


-- [ā + sev] to frequent, visit; to practise, pursue, indulge, enjoy A i.10; Sn 73 (cp. Nd2 94); Ps ii.93 (maggaŋ). -- pp. āsevita.


-- (nt.) & āsevanā (f.) [fr. āsevati] -- 1. practice, pursuit, indulgence in Vin ii.117; PvA 45. -- 2. succession, repetition Dhs 1367; Kvu 510 (cp. trsl. 294, 362); Vism 538.


-- [pp. of āsevati] frequented, indulged, practised, en- joyed J i.21 (v.141; āsevita -- nisevita); ii.60; Sdhp 93, 237.

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-- [Vedic āha, orig. perfect of ah to speak, meaning "he began to speak", thus in meaning of pres. "he says"] a perfect in meaning of pret. & pres. "he says or he said", he spoke, also spoke to somebody (w. acc.), as at J i.197 (cullalohitaŋ āha). Usually in 3rd person, very rarely used of 2nd person, as at Sn 839, 840 (= kathesi bhaṇasi Nd 188, 191). -- 3rd sg. āha Vin ii.191; Sn 790 (= bhaṇati Nd1 87), 888; J i.280; iii.53 and freq. passim; 3rd pl. āhu Sn 87, 181; Dh 345; J i.59; SnA 377, and āhaŋsu J i.222; iii.278 and freq.


-- ╣ ger. of āhanati.


-- ▓ (adj.) [grd. of āharati, corresponding to a Sk. *āhṛtya] 1. (cp. āharati1) to be removed, removable, in ˚pādaka -- pīṭha & ˚ma˝ca a collapsible bed or chair, i e. whose legs or feet can be put on & taken away at pleasure (by drawing out a pin) Vin ii.149 (cp. Vin Texts iii.164 n. 5); iv.40, 46 (def. as "ange vijjhitvā ṭhito hoti" it stands by means of a perforated limb), 168, 169. -- 2. (cp. āharati2) reciting, repeating, or to be quoted, recitation (of the Scriptures); by authority or by tradition M iii.139; DhsA 9, & in cpds. ˚pada a text quoted from Scripture), tradition Miln 148 (˚ena by reference to the text of the Scriptures); ˚vacana a saying of the Scriptures, a traditional or proverbial saying Nett 21 (in def. of suttaŋ).


-- [pp. of āharati] brought, carried, obtained Vin i.121; iii.53; D ii.180 (spelt āhata); J iii.512 (gloss ānīta); Dāvs i.58.


-- [pp. of āhanati] struck, beaten, stamped; afflicted, affected with ( -- ˚) Vin iv.236 = D iii.238 (kupito anattamano āhata -- citto); Vin i.75, 76; S i.170 (tilak˚, so read for tilakā -- hata, affected with freckles, C. kāḷa -- setādi vaṇṇehi tilakehi āhatagatta, K. S. p. 318); J iii 456; Sdhp 187, 401.


-- [fr. āhata] "one who is beaten", a slave, a worker (of low grade) Vin iv.224 (in def. of kammakāra, as bhaṭaka + ā).


-- [ā + han] to beat, strike, press against, touch ppr. āhananto Miln 21 (dhamma -- bheriŋ); Dāvs iv.50. <-> ger. āhacca touching M i.493; J i.330; vi 2, 200; Sn 716 = uppīḷetva SnA 498; Vism 420. -- pp. āhata (q. v.).
1st sg. fut. āha˝hi Vin i.8; D ii.72, where probably to be read as āha˝h' (=āha˝haŋ). See Geiger, P.Gr. ž 153, 2.


-- (nt.) [fr. ā + han] beating, striking, coming into touch, "impinging" Vism 142 (+ pariyāhanana, in def. of vitakka) = DhsA 114 (cp. Expos. 151); Vism 515 (id.).


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. āharati] to be taken; taking away; only in phrase acorāharaṇo nidhi a treasure not to be taken by thieves Miln 320; Kh viii.9; KhA 224; Sdhp 589.


-- [āharaṇa + ka] one who has to take or bring, a messenger J ii.199; iii.328.


-- [ā + hṛ] -- 1. to take, take up, take hold of, take out, take away M i.429 (sallaŋ); S i 121; iii.123; J i.40 (ger. āharitvā "with"), 293 (te hattaŋ); Nd2 540c (puttamaŋsaŋ, read āhāreyya?); Pv ii.310; DA i.186, 188 <-> 2. to bring, bring down, fetch D ii.245; J iv 159 (nāvaŋ; v. l. āhāhitvā); v.466; VvA 63 (bhattaŋ); PvA 75. <-> 3. to get, acquire, bring upon oneself J v.433 (padosaŋ); DhA ii.89. -- 4. to bring on to, put into (w. loc.); fig. & intrs. to hold on to, put oneself to, touch, resort to M i.395 (kaṭhalaŋ mukhe ā.; also inf. āhattuŋ); Th 1, 1156 (pāpacitte ā.; Mrs. Rh. D. Brethren ver. 1156, not as "accost" p. 419, n.). -- 5. to assault, strike, offend (for pāhari?) Th 1, 1173. -- 6. (fig.) to take up, fall or go back on [p117] (w. acc.), recite, quote, repeat (usually with desanaŋ & dasseti of an instructive story or sermon or homily) J iii.383 (desanaŋ), 401; v.462 (vatthuŋ āharitvā dassesi told a story for example); SnA 376; PvA 38, 39 (atītaŋ), 42, 66, 99 (dhamma -- desanaŋ). See also payirudāharati. <-> pp. āhaṭa (q. v.). -- Caus. II. āhārapeti to cause to be brought or fetched; to wish to take, to call or ask for J iii.88, 342; v.466; PvA 215.

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-- (adj.) [fr. āharati] "fetching", fascinating, captiv- ating, charming Vin iv.299; Th 2, 299; ThA 227; VvA 14, 15, 77.


-- [grd. of āharati] one who is to bring something J iii.328.


-- & āhavanīya see under āhuneyya.


-- [fr. ā + hṛ, lit. taking up or on to oneself] feeding, support, food, nutriment (lit & fig.). The term is used comprehensively and the usual enumn. comprises four kinds of nutriment, viz. (1) kabaḷinkāra āhāro (bodily nutriment, either oḷāriko gross, solid, or sukhumo fine), (2) phassāhāro n. of contact, (3) manosa˝cetanā˚ n. of volition (= cetanā S. A. on ii.11 f.), (4) vi˝˝āṇ˚ of consciousness. Thus at M i.261; D iii.228, 276; Dhs 71 -- 73; Vism 341. Another definition of Dhammapāla's refers it to the fourfold tasting as asita (eaten), pīta (drunk), khāyita (chewed), sāyita (tasted) food PvA 25. A synonym with mūla, hetu, etc. for cause, Yamaka, i.3; Yam. A (J.P.T.S., 1910 -- 12) 54. See on term also Dhs trsl. 30. -- Vin i.84; D i.166; S i.172; ii.11, 13, 98 sq. (the 4 kinds, in detail); iii.54 (sa˚); v.64, 391; A iii.51 (sukhass˚), 79, 142 sq., 192 sq.; iv.49, 108; v.52 (the four), 108, 113 (avijjāya etc.), 116 (bhavataṇhāya), 269 sq. (nerayikānaŋ etc.); Sn 78, 165, 707, 747; Nd1 25; Ps i.22 (the four) 122 (id.), 55, 76 sq; Kvu 508; Pug 21, 55; Vbh 2, 13, 72, 89, 320, 383, 401 sq. (the four); Dhs 58, 121, 358, 646; Nett 31, 114, 124; DhsA 153, 401; DhA i.183 (˚ŋ pacchindati to bring up food, to vomit); ii.87; VvA 118; PvA 14, 35, 112, 148 (utu˚ physical nutriment); Sdhp 100, 395, 406; A v.136 gives ten āhāra opposed to ten paripanthā. -- an˚ without food, unfed M i.487 (aggi); S iii.126; v.105; Sn 985.
-- űpahāra consumption of food, feeding, eating Vin iii. 136. -- ṭhitika subsisting or living on food D iii.211, 273; A v.50, 55; Ps i.5, 122. -- pariggaha taking up or acquirement of food Miln 244 or is it "restraint or abstinence in food"? Same combn. at Miln 313. -- maya "food -- like", feeding stuff, food J iii.523. -- lolatā greed after food SnA 35. -- samudaya origin of nutriment S iii.59.


-- [āhāra + tta] the state of being food. In the idiom āhārattaṇ pharati; Vin i.199, of medicine, ʻ to penetrate into food -- ness ʼ, to come under the category of food; Miln 152, of poison, to turn into food. [According to Oldenberg (Vin i.381) his MSS read about equally ˚attaŋ and ˚atthaŋ. Trenckner prints ˚atthaŋ, and records no variant (see p. 425)].


-- [Denom. fr. āhāra] to take food, eat, feed on S ii.13; iii.240; iv.104; A i.114, 295; ii.40, 145, 206; iv. 167; Nd2 540c (āhāraŋ & puttamaŋsaŋ cp. S ii.98).


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [der. fr. aha2] only in pa˝cāhika every five days (cp. pa˝cāhaŋ & sattāhaŋ) M iii.157.


-- [ā + hiṇḍ, cp. BSk. āhiṇḍate Divy 165 etc.] to wander about, to roam, to be on an errand, to be engaged in (w. acc.) Vin i.203 (senāsana -- cārikaŋ), 217; ii. 132 (na sakkoti vinā daṇḍena āhiṇḍituŋ); iv.62; J i.48, 108, 239; Nd2 540b; Pv iii.229 (= vicarati PvA 185); Vism 38, 284 (aṭaviŋ); VvA 238 (tattha tattha); PvA 143.


-- [pp. of ā + dhā] put up, heaped; provided with fuel (of a fire), blazing Sn 18 (gini = ābhato jalito vā SnA 28). See sam˚.


-- 3rd pl. of āha (q. v.).


-- (f.) [Vedic āhuti, ā + hu] oblation, sacrifice; vener- ation, adoration M iii 167; S i.141; Th 1, 566 (˚īnaŋ paṭiggaho recipient of sacrificial gifts); J i.15; v.70 (id.); Vv 6433 (paramÔhutiŋ gato deserving the highest adoration); Sn 249, 458; Kvu 530; SnA 175; VvA 285.


-- = āhuti, in āhuna -- pāhuna giving oblations and sacrificing VvA 155; by itself at Vism 219.


-- (adj.) [a grd. form. fr. ā + hu, cp. āhuti] sacrificial, worthy of offerings or of sacrifice, venerable, adorable, worshipful D iii.5, 217 (aggi); A ii.56, 70 (sāhuneyyaka), 145 sq. (id.); iv.13, 41 (aggi); It 88 (+ pāhuneyya); Vv 6433 (cp. VvA 285). See def. at Vism 219 where expld. by "āhavanīya" and "āhavanaŋ arahati" deserving of offerings.


-- (adj.) [doubtful or āhuṇḍ˚?] according to Morris J.P.T.S. 1884, 73 "crowded up, blocked up, impassable" Vin i.79; iv.297; Vism 413 (˚ŋ andha -- tamaŋ).

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