Update: 2012-11-04 05:00 PM +0630

TIL

Pali-English Dictionary

p006.htm : from a1.htm

by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
California Digital Library :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

PTS-indx.htm | Top
 a1-indx.htm

Contents of this page 

  p006
{ing} : Note: Is there a need to put the diacritic
   over ṅ in words such as anka?
{n~ka.}
{n~ga.}

 

UKT notes
Elephant goad
Kingdom of Anga {n~ga.teing:}

In the following entries, you will be {king:si:} 'centipede ridden' orthography. My objection to the International Pali transcription [and its wrong pronunciations] is due to its failure to represent the {king:si:}. The result is the mispronunciation of words involving the r1c5 akshara which is clearly present in the Asoka script (the script on the Asoka pillers -- the oldest script found in India). This akshara can be identified with the Bur-Myan akshara, but not with the Devanagari akshara.

Contents of this page

[p006]

UKT, 111207, 121017

Since the previous file agh is {a.Ga.}, the following file must be {a.nga.}, and therefore PTS anka must be {ing-ka} spelled with {king:si:} - {n~ka.} .

However, I am uncomfortable with PTS anka because there is no diacritic on n . To make sure that it is not a mistake during digitization, I checked with the pdf version from Abidhamma.com and also with California Digital Library. In both the word anka is with n without a diacritic.

The same word in Skt-Dev is given as a conjunct by Macdonell, which in modern rendition is: अङ्क -- the {nga.}-akshara is shown with a viram. -- Mac003c3-b32

Because of this "uncertainty in n, I am not giving prominence to the PTS orthography and has given the entries as: Pal-Myan - Romabama - original PTS e.g.
   {n~ka.}  anka 

 

Contents of this page

{ing} अङ्  - Note the viram. Don't use English transliterations: there are so many versions.

{n~ka.}

UKT: We know from the following that PTS is representing {nga.} as n. How would it represent {a.}, {Na.} and {na.}? -- UKT121101

{n~ka.}  anka 
PTS:-- = anga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; ˚karana branding J iv. 366, 375. See also anketi.

 

{n~ka.}  anka  
PTS:-- [Vedic anka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. ankura & ankusa. Gr. a)gkw/n elbow, a)/gkura = anchor; Lat. uncus nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle] (a.) a hook J v. 322 = vi. 218 (v. l. BB anga). -- (b.) the lap (i.e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindoo mothers or nurses (ankena vahati) Vin ii. 114; D ii. 19 (anke pariharati to hold on one's lap or carry on one's hips), 20 (nisīdāpeti seat on one's lap); M ii. 97 (ankena vahitvā); Th 1, 299; J i. 262 (anke nisinna); ii. 127, 236; vi. 513; DhA i. 170 (ankena vahitvā) PvA 17 (nisīdāpeti).

{n~ka.}  anka  
PTS:-- [Vedic anka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. ankura & ankusa. Gr. a)gkw/n elbow, a)/gkura = anchor; Lat. uncus nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle] (a.) a hook J v. 322 = vi. 218 (v. l. BB anga). -- (b.) the lap (i. e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindoo mothers or nurses
UHS:  {n~ka.} -- UHS-PMD0011
Skt: अङ्क  - m. bend, hook; flank, lap, side; proximity; embrace, hug; mark, sign, brand; act (of a play); -karana, n. branding. -- Mac003c3-b32

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: . n. mark, marking. . m. hollow above hip, hip-joint, the flanks (places above the last rib and the hip0, above the buttocks, lap.

{n~kin-ta.}  ankita
     [CAUTION: possible printing error in UHS]
PTS:-- [pp. of anketi] marked, branded J i. 231 (cakkan- kitā Satthu padā); ii. 185 (˚kaṇṇaka with perforated ears).

{n~kin-ta.}  ankita
     [CAUTION: possible printing error in UHS]
PTS:-- [pp. of anketi] marked, branded
UHS:  {n~kin-ta.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: branded, stained

{n~ku.ra.}  ankura
PTS: -- [cp. Sk. ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout (lit. or fig.) J ii. 105; vi. 331 (Buddh ˚a nascent Buddha), 486; Dhs 617 (˚vaṇṇa); Miln 50, 251 269; Sdhp 273; Mhvs 15, 43.

{n~ku.ra.}
PTS: -- [cp. Sk. ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout 
UHS: {n~ku.ra.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: m. bud, sprout

  {n~ku.a.}  ankusa
PTS:-- [Vedic ankuśa; to anc, see anka ] a hook, a pole with a hook, used (1) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook J i. 9 (˚pacchi hook & basket); v. 89 = vi. 520 (pacchikhanitti˚), 529 (= phalānaŋ gaṇhanatthaŋ ankusaŋ). <-> (2) to drive an elephant, a goad (cp patoda & tutta) Vin ii. 196 (+ kasā); J vi. 489; ThA 173 (ovādaŋ ankusaŋ katvā, fig. guide); Sdhp 147 (daṇḍ˚). -- (3) N. of a certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting in inferring certain mental states of a general character from respective traits where they are to be found Nett 2, 4, 127; Nett A 208; -- acc˚ beyond the reach of the goad D ii. 266 (nāga). See also ankusaka.
-- gayha (the art) how to grasp and handle an eleph.<-> driver's hook M ii. 94 (sippa). -- gaha an eleph. -- driver Dh 326.

  {n~ku.a.}  ankusa
PTS:-- [Vedic ankuśa; to anc, see anka ] a hook, a pole with a hook, used (1) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook (2) to drive an elephant, a goad (3) N. of a certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting in inferring certain mental states of a general character from respective traits where they are to be found
UHS:   {n~ku.a.} -- UHS-PMD0011
Skt: अङ्कुश aṅkuśa = अ ङ ् क ु श - m. hook, goad; stimulus; remedy. -- Mac004c1-b04

UKT from UHS-PMD0011 read with MLC MED2006-083: m. elephant-goad with long handle, short-handle elephant goad which can be used as cudgel, pole with hook (with or without) basket for plucking fruit or flower known in Bur-Myan as {tn-hkyu} (MLC MED2006-171).
See my note on Elephant goad aka aṅkuśa / {tn-hkyu}

{n~ku.a.ka.}  ankusaka
PTS:-- [see anka , cp. ankusa] 1. a crook for plucking fruit J iii. 22. -- 2. an eleph.-driver's hook J iii. 431.
-- yattha a crooked stick, alpenstock [long staff with an iron point, used by mountain climbers -- AHTD], staff (of an ascetic) J ii. 68 (+ pacchi).

{n~ku.a.ka.}  ankusaka
PTS:-- [see anka , cp. ankusa] 1. a crook for plucking fruit. 2. an eleph.-driver's hook
UHS: {n~ku.a.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011 read with MLC MED2006-083: m. short-handle elephant goad used also as a cudgel or weapon, pole with hook for plucking fruit or flower

anketi
PTS:-- [Denom. fr. anka ] to mark out, brand J i. 451 lakkhaṇena); ii. 399. -- pp. ankita, q. v.

 

{n~kau:la.}  ankola
PTS:-- [dial. for ankura] a species of tree Alangium hexapetalum J vi. 535. Cp. next.
UHS: {n~kau:la.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: m. tree Alangium hexapetalum 
Bur-Myan: {tau:po:sa} : by Daw Mya Bwin & U Sein Gwan, Pharmacology Research Div., Dept. of Medical Research, Ministry of Health, Rangoon, 1973, cited in http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/DMB-USG/hypo/po-A.htm#Alangium-lamarckii 121103

ankolaka
PTS:-- = ankola J iv. 440; v. 420.
UHS: - {n~kau:la.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: same as {n~kau:la.}

Contents of this page

{n~ga.}

{n~ga.} anga 
PTS:-- (nt.) [Vedic anga, anc cp. Lat. angulus = angle, corner etc., ungulus finger -- ring = Sk. angulīya. See also anka, anguṭṭha & angula] (1) (lit.) a constituent part of the body, a limb, member; also of objects: part, member (see cpd. ˚sambhāra); uttam˚anga the reproductive organ J v. 197; also as "head" at ThA 209. Usually in cpds. (see below, esp. ˚paccanga), as sabbanga -- kalyāṇī perfect in all limbs Pv iii. 35 (= sobhaṇa -- sabbanga -- paccangī PvA 189) and in redupln. anga -- m -- angāni limb by limb, with all limbs (see also below anga + paccanga) Vin iii. 119; Vv 38 (˚ehi naccamāna); Pv ii. 120 , 3 , 8  (sunakho te khādati). -- (2) (fig.) a constituent part of a whole or system or collection, e. g. uposath˚ the vows of the fast J i. 50; bhavanga the constituents or the condition of becoming (see bhava & cp. Cpd. 265 sq.); bojjhanga (q. v.). Esp. with numerals: cattāri angāni 4 constituents A ii. 79 (viz. sīla, samādhi, paā. vimutti and rūpa, vedanā, saā, bhava), aṭṭhangika (q. v.) magga the Path with its eight constituents or the eightfold Path (KhA 85: aṭṭhɔ angāni assā ti) navanga Buddha -- sāsana see nava. -- (3) a constituent part as characteristic, prominent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality D i. 113 sq., 117 (iminā p˚ angena by this quality, or: in this respect, cp. below 4; DA i. 281 expls tena kāra<-> ṇena). In a special sense striking (abnormal) sign or mark on the body D i. 9, from which a prophesy is made (: hattha -- pādādisu yena kenaci evarūpena angena samannāgato dīghāyu . . hotī ti . . angasatthan = chiromantics DA i. 92). Thus in combn. with samannāgata & sampanna always meaning endowed with "good", superior, remarkable "qualities", e. g. J i. 3 (sabbanga -- sampanna nagaraŋ a city possessing all marks of perfection); ii. 207. <-> In enumn. with var. numerals: tīhi angehi s. A i. 115; cattāri sotapannassa a -- D iii. 227 = A iv. 405 sq.; pacanga -- vippahīno (i. e. giving up the 5 hindrances, see nīvaraṇa) and pacanga -- samannāgato (i. e. endowed with the 5 good qualities, viz. the sīla -- kkhandha, see kkhandha ii. A d) S i. 99 = A i. 161; v. 15, 29. Similarly the 5 attributes of a brahmin (viz. sujāta of pure birth, ajjhāyaka a student of the Vedas, abhirūpa handsome, sīlava of good conduct, paṇḍita clever) D i. 119, 120. Eight qualities of a king D i. 137. Ten qualities of an Arahant (cp. dasa  B 2) S iii. 83; Kh iv. 10 = KhA 88; cp. M i. 446 (dasahɔ angehi samannāgato rao assājāniyo). -- (4) (modally) part, share, interest, concern; ajjhattikaŋ angaŋ my own part or interest (opp. bāhiraŋ the interest in the outside world). A i. 16 sq. = S v. 101 sq.; It 9. rao angaŋ an asset or profit for the king M i. 446. Thus adv. tadanga (see also ta˚ i. a) as a matter of fact, in this respect, for sure, certainly and tadangena by these means, through this, therefore M i. 492; A iv. 411; Sdhp 455, 456; iminā p˚ angena for that reason M ii. 168. -- In compn. with verbs angi˚ (angī˚): angigata having limbs or ports, divided DA i. 313; cp. samangi ( -- bhūta).
-- jāta "the distinguishing member", i. e. sign of male or female (see above 3); membrum virile and muliebre Vin i. 191 (of cows); iii. 20, 37, 205; J ii. 359; Miln 124. -- paccanga one limb or the other, limbs great and small M i. 81; J vi  -- 20, used (a) collectively: the condition of perfect limbs, or adj. with perfect limbs, having all limbs Pv ii. 122  (= paripuṇṇa -- sabbanga -- paccangavatī PvA 158); SnA 383; DhA i. 390; ThA 288; Sdhp 83 fig. rathassa angapaccangan M i. 395; sabbanga -- paccangāni all limbs Miln 148. -- (b) distributively (cp. similar redupl. formations like chiddvachidda, seṭṭhnu -- seṭṭhi, khaṇḍākhaṇḍa, cuṇṇavicuṇṇa) limb after limb, one limb after the other (like angamangāni above 1), piecemeal M i. 133 (˚e daseyya), 366; J i. 20; iv. 324 (chinditvā). -- paccangatā the condition or state of perfect limbs, i. e. a perfect body VvA 134 (suvisuddh˚). -- paccangin having all limbs (perfect) D i. 34 (sabbanga -- peccangī); PvA 189. -- rāga painting or rouging the body Vin ii. 107 (+ mukha˚). -- laṭṭhi sprout, offshoot ThA 226. -- vāta gout Vin i. 205. -- vijjā the art of prognosticating from marks on the body, chiromantics, palmistry etc. (cp. above 3) D i. 9 (see expl. at DA i. 93); J i. 290 (˚āya cheka clever in fortune -- telling); ˚nubhāva the power of knowing the art of signs on the body J ii. 200; v. 284; ˚pāṭhaka one who in versed in palmistry etc. J ii. 21, 250; v. 458. -- vekalla bodily deformity DhA ii. 26. -- sattha the science of prognosticating from certain bodily marks DA i. 92. -- sambhāra the combination of parts Miln 28 = S i. 135; Miln 41. -- hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests J vi. 538.

muliebre - n. external female genitalia -- UKT
pudendum muliebre - obsolete term for vulva.
   -- http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=73877 121021

{n~ga.} anga 
PTS:-- (nt.) [Vedic anga, ... ] (1) (lit.) a constituent part of the body, a limb, member; also of objects: part, member. (2) (fig.) a constituent part of a whole or system or collection. (3) a constituent part as characteristic, prominent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality.  (4) (modally) part, share, interest, concern.
UHS: {n~ga.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: n. part, part of the body, limbs. m. the kingdom of Anga
See my note on the Kingdom of Anga - the modern Bengal

{n~ga.za-ta.}  anga-jāta 
PTS: "the distinguishing member", i. e. sign of male or female (see above 3); membrum virile (penis) and muliebre (vulva)
UHS: {n~ga.za-ta.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: n. indicator of male & female, genital

{n~ga.Na.}  angaṇa 
PTS:-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. angaṇa & ˚na; to anga?] an open space, a clearing, Vin ii. 218; J i. 109 (= manussānan sacaraṇa -- ṭṭhāne anāvaṭe bhūmibhāge C.); ii. 243, 290, 357; Dāvs i. 27. -- cetiy˚ an open space before a Chaitya Miln 366, DA i. 191, 197; VvA 254. rāj˚ the empty space before the king's palace, the royal square J i. 124, 152; ii. 2; DhA ii. 45.
-- ṭṭhāna a clearing (in a wood or park) J i. 249, 421. -- pariyanta the end or border of a clearing J ii. 200.

{n~ga.Na.}  angaṇa 
PTS:-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. angaṇa & ˚na; to anga?] an open space, a clearing,
UHS: {n~ga.Na.} -- UHS-PMD0011

UKT from UHS-PMD0011: n. outside, a clearing, a thrashing floor-like space, front courtyard

UKT: The following entry angaṇa -- moved to next page.
Reason: [p006 end without completing entry to continue on next file] involving only a few lines.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Elephant goad

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant_goad 110718

The elephant goad or Skt: Aṅkuśa (Sanskrit) is a tool employed in the handling and training of elephants, the largest land animals. [1] It consists of a hook (usually bronze or steel) which is attached to a 60 - 90 cm (two- or three-foot) handle. The hook is inserted into the elephant's sensitive skin, either slightly or more deeply, to cause pain and induce the elephant to behave in a certain manner. [2] [3] [4]

UKT: The thick skin of the elephant makes it insensitive to thrashing of a rattan cane which is used to control horses and cattle. To make the elephant respond, the outer layer of the skin has to be penetrated by a sharp instrument to get to the sensitive part. Bur-Myan language, because of the extensive use of war-elephants and war-horses in the country, have special words and their deeper meanings with regard to these two animals used in war-fare and as mounts by the royalty. The word {hkywun:} [MED2010-083] is used for the elephant and {kraim} [MED2010-045] for the horse especially for the sluggish cattle. Because of its shape the meaning 'hook' is not applicable to the Burmese-Myan {hkywun:}. - UKT110718

A relief at Sanchi and a fresco at the Ajanta Caves depict a three person crew on the war elephant, the driver with an elephant goad, what appears to be a noble warrior behind the driver and another attendant on the posterior of the elephant. [5] Nossov and Dennis (2008: p. 19) report that two elephant goads, perfectly preserved were recovered from an archaeological site at Taxila and are dated from 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE according to Marshall. The larger of the two is 65 cm long. [5]

UKT: The inset is an implement spelled the same  {n~ku.a.} अङ्कुश aṅkuśa -- PTS read with MAC. The Bur-Myan {tn-hkyu} uses the same idea but of course, the basket is made of bamboo.

Nossov and Dennis (2008: p. 16) state:

An ankusha, a sharpened goad with a pointed hook, was the main tool for managing an elephant. The ankusha first appeared in India in the 6th-5th century BC and has been used ever since, not only there, but wherever elephants served man. [6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back elephant-goad-note-b

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Kingdom of Anga {n~ga.teing:}

UKT 121103

"Anga" is not how we pronounce the name in Myanmar. To us the name is {n~ga.} from which we get {Bn~ga.la:} and {Bn~ga.la:d-a.} aka Bangladesh. It was and is one of the most important neighbours to the west -- historically, culturally, and linguistically. The language-script has many similarities to the Myanmar script, the most noteworthy being the "split-vowels".

Note: Arial Unicode MS rendering engine gives wrong result.
Use Lucida Sans Unicode for the following:

{k} = কে কো : different from Devanagari
{kau:} = কো : different from Devanagari

Now from other sources.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anga_Kingdom

Anga [ {n~ga.teing:}] was a kingdom ruled by non-Vedic rulers. [UKT ]

UKT: Who were these non-Vedic rulers. Perhaps they were the ancient Pyus of Myanmar, or some other Tib-Bur speakers similar to the original inhabitants of Northern-Burma. -- UKT111203

Anga king Lomapada was a friend of Kosala king Dasaratha. Kosala Princess Santha, elder to Raghava Rama, lived as the daughter of Lomapada, since he was childless. [UKT ]

UKT: Dasaratha (above) was from Ramayana, and Duryodhana (below) from Mahabharata. The two epics portray historical accounts of different time-frames. And then there was the Battle of the Ten Kings. These three legend-like historical accounts are all very confusing because of religionists who tried to relate the historical events to their gods. I would like to know the time-frames to fix the date when King Abhiraza mentioned in the Glass-Palace Chronicles founded the first city of Tagaung. I am all confused - I need to check. But right now my interest is inter-language study of BEPS to establish a reliable transcription between Burmese and English. -- UKT121103

Duryodhana established Karna as the ruler of Angas. It is believed that there were many Anga kings who ruled different parts of Anga kingdom, contemporary to Karna. Champapuri was the capital of Anga ruled by Karna. Magadha (south-west Bihar) king Jarasandha gifted another city called Malinipuri, to the Anga king Karna. The founders of five eastern kingdoms, which included: - Angas (eastern Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, India and Tarai Area of Nepal), [1]  Vangas (southern West Bengal and Bangladesh), Kalingas (coastal Orissa), Pundras (northern Bangladesh and West Bengal, India) and Suhmas (north-western Bangladesh and West Bengal, India) shared a common ancestry.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article on Anga. Now on another neighbour - {sic.ta.kaung:}

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chittagong 121103

A trading post since the 9th century, Chittagong has a multicultural heritage of Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist traditions. The modern city developed during British rule as a railway, oil and tea trading hub. The city also became a focal point for revolutionary activities against the British, notably the armed uprising led by Surya Sen in 1930. It was also an important military base and supply point for Allied forces [American & British] during the Burma Campaign in World War II. [UKT ]

UKT: The Burma Campaign in World War II is now largely told as a one-sided story. The fighting was between the Allied Powers (led by American and British), and the Axis powers (principally in the East by Imperial Japan). The Imperial Japanese Army was aided by BDA 'Burma Independence Army' under Bogyoke Aung San of the newly Independent Burma (recognized by the Axis powers and which had declared war on the Allied powers), and INA 'India National Army' under Subhas Chandra Bose. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subhas_Chandra_Bose 121104

The independent Burma, headed by Supreme Leader {a.Di.pa.di.} Dr. Ba Maw, was formed as a military state, and we the children in our formative years sang:


{ta.w: ta.n ta.maing.}
'One-blood, One-voice, One-command'.

We, the children were organized into {king:htauk lu-ng} under {a-rha.lu-ngw a.s:a.ron:}, whilst our uncles were recruited into the BDA vowing to die fighting for the MotherLand.

I was born in the early 1930s under the British-Raj, and I had sang 'God Save Our King', now I was singing praises to Our Motherland led by {a.Di.pa.di.}. Then I had sung praises to the BDA and to the resistance fighters, then to independent Burma (granted independence by Britain), then to Socialist Burma led by General NWin, and now as a Canadian citizen I sing 'Oh Canada'.

I am all confused. I am just sick of the human-race! Reading the Mahabharata confirms that the human race had been like the present one thousands of years before. In that epic you'll see even the Deva-gods taking sides and resorting to trickery. Even Krishna, the reincarnation of Visnhu using his divine power tricked the other-side to stop fighting by causing an eclipse to kill the enemy general. Would I turn to religion: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, or Islam. Oh No! The religionists are no better than the politicians -- ever manipulating us, the commoners, into automatons and nothing more.

Maybe I will meet a genuine living religious leader! What I am reading on Theravada Buddhism is second-hand-, third-hand-, multiple-hand, ..., told. Maybe I will get down to the ultimate meanings by comparison of languages and how the various authors translated the original word into meanings in English and Burmese!

Though still a pre-teen child during World War II, my memory is fresh and my facts are based on the experiences of myself and my parents, and also from those of my uncles who were in the BDA. If you read what has now come to light about Bose's death in a plane crash, you will come to realize that what is touted as 'history' is nothing but lies to protect the interests of the ruling powers. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disappearance_of_Subhas_Chandra_Bose 121103

I therefore choose to be a scientist and linguist and nothing more. -- UKT 121103

After the partition of India in 1947, Chittagong became part of East Pakistan. In 1971, as East Pakistanis rebelled against West Pakistans refusal to accept results of democratic elections, the declaration of Bangladesh's independence was announced in Chittagong.

UKT: more in the Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chittagonian_language 121103

Chittagonian (চাটগাঁইয়া বুলি Chaţgia Buli) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and in much of the southeast of the country. It is closely related to Bengali, but is normally considered by linguists to be a separate language rather than a dialect of Bengali. It is estimated to have 14 million speakers, United States and other countries. According to the status of Top 100 Languages by Population by Ethnologue, Chittagong ranked 67th of the world.

Phonology (sounds): fricatives and nasals

Chittagonian is distinguished from Bengali by its large inventory of fricatives, which often correspond to plosives in Bengali. For example, the Chittagonian voiceless velar fricative [x] (like the Arabic "kh" or German "ch") in [xabar] corresponds to the Bengali voiceless aspirated velar plosive [kʰ], and the Chittagonian voiceless labiodental fricative [f] corresponds to the Bengali voiceless aspirated bilabial plosive [pʰ]. Some of these pronunciations are used in eastern dialects of Bengali as well.

Nasalization of vowels is contrastive in Chittagonian, as with other Eastern Indic languages. A word can change its meaning solely by changing an oral vowel into a nasal vowel, as in আর ar "and" vs. আঁর r "my".

UKT: More in the Wikpedia article.

Go back kingdom-Anga-note-b

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End of TIL file