Update: 2012-10-31 04:56 AM +0630

TIL

Pali-English Dictionary

p003-1.htm : from a1.htm

by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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 a1-indx.htm

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   p003
{ak~hka} अक्षा
{ak~hki.} / {a.hki.-kS-form} अक्षि 
{ak~hkau:}
{a.hka.}  {a.hka. kh-form} अख 

UKT note to TIL editor: This file and the previous need a thorough review because of palatals & dentals.

UKT notes
Akshauhini = {ak~hkau:Bi.Ni}
Ancient Warfare in India

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[p003]

{ak~hka} अक्षा

[p003c1begin]

{ak~hka-yi.ka.} akkhāyika
PTS: -- (adj.) relating, narrating J iii. 535; lokakkhāyikā kathā talk about nature-lore D i. 8; Miln 316.
UHS: {ak~hka-yi.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0006

UKT from UHS-PMD0006: mfn. relating to narration

akkhāyin
PTS:-- (adj.) telling, relating, announcing S ii.35; iii. 7; J iii. 105.

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{ak~hki.} / {a.hki.-kS-form} अक्षि

{ak~hki.} akkhi
PTS:-- (nt.) [to *oks, an enlarged form of *oqu, cp. Sk. īkṣate, kṣaṇa, pratīka, anīka; Gr. o)/sse, w)/y (*ku/klwy), o)fqalmo/s, pro/swpon; Lat. oculus, Ags. ēowan (= E eye & wind -- ow); Goth. augō. See also cakkhu & cp. akkha2 & ikkhaṇika] the eye M i. 383 (ubbhatehi akkhīhi); Sn 197, 608; J i. 223, 279; v. 77; vi. 336; Pv ii. 926 (akkhīni paggharanti: shed tears, cp. PvA 123); VvA 65 (˚īni bhamanti, my eyes swim) cp. akkhīni me dhūmāyanti DhA i. 475; DhA ii. 26; iii. 196 (˚īni ummīletvā opening the eyes); Sdhp 103, 380. -- In combn with sa -- as sacchi & sakkhi (q. v.). As adj. ( -- ˚) akkha3 (q.v.).
-- ajana eye ointment, collyrium DhA iii. 354. -- kūpa the socket of the eye J iv. 407. -- gaṇḍa eye -- protuberance, i. e. eye -- brow (?) J vi. 504 (for pamukha T.). -- gūtha secretion from the eye PvA 198. -- gūthaka id. Sn 197 (= dvīhi akkhicchiddehi apanīta -- ttaca -- maŋsasadiso a˚ -- gūthako SnA 248). -- chidda the eye -- hole SnA 248. -- dala the eye -- lid DA i. 194; ThA 259; DhsA 378. -- pāta "fall of the eye", i.e. a look, in mand˚ of soft looks (adj.) PvA 57. -- pūra an eye-full, in akkhipūraŋ assuŋ (assu?) an eye full of tears J vi. 191. -- mala dirt from the eye Pv iii. 53 (= ˚gūtha C.). -- roga eye disease DhA i. 9.

{ak~hki.} akkhi
PTS: -- (nt.) [to *oks, an enlarged form of *oqu, cp. Sk. īkṣate, kṣaṇa, pratīka, anīka; Gr. o)/sse, w)/y (*ku/klwy), o)fqalmo/s, pro/swpon; Lat. oculus, Ags. ēowan (= E eye & wind -- ow); Goth. augō. See also cakkhu & cp. akkha2 & ikkhaṇika] the eye M i. 383  
UHS: {ak~hki.} -- UHS-PMD0006
MAC: अक्षि aksi - n. eye: --; a, f. . -- Mac002c2-b25

UKT from UHS-PMD006: n. eye

{ak~hki.ka.}  akkhika 
PTS:-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) having eyes, with eyes Th 1,960 (ajan˚ with eyes anointed); DhA iv. 98 (aḍḍh˚ with half an eye, i. e. stealthily); Sdhp 286 (tamb˚ red-eyed). -- an˚ having no eyes DhA i. 11.

{ak~hki.ka.}  akkhika 
PTS:-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) having eyes, with eyes Th 1,960
UHS: {ak~hki.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0006

UKT from UHS-PMD0006: n. eye

{ak~hki.ka.}  akkhika 
PTS:-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. akṣa] the mesh of a net J i. 208. -- hāraka one who takes up a mesh (?) M i. 383 (corresp. with aṇḍahāraka).

 

akkhitta
PTS:-- see khitta .

 

akkhitta 
PTS:-- (adj.) [BSk ākṣipta Divy 363, pp. of ā + kṣip] hit, struck, thrown J iii. 255 (= ākaḍḍhita C.).

 

akkhin
PTS:-- (adj.) = akkhika J iii. 190 (mand˚ softeyed); Vv 323 (tamb˚ red -- eyed); DhA i. 11.

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{ak~hkau:}

akkhobbha
PTS:-- (adj.) [a + kṣubh, see khobha] not to be shaken, imperturbable Miln 21.

 

akkhobhana
PTS:-- (adj) = akkhobbha J v. 322 (= khobhetun na sakkhā C.).

 

{ak~hkau:Bi.Ni}  akkhohiṇī
PTS: -- (f.) [= akkhobhiṇī] one of the highest numerals (1 followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) J v. 319; vi. 395. 
UHS: {ak~hkau:Bi.Ni} -- UHS-PMD0007
MAC: अक्षौहिणी aksauhini  - f. complete army; -pati, m. lord of an army, general. -- Mac002c3-b04

UKT from UHS-PMD0007: f. a numeral 1 followed by 41 zeros, a complete army consisting of 21870 Elephantry [equiv. of modern tanks], 21870 Chariots [equiv. of light tanks], 65610 Calvary, 109350 Foot.
See my notes on: Akshauhini (Skt: अक्शौहिणि), Ancient Warfare in India  

akhaṇḍaphulla
PTS:-- see khaṇḍa.

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{a.hka.}  {a.hka. kh-form} अख 

akhāta
PTS:-- (adj.) not dug: see khāta.

 

{a.hkt~ta.} akhetta
PTS:-- barren -- soil: see khetta. -- In cpd. ˚u the neg. belongs to the whole: not knowing a good field (for alms) J iv. 371.

 

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UKT notes

Akshauhini (Skt: अक्शौहिणि )

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akshauhini 121016

An Akshauhini (Skt: अक्शौहिणि), was an ancient battle formation that consisted of 21,870 chariots (Skt:  ratha ); 21,870 elephants; 65,610 cavalry and 109,350 infantry, [1] as per the Mahabharata (Adi Parva 2.15-23). The ratio is 1 chariot : 1 elephant : 3 cavalry : 5 infantry soldiers. In each of these large number groups (65,610, etc.), the digits add up to 18.

This setup is preserved in the game of chess.

UKT continues: See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burma_Campaign_1942-1943 121024. The article is one sided: calling Burma Independence Army (BIA) led by Bo Aung San one of Thirty Comrades fighting the British Imperial Forces for the independence of the motherland. BIA was dubbed the "insurgents" in Wikipedia, but they were our heroes. We [I was under 12] all rejoiced when Japan granted us independence on Aug 1, 1943: when the newly independent Burma declared war on the Imperialists just minutes after the declaration of Independence. Immediately the Axis Powers recognized the newly independent country led by "Adipadi" [Supreme Leader] Dr. Ba Maw. We saw our beloved Peacock flag flying again. -- UKT 121024

UKT: End of Wikipedia stub

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Ancient Warfare in India

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_warfare#India 121024

During the Vedic period (fl. 3500-1500 BC), the Vedas and other associated texts contain references to warfare. The earliest allusions to a specific battle are those to the Battle of the Ten Kings in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda.

UKT: 121024
I am speculating on when King Abiraza after losing a war in India had to flee to Northern Myanmar to found the Kingdom of Ancient Tagaung. It could very well have been the Battle of the Ten Kings. Please note that this is pure speculation based on an account mentioned in the Glass Palace Chronicles  and translation by U Pe Maung Tin. -- UKT121024

U Pe Maung Tin aka Maung Tin, and, his mentor & brother-in-law, G.H. Luce, in their translation of THE GLASS PALACE CHRONICLE OF THE KINGS OF BURMA, Burma Research Society, Oxford Univ. Press, 1921, gave the following account:

"Once upon a time, long ago, before our Lord the Buddha unfolded the Four Truths under the Wisdom Tree at the Place of Conquest, the king of Panchala, lord of the two kingdoms of Kosala and Panchala, desired to ally himself by marriage with the king of Koliya, and sent ministers to ask the hand of a Koliyan princess. But the king of Koliya in his pride of birth answered him ill; so that a great war broke out between the two kingdoms. The king of Panchala was victorious, and the Sakiyan princes of the three kingdoms, Koliya, Devadaha, and Kapilavatthu, were isolated each from each and their empire wrecked. Later the Sakiyan princes of the three kingdoms arose again into prosperity; but when first their power was wrecked, Abhiraja, the Sakya Sakiyan king of Kapilavatthu, took all his army and left the Middle Country and ruled in the Tagaung country, called Sangassarattha, which he founded. This kingdom first founded [{pdf p01 end}} by Abhiraja is written Sangassanagara or Sangassarattha. There is no difference, for both nagara and rattha being interpreted mean a country. "

UKT continues: Northern Myanmar was and still is rich in copper and zinc ores from which brass (alloy of copper and zinc) was produced. Brass was the most important strategic material then, and so were the wild elephants (both black and occasionally white). Northern Myanmar must have been the source of all the strategic materials of the eastern Ancient World.

The two great ancient epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata (c. 1000-500 BC) are centered on conflicts and refer to military formations, theories of warfare and esoteric weaponry. Valmiki's Ramayana describes Ayodhya's military as defensive rather than aggressive. The city, it says, was strongly fortified and was surrounded by a deep moat. Ramayana describes Ayodhya in the following words: "The city abounded in warriors undefeated in battle, fearless and chinskilled in the use of arms, resembling lions guarding their mountain caves". Mahabharata describes various military techniques, including the Chakravyuha.

The world's first recorded military application of war elephants is in the Mahabharatha. [6] From India, war elephants were taken to the Persian Empire where they were used in several campaigns. The Persian king Darius III employed about 50 Indian elephants in the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC) fought against Alexander the Great. In the Battle of the Hydaspes River, the Indian king Porus, who ruled in Punjab, with his smaller army of 200 war elephants, 2000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry, presented great difficulty for Alexander the Great's larger army of 4000 cavalry and 50,000 infantry, though Porus was eventually defeated. [UKT ]

At this time, the Magadha Empire further east in northern and eastern India had an army of 6000 war elephants, 80,000 cavalry, 200,000 infantry and 8000 armed chariots. Had Alexander the Great decided to continue his campaign in India, he may very well have been vanquished by the much more powerful, more able and more technologically advanced army, but it is more likely he would have adopted the weapons and techniques of such a foe to augment and improve his own forces and strategic aimss, as he had done throughout his career.

Chanakya (c. 350-275 BC) was a professor of political science at Takshashila University, and later the Prime Minister of emperor Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra, which covered various topics on ancient Indian warfare in great detail, including various techniques and strategies relating to war. These included the earliest uses of espionage and assassinations [UKT: mostly by poisoning]. These techniques and strategies were employed by Chandragupta Maurya, who was a student of Chanakya, and later by Ashoka the Great (304-232 BC).

Chandragupta Maurya conquered the Magadha Empire and expanded to all of northern India, establishing the Maurya Empire, which extended from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. In 305 BC, Chandragupta defeated Seleucus I Nicator, who ruled the Seleucid Empire and controlled most of the territories conquered by Alexander the Great. [UKT ]

Seleucus eventually lost his territories in Southern Asia, including southern Afghanistan, to Chandragupta. Seleucus exchanged territory west of the Indus for 500 war elephants and offered his daughter to Chandragupta. In this matrimonial alliance the enmity turned into friendship, and Seleucus' dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra. As a result of this treaty, the Maurya Empire was recognized as a great power by the Hellenistic World, and the kings of Egypt and Syria sent their own ambassadors to his court. According to Megasthenes, Chandragupta Maurya built an army consisting of 30,000 cavalry, 9000 war elephants, and 600,000 infantry, which was the largest army known in the ancient world. [UKT ]

Ashoka the Great went on to expand the Maurya Empire to almost all of South Asia, along with much of Afghanistan and parts of Persia. Ashoka eventually gave up on warfare after converting to Buddhism.

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