Update: 2012-10-30 12:00 PM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary

p002-1.htm : from a1.htm

by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

PTS-indx.htm | Top

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UKT note to TIL editor: Be extra careful of files beginning with material moved from previous page. The material moved might not have been in the original PTS page, but materials I have incorporated from other sources such as UPMT, Macdonell, or UHS, or what I have written as an introduction.

{ak} [Pal: {ak~kha.}/Skt: {ak~Sa.}] {ag} {ing}
  Notice the Romabama vowel change with the nasal: {ing.}, {ing}, {ing:}

The following moved to the next folder.
{a.hka.} : killed {hka.} is not allowed in Bur-Myan. It is present only in imported words.

UKT notes
Calotropis gigantea 
Coda consonants and nuclear vowels in BEPS

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{ak} pronounced as IPA /k/

See my note on Coda consonants and nuclear vowels in BEPS

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It seems that {(ak~k)a.} should be treated as a unit, and start a series:
{(ak~k)a.}, {(ak~k)a}, {(ak~k)u.}

{ak~ka.} akka
PTS:-- [cp. Sk. arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis gigantea, swallow-wort M i,429 (˚assa jiyā bowstrings made from that plant). -- nāla a kind of dress material Vin i,306 (vv. ll. agga˚ & akkha˚). -- vāṭa a kind of gate to a plantation, a movable fence made of the akka plant Vin ii. 154 (cp. akkha -- vāṭa). 


{ak~ka.} akka
PTS: - [cp. Sk. arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis gigantea, swallow -- wort M i,429 
PMT: akka - m. the sun; the plant swallow-wort; copper; Sunday.
UHS: {ak~ka.} -- UHS-PMD0004
MAC: अर्क ark-a --> {ar~ka.} - m. ray; sun; sun-god; hymn; singer; kind of tree or shrub; -- Mac027c1
   Note: I haven't cut Mac027c1, and the cutting is not available.

UKT from UHS-PMD0004: m. Sun. Calotropis gigantea,
See my note on Calotropis gigantea

{ak~kn~ta.}  akkanta
PTS: -- [pp. of akkamati] stepped upon, mounted on A i,8; J i,71; Miln 152; DhA i,200. 
UHS: {ak~kn~ta.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS-PMD0005: mfn. what may be stepped on

PTS:-- [ā + kandati, krand] to lament, wail, cry S iv. 206.


{ak~ka.ma.na.} akkamana
PTS: -- (nt.) [cp. BSk. ākramaṇa Jtm 3158] going near, approaching, stepping upon, walking to J i, 62.
UHS: {ak~ka.ma.na.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS: n. stepped under, repeatedly arrived at.

{ak~ka.ma.ti.}  akkamati
PTS: - [ā + kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, attack J i, 7, 279; ThA 9; -- to rise Vin iii.  38. -- ger. akkamma Cp. iii. 72. -- pp. akkanta (q. v.).


{ak~ka.ma.ti.}  akkamati
PTS: - [ā + kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, attack J i, 7, 279; ThA 9; -- to rise Vin iii.  38.
UHS: {ak~ka.ma.ti.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS-PMD0005: stepped upon.


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PTS:-- (adj. n.) [pp. of akkosati] 1. (adj.) being reviled, scolded, railed at Sn 366 (= dasahi akkosavatthūhi abhisatto SnA 364); J vi. 187. -- 2. (nt.) reviling, scolding, swearing at; in combn akkuṭṭha -- vandita Sn 702 (= akkosa -- vandana SnA 492) Th 2, 388 (expln ThA 256 as above).


{ak~ku.la.}  akkula -->
PTS: -- (adj.) [= ākula] confused, perplexed, agitated, frightened Ud 5
   (akkulopakkula and akkulapakkulika). See ākula.
UHS: {ak~ku.la.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS: mfn. confused, alarmed


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{ak~kau:a.}  akkosa 
PTS:-- [ā + kruś = kruc, see kuca & koca2; to sound, root kr̥, see note on gala] shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling Sn 623; Miln 8 (+ paribhāsa); SnA 492; ThA 256; PvA 243; DhA ii. 61.
-- vatthu always as dasa a˚ -- vatthūni 10 bases of abuse, 10 expressions of cursing J i. 191; SnA 364, 467; DhA i. 212; iv. 2.


{ak~kau:a.}  akkosa
PTS: - [ā + kruś = kruc, see kuca & koca2; to sound, root kr̥, see note on gala]
   shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling Sn 623;
UHS: {ak~kau:a.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS-PMD0005: m. shouting of obscenity

{ak~kau:a.ka.}  akkosaka
PTS: - (adj.) [from last] one who abuses, scolds or reviles,
   + paribhāsaka A ii. 58; iii. 252; iv. 156; v. 317; PvA 251.
UHS: {ak~kau:a.ka.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS-PMD0005: mfn. a habitual user of obscenities

{ak~kau:a.ti.} akkosati 
PTS: - [to krus see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, revile J i. 191; ii. 416; iii. 27; DhA i. 211; ii. 44. Often combd with paribhāsati, e. g. Vin ii. 296; DhA iv. 2; PvA 10. -- aor. akkocchi Dh 3; J iii. 212 (= akkosi DhA i. 43. Der. wrongly fr. krudh by Kacc. vi. 417; cp. Franke, Einh. Pāli -- gramm. 37, and Geiger, P. Gr. 164). -- pp. akkuṭṭha (q. v.).


{ak~kau:a.ti.} akkosati
PTS: - [to krus see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, revile J i. 191; ii. 416; iii. 27; DhA i. 211; ii. 44.
UHS: {ak~kau:a.ti.} -- UHS-PMD0005

UKT from UHS-PMD0005: has used obscenities

UKT: {a.hka.} and derivatives moved into next file.

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UKT notes

Calotropis gigantea 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calotropis_gigantea 121012

Calotropis gigantea (Crown flower) is a species of Calotropis native to Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India and China.

UKT: 121012
There are two plants that go by almost the same name in Myanmar
{mu.ro:kri:} Calotropis gigantae , Asclepiadaceae
{mu.ro:} Calotropis procera , fam. Asclepiadaceae
TravPo-M-Dict, 1999, 235
Photo from  Medicinal Plants of Myanmar (KS-TMN), by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw , Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3 , p061.
http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/TIL/r5c5ma/r5c5ma.htm#Cont-this-pg 121012

It is a large shrub growing to 4 m tall. It has clusters of waxy flowers that are either white or lavender in colour. Each flower consists of five pointed petals and a small, elegant "crown" rising from the centre, which holds the stamens. The plant has oval, light green leaves and milky stem.

The flowers last long, and in Thailand they are used in various floral arrangements. They were also supposed to be popular with the Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani, who considered them as symbol of royalty and wore them strung into leis. [UKT ]

In India, the plant is common in the compounds of temples and is known as Madar. While in Cambodia, they are used in funerals to decorate the urn or sarcophagus and the interior of the house holding the funeral. The fruit is a follicle and when dry, seed dispersal is by wind. This plant plays host to a variety of insects and butterflies. In Indonesia its flowers is called widuri.

Literary reference

In the Paushya chapter of the Adi Parva portion of the Indian epic "Mahabharata", a disciple of the rishi Ayoda-Daumya named Upamanya goes blind by eating the leaves of the plant which in Sanskrit is called "Arka".

UKT: It seems that this easily available plant can be a source of fibers. See a study done in http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/sage/evaluation-of-calotropis-gigantea-as-a-promising-raw-material-for-NpsV7hycdj 121012

Go back C-gigantea-note-b

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Coda consonants and nuclear vowels in BEPS

-- UKT 121017

If you are to browse through DJPD16, you will see that the English short <a> is represented by //, e.g. <bat> /bt/ (DJPD16-051); and, most of the words that we would expect to have an open-front vowel has the open-back vowel /ɑ/, e.g. <car> /kɑːʳ/ (US) /kɑːr/ (DJPD16-082), <father> /'fɑː.|əʳ/ (US) /-ɚ/ (DJPD16-199). Moreover, the native-English speakers from the US and the UK do not usually lip-round their back vowels resulting in their mispronunciation of our Bur-Myan back vowels.

Though this orthography {ak}, with an explicit virama {a.t}, is allowed in Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan, it is not allowed in Pal-Myan. If you were to learn Pal-Myan, you will be reminded that there was "no {a.t} in Pali". That was what my good friend U Tun Tint of the MLC had said, and that is where I disagree with him arguing that the first member of a conjunct, be it vertical or horizontal, is the akshara under {a.t}: this only thing to note is that it is not explicitly shown.

The first conjunct you will come across in a study of Pali is {ak~ka.} - voiceless & non-rhotic -- followed by its voiced counterpart {ag~ga.}. In rhotic Sanskrit, the first member of such conjuncts is changed into a repha which imparts a rhotic sound:

Pal: {ak~ka.} --> Skt: {ar~ka.}
Pal: {ag~ga.} --> Skt: {ar~ga.}

The second point you should remember is the difference between Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan. In regular Burmese, it is only the tenuis consonants and the nasals are allowed to be killed. Thus, {ka.} and {nga.} are the only two aksharas of row#1 that can be killed: {ak} & {ing} are legitimate, and {ag} is not. Notice that there is a vowels in {ak} & {ing} are different.

The word {ag~ga.}, is illegitimate from point of view of Bur-Myan grammar because it calls for a killed-{ga.}. Yet it is found as a Burmese name -- one of my domestic help is named {ag~ga.}. William Shakespeare would have said "What's in a name!"

"What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet."
--  Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1-2)

Go back coda-conso-peak-vow-note-b

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